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WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS
CHAPTER ONE: Maybe The Theorists Got It Wrong
In 1980, Dr Luis Alvarez hypothesized that a massive meteorite hit the earth 65 million years ago, leaving a deposit of white powder around the world, known in geology as the K-T boundary. Below the K-T boundary, fossils of large dinosaurs are found, but above the boundary - no dinosaurs. This observation has been the reason for the main accepted theory for the last two decades, that a large meteorite killed the dinosaurs. But it that true?
THE DEBATE: Asteroid or Volcano
Some paleontologists are now proposing that possibly the geologic record shows that severe climate change from extreme volcanic activity during the time was responsible for the death of the dinosaurs. The debate is now forcing scientists to choose up sides - Was it meteorite or volcanoes? But what if both are wrong, and it was neither? Some of the data seem to indicate it might have been a meteorite, but other observations seem to favor a volcanic cause. But there are also holes in both theories. Some of the geologic and scientific observations can't be explained by either or both of the theories. Such as why did whatever happened at the K-T boundary, kill only all the large reptilians, the dinosaurs, but seemed not to have any affect on such smaller ancient reptiles as turtles, crocodiles and alligators? Those animals along with similar reptiles still remain alive today. Also not affected were reptilian-like birds and even insects, other than most of them became much smaller after the K-T event.
Fi g. 1) Dr. Luis Alvarez and son Walter discover the "Boundary"
THE CHANGES: At the Cretaceous-Tertiary K-T Boundary
Some clear changes in the lifeforms on earth did occur at the K-T boundary. Prior to the boundary, the predominant form was reptilian, but afterward, the predominant form was small non-reptiles such as early marsupials and mammals. Most scientists, misconstrue this change as from "cold-blooded" animals to "warm-blooded" animals. Not So. The difference between reptiles and mammals is not the temperature of the blood but the mechanism used to maintain that temperature. Reptiles have no internal organ or means for maintaining their temperature. If the temperature is too hot, then reptiles must hide under a rock or in the shade to keep cool. Or if the temperature is too cool then reptiles must "sun" themselves to gain heat, or burrow in the ground or stay in water to stay warm or regulate their temperature. But normally, reptilian blood temperature is just about the same as in mammals. Reptiles must use external means to regulate their temperature. Most mammals have something like a thyroid gland that monitors the external air temperature breathed in and flowing through the throat, and also monitors the blood temperature flowing from heart to brain. This unique gland sits in the throat and has both hot carotid arteries coming directly from the heart and passing through both thyroid lobes. The thyroid gland then releases the proper amount of thyroxin to control evaporative cooling in the lungs and metabolic heating to maintain a constant bloodbrain temperature - despite the outside air temperature and weather conditions.
CRITICAL TEMPERATURE: 100 Degrees
For both reptiles and mammals, in fact almost all animals with nerve and brain tissue, that brain tissue must be kept at a temperature of about 100F within a few degrees, to remain electrically and chemically active. If not, then the brain tissue ceases to function properly and coma and death soon result. Note that temperature for future reference. While human body temperature is about 98.6 degrees, the brain temperature is about 99 to 100 degrees. If the brain temperature falls to about 95 degrees, then the individual goes to sleep. During sleep, the brain temperature begins to rise each morning and is back to 100 degrees about 15 minutes before waking up. If the temperature of a mammal's brain drops about 10 degrees the result is coma. In some animals this coma condition is recoverable and is called hibernation, which is a winter survival mechanism for some animals. If a reptile falls asleep and the surrounding air temperature falls to 70 degrees, the reptile may not wake up. Reptiles have no means to regulate their brain temperature during sleep. That's why terrariums are usually kept heated above room temperature, or the reptile may not survive.
Heated Terrarium With Incandescent What that means is that most mammals. marsupials and birds can Fig. 2) for Constant Warmth Above Room Hood tolerate weather changes from arid desert heat to frigid blizzard snow Temperature, Which Is Not Necessary For Mammal Pet Cages storm and still survive. But most reptiles wouldn't have a chance over that wide range of climate. Today, the reptiles only live in a very narrow range of climates around the earth. Birds such as penguins, and mammals like the seals live in 32 degree freezing Antarctica and the Arctic, but reptiles do not.
THE GREAT SHIFT: Gymnosperms to Angiosperms -- The Record of the Seeds
Usually not discussed at all, in what may have happened during the K-T Boundary event, is that not just animals such as dinosaurs were affected, but also an extreme and vast change in the plant lifeforms of earth also occurred at that same time. Prior to the K-T shift nearly all of the plants were gymnosperms. In general these are non-flowering non-seed-bearing plants like ferns. fern trees, and fern palms, or needled trees such as redwoods or pines trees. These plants are also called "evergreens" since these plants seem the same, or green, all year round. They are not seasonal plants. These primitive plants do have a simple form of seed or spore but without any protective covering. The name gymnosperm means naked-seed. After the K-T boundary, most of the vast variety of new plant forms were angiosperms. These are the flowering plants, which either completely die each year and regrow each spring from seeds dropped the previous year. Or if it is a large tree, the leaves are completely dropped and new growth comes from new leaves and flowering portions of the tree each spring. The seeds of angiosperms have hard coverings or casings which can tolerate hot arid drying desert heat and even cold freezing, then still sprout the next year. The name angiosperm means covered-seed. What this means is that after the K-T boundary, the new predominant lifeforms, both plants and animals, were the ones which could tolerate wide changes in the seasons from winter to summer. But before the K-T boundary, the plants and animals had no means to respond to seasonal changes. But what causes seasonal changes? They are caused by the tilt of the earth.
THE K-T EVENT: The Beginning of Earth Seasons
Is it possible that before the K-T boundary the earth was not tilted, then whatever happened at the KT boundary event also caused the earth to tilt at 23.5 degrees? This would mean that before the K-T event there were no seasons, and this favored the older life forms of gymnosperms and reptiles. But after the KT boundary, the earth became tilted, causing seasons and seasonal climate changes, and then favoring the new angiosperms and mammals. As further evidence, most angiosperms need the changes of the seasons to trigger when to drop seeds or sprout. Most angiosperms also need the changes in the length of the daylight as the seasons change to
determine when to bloom. Without the seasonal changes most angiosperms would fail. Does this then show that angiosperms could not and did not develop before the K-T boundary because the earth was not yet tilted and there were no seasons? Not yet. I have not seen any other scientist look at this possibility to explain the disappearance of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. But if this possibility were correct then current theories about orogeny, paleomagnetism and plate tectonics would also need to be revised. There is plenty of data in the geologic record to show that this might be a good idea to revise all three at the same time. And it might finally resolve the issue about what really killed the dinosaurs.
WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS
CHAPTER TWO: What Caused the Earth to Tilt 65 Million Years Ago?
In chapter one, you probably found that there is significant evidence in the geologic and scientific record indicating that the earth seems to have somehow been tilted over about 23.5 degrees at the time of the K-T boundary 65 million years ago. And the tilting of the earth started seasons, along with seasonal changes in climate, and that is what killed the dinosaurs. Could it have been some wandering asteroid passing near or impacting earth that caused the earth to tilt? The laws of physics would say that nothing internal to the earth could have caused the earth to tilt over on its own axis so it must have been some event external to the earth such as a passing asteroid. Is that true? What if some huge volcanic explosion erupted in the earth's northern hemisphere. The violent eruption could then act like a large rocket jet blasting into space, causing the earth to recoil and tilt back from the blast and then tilting over at 23.5 degrees. Is that possible? But again we get back to the current main scientific theories and dilemma, that what killed the dinosaurs was either a wandering asteroid passing by or impacting earth causing it to tilt over, and creating seasons and killing dinosaurs. Or maybe it was a large volcanic explosion tilting the earth and causing seasons and killing dinosaurs. Was it asteroid or volcanoes? Was it some as yet unknown and undiscovered "deus ex machina" which caused the tilt of the earth? Again, maybe it was neither. What does the actual geologic record show?
THE LAYERS: Peeling the Earth Like an Onion
One of the important items of evidence is that, surely when earth was formed it was layered, something like the layers of an onion. Each layer downward was more dense and heavier than the layers above. Above the heavy metallic mantle floats the molten fluid asthenosphere which is where most hot volcanic lava comes from. This material is mostly iron, silicon and magnesium metallic alloys and is called SIMA. Floating on the astheno- sphere is the lighter rocky continental material. This material is almost all silicon and aluminum atoms which are bonded with oxygen. Since it is mostly silicon and aluminum oxide it is called SIAL. Metallic oxides are all called ceramics and are much lighter and less dense than molten pure metals. So the lighter rocky ceramic SIAL continents float on the heavier metallic SIMA asthenosphere.
Fig. 3) The Layered Onion Of Earth: The Rigid Layers of SIMA and SIAL lithosphere Float On The Fluid Asthenosphere (shown in red)
Floating above the rocky SIAL is the layer of watery oceans or the hydrosphere. And floating above all of those is the even lighter less dense
gaseous layer of air called the atmosphere. Thus the earth is something like a layered onion with each layer going outward lighter and less dense than the deeper layers below. Information from NASA would seem to indicate that all of the other large bodies, planets and big moons of our solar system also seem to be layered like onions. Thus the earth is much like all other large bodies in orbit around the sun. Except for one thing. A huge portion, three fourths of one of the layers of the onion skin on planet earth is completely missing. Where did it go? And how did such a thing happen?
THE GEOLOGIC MYSTERY: Where Did the Missing Continents Go?
For almost a century, since the 1912 publication of German geologist Alfred Wegener's book, it has been recognized that three fourths of the rocky continental SIAL material of earth is simply missing. Where did it go and when did it disappear? One hundred years ago geologists did not have the information we have now, so it has always just remained a geologic mystery. But that mystery is now about to be solved. One of the new clues is that during the 1980's ocean-going prospecting ships took a survey of the ocean beds of earth looking for minerals and oil. The ocean bottom samples they brought back all showed that the ages of almost all the lava-like SIMA material which makes up all the ocean beds are no older than about 65 million years old. This was a surprising result but seems to have been largely ignored by the scientific community. What that means is that prior to 65 million years ago there probably was a thick rocky continental layer of SIAL which uniformly and completely covered the whole earth like an onion skin, just as on all the other planets and moons in our solar system. Then about 65 million years ago something tore away about three fourths of that rocky SIAL continental material and exposed the hot SIMA asthenosphere below. That newly exposed hot asthenosphere cooled and became the new ocean beds. The point in time at which the basaltic SIMA material was exposed and cooled is indicated by their present age of 65 million years or less.
THE REMNANT CALLED PANGEA: Was It a Result of the K-T Event or Pushed Together by Internal Forces
Another clue is that about that time, when three fourths of the rocky continental material was ripped away, the rocky material that was left was then all in one place and on one side of the planet earth. That remnant rocky material which now only covers about one fourth of the planet was called Pangea. And Pangea was originally all in one place. Since that time, that remnant has broken apart and has uni- formly spread around the earth to balance the spinning planet in its orbit. The broken remnants became the present day continents, which are now widely spread around the planet. Modern day theory mistakenly dates the breakup of Pangea into the two major com- ponents of Laurasia and Gondwanaland about 250 million years ago. But, as we will soon see, this could be simply a problem of geography and Fig. 4) A Typical Guess of What Pangea May Have Looked Like 200 Million Years Ago. paleo-magnetic measurements. If the This Is Shown Incorrectly. The Upper Portion Called "Laurasia" Should Be Rotated Clockwise About 45 Degrees. This Would Close The Large Opening On the Right whole remnant body of Pangea was Called The Tethys Sea. originally rotated about 45 degrees clockwise, then the magnetic dating of Laurasia and Gondwanaland would show they were all in the same place at the same time 250 million years ago, and even up to 65 million years ago.
They had always been all in the same place as part of the non-moving uniform layer of rocky material completely covering the earth. They had been in the same place since the oldest measured dates going back well beyond 600 million years ago. But then they broke up and started to spread apart about 65 million years ago. This accounts for why all the present day ocean beds have an age of 65 million years or less. Is it possible that whatever event ripped away three fourths of the earth's continental surface material 65 million years ago is also what caused the earth to tilt over at 23.5 degrees, causing the beginning of seasons and the demise of the dinosaurs? The earth's geologic record still has much more information readily available which can tell us the answer to that question. The problem is putting all of the various pieces of scientific evidence together into one self-consistent hypothesis.
WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS
CHAPTER THREE: Where did the Missing Continents Go 65 Million Years Ago?
What we've seen so far is that sometime about 65 million years ago, the earth was seemingly tilted over at 23.5 degrees and the seasonal changes of winter and summer began. This was shown in the geologic record by the sudden shift in the earth's plants and animals at the K-T boundary from the earlier gymnosperms and reptilians, to the later angiosperms and mammals. We've also seen that about 65 million years ago, about three fourths of the rocky SIAL continental layer which had completely covered planet earth seems to have suddenly all disappeared. This left behind one fourth of that layer as the proto-continent, Pangea, which was all in one place and on one side of the earth. This is shown in the geologic record as all the places where the rocky material was ripped off and disappeared, meaning today's ocean beds, all have an age of 65 million years or less. If three fourths of the rocky continental layer mysteriously disappeared 65 million years ago, wouldn't it be reasonable that also three fourths of the layers above, meaning the oceans and atmosphere would also have disappeared at the same time? Does the geologic record show this. Yes, it surely does, but only if you know where to look.
MYSTERIOUS OCEANS: Why It Took So Long for Life to Appear on Land
If originally, there were four times as much land, ocean and atmosphere, then the depth of the proto-oceans would be four times as deep as it is now. Does the geologic record show that? With a current average depth of about two miles today, the original depth would have then been about eight miles deep. But that would have completely covered the whole planet with no land or continents visible. Did that happen? What does the geologic record show. One of the great mysteries of geology and paleontology is why did it take so long for life to emerge on the land. Earliest life forms seem to appear in the oceans somewhere about a billion or 1,000 million years ago. From about 700 million years ago during the PreCambrian Period to about 400 million years ago during the Devonian Period, advanced lifeforms including both plants and animals abounded in the oceans in a vast variety of complex and some rather huge forms, but no life on the land. Why? Could it be that before 400 million years ago, there simply Fi g. 5) THE PHANEROZOIC TIME SCALE was no land? The earth was completely covered by water. All the continental rocky land was covered by a vast eight mile deep ocean. Thus there was no land for the plants and animals to live on. Life only existed in the miles deep ocean. That solves one long-standing geologic mystery, but then what made the land mysteriously and suddenly appear during the Devonian Period 400 million years ago? To solve the mystery of the sudden appearance of land during the Devonian Period, paleon- tologists, biologists and botanists would need to understand a basic, though esoteric, principle of physics called, Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM). Most bio-scientists did not study physics or if they did, they probably didn't really understand the meaning of the principle of Conservation of Angular Momentum or CAM.
PRIMARY PRINCIPLE: The Conservation of Angular Mometum (CAM)
It turns out that without the principle of CAM there would be no planetary systems or solar systems, no planets and certainly no life on any planets. So how did CAM suddenly make the land appear on planet earth during the Devonian Period 400 million years ago? And how did it also suddenly make the dinosaurs disappear 65 million years ago, at the same time as it made three fourths of the continental rocky layer of earth disappear? The usual explanation of Conservation of Angular Momentum given in physics classes uses an ice skater, like Tara Lipinski at the Winter Olympics. At the end of her skate routine she begins to spin around, then slowly brings her arms closer to her body, and Tara seems to spin faster and faster until she is only a swirling blur. And why are ice skaters used as examples in physics classes? Only an ice skater on the nearly frictionless ice, can rotate rapidly and duplicate the rotation of bodies like earth which rotate frictionlessly in space. The CAM principle says, as any rotating body reduces its distance from the axis of rotation, it must rotate faster and faster to "conserve angular momentum." At the end of Tara's routine, on the last note of the music on the tinny rink-arena sound system, Tara flings her arms outward and comes to a sudden complete stop to a loud congratulatory applause.
Fig. 6) Tara Lipinski Brings Her Arms Inward To Begin Her Astounding Medal-Winning Triple Axel Spin
What a wonderful display. It turns out that planet earth is just as agile and adept as Tara and can do that very same trick. And has done it several times in the past, as is shown in the geologic record.
MYSTERY IN THE AIR: Why the Earth is Different
When the earth first formed it had a very thick atmosphere, more than four times thicker than at present. It was made mostly of carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia, just like all the other planets in our solar system. The thick dense atmosphere covered the massive thick layer of water about eight miles deep, and there was no land.
Fig. 7) Tara Lipinski Extends Her Arms and Legs Away From the Center Line of Her Body To Stop Her Rapid Spin So That She Can End Her Routine and Accept Her Olympic Medal.
As the planet cooled it shrank as hot gases deep in the mantle were released into the ancient atmosphere. As the planet earth cooled and shrank, its diameter became slightly smaller. But this is the same as skater Tara, bringing in her arms and spinning faster. As the earth's diameter shrank with age it also rotated faster and faster. The first life form on earth was not animals, but was only simple single-celled plants called blue-green algae or phytoplankton. These "plants" as do all plants, take carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia, and converts them into hydrocarbons, carbohydrates and ammonia (or amino) acids which make up proteins and which become the parts of the body of the plant. And then as a waste product the plants release oxygen and nitrogen. To do all of this, all that the plants needed was sunlight. With no predators or other lifeforms to compete with, the plants completely filled the oceans with sun-loving phytoplankton. And the "plantification" of earth completely converted earth's entire atmosphere from carbon dioxide into oxygen and nitrogen.
BATTLE OF THE 'SEXES': Plants versus Animals
Billions of years later after the first plants had converted most of the primeval atmosphere into oxygen and nitrogen, the first single-celled animals appeared. Animals were a very different form of life.
They can't survive on just air and sunlight, as do the plants. The animal were not "breath-airians." The animals needed something to eat to get their energy. They ate the plants. Thus ended the great age of atmosphere conversion, and began the earth's present balance between two competing and complementary lifeforms, plants and animals. It leaves the earth now with its oxygennitrogen atmosphere. That's why no other planets in the solar system have an oxygen atmosphere, since it's a by-product of single-celled plant life and requires a very deep watery ocean. So what happened 400 million years ago, during the Devonian period to make land suddenly appear on earth? And then within a geologic blink of an eye, in only a few hundred or thousand years, all manner of lifeforms, plants and animals, suddenly spread in teeming abundance all across the newly exposed land surface. Then later, the Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM) also caused another vast change in earth about 225 million years ago which completely devastated all life on earth, in a process called the "Great Dying." At that time, during the P-T or Permian-Triassic boundary, nearly 95% of all life in both the oceans and on the land simply disappeared. Why? What was the CAM event that caused the "Great Dying?" And by that same CAM process with planet earth doing its imitation of Tara Lipinski routines, the earth continued to change until 65 million years ago at the K-T boundary, the dinosaurs along with three fourths of the rocky continental layer on the earth's surface all suddenly disappeared. We are now ready to put all the pieces of the geologic record evidence together to find out what really killed the dinosaurs.
WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS
CHAPTER FOUR: How CAM Changed Orogeny, Paleomagnetism and Plate Tectonics -Putting It All Together
Previously, we've learned that science is currently in a dilemma: What killed the dinosaurs - asteroid or volcanoes? But what if it were something else? The observation of the layer of white powder at the K-T boundary 65 million years ago with dinosaur fossils below and none above, has lead to the current dilemma. The real problem for science is usually not finding the right answers, but is actually just finding and asking the right questions. Why is it at the K-T boundary 65 million years ago, that the life forms on earth suddenly shift from non-seasonal reptiles and gymnosperms, to the seasonal mammals and angiosperms? Why is it that the seasons caused by the tilting of the earth seem to begin at the K-T boundary? Why is it that the basaltic beds of all the oceans all seem to be of the same age of 65 million years or less? Why is it that all the rocky continental material seemed to be all in the same place about 65 million years ago? And what made the other three fourths of all the rocky continents suddenly disappear 65 million years ago, exposing the new sea beds, and where did the missing continents go? None of the current theories about the disappearing dinosaurs even ask or address those questions. Actually there are whole groups of many other unasked questions about the K-T boundary, which have to do with observations about mountain building, or Orogeny; and with what causes the earth's magnetic field, or Paleomagnetism; and with what causes the continents to move around the planet, called Plate Tectonics. If I gave you those questions, you would intuitively know the answers. They are not hard to figure out. But that may be too much information all at once. Let's look at the problem chronologically.
THE EARTH IS BORN: The Smelting of Iron and Removing the Dross
Ignoring for the moment how it got here, the earth at its beginning was in orbit around the sun and was spinning on its axis. This seems to have occurred about 4.5 billion years ago. At that time the earth was almost perfectly layered like an onion, just like the other planets in the solar system. Each layer lighter and less dense going outward from the center. As the earth cooled for some billions of years, a firm surface crust was formed on the outside and the earth began to shrink. This is like heating raw iron ore in a vessel until it melts. The impurities are usually lighter and float on the surface of the molten iron. As the vessel with the hot metal cools, the impure dross solidifies into a crust on the surface and can be scooped off the top. That is how most metallic ores are purified and smelted. As it cools the metallic ore also shrinks. The shrinkage of earth was caused for two reasons. Almost any hot metal will shrink when cooled. The core of the earth is hot metal. Also over time, gases in the interior of the earth will leak out into the atmosphere. This is similar to letting air out of a balloon and the balloon shrinks. Just as with ice skater Tara Lipinski pulling in her arms, as the earth shrank, it spun around faster and faster. What happens when the earth spins faster? As the earth spins faster, the centrifugal force along the equator increases. This is the same force that points away from the center, as when you swing a bucket of water around you and the water stays in the bucket. The centrifugal force holds the water in the bucket. So what happens to the earth? It becomes oblate because of the outward centrifugal force around the equator. And oblate means it becomes fatter around the middle, compared to the distance around the poles.
Another example is to look at the two pictures of skater Tara Lipinski as she begins her rapid spin. While she is spinning, her skirt is thrown outward by centrifugal so that it is almost standing straight out. Compare that to her skirt when she is stopped. So while Tara is spinning, a part of her, her tutu skirt, becomes "fatter" around the middle. Many a Lipinski fan paid good money just to watch Tara become "oblate" around the middle. The sun, and the outer planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are measurably oblate, since they rotate fast enough for the centrifugal force to make them fat around the middle. But those bodies are mostly gas so becoming oblate is easy. But the earth is mostly a hard solid metallic ball. So how
Fig. 8) A geometric model of an Oblate Spheroid. This is created when a spherical body rotates very quickly and the equatorial region becomes fatter. In the Solar System, the planet Saturn is the most oblate with an equator 10 percent larger than the polar distance.
does earth become oblate?
THE EARTH BECOMES OBLATE: The Bowling Ball versus The Soccer Ball
If you spin a bowling ball faster and faster it will not get fat around the middle. It is just too hard and solid to change shape. If you spin a soccer ball faster and faster it will begin to flatten out and get fat around the middle. It's hard to make a model of a bowling ball inside a soccer ball to make a model of earth. So we can pretend using a bowling ball which is covered with a layer of soft clay around the ball, and then spin the ball and clay faster and faster. What will happen is that the clay will begin to slowly migrate to the equator of the spinning bowling ball. This also happened to the earth about 2 billion years ago. The rocky lithosphere of earth slid toward the equator on the hot fluid layer of molten asthenosphere. This caused the rocky lithosphere, like the clay on the bowling ball, to be squeezed together and build up into a thick ring along the equator. Like the soft soccer ball, the earth's rocky lithosphere floating on the fluid asthenosphere became thicker around the middle and the earth appeared to became oblate. But it was really only the material along the earth's surface around the equator that changed shape. The earth's highly compressed solid core and lower mantle, like the solid bowling ball, did not change shape.
LAND APPEARS ABOVE THE OCEANS: The Orogeny of the Geosynclines
This slow squeezing and building up of the earth's surface lithosphere toward the equator causes a unique form of mountain to be created. These mountains are called "geosynclines" and look something like the skin of wrinkly fruit or a dried prune. This will be one of the important "questions" later in the proof. Where are the geosyncline mountains today? The location of the present day
Fig. 9) A Landsat MSS synthetic color photo of the Geosyncline region of central Pennsylvania. The mountians are made of ancient seafloor sediment that has been pushed together and then raised up. The rippling sinuous mountians are typical of geosyncline formations around the world. In this photo the ancient earth equator ran from the lower central to the upper right. This shows that the American continent was originally on the equator and then rotated counterclockwise about 60 degrees to its present position.
geosyncline mountains, for the first time in science, accurately mark the position of the original earth crust compared to the location of the earth's equator, prior to the time of the K-T boundary. Scientists wanting to duplicate the experiment with the bowling ball covered with a layer of clay might find it easier to use another model. There is nothing equivalent to the force of gravity on the bowling ball to hold the clay to the surface. A better experiment would use a hollow clear Lucite plastic ball lined with clay on the inside. Then spin the plastic ball and watch how the clay layer is forced toward the equator, building up a thick ring around the equator with a rippled surface simulating the formation of geosyncline mountains. It is important to note that the cause of the pushing up of the geosyncline mountains along the equator was due to the Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM) and not due to anything called Plate Tectonics. During the Devonian period 400 million years ago, the centrifugal force squeezing the geosyncline mountains, had created a narrow strip of mountain ranges all the way around the equator raised up almost to a height of about eight miles. It was at that point in time, the rocky lithosphere material first peeked above the waves of the ancient eight mile deep ocean. It was just after the Devonian, and in the Carboniferous age that the life in the oceans suddenly burst forth upon the land in wild abundance. That's why it took so long for life to move from the oceans to the land. The land suddenly appeared during the Devonian, caused by the conservation of angular momentum (CAM) and the earth spinning faster and faster as it cooled.
THE CARBONIFEROUS AGE: The Location of the Geosynclines Today
The massive growth of the rain forest-like ancient gymnosperm plants such as fern trees, redwoods and pines, so covered the newly exposed land that they died and left thick layers of dead trees and plants now called coal layers along the geosyncline mountains. It is no accident that the prototypical example of the geosyncline mountains is the present day Allegheny mountains and the Carboniferous age coal fields in the eastern United States. It is also no accident that the typical subdivisions of the coal-making or Carboniferous age are called the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian ages.
F ig. 10) A typical Carboniferous Age gynmosperm equatorial forest filled with ferns, fern trees and evergreen pines and redwoods. The forest floor became a peat bog sometimes miles thick. When the peat bog was buried and compressed it became soft brown bituminous coal. When the trees were buried and compressed they became hard black anthracite coal. The vast coal beds of America, Europe and Asia follow the line of the Paleozoic equatorial geosyncline mountain formations around the world. This was the original equatorial rain forest before the K-T boundary event.
Those ages mark the position and gradual uplifting and expan- sion of the narrow strip of geosyncline mountains above the eight mile deep ocean which still covered the whole rest of the planet. Any place around the world where you now find the narrow strips of wrinkled sinuous geo- syncline mountains and large coal deposits mark the location around the world which was the original tropical rain forest along the equator of the earth during the late Paleo- zoic and Mesozoic periods. From that observation, it is easy to show that modern scientific attempts to recreate the original position of Pangea are quite wrong, since they don't place the geosynclines mountains and their coal deposits along the equator. If maps of Pangea are rotated clockwise about 45 degrees, and what is now called the Tethys Sea is closed up, then the geosyncline mountains and coal deposits begin to line up with the equator. Thus showing that current ideas about when and where Pangea was located, based on paleomagnetism and other data are simply incorrect. From the first appearance of land 400 million years ago, to the end of the Cretaceous age 65 million years ago, the lithospheric rocky continental material continued to slide toward the equator and rise higher and higher. The earth, like Tara the skater pulling in her arms, cooled and spun faster and faster. In our model of a bowling ball covered with clay, if spun fast enough, a big chunk of the thick clay layer around the equator of the bowling ball, about half or more, will simply and suddenly break free and fly off into space. Thus releasing a huge amount of angular momentum, and like Tara putting out her arms at the end of her routine, the earth will suddenly slow down and become stable again.
THE UNASKED QUESTIONS: The Result of NOT Asking Questions
The question for you is, what do you think happened to that huge chunk of three fourths of the earth's rocky lithosphere layer when it broke away and spun off into space 65 million years ago? And also what do you think happened to all those huge reptilian dinosaurs remaining on the side of the earth opposite to the point where the big chunk flew off into space, and the earth suddenly slowed down? You get extra points for also figuring out why that made the earth tilt over 65 million years ago and start earth's seasons. Hint: the orbit of the moon is tilted to the ecliptic plane of the planets and the equator of the earth. If you think this analysis is too new and outlandish to be possible. Maybe not. I published this analysis along with an in-depth rigorous mathematical proof in 1993. I sent copies of the publication to scientists around the world, including all of the scientists at the USGS. It seems the analysis was then too far outside their accepted paradigm. It was completely ignored. But that was their problem, not mine. In 1993 the Alvarez theory of asteroid impact causing the dinosaur demise was so deeply entrenched in mainstream science that any alternatives were quickly rejected without consideration. But today, the current divisions of theorists between asteroid or volcanic causes, means science is now looking around for new answers - since none of the currently accepted theories seem to work. And as I just pointed out they also don't seem to answer the many other important questions about what else happened at the time of the K-T boundary 65 million years ago.
WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS
CHAPTER FIVE: The K-T Event 65 Million Years Ago
In Chapter Four, we left the earth spinning so rapidly that the rocky continental lithosphere had formed a thick belt or ring around the equator of the solid core of the earth. As the earth spun faster and faster the net gravitational force along the equator, which is the downward non-spinning gravity force minus the upward centrifugal spinning force, soon approaches zero. Then about 65 million years ago, a large portion of that thick belt of land around the equator had less than zero gravity. Then the only thing holding it to the earth was the mechanical adhesion of the thick fluid lava layer called the asthenosphere. Then it simply overcame that sticky adhesion, something like unzipping a huge strip of Velcro around the equator, and it floated off into space. That three fourths of the thick rocky ring around the earth carried with it a large amount of the rapidly spinning earth's energy in the form of angular momentum. It spiraled outward and was so large that it formed into a sphere by its own gravity and became what is today called the moon.
A LITTLE MATH GOES A LONG WAY: Happy Birthday Moon
To prove that, let's do a little math. If the earth spins at 24 hours per day, as it does today, then the force of gravity at the equator is about the same as the force of gravity at the north and south poles. If the earth spins faster, in about a 12 hour revolution day, then the force of gravity at the equator is around half of what it would be at the poles. And if the earth spins around in about 7 hours, then the force of gravity becomes rather close to zero at the equator, while the force at the poles remains the same. There are several planets and moons in the solar system which rotate about that fast. It merely indicates how long the body in space has been cooling and shrinking. Rapid spinning is a normal part of planet and moon evolution, and is caused by the body shrinking with age and the principle of Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM). With another quick calculation we can find the volume of the missing three quarters of the rocky continents of earth. Simply take three fourths of the surface area of the earth and multiply that by 37 miles, or the average depth to the hot molten fluid asthenosphere where the separation took place. That volume of the three fourths of the surface material missing from the earth's rocky layer is exactly equal to the volume of the moon. And that calculation also shows the two volumes are exactly the same with an accuracy of about one percent. Amazing. That amazing fact, that the volume of the moon is exactly equal to the volume of the missing rocky continents of earth does not yet prove that the K-T event might not have been caused by some asteroid impact or some massive volcanic explosion. But another quick calculation will.
CALCULATING THE CAM: The Asteroid Mysteriously Disappears
If you calculate the spinning energy of the earth, actually it's total angular momentum, just prior to 65 million years ago, then the principle of the Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM) says that even if a portion of the earth separates and flies off into space, all of the angular momentum will "always" be conserved. If you calculate the total angular momentum of today's earth and the moon and add them together, you will find that the sum is exactly equal to the original angular momentum of a rapid spinning oblate earth rotating with a speed of about 7 hours per revolution. This is important, since it shows that no other body, such as a nearby roaming asteroid impact could have been involved in the process. If there had been an impact with some asteroid, then the asteroid's angular momentum would have also been transferred to either the earth or moon or both. But since the total angular momentum of the present day earth and moon system is exactly equal to the angular momentum of an oblate earth rapidly spinning at near the "zero g speed" 65 million years ago, then no other body could have been possibly
involved in the process. Otherwise, the calculations of angular momenta of before and after the K-T event would not be equal.
VISITING THE PLANETS: Many Moons Ago and the Inverse Bode's Law
A little further calculation can show that almost all of the moons in our solar system were ejected from their parent planet by this very same process. It is a natural part of the aging and evolution of planetary systems. As a rotating planet cools, it spins faster and faster, becoming oblate and unstable. It releases a moon from the oblate surface, just like Tara Lipinski putting out her arms to slow down her spin, decreasing the planet's rotation rate and it becomes stable again. This may be repeated with the larger planets. After a long time, the larger planets continue to cool and shrink and release another moon. The larger the planet the more moons it produces to become stable. A mathematical proof involves the observation of the Inverse Bode's Law. The Inverse Law shows that the spacing of each of the planets from outward to inward is about 62 percent of the distance of the next outer planet. The Inverse Bode's Law also holds true for the major moons of the solar system, including the formation of a broken ring or asteroid system after the third or fourth planet or moon inward. The moons also show the same pattern of three or four large regularly spaced moons, a ring system and then several smaller regularly space moons which follow the "law" inside the ring system. Many other smaller atypical moons give away the fact that they are randomly "captured" intruders, and don't follow the "law", since they are very tiny and usually rotate out of the plane of the ecliptic and may even rotate backwards. That amount of regularity, symmetry and following the same "law" in both the planets of the solar system and the moon systems around the planets cannot be accounted for by the random formation of planets and moons out of a primordial nebula of dust around a star. But using the principle of Conservation of Angular Momentum (CAM), and the observation that the planets and moons are using Tara rotation routines to transfer angular momentum from one body to another can account for the regular spacing, spin rates and relative sizes of the planets and moons. If that is accurate for the other planets and moons, then surely it would also account for the formation of earth's moon.
TIMING THE K-T BOUNDARY EVENT: Dinosaurs With Wrist Watches
So what happened 65 million years ago? Some massive catastrophic earthquake event that shook the earth and killed the dinosaurs, as three fourths of the continents took off into space and became the moon? No. Most of the animals and plants living on the earth's surface would hardly notice much of a change. For most of the Cretaceous Age the animals and plants living on the strip of land around the equator were in an almost zero g environment. It was almost like floating in space or walking on the moon. What happened after the K-T event was that the force of gravity near the equator, where the animals lived, went from near zero to suddenly increase to about its present force. Other than that, not much difference before and after the K-T event. At that event, dinosaurs wearing watches might notice that the length of the day had changed from 7 hours to 24 hours, but I don't think they noticed. I should note that when three fourths of the rocky lithosphere, went off into space, so did three fourths of the plants and animals on that land, three fourths of the oceans with the fish in them, along with three fourths of the earth's atmosphere. But the moon is too small to have enough gravity to hold on to the oceans and atmosphere. Those simply evaporated into the vacuum of space. The moon then became dry and lifeless. But that does account for the existence of mysterious riverbeds, deltas and rills still seen on the dry moon. For a short time the moon was completely covered by water. Even today, the general appearance of the moon close-up is that of rock strewn ocean bottom.
Fig. 11) A 6-foot dragonfly, Meganeura, from the Carboniferous era. If you build a model of this dragonfly today, it won't even glide let alone fly. So how did they fly 350 million years ago, unless the earth was far different from today?
Before the K-T event, with almost zero gravity force, the huge 60 ton dinosaurs could walk around as easily as a chicken crossing the road. With little gravity, the gigantic 6 foot dragon flies could "swim" through the very dense atmosphere as easily as a house fly buzzing past your nose. After the K-T separation event and the increase in gravity from near zero to the present day force, all of the huge mega-fauna, such as dinosaurs, which evolved during the previous several million years, simply were crushed by their own weight. Only the small animals. both reptiles and mammals, survived. And that is what is seen in the geologic record. For scientists wanting real numbers, you would need to use two dimensionless scientific numbers called the Reynold's Number and the Froud Number. The Reynold's Number relates viscosity force (air resistance) to gravity force. The Froud Number relates momentum or inertia to gravity force. These are often called the rules of scaling.
Fig. 12) A 60-ton Sauropod (lizard-foot) from the Mesozoic era just prior to the K-T event. This animal stood about as tall as a 4 or 5 story building. Decades ago museums displayed models and pictures showing these animals dragging their heavy tails. But evidence from fossil foot prints shows no evidence of tail dragging. Thus they walked with the tails high in the air to balance their long necks. That would only be necessary if they ran very swiftly. Pictures such as this, looking like slow moving giants, like elephants, probably are not accurate. The small running animals shown here are probably more correctly shown.
Prior to the K-T event huge 6 foot dragonflies were flying, but today even the largest are much smaller than a half foot in size. The Reynold's Number ratio is 10 to one. Prior to the K-T event, 60 ton dinosaurs walked around, while today the biggest walking animals are only about 6 ton elephants. The Froud Number ratio is 10 to one. A quick use of the Reynold's and Froud Numbers would show that prior to the K-T event the net force of gravity along the equator was only about 1/10th of what it is today on earth. From that ratio of ten to one, you can easily calculate the earth's rotation rate of about 7 hours to produce a net gravity of only about 1/10g. That's almost half of the present day gravity on the moon. As a human being with that small gravity force on earth, you could easily lift cars with one hand, leap tall buildings and wear a big red S on your shirt. The earth was a very different place just prior to the K-T boundary event.
ANOTHER LOOK AT THE GEOLOGIC RECORD: What Do the Chinese Know?
Next we will take another look at the geologic record, but this time with new information. We will also include the evidence brought back from the moon by the Apollo astronauts as part of the "geologic" record. In fact, prior to 65 million years ago, the moon was part of the earth, so it is part of the missing geologic record. We will find that along with three fourths of the missing continents, the moon also has three fourths of the now missing supply of oil, gas, gold, diamonds and all the other valuable "mineral wealth" of the earth. The moon is a vast treasure trove just waiting to be mined. And with riches far greater than on earth. All of those precious materials are all neatly compacted on the far side of the moon. The near side of the moon, the part we always see, is simply the bottom part of the miss- ing conti- nents or the old heavy iron rich lava asthenosphere. That's why the thin front side is covered with black lava parts called maria.
Fig. 13) The latest NASA topographical map of the moon. The colors indicate the altitude above average lunar terrain. The dark blue at the top of the near side and dark purple at the bottom of the far side are low spots with a depth of 3 to 5 miles below the average. These low spots are the remnants of the very thin crustal layers from the earth's original north and south polar regions. The large bright red area on the far side slanting from upper left to lower right is the now missing 3/4th of the geosyncline equatorial region of earth. The average height of the red region is about 5 to 7 miles above the average terrain height which is shown in yellow. Thus the moon is not really round at all. It is heavy on the near side and has a very thick layer of much lighter rocky material on the far side.
The lava heavy side of the moon aways points toward us. That's because the heavy side of the moon always points "downward" toward the center of the earth, just as does a pendulum weight always hangs downward toward the center of the earth. And a pendulum may swing back and forth while pointing to the center of the earth, just as does the moon rock back and forth with a motion called Libration. The moon behaves like a pendulum in space with its heavy side always facing downward toward us. There are no black maria or seas of lava on the far side of the moon. The back side of the moon is appreciably higher and thicker and made of much lighter rocky continental material. It used to be the very thick belt of land around the oblate earth just before it separated. Are there dinosaur fossils on the far side of the moon? Nobody ever asked that question before, so I will let you answer. It would seem that the backside of the moon would make an ideal space port. Working in one sixth gravity would make mining and manufacturing much easier. The abundance of metallic and ceramic materials in the soil along with vast resources of precious materials and fuel would mean making large spacecraft for long distance travel quite possible and much easier than on earth. According to NASA, they plan to return to the moon by 2015 to begin a manned space program to other planets. According to the Chinese, they plan to arrive at the moon and stake claims to all the mineral rights just before 2015. Do the Chinese know something about the moon that NASA doesn't? What we will find by looking again at the geologic record is the evidence showing exactly what really killed the dinosaurs. And why there is a white powdery layer surrounding earth called the K-T boundary which is rich in Indium. Be sure to tell your friends what you just read and where you read it - otherwise they won't believe you.
BroJon News: Monday August 22, 2005
THE SHOCKING GREAT WAR: CREATION VERSUS EVOLUTION Who Has the Correct Answer? It's Time to End the Insane Debate
ADDENDUM TO ALL THREE TRIPTYCH PARTS OF THE KINECHRON INVESTIGATION 1. DID JOSHUA MAKE THE SUN STAND STILL -- Chapter 4 2. WHERE DOCTOR EINSTEIN WENT WRONG -- Chapter 3 3. WHAT REALLY KILLED THE DINOSAURS -- Chapter 6
RESOLVING THE GREAT DEBATE Recently the Science Vs. Religion debate has heated up over the battle of which "theory" is correct -Creation or Evolution. The debate has recently ranged from the depths of the White House, to numerous School Boards, lawsuits and even many college campuses. And which theory is correct? It turns out that neither side can "prove" they are correct - for the simple reason that both sides are wrong. 1.) CREATION: The biblical text does not say that the earth is only about 4,004 years old. That was Bishop Usher who made that mistake and he was wrong -- not the bible. The bible, in fact, says nothing about age of the earth. Bishop Usher made a mistake in assuming that Genesis Chapter 5 was about the ages of the patriarchs. Instead it contains a hidden critical piece of scientific information, necessary for maintaining the Hebrew culture - the exact length of the year, 365 days. Before about 2,000 BC, most middle-eastern advanced cultures used a 360 day lunar calendar which is good enough for being a shepherd or camel herder. But to be a true farmer and use agriculture, you need to know the exact length of the year to be able to know when to plant your crops the next year. I will explain and prove that in detail later. So Bishop Usher was wrong. People who believe in the "young earth" are wrong, based on a mistaken translation by a Bishop who was not a scientist. A Bishop who didn't understand the scientific and historical meaning of Genesis 5, which documents the "evolution" of ancient cultures from huntergathering-herding societies, into full-fledged agricultural societies which need a proper 365 day solar calendar to survive. 2.) EVOLUTION: Charles Darwin was also very wrong. Evolution by "natural selection" was not the process which created the myriad lifeforms that now exist on earth. There is plenty of evidence which can prove that. The one item of critical evidence to prove that Darwin's Evolution is not correct is that after 150 years of diligent searching, not one, no, not even one example of a missing link or any intermediate species form has ever been discovered. But that is exactly what is needed to show Darwin's evolution theory was correct. Since no intermediate species have ever been found, therefore Darwin's gradual evolution theory by "natural selection" is shown to be false. Thus the arguments for both sides of the heated debate between "creation vs evolution" are nonstarters. They are BOTH wrong. It's like two blind people arguing over the color of the sky or the sun. Neither side can prove the other side is correct or incorrect. It is a useless debate and a waste of time. I won't mention the number of angels on heads of pins as another example of useless philosophical debates. Actually, creation and evolution are also BOTH correct, to some degree. Not in anyway that most people believe -- but just enough to fool both sides into thinking that they each might actually be correct. Every 1 to 2 million years, the magnetic field of the earth reverses the north and south magnetic poles. The earth itself does not reverse - just the magnetic field. During the reversal process, the earth's magnetic field, which usually acts as a shield protecting lifeforms from intense solar X-rays, gamma rays, and
deadly dangerous ionizing particle radiation, suddenly disappears. The deadly intense solar radiation is momentarily allowed to strike the surface of the earth. Within hours, about 99 percent of all life on earth is instantly killed by the intense radiation. Those few 1 percent of survivors, hidden in caves, in holes in the earth, or under water are highly deformed, damaged and mutated by the intense radiation causing direct damage to the DNA molecules in their reproductive cells. But the radiation damage is not visible in those survivors, but it is clearly seen in their direct offspring. Within months or a year, or less than one generation, the surviving mutants which may or may not still be viable, may be able to reproduce. This results in multitudes of numerous competing similar but highly modified mutant lifeforms. Then and only then, does Darwin's evolution process of "natural selection," enter the scene, to cull the less able or disabled mutant forms to be lost to history, while the strong survivors with many new adaptable traits become numerous new species. The new species were suddenly "created" by the intense radiation within one generation. Example: About 1 million years ago, during the last magnetic field reversal, one species, Saber Tooth tigers, were extremely irradiated and in less than a year became, modern lions, tigers, pumas, ocelots, bobcats, pussycats and numerous other feline species. None of the new species was ever seen before the massive radiation event at the magnetic field reversal. Darwin's "evolution" didn't and couldn't do all of that within several years. But that is what the geologic record shows -- almost instantaneous "creation" of many new species by intense random radiation with no intermediate "missing link" forms, and all within one generation. Since the time of the age of dinosaurs, which ended 65 million years ago, there have been about 15 to 20 magnetic field reversals. At each reversal, there is almost instantaneous creation of multitudes of new lifeforms, usually resulting in many forms coming from just one earlier life form. And usually the earlier life form disappears, since it is no longer competitive. Another example: The early horse, eohippus, about the size of a dog, disappeared, but became donkeys, horses and several equine variants such as zebras which are almost related species. Notice, in this process there is no gradual evolution -- and thus no "missing links" between species. Charles Darwin, when he invented his evolution theory, knew nothing about this, since "radiation" was not "discovered" until 50 years later by Madame Currie. And the effect of radiation on DNA was completely unknown, until DNA was "discovered" by Watson and Crick 100 years after Darwin. Thus Darwin, in the mid-19th century, had no clue as to what might be the actual cause to make one species change into another species. Thus Darwin's Theory is wrong. No missing links between species have ever been discovered. Now you know why. The new species were "created" almost in the blink of an eye, by intense solar radiation. No intermediate species or "missing link" were ever born. The new mutant species were born directly from their highly radiated and DNA-modified parents. Thus, almost instantaneously, in geologic time, the new lifeforms are "created" by the intense radiation, and then the survivors quickly "evolved" in just one generation into the many viable new species. Thus, it is time to end the inane debate between "creation versus evolution." Both scientific and religious "beliefs" are wrong and cannot be proved to be true. Both can be proved to be false. And also both are partly "right" -- but for the wrong reason.
Marshall Smith Editor, BroJon Gazette www.brojon.com