 Nutrition is the entire process by which organisms obtain energy from food for growth, maintenance and repair of damaged tissues

Types of nutrition






 Autotrophs – organisms that synthesise complex organic compounds from raw, simple inorganic substances by using light or chemical energy

 Photoautotroph – organisms that produce organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water using sunlight as a source of energy - plants

 Chemoautotroph – synthesis organic compounds by oxidising inorganic substances such as sulphide and ammonia - bacteria

 Heterotroph – organism that cannot synthesise their own nutrients but obtain nutrients from other organisms





 Holozoic nutrition – the organisms feed by ingesting solid organic matter which is digested and absorbed into their bodies - humans, herbivores, carnivores, carnivorous plants

 Saphrophytism – organisms that feed on dead and decaying organic matter - bacteria, fungi

 Parasitism – organisms that obtains nutrient by living on or in the body of another living organisms - parasite absorbed readily digested food from its host - bacteria, worms

Balanced diet

Nutrients provide the body with its basic needs : 1. source of energy 2. chemical building block 3. metabolic reactions

 A balanced diet should contain : 1. carbohydrates 2. proteins 3. lipids 4. vitamins 5. mineral 6. water 7. roughage

 Nutreints must be taken in the correct proportion to meet the daily requirement

 A balanced diet will be able to meet the daily energy requirement

 The sum of all chemical reactions in the body is called metabolism

 Basal metabolic rate – the energy consumed by the body in a day while carrying out all the basic processes such as breathing, excretion, maintaining body temperature

Energy content of food

The energy content of a food can be measured by burning a known mass of the food completely in the presence of oxygen in a bomb calorimeter

 The amount of heat generated from the combustion of one gram of food is known as the energy value of the food  Unit – Jg-1  1 cal = 4.2 J

Food class Carbohydrates Proteins Fats

Energy value (kJg-1) 16.7 22.2 37.6

 When food is burn, it releases energy mainly in the form of heat  Respiration releases the same amount of energy as combustion

 Energy value of food : 4.2 x mass of water (g) x increase in temperature (0 C) _______________________________ mass of food sample (g) x 1000

Energy requirement


Size or body weight



Determining the energy value in food sample


Vitamins are a group of complex organic compounds which are needed in relatively small quantities by living organisms

 Our body cannot synthesise vitamins  Essential for maintenance of good health and efficient metabolism


Fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K Stored in body fat

Water soluble vitamins B,C Supplied in the daily diet

 Daily vitamin requirement is relatively low  Vitamin cannot be manufactured in the body, supplied from diet


Find out examples of vitamins, its sources, functions and effect


Simple inorganic nutrients which must be obtained through diet Major mineral ( macrominerals ) – required in large quantities ( > 100 mg/day) - Ca, Mg, P



 Micromineral – required in trace amounts (< 20 mg/day) - Co, Mn, Zn, Mo


Find out the examples of minerals, sources, and effects of minerals deficiency

Dietary fibre
 

Consist mainly of cellulose Not being absorbed and assimilated into the body

 Functions : 1. provides bulk to the intestinal content – high water holding capacity

2. aids in peristalsis 3. aids in bowel movement – prevent the build up of toxic in the rectum 4. lower the cholesterol, level in the blood

 Deficiency – caused constipation - too much water is absorbed from the faeces – difficult to move


 

The medium for all cellular biochemical reactions Medium of transportation for respiratory gases and nutrients Regulates body temperature Removes excretory waste – lactic acid, urea Maintains osmotic pressure in the tissue fluid and blood plasma

 Aids peristaltic movement  Dissolves chemical substances  Enables hydrolysis of food substances during digestion

 Normal adult need – 2-2.5 litres daily  Water lost from : - perspiration - breathing - urine

 Water lost can cause dehydration

Balanced diet

Vary according to : - age - lifestyle - health condition - specific need

Pregnant mothers

Need diet rich in calcium and phosphorus for the formation of strong bones in foetus Calcium and phosphorus can be found in milk and dairy products

 Folic acid and ferum for formation of red blood cells folic acid – liver, cabbage, orange juice

- ferum – liver, eggs, meat  Proteins is needed for the formation of new tissues

 Fibre – to prevent constipation  Fats, sugar, caffeinated drinks should be avoided

Infants and children

Infants – protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals Ca, P – formation of bones and teeth

 Children – proteins, vitamin, minerals, carbohydrates, lipid - Protein – building new tissues


Needs protein, vitamin, carbohydrates Avoid fat and oily food – avoid pimples Female – food rich in ferum to synthesise more haemoglobin after menstruation

 

Need to consume plant proteins Plant protein lack some essential amino acids

 Need to vary their diets to obtain all the essential amino acids  Need ferum, calcium, zinc, vitamin B12

  

Depend on the types of sport Weight lifting – high protein Runner – proteins, vitamins, mineral, carbohydrates

 Avoid fatty food – gain weight  Calcium, sodium, potassium – prevent muscle cramps

The aged

Need proteins, vitamins, minerals ( Ca, P – prevent osteoporosis) Reduce salt, carbohydrates, fats – reduce risk of high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease

 

Result from unbalanced diet Nutrients are deficient and in the wrong proportions

Protein deficiency - Kwashiorkor ( flaky skin, thin muscle, thin hair, swelling body –abdomen ) - marasmus (child becomes very thin, wrinkled skin)

- Mental and physical development is severely impaired

Calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D deficiencies

Osteoporosis - bones become brittle, porous, crack easily - backbone shorten and bent - take more calcium & phosphorous, exercise

 Osteomalacia - soft bones – in pregnant woman  To reduce the risk - take food rich in Ca, P and Vitamin D  vitamin D help the absorption of calcium in the digested food

Effects of excessive intake of nutrients

Food rich in carbohydrates lead to : - diabetes mellitus - obesity - dental caries

 Obese people : - cardiovascular disease - high blood pressure - atherosclerosis - stroke - brain hemorrhages -diabetes mellitus ( body does not produce enough insulin to convert glucose to glycogen)

Excessive intake of lipids

Excess lipid are converted into body fat and stored in adipose tissue

 Atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries) – deposits of plaques develop on the internal lining of blood vessels

- arteries loose their elasticity - raises the blood pressure by narrowing the lumen of blood vessels

Excessive intake of minerals

Cause an imbalance in the osmotic pressure Sodium – lead to heart disease and stroke

 Excessive salt and lack of water – formation of kidney stone - stones are made of calcium and oxalate (found in nuts, leafy greens, chocolates, vitamin C)

 Lack of exercise – kidney work hard to remove excessive salt

 Excess calcium increase the risk of kidney stone formation  Excess ferum – liver and kidney damage, kidney toxicity and death

Excessive intake of protein
 

Increase the uric acid content Uric acid forms crystal at the soft tissues of the joint – gout

 Causing the formation of stone in the kidney  Avoid foods high in nucleic acids – liver, kidneys and sardines

Food Digestion
Digestion –the process that break down complex food substances into simpler, soluble molecules that are small enough for the body to absorb

 Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are broken down into their monomers through hydrolysis by digestive enzymes

 Carbohydrates – glucose molecules  Proteins – amino acids  Lipid – glycerol, fatty acids

Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Food digestion occur in the alimentary canal - mouth, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

 Digestive juices – aid the process of digestion  Digestive glands – secrete digestive juices

 As the food passes through the alimentary canal, it is broken down until the digestible material is dissolved and absorbed

 Digestion – physical process - chemical process

 Physical process –the breaking up of large pieces of food into smaller pieces by mechanical means ( chewing by teeth)

- smaller pieces – increase the surface area of food available for chemical digestion

 Chemical digestion – digestive enzymes break down complex food into soluble molecules which enter the bloodstream to be transported to the whole body - involves hydrolysis reactions

Digestion in the oral cavity

 

Chewing break the food into smaller pieces Secretion of saliva by salivary glands The tongue manipulates the food to mixed it well with saliva

 Saliva contains salivary amylase enzymes which hydrolysis starch to maltose  Chewed food is rolled into a bolus

 When swallowing, epiglottis temporarily closed the airway to prevent food from entering the trachea

 Bolus enters the esophagus ( lined with epithelium and mucous gland )

 Mucus lubricates the bolus, and its move along esophagus by peristalsis

 Peristalsis – a series of wave like muscular contractions along the esophageal wall

Digestion in stomach

The epithelial lining of the stomach contains gastric glands that secrete gastric juice

 Food is thoroughly churned and mixed with gastric juices by peristalsis contractions of the stomach wall

 The contents of stomach become a semi fluid called chyme  Relaxation of pyloric sphincter allows chyme to enter the duodenum.

 Digestive juice in stomach : - hydrochloric acid - mucus - enzymes

- hydrochloric acid – creates acidic condition (1.5-2.0) – optimal for the action of enzymes - stop activity of salivary amylase - kill bacteria in food

 Digestive enzymes :
pepsin Proteins + water rennin Caseinogen + water Polypeptides


 Pepsin hydrolyze large protein molecules into smaller chain – polypeptides

 Rennin coagulates milk by converting soluble milk protein (caseinogens) – into insoluble casein

Digestion in small intestine
 

Consist of duodenum, jejunum, ileum Duodenum receives chyme from stomach and secretions from the gall bladder and pancreas

Bile duct liver stomach


Gall bladder duodenum

Pancreatic duct Small intestine

 Liver : - secretes bile and stored in the gall bladder

- bile creates an alkaline environment (pH 7.6-8.6) for the enzyme action in the duodenum





Gall bladder

Pancreatic Juices

- bile help to reduce the acidity of the chyme and optimizes the pH for enzyme action

 Bile salts emulsify lipids, transforming lipid into tiny droplets, providing a greater surface area for digestion by enzymes

 Pancreas : - secretes pancreatic juice which contains pancreatic amylase, trypsin, lipase - optimum pH required is between 7.1-8.2


The digestion of starch, proteins and lipids take place in the duodenum

Starch + water

Pancreatic amylase


trypsin Polypeptides + water Peptides

Lipase Lipid droplets + water Glycerol + fatty acids

 Bile enters the duodenum through the bile duct  Pancreatic juice is secreted into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct

Chewing break the food into smaller pieces Secretion of saliva by salivary glands

- hydrochloric acid - mucus - enzymes

mouth stomach

duodenum Bile Pancreatic juices
The digestion of starch, proteins and lipids take place in the duodenum


Glands in the wall of ileum secrete intestinal juice, contains digestive enzymes for digestion of peptides and disaccharides carbohydrates are digested into monosaccharide – glucose, fructose, galactose Proteins – digested into amino acids Lipids – digested into fatty acids, glycerol

Protein digestion

Carbohydrate digestion


Glands in the wall of ileum secrete intestinal juice, contains digestive enzymes for digestion of peptides and disaccharides

erepsin Peptides + water Maltase Maltose + water Glucose Amino acids

sucrase Sucrose + water Glucose + fructose

lactase Lactose + water Glucose + galactose

 The end of digestion process, carbohydrates are digested into monosacharides – glucose, fructose, galactose  Proteins – digested into amino acids  Lipids – digested into fatty acids, glycerol

 Dietary fiber cannot be digested because there is no enzyme cellulase in the human alimentary canal

Digestion of cellulose in ruminants and rodents
Ruminants  Feed on plants which contain high percentage of cellulose  The breakdowns of cellulose requires the enzymes cellulase

 Ruminants – cows, goats  Stomach are divided into 4 chambers: 1. rumen 2. reticulum 3. omasum 4. abomasum

Rumen - Partially chewed food is passed into the rumen - Cellulose is broken down by enzyme cellulase produced by microorganism (bacteria & protozoa)

- parts of the breakdown product are absorbed by bacteria

Reticulum  Cellulose are hydrolyze  The content of reticulum (cud), transfer bit by bit into the mouth to be chewed again

- Its soften the cellulose, more accessible to further microbial action in other parts of the stomach

Omasum  The cud is reswallowed into the omasum.  Large particles of food are broken down into smaller pieces by peristalsis  Water is removed from the cud

Abomasum  The true stomach  Gastric juices containing digestive enzymes complete the digestion of proteins and other substances

- The food then passed into small intestine to be digested and absorbed

Rodents  Rats, rabbit  Caecum and appendix are enlarged to store cellulase producing bacteria

- The breakdown products pass through the alimentary canal twice - Faeces are produced at night ( soft and watery )

Soft faeces are Eaten again

Soft faeces produced At night are eaten again

 Faeces are eaten again to absorb the products of bacterial breakdown as they pass through the alimentary canal again  Second batch of faeces are drier and harder



Small intestine


Large intestine


Problem associated with food digestion

Incomplete digestion of food - pain in abdomen, nausea, vomiting - cause by too much food, too much oily food, eating too fast

2. Reduced production of specific digestive enzymes - adult difficult to digest lactose compared to baby

- damage to pancreas – reduced production of digestive enzymes

3. Gallstone preventing the flow of bile - eat too much fatty food encourage the formation of gallstones in the bile duct and gall bladder

- when gallstone is blocked, the lipids cannot be emulsified, difficult to digest - symptoms – fever, vomiting, jaundice

 Usually occur in obese people

Absorption and assimilation of digested food

To enter the body cells, nutrients in the lumen of the small intestine must be transported across the intestinal lining into the bloodstream Ileum – major sites of nutrient absorption

Adaptive characteristics of digestive system

The wall of the small intestine is covered with epithelial cells that are specialized to complete the digestive process and absorbed the resulting nutrients molecules

 Small intestine – 6 m  Intestinal lining is highly folded, covered by villi ( finger like projections )  Villi have a microscopic projections called microvilli

Absorption of digested food

Involves diffusion and active transport Glucose, amino acids, water soluble vitamins, minerals diffuse into the epithelial cells

 Fatty acids and glycerol enter the epithelial cells and recombine to form tiny droplets of lipids

 The nutrients and minerals then absorbed directly into the blood through the blood capillaries in the villi

 Lipids droplets move into the lacteals  Fats soluble vitamins are absorbed into the lacteals

 Lacteal converge into the lymphatic system

Assimilation of digested food

Some products of digestion are brought to the liver Liver controls the amount of nutrients released into the blood circulatory system

 Assimilation takes place in the cell  Nutrients are used to form complex compound or structural compound

liver Blood capillary

Liver synthesis plasma proteins from amino acids


Excess amino acids cannot be stored in the body and are broken down in the liver – deamination

Short of glucose and glycogen liver convert amino acids into glucose

Amino acids Urea is produced and transport to the kidney

Blood capillary



Excess glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver

Small intestine

Too much glycogen in the liver, excess glucose is converted into lipids


Assimilation in the cells

Amino acids - synthesis new protoplasm - repair damaged tissues - building block for enzymes and hormones - synthesis protein for plasma membranes

 Glucose - oxidised for energy in cellular respiration - excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the muscle

 Lipids - major components of plasma membranes - stored around an organ as cushion that protects organs from injuries -excess fats stored in adipose tissues under the skin

Formation of faeces and defaecation

After the absorption of nutrients in small intestine, the intestinal contents enter the colon

 The intestinal content consist of a mixture of water, undigested food substances, dead cells, dead bacteria, fibre

 The movement of intestinal content is helped by peristalsis

 Reabsorption of water and mineral takes place in the colon

Colon - Reabsorb almost 90% of water and minerals into the bloodstream - Result in the formation faeces

 The wall of colon secretes mucus which help to bid the faeces and lubricates the movement of faeces along the colon

Rectum  After 12 -24 hours – faeces moves to the rectum  Faeces accumulate in the rectum – pressure increase

The process of defaecation  The elimination of faeces  Controlled by muscle around the anus

 Rectum full – muscle of rectal wall contract – faeces ejected through anus

Microorganisms in the colon  Escherichia coli - lives symbiotically in the intestines - digest organic substances in the colon - synthesis vitamins B and K

E. coli

 The importance of microorganisms - secrete antibiotics - maintains a stable environment in the alimentary canal

Problems related to defaecation

Constipation – faeces moving too slow in the colon A great amount of water is reabsorbed – faeces becomes hard

 Avoid defaecation – drinks a lot of water - eat more fibre – soften when absorbed with water - increase bulk - stimulate peristalsis

 Chronic constipation : - haemorrhoids - abnormally swollen veins in rectum and anus - painful and bleed

- colon cancer - tumor growth from the inner wall of the large intestine - caused by high fats diet

Good eating habits
  

Taking meal at the appropriate times Avoid over eating Eat variety of food according to nutrients requirements

- Eat sufficient amount of fibre - Drinks 2 – 3 litre a day - Avoid fatty food and rich with sugar and salt


Write a notes about health problems related to eating habits : a. gastritis b. obesity c. anorexia nervosa d. bulimia

The importance of macronutrients an micronutrients in plants
 

Macronutrients – elements required by plants in relatively large amount C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S
From soil From atmosphere and soil

 Micronutrients – elements that are required by plants in small quantities - B, Cu, Fe

 Knop’s solution – complete culture solution - to determine which elements are required for normal growth

Calcium nitrate Potassium nitrate Potassium dihydrogen phosphate sulphate Magnesium

0.8g 0.2g 0.2g 0.2g

Ferum (III) phosphate Trace Distilled water 1000 cm3

 Experiments can be carried out to examine the effects of lack of certain elements to the plant by eliminating it from the solution


Find out the functions and effects of macronutrient and micronutrient deficiency in plants

 

Leaves – main photosynthetic organs Adapted for photosynthesis: 1. The petiole holds leaves in the best position to receive maximum amount of sunlight

2. lamina – broad, flattened shape – large surface to trap sunlight - thin – light can penetrate - allows diffusion of gases efficiently

3. the vein contains xylem and phloem to transport water and food from photosynthesis

4. upper and lower surface are covered with epidermis

5. leaf are arranged in mosaic – shade of each leaf do not affect others leave

Adaptation of the structure of the leaf for photosynthesis

Cuticle - waxy covering - waterproof – prevent excessive loss of water

2. Upper epidermis - single layer, has cuticle - thin and transparent – allows light to penetrate, reach the chloroplast -

3. Palisade mesophyll - palisade cells are packed tightly – allows maximum amount of light - have high density of chloroplast

- cell walls coated with thin film of water – carbon dioxide can dissolve and diffuse into the cells

4. Spongy mesophyll - loosely arranged, have air space between each of them – easy diffusion of water and carbon dioxide

- irregular shape – increases the internal surface area for gaseous exchange

- cell walls coated with a film of water – allows gaseous exchange

5. Vascular bundle - consist of xylem and phloem - transport water, minerals and product of photosynthesis

6. Lower epidermis - does not have chloroplast - have more stoma than upper epidermis – allow the exchange of gases between leaf and surrounding

- have guard cells – controls the opening and closing of stoma - Stomata support photosynthesis by allowing the exchanges of gases


(a) (b)

Light and carbon dioxide are needed by plants to carry out photosynthesis. The arrangement, shape and structure of the plant’s leave are adapted to obtain the maximum sunlight and carbon dioxide What is meant by photosynthesis (2m) Explain using a simple diagram the roles by the different parts of the leaves in photosynthesis (8 marks)

Adaptations of plants from different habitats to carry out photsynthesis

Habitat – tropical area distribution of stomata : - large number in lower epidermis, prevent excessive evaporation

chloroplast : - mostly in palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll cells - maximum sunlight absorption

 Habitat – surface of water stomata : - mostly on upper epidermis

epidermis : - covered with cuticle - has air filled internal cavities

chloroplast : - in upper epidermis, maximize sunlight absorption

 Desert plant stomata : - very few stomata, prevent excessive loss of water - stomata at the grooves along the stem - some have sunken stomata

- some open stoma at night

chloroplast : - all over the plants – thorn, stem

 Aquatic plants stoma : - not found on the leaf -cells can absorb water, nutrients and dissolved gases from surrounding

air filled cavities extend throughout the leaves and stems – gaseous exchange can take place

leaves : - thin, feathery, highly divided – large space for absorption and photosynthesis

chloroplast : - in all surface of the plants, maximize absorption of sunlight


2 stages in photosynthesis : 1. light reaction – occur in the present of light - occur at grana

2. dark reaction – during the day and night - occur in stroma

Light reactions

Chlorophyll captures light energy which excites the electrons of chlorophyll molecules to higher energy levels



Photolysis of water

24 electron

24H 2O


+ 24 OH-

ATP 24H+ + 24e24H

24OH12H2O + 6O2

24OH + 24e-

 In the excites state, electrons leave the chlorophyll molecules

 Light energy is used to split water molecules into hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) - known as photolysis of water

 Hydrogen ions then combine with the electrons released by chlorophyll to form hydrogen atom

 Energy from the excited electrons is used to form ATP

 Each hydroxyl ion loses an electron to form a hydroxyl group

 Electron is received by chlorophyll

 Hydroxyl group combine to form water and gaseous oxygen

 Oxygen is released into atmosphere  ATP molecules provides energy

 Hydrogen atom provide reducing power for dark reactions in the stroma

Dark reaction
 

Known as Calvin cycle Hydrogen atoms are used to fix carbon dioxide in a series of reactions catalyzed by photosynthetic enzymes

 Overall reactions – reduction of carbon dioxide into glucose

6CO2 + 24H

glucose 6(CH2O) + 6H2O

C6H12O6 glucose

6H20 + 6CO2

C6H1206 + 602

6H20 + 6CO2

Light chlorophyll

C6H1206 + 602

 Six unit of ( CH2O) combine to form one molecule of glucose

 Glucose monomer undergo condensation to form starch


Factors affecting photosynthesis
1. 2. 3. 4.

Light intensity Concentration of carbon dioxide Temperature Water

Water - Required in small quantity - Rarely a limiting factor

Light intensity - The rate of photosynthesis is directly proportional to light intensity up to a certain point

 Further increase of light intensity does not increase the rate of photosynthesis due to limiting factors - concentration of carbon dioxide - temperature

Concentration of carbon dioxide - Concentration of CO2 in atmosphere varies – 0.03% - 0.04%

 If there are no limiting factors, an increase of concentration of CO2 result in increase in the rate of photosynthesis

 The rate of photosynthesis levels off at the saturation point

 Light intensity acts as the limiting factor

Temperature - The dark reaction is catalyzed by the photosynthetic enzymes

 The changes in temperature will affect the rate of photosynthesis

 Increase of 10 C, will double the rate of photosynthesis  Most plant – optimum temperature – 25 C – 30 C

 Temperature too high – photosynthetic enzymes are destroyed – photosynthesis stop

Increasing the productivity of crops based on the factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis

In countries which experience the four seasons, light intensity and temperature are not constant

 The changes of seasons will affect the crop production

 To overcome this problem, plants are grown in greenhouses

 In greenhouses – factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis are controlled artificially

 The productivity of crops can be increased

 Greenhouse cultivation prevent : - damage by wind, rain, storm - pest

Technology used in food production

Rapid increase in population imposes a greater demand on food supply

 Encourage people to consume food from diverse sources : A. consuming vegetables salad - pegaga, shoots of papaya, kacang botor - rich in mineral ions, vitamin, fibre

B. Consuming various sources of protein - rabbit – low fat & cholesterol, high protein - ostrich – nutritious, rich in protein, low fat - freshwater fish – low cholesterol

C. Consuming mushrooms - high nutrient content - boost body immunity

Methods used to improve the quality and quantity of food production Direct seeding - Seeds are sown directly into soil using machine - Does not involve the transplanting of seedlings

- less damage to the roots of the seedlings - faster growth - less water to irrigate fields

Hydroponics - The roots of the plants are immersed in a solution which contains all nutrients in correct proportion

- culture solution is aerated for sufficient oxygen

Aeroponics - Modified technique of hydroponics - The roots are sprayed with a mist of nutrient solutions from spraying nozzles

- plants growth faster because culture solutions provide nutrients in the form that can be readily absorbed by the roots

Advantages of hydroponics and aeroponics method

Produce plants in areas that unsuitable for normal productions Can provides exactly the types and amounts of nutrients needed by the plants

 Light intensity, temperature and pH of the culture solution can be controlled at optimum level

 Plants can be grown all year round  Do not involve cultivation

- Produce twice the yield - Irrigation and nutrient supply is constant – plant growth is uniform

 Reduced plant getting infection – sterile growing medium and nutrient  Reduce labour cost – automation

 Do not require pesticide – growing media is sterilized

Selective breeding - Breeding of plants with certain beneficial characteristics

- increased nutritional value - higher yields - greater resistance to disease


Oil palm – Tenera sp. Dura sp. + Pisifera sp.
Mesocarp – thick, high oil content Endocarp – thin Kernel – small, little oil Size, number – small, a few Fruit – drops easily

Mesocarp – thin, little oil content Endocarp – thick Kernel – big, lot of oil Size, number – big, numerous Fruit – does not drop easily

Dura sp

Pisifera sp

 Tenera sp - mesocarp – thick high oil content - endocarp – thin, oil easily extracted - kernel – big, lots of oil - size, fruit –big, numerous - fruit – does not drop easily

 Animal breeding - selectively breed to enhance the yields of milk, meat

 Example : - Frisian + sahiwal  Mafriwal (more milk, low fat)

Tissue culture - Increase agricultural yield – papaya, pineapple, star fruits

Genetic engineering - Changing the characteristics of organism by changing the genetic composition of the organism

- Examples : - gene from plants can be inserted into the DNA of animal cells

- genetically modified organisms – transgenic organisms

Proper soil management - Used organic and inorganic fertilizer

- Ploughing – aeration of soil - Crop rotation – improve soil fertility - prevent build up of pest

- Reduce soil erosion and leaching of nutrient from the soil

Addition of organic matter – humus formation - improve soil structure

Biological control - Used natural enemy of the pest - Owl and snakes - control rat population in oil palm plantations - Reduce problems of chemicals

Technological development in food processing

To overcome the factors that cause food spoilage

- action of microorganisms - bacteria and fungi act on carbohydrates and protein to produce carbon dioxide, water, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide

- oxidation of food - oxygen react with enzymes and chemicals released by the cells in the food - food becomes rancid, different smell and taste

 Food have to be processed : 1.Extend their lifespan 2.Avoid wastage 3.Prevent spread of disease due to food contamination 4.Ensure continuous supply

5. Prevent bacterial and fungal decay 6. Withstand long period of transportation and storage 7. Diversify the uses of food substances

Method of food processing and preserving

Cooking – high temperature kill microorganisms - denature enzymes that cause breakdown in food

2. Fermentation - yeast is added - produce ethanol – stop bacteria activity - tapai

3. Drying - removes water from food - prevent microorganisms growth - enzyme activity stop - fish, meat

4. Pickling food - soaked in acidic solution (vinegar) - most organisms cannot live in low pH - chilies, ginger

1.With the help of a labelled diagram, explain how the parts of a leaf are adapted to carry out optimal photosynthesis 2. Explain the mechanism of photosynthesis in a leaf

 Treating with salt and sugar - soaked in concentrated salt solution or boiled with sugar - microorganisms lose water through osmosis - meat, vegetables

5. Pasteurization - preservation of milk - milk is heated 63 C , 30 minutes or 72 C for 15 seconds - rapidly cool below 10 C

 Purpose – kill most microorganisms - maintain the nutrient content and natural flavour - have to shelf in refrigerator to prevent microorganism from becomes active

6. Canning - Heat sterilisation - Food is packed in cans and steamed at high temperature and pressure to drive out all the air

 Airtight container / vacuum – prevent growth of microorganisms  pathogen & bacteria are destroyed  Enzymes in the food inactivate  Shelf life is longer

 Needs to be thoroughly cooked to prevent contaminations by spores of Clostridium botulinum

7. Refrigeration -extreme low temperature prevent growth of microorganisms or germination of spores

8. Radiation 9. sterilization

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