INTRODUCTION Eclipta alba L. belonging to family Astraceae, it is commonly called as Bhringaraj.
The plant is distributed throughout India in wet or moist wasteland ascending up to 2000M on the hills4. Its major chemical constituents are Coumestan derivatives, Wedelolactone 0.5-0.55%, Demethyl wedelolactone and Demethyl-wedelolactone-7-glucoside and sulphur containing peptides1. Alkaloids like ecliptine and nicotine5, Saponins like eclalbosaponins6. And other phytoconstituents like alphaterthienymethanol, Tannins, vitamin-A, Eclalbatin2, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, daucosterol3. It is one such plant whose whole plant and leaves are used not only as food but also as an ingredient in traditional medicine7. It is reported to possess Hypoglycemic8, Antiproliferative9, Hepatoprotective11, Antiradical and antioxidant10, Antiaggresive, Memory retrival activities12. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of various extracts of Eclipta alba L. whole plant. Materials and methods Plant Material The dried whole plant of Eclipta alba L. were obtained from Natural Remedies PVT LTD, Bangalore and authenticated by National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi. The authenticated plant was used for the successive solvent extraction with various solvent.
Abstracts: Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Eclipta alba L. whole plant were evaluated for antibacterial activity against E.coli, S.typhi, S.aureus, B.subtilis and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger with the comparison with positive control (Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin) for bacteria and (Ketoconazole and Fluconazole) for fungi. Petroleum ether extract and methanolic extracts were found to be more significant active compared to other extracts for bacteria and methanolic extract shown significant inhibition for fungi.
Antimicrobial Activities of the Petroleum Ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Water Extracts of Eclipta alba L. Plant
Mithun N M 1*, Shashidhara S1, Deepak M 2
0.1ml) for fungi were used as positive control for comparison of the activities.
Key Words: Antimicrobial, Antibiotic, Eclipta alba, Antifungal.
Antibacterial and Antifungal Screening Four bacteria, (Two gram +ve i.e. B.subtilis, S. aureus and two gram-ve i.e. E. coli, S. typhi) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) were used in the present study to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the crude extracts by agar diffusion method (cup plate method). In the agar diffusion method, nutrient agar for bacteria and Sabouraud dextrose agar for fungi were used as culture media and cavity were aseptically made over the culture plates using borer (9mm internal diameter). The cavities were filled with extracts, standards and control. The plates were incubated at 370C for 24hrs for bacteria and 250C for 48 hours for fungi.
water for 24 hours and filtered. The extracts were air dried after filtration to concentrate. The extracts were dissolved in Dimethyl formamide (DMF) for antibacterial activity and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for antifungal activity in different test tubes, the final concentration was 1000mcg/0.1ml.
1. Wagner H. et al. Coumestans as the main active principles of the liver drugs Eclipta alba and Wedelia Calendulaceae. Planta Med. 1986; 5: 370-4.
CONCLUSION As petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited an antibiotic potential against all the organisms, it proved that traditional use of Eclipta alba L. has scientific basis. Further investigation is necessary to find out the active compounds and to confirm their bioactive principles. REFERENCES AND NOTES
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION All the extracts were exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activity. Petroleum ether extract and chloroform extracts were shown significant activity against E. coli ad S. typhi compared to other extracts. Methanolic extracts was shown highest activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus as compared to other extracts. Chloroform and aqueous extracts were found to shown significant inhibition in Candida albicans compared to Aspergillus niger. The zone of inhibition is given in Table No.1. From the comparison of the plant extracts activity, positive control (ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin for bacteria) and (Ketoconazole and Fluconazole for fungi) were used and negative control (only solvent, Dimethyl formamide for bacteria and Dimethyl sulfoxide for fungi) was used. The positive control showed significant antibacterial activity against the all bacteria.
Preparation of Various Extracts The whole plant were cleaned, dried and were ground into a coarse powder. 50 gram of the powdered plant was successively extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol by hot soxhlet method. The extraction was carried out for 4 hours for each solvent. The marc left after extraction with methanol was macerated with distilled
Table 1: Record of zone of Inhibition in mm of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of whole plant of Eclipta alba L. against various organisms. AsperConcen S. B. S. Candida Sl. Name of E.coli gillus typhi subtilis aureus albicans tration niger No. the Drug mm (µg/disc) mm mm mm mm mm 1 Ciprofloxacin 100 41 41 40 32 2 Amoxicillin 100 21 26 27 20 3 Ketoconazole 100 18 18 4 Fluconazole 100 18 31 Petroleum 5 1000 25 21 16 17 15 17 ether extract Chloroform 6 1000 23 18 14 18 16 15 extract Methanolic 7 1000 21 18 17 15 15 17 Extract Aqueous 8 1000 19 15 15 15 16 13 extract The activities were determined by measuring the diameter of the zone in mm. The experiment was replicated two times to confirm the reproducible results. Solvent used as negative control in each time. Standard Ciprofloxacin (100mcg/0.1ml), Amoxicillin (100mcg/0.1ml) for bacteria and Ketoconazole and Fluconazole (100mcg/
1Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Government college of pharmacy, Bangalore, India. E-mail: *Corresponding author 2
Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore, India.
2. Upadhyay RK, Pandey MB, Jha RN, PandeyVB. Eclalbatin a triterpine saponins from Eclipta alba. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2001; 3: 213-7. 3. Zhang M, Chen Y. Chemical constituents of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassak. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.1996; 21: 480-1. 4. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plant, 2nd ed, Dehradun: International Book Distributors; 1998.
2011ep322, CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd Published on Web 25/03/2011, www.inventi.in
Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology Vol. 2, Issue 1 [ISSN 0976-3805]
Sastry K. 1: 227-9.inventi. Anticancer-cytotoxic activity of saponins isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre and Eclipta alba on HeLa cells. 6(16): 01-3. 1994. Sudhir Kataria K. 7. www. Clinical nutrition insights. 1998. Hemalatha S. Res. Issue 1 [ISSN 0976-3805]
2011ep322. Shoji yahara. Scott Treadway.bull. DNA damaging steroidal alkaloids from Eclipta alba from the suriname rainforest. Jegatheesan K. David Banji. 12. Manavalan R. Chem. 2007. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. International journal of green pharmacy.in
. Eclipta alba. 2008. Rana SVS. Investigation on the effect of Eclipta alba on animal models of learning and memory.
11. 61(10): 1202-8. Nagavalli D. Annamalai Ar. Phytochemical Screening of Methanolic Extract and Antibacterial Activity of Active Principles of Hepatoprotective Herb. 14: 248-58. 2. Otilia Banji. Abdel-Kader et al. Vigneswari K.pharm. Essays. 10. Sunita Dalal. 42(6): 1336-8. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. Ning ding.
Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology Vol. Maged S. Shanmugan S. 5(4): 468-70. Karthikumar S. CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd Published on Web 25/03/2011. 9. Khanna. 1998. Toshihiro nohara. Shrivijaya kirubha T. Ayyappan T.2010. Indian J physiol pharmacol 2007. 2(4): 101-4. 51(3): 274-8. Sci. Evaluation of
antidiabetic and diuretic activity of polyherbal formulation. Nat.5. An ayurvedic herbal approach to a Healthy Liver. 6. Oleanane glycosides from Eclipta alba. kannabiran. Prod. J. 2006. 8. Screening of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of leaves of Eclipta prostrata (L).