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Form coef®cients

The coef®cient of ®neness of the water-plane

area (Cw )

The coef®cient of ®neness of the water-plane area is the ratio of the area of

the water-plane to the area of a rectangle having the same length and

maximum breadth.

In Figure 9.1 the area of the ship's water-plane is shown shaded and

ABCD is a rectangle having the same length and maximum breadth.

Area of water-plane

Coefficient of fineness
Cw

Area of rectangle ABCD

Area of water-plane

LB

; Area of the water-plane L B Cw

Fig. 9.1

Example 1

Find the area of the water-plane of a ship 36 metres long, 6 metres beam, which

has a coef®cient of ®neness of 0.8.

Area of water-plane L B Cw

36 6 0:8

Ans. Area of water-plane 172:8 sq m

62 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

Example 2

A ship 128 metres long has a maximum beam of 20 metres at the waterline, and

coef®cient of ®neness of 0.85. Calculate the TPC at this draft.

Area of water-plane L B Cw

128 20 0:85

2176 sq metres

WPA

TPCSW

97:56

2176

97:56

Ans. TPCSW 22:3 tonnes

displacement (Cb )

The block coef®cient of a ship at any particular draft is the ratio of the

volume of displacement at that draft to the volume of a rectangular block

having the same overall length, breadth, and depth.

Fig. 9.2

In Figure 9.2 the shaded portion represents the volume of the ship's

displacement at the draft concerned, enclosed in a rectangular block having

the same overall length, breadth, and depth.

Volume of displacement

Block coefficient
Cb

Volume of the block

Volume of displacement

L B draft

; Volume of displacement L B draft Cb

Form coef®cients 63

Ship's lifeboats

The cubic capacity of a lifeboat should be determined by Simpson's rules or

by any other method giving the same degree of accuracy. The accepted Cb

for a ship's lifeboat constructed of wooden planks is 0.6 and this is the

®gure to be used in calculations unless another speci®c value is given. Thus,

the cubic capacity of a wooden lifeboat can be found using the formula:

Volume
L B Depth 0:6 cubic metres.

The number of persons which a lifeboat may be certi®ed to carry is equal

to the greatest whole number obtained by the formula V/x where `V' is the

cubic capacity of the lifeboat in cubic metres and `x' is the volume in cubic

metres for each person. `x' is 0.283 for a lifeboat 7.3 metres in length or

over, and 0.396 for a lifeboat 4.9 metres in length. For intermediate lengths

of lifeboats, the value of `x' is determined by interpolation.

Example 1

Find the number of persons which a wooden lifeboat 10 metres long, 2.7 metres

wide, and 1 metre deep may be certi®ed to carry.

Volume of the boat
L B D 0:6 cu: m

10 2:7 1 0:6

16:2 cu: m

Number of persons V/x

16:2=0:283

Ans. Number of persons 57

Example 2

A ship 64 metres long, 10 metres maximum beam, has a light draft of 1.5

metres and a load draft of 4 metres. The block coef®cient of ®neness is 0.6 at

the light draft and 0.75 at the load draft. Find the deadweight.

Light displacement L B draft Cb cu. m

64 10 1:5 0:6

576 cu. m

Load displacement L B draft Cb cu. m

64 10 4 0:75

1920 cu. m

Deadweight Load displacement N Light displacement

1920N576 cu. m

Deadweight 1344 cu. m

1344 1:025 tonnes

Ans. Deadweight 1377:6 tonnes

64 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

The midships coef®cient to any draft is the ratio of the transverse area of

the midships Section (Am ) to a rectangle having the same breadth and

depths.

Fig. 9.3

In Figure 9.3 the shaded portion represents the area of the midships

section to the waterline WL, enclosed in a rectangle having the same

breadth and depth.

Midships area
Am

Midships coefficient
Cm

Area of rectangle

Midships area
Am

Bd

or

Midships area
Am B d Cm

The prismatic coef®cient of a ship at any draft is the ratio of the volume of

displacement at that draft to the volume of a prism having the same length

as the ship and the same cross-sectional area as the ship's midships area.

The prismatic coef®cient is used mostly by ship-model researchers.

In Figure 9.4 the shaded portion represents the volume of the ship's

displacement at the draft concerned, enclosed in a prism having the same

length as the ship and a cross-sectional area equal to the ship's midships

area (Am ).

Volume of ship

Prismatic coefficient Cp

Volume of prism

Volume of ship

L Am

Form coef®cients 65

Fig. 9.4

or

Volume of ship L Am Cp

Note

Am Volume of ship

Cm Cp

Bd L Am

Volume of ship

LBd

Cb

; Cm Cp Cb

or

CB

Cp

Cm

Note. Cp is always slightly higher than CB at each waterline.

Having described exactly what Cw , Cb , Cw and Cp are, it would be useful

to know what their values would be for several ship types.

First of all it must be remembered that all of these form coef®cients will

never be more than unity.

For the Cb values at fully loaded drafts the following table gives good

typical values:

fully loaded fully loaded

ULCC 0.850 General cargo ship 0.700

Supertanker 0.825 Passenger liner 0.625

Oil tanker 0.800 Container ship 0.575

Bulk carrier 0.750 Coastal tug 0.500

medium form ships (Cb approx. 0.700), full-form ships (Cb > 0:700), ®ne-form ships (Cb < 0:700).

66 Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

To extimate a value for Cw for these ship types at their fully loaded drafts,

it is useful to use the following rule-of-thumb approximation.

Cw
23 Cb 13 @ Draft Mld only!

Hence, for the oil tanker, Cw would be 0.867, for the general cargo ship

Cw would be 0.800 and for the tug Cw would be 0.667 in fully loaded

conditions.

For merchant ships, the midships coef®cient or midship area coef®cient is

0.980 to 0.990 at fully loaded draft. It depends on the rise-of-¯oor and the

bilge radius. Rise of ¯oor is almost obsolete nowadays.

As shown before;

Cb

Cp

Cm

Hence for the bulk carrier, when Cb is 0.750 with a Cm of 0.985, the Cp

will be:

0:750

Cp 0:761 @ Draft Mld

0:985

Cp is used mainly by researchers at ship-model tanks carrying out tests to

obtain the least resistance for particular hull forms of prototypes.

Cb and Cw change as the drafts move from fully loaded to light-ballast to

lightship conditions. The diagram (Figure 9.5) shows the curves at drafts

below the fully loaded draft for a general cargo ship of 135.5 m LBP.

`K' is calculated for the fully loaded condition and is held constant for all

remaining drafts down to the ship's lightship (empty ship) waterline.

Fig. 9.5. Variation of Cb and Cw values with draft. (Note how the two curves are

parallel at a distance of 0.100 apart).

Form coef®cients 67

Exercise 9

1 (a) De®ne `coef®cient of ®neness of the water-plane'.

(b) The length of a ship at the waterline is 100 m, the maximum beam is

15 m, and the coef®cient of ®neness of the water-plane is 0.8. Find the

TPC at this draft.

2 (a) De®ne `block coef®cient of ®neness of displacement'.

(b) A ship's length at the waterline is 120 m when ¯oating on an even keel

at a draft of 4.5 m. The maximum beam is 20 m. If the ship's block

coef®cient is 0.75, ®nd the displacement in tonnes at this draft in salt

water.

3 A ship is 150 m long, has 20 m beam, load draft 8 m, light draft 3 m. The

block coef®cient at the load draft is 0.766, and at the light draft is 0.668.

Find the ship's deadweight.

4 A ship 120 m long 15 m beam has a block coef®cient of 0.700 and is

¯oating at the load draft of 7 m in fresh water. Find how much more cargo

can be loaded if the ship is to ¯oat at the same draft in salt water.

5 A ship 100 m long, 15 m beam, and 12 m deep, is ¯oating on an even keel

at a draft ot 6 m, block coef®cient 0.8. The ship is ¯oating in salt water. Find

the cargo to discharge so that the ship will ¯oat at the same draft in fresh

water.

6 A ship's lifeboat is 10 m long, 3 m beam, and 1.5 m deep. Find the number

of persons which may be carried.

7 A ship's lifeboat measures 10 m 2.5 m 1 m. Find the number of persons

which may be carried.

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