Chapter 15 – 16 Test Review Chemistry 1) Vocabulary – Define the following a. Aqueous b. Brownian Motion c. Colloid d. Electrolyte e. Hydrate f.

Solute g. Solvent h. Non Electrolyte i. Surfactant j. Suspension k. Surface Tension l. Tyndall Effect m. Colligative Properties n. Concentrated o. Dilute p. Henry’s Law q. Immiscible r. Molarity s. Molality t. Boiling Point Elevation u. v. w. x. y. Mole Fraction Solubility Saturated Unsaturated Supersaturate d z. Vapor Pressure aa. Dispersed Phase bb.Dispersion Medium cc. Emulsion dd.Freezing Point Depression

2) List formulas (units)for the following: a) b) c) d) Henry’s Law Molarity Dilution Percent by volume (v/v) e) f) g) h) Percent by mass (m/m) Molality Mole Fraction ΔTf – Freezing Point Depression i) ΔTb - Boiling Point Elevation j) Percent H2O in a hydrate

3) What is the difference between a strong and weak electrolyte? In a strong electrolyte nearly all of the dissolved solute exists as separate ions whereas in a weak electrolyte only a fraction of the solute exists as ions. It is the ion presence that allows for and electric current. 4) How does the surface tension of water compare to the surface tension of most liquids? Why? It is high compared to most other liquids because of the strong hydrogen bonding. 5) List an example of a surfactant and describe what it does. Soap is an example of a surfactant. It interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and reduces surface tension.

Hydrogen bonds. Because hydrogen bonds are strong compared to dipole-dipole. decreasing the density. 11) List all intermolecular forces between water molecules. Liquid water molecules do not have this increased volume in between water molecules. water molecules are attracted by hydrogen bonds (a strong intermolecular force) whereas methane molecules are attracted by dipole-dipole interactions. As water freezes it arranges itself in a hexagonal shape (honeycomb)which provides for more volume in-between individual water molecules. it takes more energy for water molecules to break free and vaporize. are more density than as ice. particles cannot be filtered and particles do not settle upon standing. dipole-dipole and dispersion 12) What are the similarities and differences between Solutions. thus meaning a greater boiling point than for a substance with weaker intermolecular forces. 8) Why is water’s boiling point so much higher than methane (CH4) even though they have similar molar masses? Although they have similar masses. Colloids. which are much weaker forces. therefore.6) How does the vapor pressure of water compare to the vapor pressure of most liquids? Why? Vapor pressure of water is very low compared to most liquids because of hydrogen bonding. 7) Describe why ice is less dense than liquid water. and Suspensions? Similarities: all involve a solute and solvent Differences: particles size is smallest for solutions then colloids then suspension Solution is homogeneous. 9) What is the dissolving medium in a solution? The dissolving medium in a solution is the solvent. 10) What type of bond holds a water molecule together? The oxygen and hydrogen bonds in a water molecule are held together by polar covalent bonds. looks “clear” . therefore.

0atm = xatm 17) What remains constant during the process of dilution? The number of moles of solute. may look clear when dilute (like a solution). exhibit Tyndall effect 13) What types of substances are always electrolytes. subject to coagulation and can be emulsified Suspension is heterogeneous. particles cannot be filtered and do not settle upon standing can be distinguished by Tyndall effect and observation of Brownian motion.375 atm P1 S2 3. particles can be filtered. nonpolar dissolves in nonpolar 15) What determines how a solute will affect colligative properties? Explain why. The concentration of the solute.0 g/L? S1=S2 8g/L = 1g/L 0. what is the pressure of the gas above the water when the solubility of the gas is 1. looks cloudy until particles separate and fall to bottom of container. . 16) If the solubility of a gas in water is 8.0 g/L when the pressure of the gas above the water is 3. The greater the concentration the greater the effect.Colloid is heterogeneous.0 atm. Ionic 14) What is the rule when deciding if something will be soluble in a given solvent? Like dissolves like: polar (ionic) dissolves in polar.

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