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His master's voice is a famo s trademark in the m sic  siness, the famo s trademark
image comes from a painting y english artist francis arra d, a.r.a. And titled his
master's voice. It was acq ired from the artist in 1899 y the newly-formed gramophone
company.

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Chart shows some of the complaints made y a stralian e-cons mers.

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The payment card ind stry data sec rity standard (pci dss is a worldwide information
sec rity standard defined y the payment card ind stry sec rity standards co ncil. The
standard was created to help payment card ind stry organisations that process card
payments prevent credit card fra d thro gh increased controls aro nd data and its
expos re to compromise. The standard applies to all organizations that hold, process, or
exchange cardholder information from any card randed with the logo of one of the card
rands.

The federal trade commission (ftc is an independent agency of the nited states
government, estalished in 1914 y the federal trade commission act. Its principal
mission is the promotion of cons mer protection and the elimination and prevention of
what reg lators perceive to e harmf lly anti-competitive  siness practices, s ch as
coercive monopoly
7
Ret rn on investment. A meas re of a corporation's profitaility, eq al to a fiscal
year's income divided y common stock and preferred stock eq ity pl s long-term det.
Roi meas res how effectively the firm ses its capital to generate profit; the higher the
roi, the etter.

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The card verification val e (cvv, is a system the credit card companies are
introd cing to help protect against fra d. It is a code  digits long that is calc lated from
the data on the magnetic strip and cannot e forged y simply knowing the credit card
n mer. This makes it harder (if not impossile for people to make p random credit
card n mers and hope they will work. Yo r cvv n mer may e fo nd in the following
locations:
Visa: on the ack of the card in the signat re strip, following the whole card n mer.
Mastercard: on the ack of the card in the signat re strip, following the card n mer.

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âThe comm nication of a proposal is complete when it ecomes to the knowledge of the
person to whom it is made.

The comm nication of an acceptance is complete -as against the proposer, when it is p t
in a co rse of transmission to him so at to e o t of the power of the acceptor; as against
the acceptor, when it comes to the knowledge of the proposer.

The comm nication of a revocation is complete -as against the person who makes it,
when it is p t into a co rse of transmission to the person to whom it is made, so as to e
o t of the power of the person who makes it; as against the person to whom it is made,
when it comes to his knowledge.´

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9
Section 4.
40
Adams V. Lindsell (1818, 10 E.R. 2 0 Is Us ally Credited With The Development Of
The Mailox R le.
41
Stevenson Jacq es & Co. V. Mclean (1880, Q.B.D. 4; Carow Towing Co. V. The
"Ed Mcwilliams" (1919, 4 D.L.R. 0 (Ex. Ct.; Malady V. Jenkins Steamship Co.
(1909, 18 O.L.R. 2 1 (Div. Ct.
42
Nova Scotia V. Weymo th Sea „rod cts Ltd. (198, 149 D.L.R.(d 8 At  1; Aff'd
4 D.L.R.(4th 14 (S  Nom. R. V. Commercial Credit Corp. (N.S.C.A.

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Re Visco nt S pply Co., [19 1 O.R. 40 (S.C..
44
Entores Ltd. V. Miles Far East Corp., [19  2 Q.B. 27 (C.A..
4
Joan Balcom Sales Inc. V. „oirier (1991, 49 C.„.C.(2d 180 (N.S. Co. Ct.
4
Denning L.J. In Entores, S pra; Restatement Of Contracts Ss 4.
47
Birkett L.J. In Entores, S pra; Joan Balcom Sales Inc., S pra At 18.
48
for example, many people have their e-mail acco nts with either on-line services s ch
as america on-line or comp serve or with internet service providers. In either case, the
mail server is located elsewhere, possily in a different co ntry.

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Brinkion Ltd. V. Stahag Stahl, [1982 1 all e.r. 29 (hl at 29 (per lord wilerforce

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(when p rchasing off-the-shelf software, for example when the p rchased prod ct is
received, it comes with additional terms and conditions in the packaging or in the
accompanying doc mentation.

-hrink wrap contracts are icense agreements or other terms an conitions of a
(putative y) contractua nature which can on y be rea an accepte by the consumer
after opening the prouct. The term escribes the shrinkwrap p astic wrapping use to
coat software boxes, though these contracts are not imite to the software inustry.

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4
The Uniform Comp ter Information Transactions Act (UCITA is a proposed nited
states law to create a clear and niform set of r les to govern s ch areas as software
licensing, online access, and other transactions in comp ter information. It is intended to
ring the same niformity and certainty to the r les that apply to information technology
transactions that the niform commercial code does for the sale of goods. In partic lar,
cita attempts to clarify and/or codify r les regarding fair se, reverse engineering,
cons mer protection and warranties, shrinkwrap licenses, and their d ration as well as
the transferaility of licenses. Ucita generally approves the validity of software licenses,
incl ding shrinkwrap and rowsewrap agreements, as long as the ser is given an
opport nity to ret rn the goods (at the seller's expense if the license terms are fo nd
oectionale.

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Software licenses are commonly called End User License Agreements or EULAs.

The ega status of shrink wrap contracts in the U- is somewhat unc ear

44
&c „roCD Inc. v. Zeidenerg=c           8 
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c Hill v. Gateway 2000, Inc This decision follows the holding of „roCD,
pholding the validity of an "approve or ret rn" trigger for setting the terms of a
shrinkwrap license, even tho gh the cons mer claimed not to have read the
statement of terms with regard to the specific cla se at iss e.
7
cc Brower v. Gateway 2000 , Inc., Following „roCD and Hill, the co rt here
fo nd that a shrinkwrap contract was formed when the plaintiffs retained the
software for longer than the 0 day "approve or ret rn" period. However, the
co rt f rther held that certain contract terms relating to the aritration provision
at iss e were not enforceale.
8
dc M.A. Mortenson Company, Inc., v. Timerline Software Corp In this case, the
co rt followed the reasoning of „roCD and Hill, and held that software license
terms shipped with the software were part of the parties contract and therefore
limited the plaintiff's remedies, despite the defendants' fail re to mention the
license terms when negoiating the sale.
9
ec Va lt Corp. v. Q aid Software Ltd

In this case which pre-dated „roCD y a decade, the co rt ref sed to enforce terms
contained in a shrinkwrap license witho t directly analyzing the enforceaility of
these agreements. The partic lar license agreement at iss e was ased on a state
stat te which the co rt determined conflicted with federal copyright law. Beca se the

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^c ., 10 f.d 1147 (7th cir. 1997
7
^c 7 n.y.s.2d 9 (new york s preme ct. App. Div. [a g. 1998
8
^c ., 970 p.2d 80 (wash.app. 1999
9
., 847 f.2d 2 ( th cir. 1988

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state law pon which the license agreement was ased was invalid, the license
agreement was nenforceale.

0
fc Step-Saver Data Systems, Inc. v. Wyse Technology, In a claim etween two
 sinesses concerning the validity of a "Limited Use License Agreement" printed
on a package containing a comp ter program, the co rt held that the terms of this
"ox-top license" were not enforceale nder §2-207 of Article 2 of the UCC (the
"attle of forms" as the  yer did not agree to e o nd y terms that were only
disclosed after the goods had een paid for and shipped. Whether the co rt wo ld
reach the same concl sion after „roCD is deatale.
1
gc Arizona Retail Systems, Inc. v. Software Link, Inc., In a case s stantially
similar to Step-Saver, the co rt held that shrinkwrap terms that were on the
packaging and were inconsistent with specific representations made y the seller
were nenforceale. The co rt concl ded that additional "terms and conditions"
disclosed after the shipment of the goods were invalid witho t the  yer's
expressed specific assent.

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Another method of otaining assent for sales over the Internet is click wrap. After
selecting a prod ct to p rchase, the Internet ser sees the contract terms on the comp ter
screen and cannot complete the p rchase witho t clicking a ox on the screen to indicate
assent. Several co rts have pheld the se of click wrap agreements.

Second is a click-wrap agreement, made at or efore the time of p rchase on a we site.
The p rchaser is req ired to click ³I agree´ efore the transaction will contin e, the
installation will proceed or the ser will gain access to the we site.

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99 f.2d 91 (d cir. 199
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81 f.s pp. 7 9 (d. Ariz. 199

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S ch forms of agreement are mostly fo nd on the Internet, as part of the installation
process of many software packages, or in other circ mstances where agreement is so ght
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 an "ok" or "agree"  tton on a dialog ox or pop- p window A ser indicates
reection y clicking cancel or closing the window.

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(granting preliminary in nction for alleged reach of contract for violating the terms of
service y sing a Hotmail acco nt to send spam or pornography. The co rt said that
clicking the clickwrap  tton after notice gave consent.


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However, pon preparing to install the software onto his comp ter, the software license
appeared on his comp ter screen and wo ld not allow him to contin e with the
installation witho t indicating acceptance y clicking his assent in a dialog ox.

Decision of court -The co rt held that Zeidenerg did accept the offer and the terms
contained within the license y clicking thro gh the dialog ox. Zeidenerg had the
opport nity to read the terms of the license prior to clicking the acceptance ox. The
co rt f rther stated that Zeidenerg co ld have reected the terms of the contract and
ret rned the software.

The court uphe  the use of shrink wrap as a means of bining a purchaser to
contractua terms. the vendor arg ed that the p rchase was s ect to license terms
fo nd in the software ox and presented on the screen at the time of se, which req ired

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the ser t indicate his assent. Reecting the ser¶s arg ment that the contract was formed
at the time of p rchase, and adopting what has now een d ed a ³rolling contract´
theory, the co rt held the cons mer was o nd y the terms of the license, even tho gh he
had not seen them at the time of paying for the prod ct.

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E. Specht v. Netscape Comm nications Corp =c An earlier case, gave perhaps the
clearest definition of a clickwrap license. A click-wrap license presents the ser with a
message on his or her comp ter screen, req iring that the ser manifest his or her assent
to the terms of the license agreement y clicking on an icon. The prod ct cannot e
otained or sed nless and ntil the icon is clicked. For example, when a ser attempts
to otain Netscape's Comm nicator or Navigator, a we page appears containing the f ll
text of the Comm nicator / Navigator license agreement. „lainly visile on the screen is
the q ery, "Do yo accept all the terms of the preceding license agreement? If so, click
on the Yes  tton. If yo select No, Set p will close." Below this text are three  tton or
icons: one laeled "Back" and sed to ret rn to an earlier step of the download
preparation; one laeled "No," which if clicked, terminates the download; and one
laeled "Yes," which if clicked, allows the download to proceed. Unless the ser clicks
"Yes," indicating his or her assent to the license agreement, the ser cannot otain the
software.
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agreed to a license agreement req iring aritration.
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on the se of free e-mail acco nts for sending advertisements.
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two gro nds: first, clickwrap is simply "Money now, terms later" contract formation;

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^c 1 0 f.s pp.2d 8 (s.d.n.y. 2001, aff'd, 0 f.d 17 (2d. Cir. 2002,
4
no. 00-1, 2000 wl 141 (d. Ill. May 8, 2000 (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/clickwrap

47 .s.p.q.2d (na 1020. 1998 wl 8889 (n.d. Cal. 1998 (f ll-text.
Tlaw.wikia.com/wiki/hotmail_v._van%2...

18 f. S pp. 2d 28,  (d. Mass. 2002

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second, the co rt fo nd that the "additional terms" of the clickwrap license was not
material nder UCC (§207(2(.
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fo nd certain aspects of the Second Life clickwrap agreement " nconscionale, and
therefore nenforceale."

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that a click wrap contract, specifically a "Terms of Service" e-mail agreement, is valid.
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held a for m selection cla se in an online memership agreement was consented to when
the ser clicked the "I agree" symol of the agreement in order to proceed with
registration.

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  In the third type, the rowse wrap
transaction, the ser will visit the pages of a we site. Somewhere on the we site, terms
and conditions are posted that p rport to ind anyone who ses the we site or its
services. 'a 8 a 
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., 47 .s.p.q. 2d 1020, 1998 wl 8889 (april 1998, n.d.cal.
8
1999 wl 4217 , 2 n.. S per. 118, 72 a.2d 28 (n.. App. Div.,  ly 2, 1999 ...

Www.internetlirary.com/cases/li_

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browsing;        
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A In Specht v. Netscape, The co rt looked at the enforceaility of a rowse-wrap
contract entered into on the Netscape wesite Users of the site were rged to download
free software availale on the site y clicking on a tinted  tton laeled "download".Only
if a ser scrolled down the page to the next screen did he come pon an invitation to
review the f ll terms of the program's license agreement, availale y hyperlink The
plaintiffs, who had not seen the agreement, downloaded the software and then were later
s ed for violations of federal privacy and comp ter fra d stat tes arising from the se of
the software The Second Circ it then noted that an essential ingredient to contract
formation is the m t al manifestation of assent. The court foun that "a consumer's
c icking on a own oa button oes not communicate assent to contractua terms if the
offer i not make c ear to the consumer that c icking on the own oa button wou 
signify assent to those terms." Because the p aintiffs were not put on notice of these
terms they were not boun by them.
2!
B In Ticketmaster Corp. v. Tickets.com, Inc  The co rt looked at a reach of contract
claim where the terms and conditions were sit ated at the ottom of the home page in
"small print." The co rt r led for the defendant in this case  t did allow Ticketmaster to
replead if there were facts showing that the defendant had knowledge of the terms and
implicitly agreed to them.
71
C H ert v. Dell Corp

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9
0 f.d 17 (2d cir. 2002, is case in the nited states co rt of appeals for the second
circ it en.wikipedia.org/wiki/specht_v._netsc
70
2000 .s. Dist. Lexis 4  (c.d. Ca., march 27, 2000. „laintiffs ticketmaster
corporation and ticketmaster ... Www.internetlirary.com/cases/li
71
 9 ill.app.d 97, 8 n.e.2d 11 itlaw.wikia.com/wiki/

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In 200 , the Illinois Appellate Co rt r led in favor of a rowse-wrap agreement . In this
case cons mers of Dell prod cts were exposed to a conspic o s hyperlink over a series
of pages. The co rt fo nd that this repeated expos re, and vis al effect wo ld p t the
reasonale person on notice of the "terms and conditions".

72
D „ollstar v. Gigmania Ltd., c„ollstar („laintiff is a wesite which p lishes concert
information on a daily asis. „ollstar employees spend time and money gathering and
compiling the information in order to keep the information p to date. Gigmania
(Defendant r ns a similar wesite and is a competitor of the „laintiff. Defendant copied
concert information from „laintiff¶s page and p lished the information to its own
wepage. Finally, for the motion to dismiss on the reach of contract claim, Defendant
alleged that „laintiff¶s claim failed as a matter of law eca se „laintiff co ld not allege
the req ired element of m t al consent eca se the license agreement on „laintiff¶s page
was not visile to the average visitor. The co rt agreed with Defendant that the license
agreement was not readily apparent on the wepage; however the co rt declined to
declare it invalid and nenforceale at this time. c
7
E „ollstar v. Gigmania, Ltd., A we site containing concert information, which also
stated terms to restrict copying the information. Altho gh sers co ld see the license,
they did not have to click on any permission or agreement in order to see the concert
information. When the proprietor of the we site s ed a ser for reaching the license,
the ser so ght to dismiss on gro nds that the ser had not assented to it. The co rt
ref sed to dismiss the case, however. The co rt concl ded that the rowse wrap
³agreement may e arg aly valid and enforceale´. F rther, whether there were
s fficient facts to show that the rowse wrap license on the we site was s fficiently
conspic o s to alert sers of its presence

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170 f.s pp.2d 974 (e.d. Cal. 2000
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170 f.2d 974 (e.d.cal. 2000.

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Read more: http://www.articlesase.com/cyer-law-articles/econtracts-in-cyer-
space- 0271.html#ixzz1iaickohr

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(2 Electronic2 The term 'electronic' means relating to technology having electrical,
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(  Electronic Signat rea The term 'electronic signat re' means an electronic so nd,
symol, or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record
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presence is no longer necessary to perform activities (i.e., commercial transactions are
no longer defined y geographical o ndaries and physical transactions are replaced y
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wealth is generated thro gh the means of cyer space, acco nting mechanisms and
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rather than intermediaries. This will increase the cost of tax collection.

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The Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development

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discriminatory tax treatment of e-commerce.

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The first case to directly address the software tangiility iss e was district of.
Col mia v. Universal comp ter assoc., 4 f.2d 1
digitalcommons.law.gg .ed /cgi/viewco
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s8 s.w. 2d 40 (tenn. 197. ...heinonlineack p.com/hol-cgi-in/get_
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84 s.w.2d 48,. 0 (tex. ... See also commissioner v. National alfalfa dehydrating &
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intangile form  t a corporeal property and hence taxale.

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„rocd V. Zeidenerg, availale at http://www.law.emory.ed /7circ it/ ne9/9-
119.html nder the ³a thentication´ section.

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E rope goes after the cookie´, octoer 1, 2001 at www. nwired.com

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101
, Kharak singh v. State of .p air 19 sc 129 , goind v. State of madhya pradesh
(197  scc (cri 48. & people's nion of civil lierties v. The nion of india (1997 1 scc
18.
102
Section 9 and section 72 of the information technology act, 2000.

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³Hosts´ and we page creators can delete files within a matter of ho rs or days after
their posting.
104
India has not signed this treaty. „ rs ant to this treaty, the s government has enacted
that digital milleni m copyright act to afford protection to digital copyrights
10
Article 11, Wipo Copyright Treaty, 199.

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See: http://www.it.mycareer.com.a /reaking/2001/10/22/ffx18i0tc.html (as visited
on Novemer , 2001.

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See: Http://News.Zdnet.Co.Uk/Story/0,,T29-S2098080,00.Html (As Visited On
Novemer , 2001.
108
See: Http://Www.Washtech.Com/News/Reg lation/1217-1.Html (As Visited On
Novemer , 2001.

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109
³„rivate International Law´, Cheshire and north, 11th ed. „g. 188
110
California Software Incorporated V. Reliaility Research, inc., 1 f. S pp. 1  (c.d.
Cal. 198 cited from  lian s. Millstein et al doing  siness on the internet: forms and
analysis (1999.
111
the d e process cla se of the 14th amendment of the constit tion of the nited states
as referred to in ³a separate  risdiction for cyerspace?´ By  liet m. Oerding and
tere norderha g http://www.asc sc.org/cmc/vol2/iss e1/ ris.html.

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International Shoe Co. V. Washington, 2 .s. 10 (194  cited from³a separate
 risdiction for cyerspace?´ By  liet m. Oerding and tere norderha g.
Http://www.asc sc.org/cmc/vol2/iss e1/ ris.html.
11
Calder V. Jones, 4 U.S. 78 (1984 cited from³a separate  risdiction for
cyerspace?´ By  liet m. Oerding and tere norderha g.
Http://www.asc sc.org/cmc/vol2/iss e1/ ris.html. However, indian co rts have yet not
taken any partic lar stance regarding the ³minim m contacts´ theory.
114
Comp serve, Inc. Vs. „attterson, 89 f.d 12 7, 12 9-120 (th cir. 199 cited from
 lian s. Millstein etal doing  siness on the internet: forms and analysis (1999
11
Washington „ost Co. V Totalnews, 97 civ. 1190 cited from richard d. Harroch, esq.
Start- p and emerging companies: planning, financing, and operating the s ccessf l
 siness (vol 2 revised ed.

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11
new york times co. V s lllivan, 7 s 2 4 (194 cited from richard d. Harroch, esq.
Start- p and emerging companies: planning, financing, and operating the s ccessf l
 siness (vol 2 revised ed..

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See http://www.wired.com/news/politics/0,128,728,00.html (as visited on octoer
22, 2001.

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Cyer cash inc created a system called cyercash which permits sec re transactions
thro gh complex ro ting transaction.
119
2  Digicash, A Netherlands ased company has formed an electronic payment
system known as e-cash. The system involves p rchasing š nits¶ or šcredits¶ from a ank
to a partic lar val e in a partic lar c rrency which can e sed to trade on internet. The
seller of the goods can take e-cash nits and either se it to  y some other goods on the
internet or redeem it at participating anks for its own co ntry¶s c rrency. Mark twain
ank in the s iss es e-cash on internet.

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979 f.s pp. 84 (n.d. Ill. 1997

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http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=hanna_shiferaw

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the degree to which the exercise of the freedom of speech and expression is permitted
in different legal systems is a glaring example of the aforementioned difference. For
example, m ch of the freedom g aranteed to individ als in the nited states thro ghthe
constit tion¶s first amendment is not availale in many other states, partic larly the
islamic and the comm nist world. The recent controversy over the p lication of a

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ššcaricat re of the prophet¶¶ in a leading newspaper well ill strates the difference in the
extent of freedom enoyed.
12
for an excellent general treatment of this complex s ect, see dan  rk, ššfederalism
in cyerspace¶¶ (199 28 niversity of connectic t law review 109 and henry h. „erritt
r, šš risdiction in cyerspace¶¶ (199 41 villanova law review 1.
127
david r. Johnson and david g. „ost, šlaw & orders²the rise of law in cyerspace¶¶
(199 48 stanford law review 17.
128
Except in a case where another sovereign also prescries the same set of r les, in
which case also there is only one set of persons vis- `a-vis the set of r les in q estion.

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Vak l Sharma, Information Technology Law And „ractice (Delhi: Universal, 2004,
„.22 (Emphasis Added.
10
Air 194 Mad. 27; see also nallatamlei v pon swami ilr [1879 2 mad. 40

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See Ss.9 And 1 Of The Code Of Civil „roced re 1908.
12
See Ord.V, Rr.24 To 2.
1
The Code Ss.1 And 17.
14
The Code S.19.

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1
Hakkam Singh V Gammon (India Ltd Air 1971sc 740; Gloe Transport Corporation
V Triveni Engineeringworks [198 4 S.C.C. 707; Rsdv Finance Co „ Ltd V Shree
Vallah Glass Works Ltd Air 199 Sc 2094.
1
United Commercial Bank V Workmen [19 1 S.C.R. 80; Hira Lal V Kali Nath
[191 2 S.C.R. 747; Nai Bah V Lala Ramnarayan [1978 1 S.C.C. 8; Chief J stice,
Ap V Dixit l [1979 2 S.C.C. 4; Gm, Ongc, Sisagam V M/S Ra. Engineering Corp
Air 1987 Cal. 1 .
17
Ac Laminart („ Ltd V Ap Agencies Air 1989 Sc 129. See Also Rewa Mahton V
Ram Kishen (188 1 I.A. 10 („c.
18
Union Of India V Navigation Maritime B lgare Air 197 Cal. 2.

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kashinath v anant ilr (1899 4 om. 407; fernandes v ray ilr (1897 21 om. 7; see
also sriniwas v v.v. Ayyangar ilr (190 29 mad. 29; m. M daliar v andappa pillai air
19 mad. 9.
140
ch nnilal kast schand v d ndappa donappa air 19 1 om. 190; frontier ank ltd v
shrimati prakashwati ahl ilr (19 0 p n.  .
141
ram hat v shankar aswant ilr (1902 2 om. 28; v.e. Smith v indian textile co. Air
1927 all. 41; gaekwar aroda state railway v sheik hai llah air 194 all. 740; patel
kala echar v patel mohan hagwan air 19  sa . 1.
142
r. Blainpain and . Verschraegev (eds, international encyclopedia of laws: private
international law (the hag e: kl wer law international, 200 , p. .
14
See generally ords iii, v of the first sched le to the code
144
Tho gh there are a few cases on cyer crimes and domain name disp tes. See for
example,  l l roy mishra v city p lic prosec tor, criminal original petition no.220 of
200, decided april 4, 200
14
(India tv Independent News Service „vt Ltd V India Broadcast Live Llc Cs (Os
No.102/2007, Decision Dated J ly 10, 2007.

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See Bhagwan Dass Govardhan Dass Kedia V „ rshottam Dass & Co Air 19 Sc
4.
147
the anarchic r le conferring  risdiction on the co rt where the contract was
concl ded has ceased to e operative in almost all legal systems today. India,
nfort nately, contin es with this o tdated r le.

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148
See [indian contract act 1872 s.4.
149
The test laid down in this case is that in cases of means of instantaneo s
comm nication, the contract is said to e concl ded at the place where the acceptance
comes to the knowledge of the proposer.
1 0
(India tv independent news service v India roadcast live, aove fn.12.
1 1
ack l. Goldsmith, ššao t cyer anarchy¶¶ (1998  . Chi. L.r. 1199; see also
lawrence lessig, ššthe zones of cyerspace¶¶ (199 48 stanford law review 140; timothy
s.w , ššcyerspace sovereignty?²the internet and the international system¶¶ (1997 10
harvard o rnal of law & technology 47; Shane A. Orians,
ššexercising personal  risdiction on the internet: the misapplication of the asahi metal
decision to šcyerspace¶ ¶¶ (1998 24 ohio northern niversity law review 84; ari lanin,
ššwho controls the internet? States¶ rights and reawakening of the dormant commerce
cla se¶¶ (2000 7 so th California law review 142; Stephan wilske and teresa schiller,
ššinternational  risdiction in cyerspace: which states may reg late the internet?¶¶

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(1997 0 federal comm nications law o rnal 117; ack l. Goldsmith, ššthe internet and
the aiding significance of territorial sovereignty¶¶ (???? indiana o rnal of gloal
legal st dies 47 ; ack l. Goldsmith, ššreg lation of the internet: three persistent
fallacies¶¶ (1998 7 chicago-kent law review 1119; steven hanley, ššinternational
internet reg lation: a m ltinational approach¶¶ (1998 1 ohn
Marshall o rnal of comp ter and information law 997 (1998.
1 2
Henry H. „erritt Jr, šš risdiction and the internet: asic anglo/american
perspectives proects in the coming 2000¶s¶¶, www.ilpf.org; henry h. „erritt r, ššthe
internet is changing international law¶¶ (1998 7 chicago-kent law review 997 (1998.
1 
David R. Johnson And David g. „ost, ššlaw and orders²the rise of law in
cyerspace¶¶ (199 48 stan. L.r. 17; see also ohn t. Delaco rt, ššrecent development:
the international impact of internet reg lation¶¶ (1999 8 harvard international law
review 207; david g. „ost, ššanarchy, state and the internet: an essay on law-making in
cyerspace¶¶ (may 199 , availale at www.wm.ed (last accessed  ne 14, 2007; david
g. „ost, ššagainst šagainst cyeranarchy¶ ¶¶ in adam theierer and clyde wayne crews r
(eds, who r les the net? (200; oel r. Reidenerg, ššgoverning networks and r le
making in cyerspace¶¶ (199 4 emory law o rnal 911; arry . Waldman, šša nified
approach to cyer- liel: defamation on the internet, a s ggested approach¶¶ (1999 
richmond o rnal of law and technology 9; william s. Byassee, šš risdiction of
cyerspace: applying real world precedent to the virt al comm nity¶¶ (199  0 wake
forest law review 197.
1 4
David R. Johnson And David G. „ost, ššand how shall the net e governed? A
meditation on the relative virt es of decentralized, emergent law¶¶, www.cli.org.
1
see generally ryder, aove fn.4, 20; see also sanay s. Mody, ššnational cyerspace
reg lation: n ndling the concept of  risdiction¶¶ (2001 7 stanford o rnal of
international law  and allen stein, ššthe nexceptional prolem of  risdiction in
cyerspace¶¶ (1998 2 international lawyer 117; richard zemek, šš risdiction and the
internet: f ndamental fairness in the networked world of cyerspace¶¶ (199  alany
law o rnal of science and technology 9; trotter hardy, ššthe proper legal regime for
šcyerspace¶ ¶¶ (1994 pitts rg law review 99.
1 
ta kohl, ššlegal reasoning and legal change in the age of the internet: why the
gro nd r les are still valid¶¶ (1999 7(2 international o rnal of law and information

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technology 12; See Also ta kohl, ššeggs,  risdiction and the internet¶¶ (2002 1
international and comparative law q arterly (2002; andreas manolopo los,
ššraising cyerspace: the interaction etween law and technology¶¶ (200 11
international o rnal of law and technology 40.
1 7
Moritz keller, ššlessons from the hag e: internet  risdiction in contract and tort
cases in the ec and the s¶¶ (2004 2 ohn marshall o rnal of comp ter and information
law 1; sean selin, ššgoverning cyerspace: the need for an international sol tion¶¶ (1997
2 gonzaga law review  .

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1 8
An example of a treaty estalishing a niform international standard is the nited
nations convention on the international sale of goods.
1 9
141 a good example of a treaty that estalishes an international choice-of-law regime
is the rome convention on the law governing contracts.
10
ššso far, international harmonization of iss es of  risdiction is relatively limited.
Vario s international conventions dealing with the harmonization of specific areas of law
contain provisions on  risdiction over disp tes arising in the specific field. However, as
regards  risdiction and the enforcement of foreign  dgements in general, a widely
accepted m ltilateral instr ment²which wo ld also cover intellect al property
disp tes²does not yet exist¶¶: wipo on international harmonization of  risdictional
iss es, availale at www.wipo.int.

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The ncitral model law on aritration sets a val ale precedent as it forms the asis
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The report on ššgloal  risdiction iss es created y the internet¶¶ (american ar
association, 2000, s.2.2, london meeting draft prepared and s mitted y the american
ar association clearly indicates the importance of targeting for the p rposes of
 risdiction to prescrie and to ad dicate: ššs ch a chosen relationship will s ect the
foreign actor to oth personal and prescriptive  risdiction. The critical iss es are the
intent of the wesite sponsor and what constit tes s fficient evidence of that intent. When
transactions are involved, the est evidence of intent is the willingness to deal with the
persons in that for m.¶¶ : [2007 c.t.l.r. 2 7
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for example, in defamation it may e resorted to.

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See the relation etween enforcement and c rial  risdiction nder the heading
ššinternational  risdiction¶¶ aove.

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Jean-gariel castel and anet walker, canadian conflict of laws, th edn (canada:
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