It has been a long time the endosulphan is playing the role of a newsmaker.

Definitely, ENDOSULPHAN is more famous; may be more than the Indian prime minister. Still it is being a horror that many parts of India is supporting endosulphan, despite seeing it’s harmful effects a small district,Kasaragod, in Kerala.Definitely, this has prompted me wright an article on this perspective. WHAT IS ENDOSULPHAN Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide. This colourless solid has emerged as a highly controversial agrichemical due to its acute toxicity, potential for bioaccumulation, and role as an endocrine disruptor. Banned in more than 63 countries, including the European Union, Australia and New Zealand, and other Asian and West African nations, and being phased out in the United States, Brazil and Canada. It is still used extensively in many other countries including India and China. It is produced by Bayer CropScience, Makhteshim Agan, and Government-of-India–owned Hindustan Insecticides Limited among others. (source-wikipedia) USES OF ENDOSULPHAN Endosulfan has been used in agriculture around the world to control insect pests including whiteflys, aphids, leafhoppers, Colorado potato beetles and cabbage worms. Because of its unique mode of action, it is useful in resistance management; however, because it is non-specific, it can negatively impact populations of beneficial insects. It is, however, considered to be moderately toxic to honey bees, and it is less toxic to bees than organophosphate insecticides. (source-wikipedia) HISTORY Early 1950s: Endosulfan was developed. 1954: Hoechst AG (now Bayer CropScience) won USDA approval for the use of endosulfan in the United States. 2000: Home and garden use in the United States was terminated by agreement with the EPA. 2002: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recommended that endosulfan registration should be cancelled, and the EPA determined that endosulfan residues on food and in water pose unacceptable risks. The agency allowed endosulfan to stay on the US market, but imposed restrictions on its agricultural uses. 2007: International steps were taken to restrict the use and trade of endosulfan. It is recommended for inclusion in the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent, and the European Union proposed inclusion in the list of chemicals banned under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Such inclusion would ban all use and manufacture of endosulfan globally. Meanwhile, the Canadian government announced that endosulfan was under consideration for phase-out, and Bayer CropScience voluntarily pulled its endosulfan products from the U.S. market but continues to sell the products elsewhere. 2008: In February, environmental, consumer, and farm labor groups including the Natural Resources Defense Council, Organic Consumers Association, and the United Farm

Workers called on the U.S. EPA to ban endosulfan. In May, coalitions of scientists, environmental groups, and arctic tribes asked the EPA to cancel endosulfan, and in July a coalition of environmental and workers groups filed a lawsuit against the EPA challenging its 2002 decision to not ban it. In October, the Review Committee of the Stockholm Convention moved endosulfan along in the procedure for listing under the treaty,while India blocked its addition to the Rotterdam Convention. 2009: The Stockholm Convention’s Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC) agreed that endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant and that “global action is warranted”, setting the stage of a global ban. New Zealand banned endosulfan. 2010: The POPRC nominated endosulfan to be added to the Stockholm Convention at the Conference of Parties (COP) in April 2011, which would result in a global ban.The EPA announced that the registration of endosulfan in the U.S. will be cancelled and that it is in negotiations with Makhteshim Agan of North America to phase the organochlorine out.Australia banned the use of the chemical. (source-wikipedia) HEALTH EFFECTS The Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations has concluded that long-term intake of residues of endosulfan from uses that have been considered by the JMPR is unlikely to present a public health concern. Endosulfan is one of the most toxic pesticides on the market today, responsible for many fatal pesticide poisoning incidents around the world. Endosulfan is also a xenoestrogen—a synthetic substance that imitates or enhances the effect of estrogens—and it can act as an endocrine disruptor, causing reproductive and developmental damage in both animals and humans. Whether endosulfan can cause cancer is debated. Toxicity Endosulfan is acutely neurotoxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. The US EPA classifies it as Category I: “Highly Acutely Toxic” based on a LD50 value of 30 mg/kg for female rats, while the World Health Organization classifies it as Class II “Moderately Hazardous” based on a rat LD50 of 80 mg/kg. It is a GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist, and a Ca2+, Mg2+ ATPase inhibitor. Both of these enzymes are involved in the transfer of nerve impulses. Symptoms of acute poisoning include hyperactivity, tremors, convulsions, lack of coordination, staggering, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, unconsciousness. Doses as low as 35 mg/kg have been documented to cause death in humans, and many cases of sub-lethal poisoning have resulted in permanent brain damage. Farm workers with chronic endosulfan exposure are at risk of rashes and skin irritation. EPA’s acute reference dose for dietary exposure to endosulfan is 0.015 mg/kg for adults and 0.0015 mg/kg for children. For chronic dietary expsoure, the EPA references doses are 0.006 mg/(kg·day) and 0.0006 mg/(kg·day) for adults and children, respectively. Endocrine disruption

Theo Colborn. Environmentally relevant doses of endosulfan equal to the EPA’s safe dose of 0. lower levels of testosterone.006 mg/kg/day have been found to affect gene expression in female rats similarly to the effects of estrogen. A number of studies have documented that it acts as an anti-androgen in animals. or possible carcinogen by the EPA. A 2009 assessment concluded that endocrine disruption occurs only at endosulfan doses that cause neurotoxicity. and additional study is needed to confirm the connection. There are no epidemiological studies linking exposure to endosulfan specifically to cancer in humans. the exposed boys had high levels of endosulfan in their bodies. The researchers concluded that “our study results suggest that endosulfan exposure in male children may delay sexual maturity and interfere with sex hormone synthesis. Environmental fate . Evidence of cancinogenicity in animals is mixed. India have linked endosulfan exposure to delays in sexual maturity among boys. and delays in reaching sexual maturity. A 2009 assessment concluded that epidemiology and rodent studies that suggest male reproductive and autism effects are open to other interpretations. an expert on endocrine disruption. especially among males. This is the first study to look for an association between endosulfan and autism. The researchers compared the villagers to a control group of boys from a demographically similar village that lacked a history of endosulfan pollution. Numerous in vitro studies have documented its potential to disrupt hormones and animal studies have demonstrated its reproductive and developmental toxicity. though it has significant teratogenic effects in laboratory rats. and both the EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry consider endosulfan to be a potential endocrine disruptor. Kerala. Researchers studying children from an isolated village in Kasargod Ditrict. lists endosulfan as a known endocrine disruptor. IARC. A 2007 study by the California Department of Public Health found that women who lived near farm fields sprayed with endosulfan and the related organochloride pesticide dicofol during the first eight weeks of pregnancy are several times more likely to give birth to children with autism. It is not known whether endosulfan is a human teratogen (an agent that causes birth defects). probable.” Increased incidences of cryptorchidism have been observed in other studies of endosulfan exposed populations. but in vitro assays have shown that endosulfan can promote proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Endosulfan was the only pesticide applied to cashew plantations in the hills above the village for 20 years and had contaminated the village environment. Reproductive and developmental effects Several studies have documented that endosulfan can also affect human development. or other agencies. and that developmental or reproductive toxicity occurs only at endosulfan doses that cause neurotoxicity. Birth defects of the male reproductive system including cryptorchidism were also more prevalent in the study group. Relative to the control group. Endosulfan and cancer Endosulfan is not listed as known.

For example.In 2009. according to the EPA. to lead to significant adverse human health and environmental effects such that global action is warranted. “[b]ased on environmental fate laboratory studies.” The EPA also concluded that “[e]ndosulfan has relatively high potential to bioaccumulate in fish.” (source-wikipedia) WHAT HAPPENED IN KASARAGOD May I show some of the pictures of the victims of endosulphan. Most of these parks are far from areas where endosulfan is used. water. a 2008 report by the National Park Service found that endosulfan commonly contaminates air.S. as a result of long range environmental transport. Endosulfan is subject to long range atmospheric transport. the committee of scientific experts of the Stockholm Convention concluded that “endosulfan is likely. which helps you to understand how deadly it is. it can travel long distances from where it is used.e. Endosulfan has also been detected in dust from the Sahara Desert collected in the Caribbean after being blown across the Atlantic Ocean. available models. monitoring studies. . have “structures similar to the parent compound and are also of toxicological concern…The estimated half-lives for the combined toxic residues (endosulfan plus endosulfan sulfate) [range] from roughly 9 months to 6 years.Endosulfan breaks down into endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan diol. terrestrial field dissipation studies.” The EPA concluded that. plants and fish of national parks in the U. i.” It is also toxic to amphibians: low levels have been found to kill tadpoles. particularly in acid media. and published literature. both of which. it can be concluded that endosulfan is a very persistent chemical which may stay in the environment for lengthy periods of time.



then it must be considered harmful. It was heard that some areas of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are also experiencing problems due to endosulphan. It can be considered as a victory for the people of Muliyar. a small panchayath in Kasaragod district. Here. The Kerala High Court has banned the same for a period of 10 years. On the same day. in2002. Many studies were conducted by kerala government and state government and concluded that the essence of endosulphan is still there in the farms. And those reading this article can imagine how much the people of kerala participated for the same. but deadly. when the people of Muliyar. the Indian government is taking an action which can support the company making endosulphan only. Kasargod is neither an Hiroshima or Nagasaki nor America has attacked there. it’s use has been minimized by the people themselves and by 2002. I could find. still the problem is just like an nuclear bomb. V S Achuthanandan. how much it affects. many countries in the world has banned endosulphan. Due to this only. on 25-042011 at Thiruvananthapuram. where endosulphan was sprayed. Still. Still. Anyone viewing videos of the same can understand how much people has come to participate in the same and it will count more than tens of a thousand. Cases of endosulphan were also reported from some areas of Kannur and Wayanad of Kerala.. It is very much understood for the central goverment. It may count trillions or more. There are more pictures of the same and can be found on google image search. Many unreported protests were also conducted. protest against the same was conducted on all the 14 district head quarters of the state. This can be proved by the hunger strike conducted by the kerala cheif minister. Look. The interesting fact is that the use endosulphan was gradually reduced from 1965 and by 1980. Due to it’s harmful effects.These are only some of the pictures. Even if the Indian government supports endosulphan. Today there is being a convention going on in Geneva for disscussing endosulphan related issues and for banning endosulphan. but of 11 panchayaths of Kerala. endosulphan isbanned by the government. the entire people is against it. But the central Government has taken a decision to support endosulphan. I am writing this article to show my strong protest against the indian government for taking the decision to go against the ban of endosulfan in the Geneva conference. Endosulphan is a life hiller as these images clearly states. May this be read by someone over the conference and may they will get the clear picture that . The decision taken by the central government was so worse and it indirectly tells the people of kasaragod to die simply just because of endosulphan. the new born babies in the endosulphan victim areas is still having physical and metal problems. The problem of endosulphan was known to public. This is not a picture not only of Muliyar. If something is making more harmful than it’s beneficial side. endosulphan cannot be considered just harmful. has started protesting against the same.

Obviously. Ban ENDOSULPHAN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ndosulfan is insecticide and India is an important producer and exporter of endosulfan. the problems is due to the indiscriminate spraying of endosulfan without following the stipulated standards by the innocent farmers and failure of pesticide industry to instruct and guide the farmers suitably.. however. While a POP Review Committee of the Convention agreed on categorising endosulfan as a POP. Indian pesticide industry have opposed listing of endosulfan as a Persistant Organic Pollutant (POP) under the Stockholm Convention. the National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) had presented a report to the Government of India linking endosulfan to the prevalence of health disorders. requires parties to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment. have favoured banning the endosulfan. Some 60 countries including the 27 EU members States and 21 in Africa.the people of endosulphan victim areas and people of kerala is not with the central government and they still want to ban endosulphan. . a final decision would. . The agitation against endosulfan has now reached a feverish pitch in India with the Chief Minister of Kerala going to the extent of resorting to a day long fast. particularly in the present conditions. when the pesticide industry and the government agencies are unable to restrict the use of endosulfan within the prescribed standards. It is not approved to be used in rice fields in several other countries. There are other pesticides which can be used to substitute for endosulfan and Indian pest control efforts will not come to a halt with the ban on use of endosulfan. US and the EU have banned endosulfan. The linkage between endosulfan and human miseries had come to the surface for the first time in Kerala state in India in the 1980s. Perhaps. The Stockholm Convention. when several cases of ailments and deaths were reported in the Kasargod district. the argument of Indian pesticide industry is that endosulfan has been under use for several decades in India and not many accidents have been reported.A few years back. demanding that the Government Of India should ban the use of endosulfan all over the country immediately. be in the hands of a Conference of Parties. to which India is a signatory. While there have been huge concern about the use of endosulfan in India amongst environmentalists. The Government of India should follow the stand taken by several countries including those in European Union and ban the use of endosulfan in India. The use is severely restricted in others.

many European countries had stopped the use of Endosulfan. as is being claimed.” Malayalam TV channels show regularly the pictures of many victims who have been severely affected by the use of the pesticide in their localities.Of course. The simple fact is that Endosulfan is banned in more than 63 countries. a German company. and other Asian and West African nations. Due to this. Today’s Business Standard reports that “Endosulfan formulators and manufacturers in India allege that the move to ban its use is a conspiracy by the EU and US to push in their costly products in India. Australia and New Zealand. Why should India wait for more proof.” Business Standard goes on to quote Pradeep Dave. including the European Union. I would like to believe Ramesh is honest. Jairam Ramesh is of the opinion that there are lobbies working actively both for and against the pesticide and he does not want to fall prey to any lobby. The remaining 30 per cent is shared between Brazilian and Israel-based companies. This is a conspiracy by multinational crop protection companies to push their costly products in India by the raising the bogey of health concerns. Dr Manmohan Singh and his ministers like Jairam Ramesh are waiting for more reports of casualties! The pesticide is already banned in Kerala. the industries producing endosulfan in India would suffer. a carcinogen and an endocrine disruptor. one wonders. But there is no ban. but not enough to move the hearts or brains of our political leaders. The activists who demand the ban of the pesticide claim that “Endosulfan is a neuro-toxin. president. Pesticide Manufacturers and Formulators Association of India: “The truth is that the original manufacturer of Endosulfan. It was a protest against the use of a pesticide called Endosulfan. He wants to study the effects of the pesticide scientifically before banning its use in the country.” . The pictures are heart-rending. That is the price that they have to pay for the environmental concer Yesterday [25 April] Kerala witnessed a large scale protest that cut across political parties of various hues. as Indian companies manufacture and sell almost 70 per cent of the global production of Endosulfan. Endosulfan is one of the cheapest pesticides used in horticulture crops. has not supported its new registration because it had a competing high priced product ready. it seems. as well as the United States of America.

. a civilisation that will care for the welfare of all the creatures on the earth rather than that of a few policy makers whose concerns revolve round their bank balances? Is India too joining those self-aggrandising policy makers? The Hindu reports [26 April] that “India is seeking a postponement of the decision on a global ban on Endosulfan to the next meeting of the conference of the parties to the Stockholm Convention in 2013.One litre of Endosulfan is priced at Rs 286. This is despite the requests from the Kerala government to ban the killing pesticide. according to Business Standard. the pleading voices of a billion reason enough to ban the pesticide?! Wherein lies the senses of our leaders! Can they not hear the struggles of men who fell victim to the sustained use of endosulfan. Aren't the faces of the dying kids. India takes a stand against the ban on Endosulfan proposed at thePersistent Organic Pollutants' Review Committee of the Stockholm Convention in Geneva. that has left about 15 villages of its Kasaragod district on the doorstep of death.000 and Rs 13. learn from our past mistakes.” India want to promote the interests of certain parties for one more year – but whose? The people’s or the industrialists’? As the world watches. But we can. are countries like India trying to give cheap pesticides to their farmers? But what will be the long term impact of the cheap pesticide on the health of the people and that of the environment? How many centuries more should we wait for a human civilisation to bloom. They have dedicated their lives to the consolation of these kids and their parents. Will their work have no meaning in the eyes of the feudal lords who say no to the ban? Surely what has happened cannot be erased. rather we must. and rectify them for the betterment of our future generations.000 a litre. and the consequences of the malicious "bio-weapon"? There are many young minds working to help the victims make their two ends meet. unless from our minds. the games are for pushing costlier pesticides and not for promoting the well-being of the people or the environment! Or. Reasons laid by India before the Committee include the fact that Endosulfan has not been "proved" to be the cause of the disaster in Kerala. the cries of the deformed newborns. while its alternatives are priced between Rs 2. So.

" There. Could one ask for more? Also." the time was ripe for reporting a new revolution. I pledge my support to this cause. At last. amidst the heat and the dust generated by the World Cup tamasha. with Page 3 fashionistas in attendance. especially when there are people 'midst us. which is totally unacceptable in the court of human justice. We all knew where that one is headed for. What more could journos hope for? Added to this was the mandatory and rapidly growing presence of the people's movement on social media.All of us must be aware about the pressing need to ban Endosulfan. he became a new age Gandhi who was using . and Twitter was abuzz with tweets. added her "leee'l bit of support" for the fasting crusader with her tweet: "what's remarkable is the uprising of the youth of the country in support of Anna Hazare. Our headlines hungry media pounced upon this man's crusade for probity in public life. and thus. a sort of Hercules come to clean the Augean stables of Indian sleaze and corruption. And the Commonwealth Games scam and the Shunglu report were passe. The Support Anna Hazare Against Corruption page on Facebook. in our own ways. the questions that Anna Hazare was raising were headline grabbing. They needed new grist for the mill.Munnabhai at Jantar Mantar. who have suffered the pangs of the deadly Endosulfan! Just a few weeks ago. And so the media re-discovered and feted Anna Hazare. quickly garnered almost 2 lakhs members. something that could guarantee headlines and TRPs during the coming weeks. Even our Bollywood diva Piggy Chops. Through his organization. Our media mavens were not slow to realize that the World Cup fever was evanescent. 3 G. Particularly. (whew !) India's own Tahrir Square. frankly. even the Queen Bee had thrown in her weight behind the aging warrior. in a nation that was reeling and roiling under the impact of a slew of scams. So they went to town on this one. a school drop out hailing from a poor family in Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra became the toast of the country. was heralded as the New Messiah. Raja. Kisan Bapat Baburao Hazare. And how ! Here was a situation that was resonated with today's generation . Tata and the Radia tapes were. a 72 year old ex-army jawan. and overnight. He became the face of India's fight against corruption. that queen of Indian twitters. the Bhrastachar Virodhi Jan Andolan (People's Movement Against Corruption). aka Anna Hazare. A lone man taking on the political might of the UPA machinery in a fight against corruption made for sexy copy and tantalizing sound bytes. and that the heroics of Dhoni and his men in blue could be written about only thus far. getting a bit tedious. try and oppose the stand our country has taken at an international level. In a "season of extraordinary revelations. Hazare fit the bill perfectly.

What he has succeeded in doing is to open up a national debate on a subject of utmost importance. There were widely publicized reports of dissensions amongst the five representatives of civil society in the proposed Committee entrusted with drafting the bill. Our hysterical TV channels ensured that Hazare's fast at the Jantar Mantar quickly became the stuff of legend. and the aam admi . the initial mass hysteria created by Hazare needs to be counter balanced by legislative and constitutional sanction and prudence before anything productive can come out of it. has managed to unite the nation in a common cause. law makers.seem to have been finally forced to acknowledge the need for probity in public life as a matter of natural right.polticians.. was the question. bureaucrats." . it was the Government that blinked by agreeing to Hazare's demand for a joint committe to draft the Jan Lokpal Bill. Here was a classic standoff between the all powerful Government and the vox-pop as represented by a solitary. the Empire also decided to strike back. frail individual who was threatening to fast to death. begain to question his antecedents and his motives. "my fast was not with any prejudice against any government or an individual. would be the panacea for all our social and political ills. and the might of the citizens of the land to insist upon legislation to enforce such a right. The appearance of a mysterious CD that cast aspersions on the credentials of the public figures who had associated themselves with the pro Lokpal Bill movement muddied the waters further. any intelligent Indian is aware of the fact that there is a lot of ground that needs to be covered before the Jan Lokpal Bill becomes a reality. As Hazare said. Of course. For once. And as anticipated. Was it morally and ethically proper to blackmail a ruling government ? Why did he praise Narendra Modi of all people? Is he a closet knicker wallah? Does he have a hidden agenda co-terminous with the communal tendencies of the Hindu Right ? Is he a supporter of Raj Thackeray? Would his authoritarian approach to social problems result in the creation of a Lokpal (Ombudsman) who would undermine the existing judicial system? Would the proposed Lokpal end up as a "super monster?" How to make sure the Cure isn't worse than the Disease ? In addition. Congress General Secretary Digvijay SIngh himself led the shouting brigade that launched a malicious smear campaign against the leaders of the anti-corruption movement. All these attempts at derailing Anna Hazare's campaign may prove futile in the long run. one cannot and should not miss the obvious point that Hazare. the mood changed. Sly headlines lampooning the Anna Hazare Show and the Anna Carnival began appearing in the national media. but against corruption which has burdened the common man. all the constituencies with vested interests in the matter . It is equally simplistic to believe that the anti-corruption movement. in its current form.the age old tool of hunger strikes against his favorite targets . with some of them threatening to quit. The very media that had been lionizing Hazare. However. Who would blink first. single handedly. Also.politicians. And as soon as that happened.

Somaje Mahalinga Bhat. Like Bhopal it has been a continuous saga of suffering by the people and denial by the State. In 1979.” It took another 10 years. So imagine our surprise when we recently found that the Union Ministry of Agriculture appointed yet another fact-finding committee to establish the link between Endosulfan and mass ill-health in Kasaragod. Our simple request to him was to stop the spraying of Endosulfan over cashew plantations. give it and go. Thanks to the very active Kerala media and the state's Chief Minister. Assembly elections were also around the corner. The least we can do is to support After a long and herculean struggle. We showed him an album full of tragic pictures of victims. In the meantime. They say Endosulfan is absolutely harmless. the Kasaragod Endosulfan tragedy is next only to the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. thousands of lives and the painful display of immobile children on camera to make the political leadership melt. He had an unusual problem. spare us the sophistry and the snide remarks. If you have a memorandum. The . the people of Kasaragod district succeeded in getting the Kerala government to ban the deadly pesticide Endosulfan. Of course. 400 lives have been lost according to government figures. the cry to ban the deadly pesticide gained momentum. when we realized there was a link between Endosulfan and mass ill-health in our district we approached the agriculture minister in the Left-led Nayanar government in Kerala. a local farmer invited me to his farm. He replied: “In this matter there is no scientific body more superior in the whole world than the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) in Kasaragod. Reality and denial: In 2001. Do you need a better example than this to understand with whom the sympathies of our political leaders actually lie? Here is the true story of Endosulfan and our agony. The conference was inaugurated by the President of India and presided over by the Union Agriculture Minister as chief guest. VS Achyutanandan's sympathetic attitude. hundreds have been maimed and a much greater number are bedridden. please. All four calves born recently in his cattle shed had deformed limbs. the late Krishnan Kaniyamparambil.So. I can't believe you. In its magnitude. Even more shocking to us was the holding of a conference in Delhi just weeks ago sponsored by a pesticide manufacturer.

Therefore. the CBI which comes under the Union Agriculture Ministry and failed to act against the Plantation Corporation – all have blood on their hands. For aerial spraying of pesticides. They suspected that the pesticide Endosulfan had something to do with the condition of Somaje's calves. three other committees clearly warned that use of Endosulfan near rivers. Both warnings were totally ignored. it didn't occur to me that the inborn deformities of cattle might show up in human beings too. Their only argument was about the ‘well being' of their own labourers. If a mass alert had been initiated then could we have reduced the damage? I doubt it. They said it should also be placed on labels and leaflets in the containers. the Endosulfan tragedy is an act of genocide by many state agencies – the indifferent agriculture department of Kerala. Endosulfan was sprayed very negligently.' No other region in the world has endured that. I approached two veterinary doctors. Somaje's farm adjoins the cashew plantations of the Plantation Corporation of Kerala (PCK). Now media reports inform us of a very high rate of disease and death among their own labourers. many more seriously ill.fourth one was just about surviving. Somaje Mahalinga Bhat succumbed to cancer. ponds and the sea would pollute their waters. the corporation never cared to check onsite. the pesticide company. The question being asked is: “Why only in Kasaragod?” The Plantation Corporation of Kerala. aerial spraying done after 1993 is illegal and punishable. Hundreds are bedridden. it can't escape the responsibility of this genocide. Though the Plantation Corporation pretends to be innocent. They have lost the ability to earn their livelihood. And 30 years after that. Endosulfan was being sprayed here aerially. But the CBI states it hasn't given permission to any agency for aerial spraying after 1992. His cows used to drink water from a nearby tank and graze in the hills. They recommended putting this warning in the certificate of registration as a condition. the district collectors who gave permission without checking precautionary measures. Despite very serious health complaints. In 1979. I also published stories in Kannada and Malayalam.' for an English periodical. Flood of committees: Starting with the Dr Banerjee committee in 1991. a public sector company. ‘Life cheaper than cashew. I wrote a feature story titled. has flouted every precautionary measure stipulated by the insecticide rules of the Government of India. To convince people about the ‘inside truth' of poisons is a Herculean task! For nearly 25 years Kasarogod received 60 to 70 showers of ‘poison rain. my district has 8. None of them took action to protect public health. In fact. . The pesticide lobby's nexus with the powers that be is very strong. lakes. permission from the Central Bureau of Insecticides (CBI) is necessary.000 suspected Endosulfan victims. Years later. After studying all the details.

Sixty-three countries have already banned Endosulfan. “there is no conclusive proof to accuse Endosulfan. the residents of the ill-fated area of Kasaragod. everybody.” Couldn't this huge sum of money have been spent on the poor victims? How many times will our mothers have to give their breast milk for testing? When will this saga of ‘recommending for a thorough study' end? We fear the committees because in the past we have seen quite a few pesticide industry agents arriving here in the guise of experts. They weren't aware of systemic insecticides at all. no blood. my fellow activist. have just one question. often jokes: “We can even tolerate Endosulfan but not these committees. this may be attributed to aerial spraying of Endosulfan. We were surprised to come across a few leading doctors who believed that ‘thorough washing' will clear vegetables of all pesticide residues. except for the National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) committee.” No awareness: Even today. If there is doubt about this tragedy whom will you give the benefit of the doubt to? Would you choose the scores of suffering people or the pesticide industries? . would you act so mercilessly? Would you speak in an inhuman way and say that you require more proof to keep a deadly pesticide away? We.” And the Dr P K Sivaraman Committee stated: “Since the committee couldn't find any other reason that could explain the health hazards in the area. agriculture and medical students graduate without knowledge about pesticide abuse and the ill-effects of dangerous pesticides. Even so called experts are ignorant about chronic poisoning. The Kasaragod tragedy was also responsible for the Endosulfan ban in Cambodia. Go to any state in India. The NIOH committee concluded that: “The most probable cause for the health problems could be relatively high and continued exposures to Endosulfan. Interestingly.” The fact that 400 people have already died as per government records. We have lost count! Ironically. the rest reached their conclusion after just one flying visit. But for many people in power. water and soil analyses! Just one sitting at Kasaragod was deemed sufficient. Dr Shripathy Kajampady. a relative with deformed limbs. According to media reports 17 fact -finding committees have come here. If you have a child who has been reduced to a cabbage. many ‘experts' who vouched that Endosulfan is safe. There was no thorough investigation.Instead we have had one committee after another visiting Kasaragod. that humans and animals have been deformed. were not reason enough to call for a ban. including agriculture graduates call poisons as ‘medicine. refused to drink water from our area.' This is a classic example of the discreet brainwash done by pesticide companies.

Routine crop care includes pest management and this is imperative for maintaining the quality of farm produce. Countries such as China. coffee. Israel. It is recommended and used for control of insects. he or she will have a ready answer What is Endosulfan? Endosulfan is a non systemic insecticide with acaricidal properties that has been in commercial use for over 50 be used as ear tag in both lactating and beef cattle for control of ecto-parasites. World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pesticides into the following categories based on their intrinsic hazard. South Africa. The literature that has been published against Endosulfan lacks truth. vegetables. However. Brazil.You don't need an expert to answer that question. Nigeria. Numerous stories related to Endosulfan which found origin in Kerala are not true. China. Other pesticides that belong the same class include Copper Sulphate. Current global usage of Endosulfan is estimated to be in the range of 35 million litres – bringing it the position of top five generic ‘off-patent’ agricultural insecticides in the world. Canada. Deltamethrin. Endosulfan has been in use for over 50 years and as agriculturists we understand the properties of this pesticide. tea. Imidachlorpid. spices. India. Nigeria and Sudan which account for more than 50% of world's arable area -. Propoxur.relay on Endosulfan for protecting their agriculture produce. In addition to it’s agricultural use. Brazil. USA. Other regions such as Punjab. Endosulfan has recently been allowed in USA (since year 2006) as a veterinary insecticide -. Gujarat or Maharashtra in India or countries as such as USA. Permethrin etc. Frequently Propagated MYTHS About Endosulfan Myth 1: Endosulfan is a highly hazardous pesticide TRUTH: WHO classifies Endosulfan under Class II (Moderately hazardous). lack of knowledge with regards to usage and the applications has created a lot of confusion amongst people in general. Based on studies conducted on Endosulfan and experience of half a decade we have arrived at some strong facts which are listed here. Argentina. Mexico. Australia. flowers. Australia. . pests and mites on fruits. If anyone with common sense and an open mind visits a dozen families in the affected area. Mexico have used Endosulfan without any reports of ill effects. Cypermethrin. Knowledge sharing and implementation of integrated crop management is necessary. forage crops and non food crops such as cotton & tobacco. Addressing world population needs for food grains and optimize existing farms – contain arable land and conserve forests – we need effective use of our natural resources to strike this balance.

Sudan. This is applicable to traditional as well as latest pesticide compounds. India – it was found that dissipation of Endosulfan occurred in the soil to an extent of 92-97% in the first four weeks following the application (Pesticide Science. neither persists for long nor significantly bio-accumulates in human beings and animals. In the hand book of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the Chemical Abstracts (CA). In fact in 1988. Myth 4: Endosulfan persists for long in the environment TRUTH: In a study conducted by T. Endosulfan. ranks among the top 5 generic insecticides in the world. Argentina. • Consumption by soil micro-organisms • Chemical breakdown in reaction to sunlight (Photolysis) • Chemical reaction with water (Hydrolysis) . It must be mentioned that use of a particular pesticide in a country / region is crop & pest specific. In tropical and subtropical environment degradation of Endosulfan is rather faster. Endosulfan is designated as a dioxathiepin. Mexico. Endosulfan. USA. No pesticide is registered / used universally in all the countries around the world. 1997. WHO reclassified Endosulfan as "sulfurous ester of a chlorinated cyclic diol". Canada. Presence or absence of target crop / pest often make the difference between registration and de-registration of pesticides. Myth 3: Endosulfan is a typical Organochlorine Pesticide TRUTH: Endosulfan is not a typical Organochlorine pesticide. with an estimated consumption of 35 Million liters. India. Kathpal of Haryana Agricultural University. Unlike conventional organochlorine pesticides. recently introduced pesticide compounds such as Imidaclorpid and other neo-necotinoids have already been banned / restricted in several countries. Brazil.Classification Class : Extremely hazardous Ia Class : Highly hazardous Ib Class : Moderately hazardous II Class : Slightly hazardous III Myth 2: Endosulfan is banned across the world TRUTH: Endosulfan is currently sprayed in crop fields across China. 50 21-27) Endosulfan does not persist for long in the environment. Israel and Nigeria etc. Australia.S. These countries have more than 50% of world's arable land. It is degraded by the following process. For example.

Myth 7: Exposure to Endosulfan causes birth defects TRUTH: Evaluations by WHO / FAO / JMPR. India TRUTH: Further to the reports that surfaced about mal effects of Endosulfan in Kerala investigations have revealed that the incidents were particularly generated and propagated by Center for Science & Environment (CSE).Myth 5: Endosulfan bioaccumulates in Human & Animal bodies TRUTH: One significant property of Endosulfan is that it quickly leaves the body and does not bio-accumulate. in the year 2007. i.alarming levels of Endosulfan was found in blood samples of people. Genotoxic : A substance capable of damaging DNA of an organism. It was a scientific fraud hatched by CSE.EPA. Myth 8: Endosulfan causes hormone imbalance TRUTH: WHO / FAO / JMPR. Several other research publications also confirm is scientifically impossible as 0. an environmental NGO that receives heavy funds from Europe.e. WHO had observed "Endosulfan and Endosulfan Sulfate do not bio-accumulate in organisms due to the extensive metabolism with enzymatic hydrolysis of Endosulfan and Endosulfan Sulfate forming more polar metabolites. Myth 6: Exposure to Endosulfan causes cancer TRUTH: Endosulfan is not a carcinogen (cancer causing agent).86 ppm of Endosulfan residues in blood can prove very fatal. As recently as 2006. Mohan Kumar's blood sample had shown Endosulfan residues to the level of 119 ppm -. Besides. sperm count. it does not affect sperm production. US. . International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC. The team at CSE alleged that an activist . 1998 had categorically stated that there was no evidence to estrogenic activity involving Endosulfan. When an explanation was demanded to support their theory and prove their case the CSE was silent. a body of WHO) does not classify Endosulfan to be a carcinogen.Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) also supports this conclusion.” Birth defects are triggered by substances that have following characteristics: Mutagenic : A substance capable of introducing changes in cells. As per CSE's claims -. motility etc Myth 9: Endosulfan exposure killed and maimed many people in the state of Kerala. Mohan Kumar continues to live healthy life. concluded that Endosulfan is not an anti-androgen. Clastogenic : A substance that can cause break in chromosomes resulting is loss or gain or rearrangement of chromosomal segments. United States .Dr. 1998 on Endosulfan have placed on record that “no genotoxic activity was observed in an adequate battery of tests for mutagenecity and clastogenecity.

Still dependent on traditional farming practices. In India. . or benefit from it at all. In China. Developing nations with similar stakes in the outcome of the Convention for agriculture. rabbits and fish. the Shanghai Daily reported that Mr. China has benefited from Endosulfan’s use on cotton since 1994. The US Environmental Protection Agency has stated that Endosulfan ‘poses unacceptable risks to agricultural workers and wildlife’ and has linked the pesticide to cancer and longterm impact on the immune and reproductive systems. a professor at Tea Research Institute and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences states that extensive soil residue tests performed by them found no problems at all. Since analysis in Europe and America have been conducted on Endosulfan’s effects on birds. The Stockholm Convention is now estimated to seal the fate of the active ingredient used globally for more than half a century. Nations that have been indirectly compelled to ban the pesticide include among others. their assessment is impractical for China where it is used largely on crops like tea which are not exported. Achyutan. even as a fraction of them are significant users of Endosulfan. But if this assertion is considered farfetched and dismissed. CD Mayee and Dr. countries like India and China must evaluate how a move to ban Endosulfan by the Stockholm Convention will augur for them.91) per litre. a ban on the pesticide could therefore hurt Chinese cultivators to the tune of almost 100 million yuan (USD 15 million) per year. such as those led by Mr. A group of 172 nations will partake in this decision. Recent global news reports have suggested that the move to enlist Endosulfan as a POP at the Convention is only a legal offensive in eliminating its global use for replacement with patented substitutes. Chen Zongmao. the use and benefits of which have been argued the world over. It is being enlisted as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) although the World Health Organization classifies Endosulfan as ‘moderately hazardous. among numerous independent studies. as well as on wheat. The premise of this ban will be the persistence of Endosulfan in the environment. especially when it has no substitutes This week will see a milestone in the journey of the debated pesticide Endosulfan. OP Dubey. As per Mr. among other fruits since 1998. tobacco and apples. 21 African countries that depend heavily on European exports.84–4. several tests have already suggested that Endosulfan degrades much faster in tropical climates. a quality control director at Jiangsu Anpon Electrochemical Co Ltd. tea. such as China and India silently mull what the future will holds for them in the absence of Endosulfan. the issue that still needs considerable thought is what farmers in developing nations like India and China will use as alternatives in light of such a ban. Li Maoqing. these results have been corroborated by several government committees. In the past. Countering this view. but this scientific truth has been omitted from common knowledge on the issue. Endosulfan is sold for the extremely affordable price of 25–32 yuan (USD 3.’ This development is estimated to ensure its global eradication. Of the 60 countries to have banned the pesticide. 27 are EU members.

Neonicotinoids. are among the substitutes suggested for Endosulfan. 2010. China.Endosulfan has been manufactured." Pesticides Manufacturers and Formulators Association of India (PMFAI) President Pradeep Dave told reporters here. With inadequate replacements in place. he said. If health and ecology were really prime concerns for the ban of Endosulfan. but its only drawback lies in scalability of use when it comes to feed billions. Alternatives could be found in organic farming. an immensely useful insecticide did not go down well with us. after we looked into the real scientific facts and data. which have vested business interests are lobbying for imposing an international ban on endosulfan as the ban would create a market for their products in the third world countries. "The demand for banning Endosulfan in India. New Delhi: Domestic pesticide makers today said that the demand for banning endosulfan pesticide in India is being driven by vested interests of Multinational firms. . But Mr. who are interested in promoting their patented products in the country. Li asserted that such a product is projected to be five times costlier than Endosulfan. it is strange that suggested alternatives are harsher. This story validates that Voice of Keralam is the true voice of the people of God's own country. China’s Tea Research Institute and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences is already looking at developing its alternatives for the tea industry. European companies. to give cut through the noise and bring you the reality. India and Argentina must now decide whether the risk from Endosulfan can outweigh the risks of food shortage and additional cost burdens on farming Vested interests in demanding ban on endosulfan: PMFAI We observed this update from Press Trust of India (PTI) today on Wednesday. which are blamed for causing massive honeybee deaths and degrading the natural ecological balance. December 22. The recent Endosulfan controversy and public calls to ban Endosulfan. is motivated by the vested interest of European pesticide makers. Argentina and Brazil due to its precise pest control relevance in these climates. developing countries like China. used and exported by Europe for 55 years and has since caught on in developing economies such as India. We will continue to watch development on Endosulfan as they unfold and ensure that the truth is presented in its originality from all sides. In fact. Italy consented to Endosulfan use during a pest attack on their hazelnut crops in 2008 due to lack of an appropriate alternative pesticide to tackle the problem. Voice of Keralam has been a staunch supporter of farmers and workers in India.

which indicate that the use of this chemical has resulted into serious health hazards of any kind.Endosulfan Workers oppose ban. The replacement pesticide will be at least 10 times costlier than Endosulfan.500 per litre thus making the use of pesticides 10 times costlier. He said that India is the largest producer. an NGO working for chemical industry. International Stewardship Centre. Endosulfan is being used for the last 50 years in India with no negative health effects. user and exporter of endosulfan. . Dave added that endosulfan is being used in the country for the last 50 years and there has been no such scientific records available. The total market in India for the pesticide is around USD 60 million and the country exports around another USD 40 million worth endosulfan." International Stewardship Centre Chairman R Hariharan said. "A litre of endosulfan costs Rs 250 to Indian farmers whereas any chemical manufactured by multinational would cost more than Rs 2. said that replacing endosulfan with any other chemical would be at least 10 times costlier for the Indian farmers.

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