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# Aerodynamics

## Report #1 - Distribution Of Lift

By Alan Vassallo
Lecturer: R.Popela
Date:15/11/2010
Objectives:
 Check flow separation on an aileron (reserve 5%). If it fails, suggest
solution and evaluate it.
 Use software Glauert III for this task.

##  Make calculation for height 0 m ISA.

 Make a report, add the lift distributions for original and improved wings
(pictures).

Aircraft Parameters
Wing area: A = 16,29 m2
Wing span: b = 10,4 m
Max. TOW: mTOW = 2350 kg
Cruise speed: vcruise = 412 km/h
Stall speed: vstall = 119 km/h
Airfoil at wing root: NACA 642-415
Airfoil at wing tip: NACA 641-412

Wing Sketch
Preliminary Calculations
Reynold’s Number:

## Tip NACA 641-412:

Note:
Dynamic Viscosity of air at 0m ISA: 1.714x10-5
Density of air at 0m ISA : 1.225

## Using NACA 642-415 data for root airfoil:

Maximum Lift Coefficient: 1.5
Angle of zero lift: -3◦

## Airfoil Lift Curve Slope:

using points: [6,1] , [-10,-0.8]

## Using NACA 641-412 data for tip airfoil:

Maximum Lift Coefficient: 1.55
Angle of zero lift: -3◦
Airfoil Lift Curve Slope:
using points: [-8,-0.6] , [14,-1.55]
Results overview:

## Area of the wing S = 15,668 m2

Aspect ratio Lambda = 6,903
Max. lift coefficient of the wing is Clwingmax = 1,4068
Lift curve slope of the wing = 4,7511 rad-1
Angle of zero-lift coefficient (in the wing root) Alfa0wing = -2,9999 ° (without the
influence of flaps and ailerons)
Glauert coefficient delta = 0,0118 (for the calculation of induced drag - calculated from
normal distribution)
Induced drag coefficient Cxi = 0,0923 (for the lift coefficient of the wing Clwing =
1,4068)

This data was processed using computational analysis software (Glauert III).
The original wing does not meet the lift reserve of 5% on the aileron. This implies that
the aircraft will be unstable at stall speed at ground level. There will be separation of flow
on the ailerons, so the pilot will have no control on the aircraft’s roll, resulting in a
dangerous possibility of uncontrolled spin.

## There are mainly 3 ways of solving this problem.

1) Increasing angle of twist ( Geometric Twist )
2) Applying aerodynamic twist by changing the airfoils at the root or tip
3) Changing the tip chord length

These changes were carried out on Glauert III and the results were analyzed.
1) Geometric Twist by -2◦

2) Aerodynamic Twist
The tip airfoil was changed to one wich has a higher angle of zero lift, and a
laminar airfoil was still used. NACA 642-215 airfoil was used instead of the
NACA 641-412.
NACA 641-412 has a -1.8◦ angle of zero lift.

## Calculation of lift curve slope:

Using points: [14,1.4] and [2,0.4]
3) Decrease tip chord length

## The tip chord length was decreased to 1.4m

Analysis of Results:

The original wing used was unstable at stall speed, as stated before, as the lift reserve
of 5% at the ailerons was not met. As the wing stalls aileron effectiveness is reduced
making the plane hard to control and increasing the risk of a spin starting. Hence the
techniques which were used in this exercise will drastically increase the safety of the
aircraft at low speeds, as the lift reserve is increased from 0.04171 to 0.07423,
0.0543, and 0.09212 (for geometric, aerodynamic twist and tip chord length
respectively). On the other hand this will affect the performance of the wing. One can
note from the results obtained that the lift coefficient of the wing is lowered in all 3
techniques used.
Geometric twist:
Induced drag coefficient Cxi = 0,0885 (for the lift coefficient of the wing Clwing =
1,3775)
Aerodynamic Twist:
Induced drag coefficient Cxi = 0,0852 (for the lift coefficient of the wing Clwing =
1,3527)
Tip Chord Decreased:
Induced drag coefficient Cxi = 0,0927 (for the lift coefficient of the wing Clwing =
1,346)
In high powered military aircraft this will not be a problem since this can be easily
solved by applying vectored thrust, and/or tailerons (rolling stabilator). This
enhanced maneuverability can provide a tactical advantage for military aircraft as
they can maintain sustained flight at higher angles of attack.