EGE UNIVERSITYDEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
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Table of Contents 
2 
SUMMARY 
3 
AIM ............................................................................................................................................4 

RESULTS 
5 
NOMENCLATURE 
9 
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In this report, you will be informed about the determination the enthalpy of vaporisation of water from vapour pressure measurement. In this experiment, water is used as chemical and 10 cm ^{3} cylinder, thermometer, a tall beaker and a bunsen burner is used as experimental apparatus. It is expected to calculate the enthalpy of vaporisation of water by plotting a straight
line whose slope gives the
H/R.
3
The aim of the experiment
is determining the enthalpy of vaporisation of water as a
function of temperature with Clasius – Clapeyron equation ahead of experimental data.
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Table 1. Experimental data for volume(ml) and temperature( ^{0} C) at every 5 ^{0} C during heating.
Volume(ml) 
^{0} 
C 
4,3 
21 

4,4 
26 

4,5 
31 

4,7 
36 

4,8 
41 

5 
46 

5,3 
51 

5,6 
56 

6 
61 
Table 2. Experimental data for volume(ml) and temperature( ^{0} C) at every 0.2 ml decrease in total volume trapped within the graduated cylinder.
Volume(ml) 
Substracted 
^{0} 
C 
K 
Volume 

6,4 
6,2 
63 
336 

6,2 
6 
61,5 
334,5 

6 
5,8 
60 
333 

5,8 
5,6 
58 
331 

5,6 
5,4 
56 
329 

4,1 
5 
278 
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Table 3. Calculated Values
P _{a}_{i}_{r} (atm) 
P _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} (atm) 
1/T 
lnP 
0,8 
0,2 
0,00298 
1,609 
0,823 
0,177 
0,00299 
1,731 
0,847 
0,153 
0,003 
1,877 
0,872 
0,128 
0,00302 
2,056 
0,899 
0,101 
0,00304 
2,293 
Figure 1. (1/T) vs ln(P)
ΔH(experimental) = 98.105 kJ/mol*k
Relative Error = 141.3 %
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In this experiment we investigate the enthalpy of vaporisation 
of water 
from the 
measurement of vapor pressure at various temperature and applying them in Clapeyron equation. 
Clausius 
The relationship between the temperature of a liquid and its vapor pressure is not a straight line. The vapor pressure of water, for example, increases significantly more rapidly than the temperature of the system. This behavior can be explained with the Clausius Clapeyron equation.
According to this equation, the rate at which the natural logarithm of the vapor pressure of a liquid changes with temperature is determined by the molar enthalpy of vaporization of the liquid, the ideal gas constant, and the temperature of the system. If we assume that H _{v}_{a}_{p} does not depend on the temperature of the system, the ClausiusClapeyron equation can be written in the following integrated form where C is a constant.
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The procedure used in this experiment is in that way, 8 mL of water sample is taken in a graduated cylinder firstly. The open side of the graduated cylinder is closed with the help of any group member when placing the graduated cylinder under the water. We put the graduated cylinder in a beher glass fulled with water. A thermometer is also placed in the water. And then the beher glass is put onto a Bunsen burner,which is a heater. Furthermore the heater is turned on and the beher glass and water are heated. The measurement part is applied in this chapter. The volume changed is measured in each 5˚C increase in the thermometer until the temperature reaches 61˚C. Our first temperature was 21˚C . The volume changes which is due to vapour pressure increase is measured in each increase.Then the beher glass is taken out from the heater. This time it is cooled, we put a piece of ice in the glass. In each 0.2 mL decrease in volume we measured the temperature until the 5˚C temperature is seen on the thermometer. The data that is obtained while cooling are used to calculate the mol number of present in the air. Then pressure of water vapor and the pressure of the air are found, the slope of lnP vs 1/T is drawed by using Microsoft Excel. Also by using Clasius – Clapeyron Equation and the graph, the enthalpy of vaporization ,∆H _{v}_{a}_{p} is found.
According to the our calculations, the enthalpy of vaporization of water is found 98105 J/mol. But the theoritical value of the enthalpy of vaporization of water is 40656 J/mol. This error can be explained by several factors:
∑ 
The atmospheric pressure is 1 atm, 
∑ 
The volume of vapour is much greater than that of the liquid vapourised, 
∑ 
The vapour behaves like an ideal gas. 
∑ 
The incorrect reading of water level in tube. 
Except these only five measurements are taken during the experiment. If the number of these measurements are higher, the actual value of the enthalpy of vaporization of water will be closer to the theoritical value.
In conclusion, we calculated the enthalpy of vaporization of water. During the experiment we measured volumes at different temperatures and use them in calculating the enthapy. We also learned how to read the values of thermometer and graduated cylinder. We see that we assumptions have very big importance while calculating the actual value of enthalpy.
V 
→ 
Volume (mL) 
T 
→ 
Temperature (K) 
P 
→ 
Pressure (atm) 
n 
→ 
Mole number (mol) 
R 
→ 
Ideal gas law constant (J.K ^{}^{1} .mol ^{}^{1} ) 
∆H _{v}_{a}_{p} 
→ 
Enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) 
1. Chang Raymond, Chemistry, 2005, McGraw Hill, Higher Education, Boston
2. Felder, R. M. , Rousseau, R. W. , 1986, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes,
John Wiley & Sons
1. Assuming that the vapour pressure of water is negligible compared to atmospheric
pressure at the low temperature, calculation of moles of trapped air:
P atn = P water +P air
@ T= 5 ^{0} C P water = 0
P _{a}_{t}_{n} = P _{a}_{i}_{r} =760mmHg = 1 atm @ 5 ^{0} C V _{a}_{i}_{r} = 4.1 mL PV = nRT 1*4.1*10 ^{}^{3} = n*0.082*(273+5) n = 1.8*10 ^{}^{4} mol
2. For each temperature between 63 ^{0} C and 56 ^{0} C calculation of the partial pressure of air in the gas mixture.
P(air)=n(air)*R*T/V
@ 63 ^{0} C P _{a}_{i}_{r} = (1.8*10 ^{}^{4} *0.082 * (273+63)) / (6.2*10 ^{}^{3} ) P _{a}_{i}_{r} = 0.8 atm
@ 61.5 ^{0} C P _{a}_{i}_{r} = (1.8*10 ^{}^{4} *0.082 * (273+61.5)) / (6*10 ^{}^{3} ) P _{a}_{i}_{r} =0.823 atm
@ 60 ^{0} C P _{a}_{i}_{r} = (1.8*10 ^{}^{4} *0.082 * (273+60)) / (2.5*10 ^{}^{3} ) P _{a}_{i}_{r} =0.847 atm
@ 58 ^{0} C P _{a}_{i}_{r} = (1.8*10 ^{}^{4} *0.082 * (273+58)) / (5.6*10 ^{}^{3} ) P _{a}_{i}_{r} = 0.872 atm
@ 56 ^{0} C P _{a}_{i}_{r} = (1.8*10 ^{}^{4} *0.082 * (273+56)) / (5.4*10 ^{}^{3} )
P _{a}_{i}_{r} =0.899 atm
3. Calculation of the vapour pressure of water at each temperature.
P(water)= P(atm) – P(air) @ 63 ^{0} C P(water) = 10.8 = 0.2 atm @ 61.5 ^{0} C P(water) = 10.823 = 0.177 atm @ 60 ^{0} C P(water) = 10.847 = 0.153 atm @ 58 ^{0} C P(water) = 10.872 = 0.128 atm @ 56 ^{0} C P(water) = 10.899 = 0.101 atm
4. Plotting lnP(water) & 1/T and drawing the best straight line.
5.
Determination of
H _{v}_{a}_{p} from the slope.
Slope = 11800 = ΔH/R
ΔH = 98105 J/mol*k
ΔH(real) = 40.656 kJ/mol*k
6. Relative Error
Rel.Err. = [abs(real value – experimental value) / real value]*100
Rel.Err. = 141.3 %