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May | June 2011

Feature title: Natural ingredients for sustainable aquaculture

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

F: Natural ingredients F: Natural ingredients

Natural ingredients Table 2: Amino Acid Profile of rice protein (RP) and wheat gluten (WG),

for sustainable aquaculture

compared to fish meal (FM)
% of protein
Wheat WG/FM Rice RP/FM
Amino Acid FishMeal
gluten (%) Protein (%)

ith aquaculture nomical and ecologically viable solutions for bohydrates, which is especially important protein is tics, which make it a valuable ingredient
Ala 2,5 40,3 5,0 81,7 6,2
becoming increas- high quality aquafeed. for those using condensed aquafeeds. In more unknown for fish feeds.
ingly important for There are three key areas which pro- addition, neither Beneo-Animal Nutrition Arg 3,3 53,2 9,1 147,0 6,2 to aquafeed As illustrated in Table 2, rice has a
the production of ducers in this area should pay particular protein source contains any anti-nutri- Asn/Asp 3,0 32,0 8,4 88,8 9,5 producers. balanced amino acid profile and, compared
animal proteins on a global scale, attention to in order to make the most of tional factors, making them ideal for use Cys 2,2 217,2 1,4 142,4 1,0 However, it fea- to wheat protein, contains higher levels
it is no wonder that interest has their products, these include: with species that have sensitive digestive tures a number of lysine. Rice protein also contains high
Gln/Glu 36,1 261,0 21,1 152,2 13,8
also grown in the optimisation of the • Provision of high quality vegetal pro- systems. of characteris- levels of arginine, tyrosine and phenylala-
Gly 3,0 45,5 3,7 56,7 6,6
nutritional and technological quality tein sources
of aquafeeds. • Improvement of intestinal health BeneoPro W, vital His 1,8 74,7 1,5 63,8 2,4
• The optimisation of the technical qual- wheat gluten Ile 3,4 70,5 5,1 106,1 4,8
Here, Greta Clabots, area sales manager ity parameters of the extrudate With a protein content of >80 percent, Leu 6,6 87,0 8,4 111,4 7,6
at Beneo-Animal Nutrition, explores the vital wheat gluten is one of the most con- Lys 1,6 19,4 5,0 61,3 8,1
ways in which ingredients can be incor- High quality vegetal centrated vegetal protein sources available. Producer of
Met 1,9 65,3 2,5 83,1 3,0
porated into aquafeeds to offer further protein sources It is a high-performance alternative to fish
possibilities in this sector. Beneo -Animal Nutrition has two veg- meal in formulations and has been shown to Phe 5,8 138,1 6,3 152,2 4,2 Vital WHeat GluteN
Beneo-Animal Nutrition has created a
range of ingredients to meet the global
etal protein sources in its product range
that will enable producers to optimise their
be beneficial in the nutrition of a wide range
of aquaspecies.
Pro 11,8 259,8 3,4 74,1 4,6
NatiVe WHeat StarcH
Feed ProductS
Ser 5,3 118,0 5,0 111,9 4,5
demand for sustainable aquafeed produc- products: Studies involving sea bream (see Table 1) Thr 2,6 59,2 3,8 88,2 4,3
tion. Thanks to a carefully selected portfolio • RemyPro N70, a concentrated rice have reported that a 100 percent replace- Quality by Competence
Try 0,8 71,3 1,3 121,3 1,1
of products, Beneo-Animal Nutrition can protein ment of fishmeal with wheat gluten delivers
offer aquafeed producers innovative, eco- • BeneoProW, vital wheat gluten significantly improved zootechnical results. Tyr 3,4 89,2 5,6 148,8 3,8 Jäckering Mühlen- und Nährmittelwerke GmbH Fon: 0049 2381 422 0 | Fax: 0049 2381 422136
Vorsterhauser Weg 46 | 59067 Hamm | Germany |
With high The first thing that limits the amino acid Val 3,8 67,0 6,4 114,9 5,6

Table 1: Effect of fish meal replacement by wheat gluten in various aquaspecies levels of pro- content is lysine and, if high quantities of
tein in both lysine are used, a supplementation of this
Growth RemyPro N70 amino acid is necessary.
Substitution AA
Author Species performance vs and BeneoProW, On the other hand, wheat gluten con-
level (%) suppl
these ingredients
offer producers
tains high levels of glutamine, which is
crucial for the immune response in fish. Active ingredients
Davies et al. (1998) R. Trout 57 Lys Comparable a sustainable Mink digestibility trials, which function
Pfeffer et al. (1994)
Storebakken et al.
R. Trout

A. Salmon


Slightly worse

alternative to the
use of fish meal
as a reference for salmon digestibility, have
shown that true protein digestibility of 99 for healthy fish
(2000) in their aquafeed. percent is achieved. This makes vital wheat
The high gluten one of the most digestible vegetal
Tibbetts et al. (2006) S. Bream 30 - Comparable levels of protein protein sources.
concentration BENEO-Animal Nutrition capitalizes on BENEO‘s unique expertise in the food world. It offers a broad range of
Helland et al. (2006) A. Halibut 30 - Comparable ingredients from a natural source that improve the nutritional and technological value of fish food. It covers
in both ingredi- RemyPro N70, an alternative
Lys, Arg, speciality products such as vegetable proteins, functional carbohydrates and prebiotics from chicory.
Kissil et al. (2004) S. Bream 100 better ents means they protein source Connecting nutrition and health
contain less car- Compared to wheat gluten, rice

8 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2011 May-June 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 9

F: Natural ingredients
These studies also show nutrition can play an important role in opti- Naturally ahead
Figure 1
that an inclusion of rice mising performance and disease resistance
protein concentrate of in fish.
up to 20 percent is fea- Prebiotics have proven to be beneficial
sible, without any negative for gut health both in human, as well as in
influence impacting on the
zootechnical performance
animal nutrition. Inulin and oligofructose
are fibres, which are resistant to enzymatic
Naturally ahead
in phytogenics!
of the fish or their fillet digestion and are selectively fermented by
quality. lactobacillae and bifidobacterium in the gut.
This selective fermentation leads to a shift
Figure 2
Orafti® prebiotics in bacterial flora, resulting in a reduced
for optimal growth of pathogens as a consequence.
gut health Since lactic acid bacteria is part of Biomin® P.E.P. is made
Aquaculture is steadily the normal flora of healthy fish and may
growing worldwide and even antagonise fish pathogens (Ringo and
with a unique blend of essential
oils and a functional carrier to
Table 3: Effect of VWG addition to aquafeed on the technological parameters of pellets and provide a synergistic formula.
extrudates (Kaushik, 2000)
It is designed specifically to
Feed A Feed B support digestion and improve
Feed Mixture Pelleted Extruded Pelleted Extruded feed conversion.

Mass/volume (g/l) 612 580 633 504

Durability (mechanical, pfost) (%) 87 100 93 99
Durability (pneumatic, holmen) (%) 25 97 70 94
Buoyancy (% residues at 30sec) 0 0 0 10 For enquiry, please e-mail
"Whether aquafeed Sinking rate (cm/sec) 8 6,2 9,7 4
poducers are looking for Water Stability (% residues at 10 min and 1hr) 30/89 0/4 17/37 11/92

ingredients that impact Slope of particle breakdown (10-60 min) 0,0114 0,0097 0,0052 0,0167
Ad_PEP_IAF_CIL_4_11.indd 1 20.04.11 08:42
Oil absorbing capacity (%) 16 18 16 31
zootechnical performance A: basal diet containing fishmeal, fish oil, gelatinised starch, vitamin and mineral mixtures

or animal health, or have B: 80% A + 20% wheat gluten

improved technological its production capacity Gatesoupe, 1998), prebiotics may also have
parameters, BENEO-Animal depends on optimal
technical performance.
zoo- a benefit in fish nutrition.
Despite the fact that traditional fish Process Technology and Complete Plants
Nutrition’s range of aquafeeds can Nowadays, aquacul- feed contains as little fibre as possible,
- for the Aqua Feed Industry
ture involves strategies Orafti® trials with shrimp, turbot, salmon
do it all" to improve the overall and trout have all shown the positive effect
functioning and efficacy of of using low dosages of inulin/oligofructose;
an animal’s digestion, to both the zootechnical performance and the
nine, which are reported to have a positive reduce stress and to prevent diseases. The fish’s resistance to infectious diseases are
effect on growth performance and influence latter can be achieved through strict envi- improved.
pigmentation of aquaspecies. ronmental management and prophylactic In Figure 1 and Figure 2 the results of
From mink digestibility trials, it can be strategies, such as vaccination. a trial with 900 salmon are summarised.
concluded that apparent protein digest- However, vaccines do not cover all the In this research, the fish were introduced In 2008 ANDRITZ FEED & BIOFUEL
delivered a complete solution to Ems-
ibility has a value of 80 percent; the true major aquaculture diseases. to a Piscirickettsia salmonis infection.
land-Aller Aqua in Germany. Having
protein digestibility of rice protein is 85 Therefore, other preventive measures The results show a clear, positive effect built Europe’s most modern fish feed
percent. These values are in line with other must be taken as well. With this in mind, of inulin on the overall mortality rate factory in Golßen, Emsland-Aller Aqua
has an optimum playing field. With
vegetal protein sources and feed conversion of the aid of the most modern machines
and confirm the potential Table 4: Beneo application matrix
the fish and confirm available, e. g. the latest in extruder
for using rice protein in that prebiotic inulin technology, product developments can

aquafeed. Fish meal Technological Optimising and oligofructose are

also be put into practice quickly.
Replacement ingredient gut health
Studies on sea bream natural and sustainable New process lines and plants • Process equipment upgrades and replacements • Spare-
(Palmegiano et al, 2007) alternatives for in-feed and wear parts • Service and maintenance programmes • Optimization and support.
and rainbow trout BeneoPro W *** *** antibiotics. Leading technologies - Global presence - Local service Together, we make it work!
(Palmegiano et al., 2006)
Orafti® Prebiotics * **
indicate that rice protein Optimising the ANDRITZ FEED & BIOFUEL
RemyPro N70 ***
concentrate is a good aquafeed pellet Europe, Asia and South America:
Remy starches *** USA and Canada:
alternative to fish meal. When formulating

10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2011 May-June 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11

F: Natural ingredients C L E A N C O N T R O L

Swivel Valve Cooler MkII

Kaushik, S (2000). Feed formulation,
diet development and feed
technology In: In. Recent advances
in Mediterranean aquaculture finfish
species diversification. Zaragoza:
CIHEAM-IAMZ, 2000. p. 43-51

Kissil, G.W. & I. Lupatsch. (2004). No hollow spaces | No cross contamination

Successful replacement of fishmeal by
plant proteins in diets for the Gilthead
Excellent cleaning access | Filtered air inlet
seabream, Sparus aurata l. The Israeli
Journal of Aquaculture – Bamidgeh
Temperature control | Moisture control | Cleaning in Place
56(3): 188-199.

Ringo E., Gatesoupe F.J., 1998.

Lactic acid bacteria in fish: a review.
Aquacultural Research

26, 773-789.

Palmegiano GB, Costanzo MT, Daprà

F, Gai F, Galletta MG, Maricchiolo G,
et al. (2007) Rice protein concentrate
its cereal based equivalents, this results in meal as potential dietary ingredient in practical
increased resistance towards the formation diets for blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo).
of steam pockets. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition.
When the extrudate cools down, the 2007 Jun; 91(5-6):235-9.
rice starch product’s structure is more
Pfeffer, E., Henrichfreise, B., 1994. Evaluation of
homogeneous and its surface smoother, potential sources of protein in diets for rainbow
improving the pellets the overall perfor- trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 45,
mance and durability in water. 371–377.
Not only is the surface of the pellet
T. Storebakken, K. D. Shearer, G. Baeverfjord,
smoother when rice flour is used in the
B. G. Nielsen, T. Åsgård, T. Scott and A. De
extrusion process, but the expansion of
Lapor te (2000) Digestibility of macronutrients,
extrudate products is also modified when energy and amino acids, absorption of elements
diets for aquaspecies, it is not only the rice flour is added. Rice starch has a positive and absence of intestinal enteritis in Atlantic
nutritional content of the feed, which should effect on the expansion of an extrudate and, salmon, Salmo salar, fed diets with wheat gluten.
be considered. The physical characteristics since expansion characteristics are directly Aquaculture, Volume 184, Issues 1-2, 3 April
of the final product are also of major linked to the bulk density of the pellet, adding 2000, Pages 115-132
importance; the texture, water stability rice flour or starches to fish feed enables
Tibbetts, S.M., Milley, J.E. & Lall, S.P. (2006)
and buoyancy of the pellets can be modi- the aquafeed producer to adjust the floating Apparent protein and energy digestibility of
fied by not only altering feed processing capacities of extruded fish feed to suit their common and alternative feed ingredients by
techniques, but also by the physical nature specific requirements. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Linnaeus, 1758).
of the ingredients themselves. Aquaculture, 261, 1314–1327
An optimal binder Promoting multi-purpose nutrition and
for aquafeed sustainable aquaculture production, BENEO
Because of its visco-elastic properties, ingredients are the obvious choice. So, whether
About Beneo-
vital wheat gluten is an interesting techno- aquafeed producers are looking for ingredi-
Animal Nutrition
Beneo-Animal Nutrition offers a
cool and dry
logical ingredient for aquafeed diets. ents that impact zootechnical performance or
broad range of natural ingredients with
It serves as a strong, cohesive matrix animal health, or have improved technological
nutritional benefits. The product range
and prevents gas expulsion during extru- parameters, BENEO-Animal Nutrition’s range
comprises vegetable proteins, func-
sion. In Table 3, the effect of wheat gluten of aquafeeds can do it all.
tional fibres and carbohydrates as well
addition on the technological parameters of
as chicory-based prebiotics. BENEO-
aquafeed is illustrated. It can be concluded
that vital wheat gluten improves water
Animal Nutrition translates Beneo’s clean and lean
Davies, S.J., Morris, P.C., Baker, R.T.M., (1997). unique expertise in human food to
stability of the extrudate and enables the Partial substitution of fishmeal and full-fat soya the world of pet food, animal feed and
feed producer to include higher dosages of bean meal with wheat gluten and influence of aquafeed. BENEO is a division of the
oil in the feed. lysine supplementation in diets for rainbow
Südzucker Group, employs almost 900
trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquacult
people and has production units in
An extrusion enhancer Research, 28:317-328.
Belgium, Chile, Germany and Italy.
Following extrusion, rice flour and starch Helland, S.J., Grisdale-Helland, B. (2006)
dough expansion is characterised by very Replacement of fish meal with wheat gluten More inforMation:
high hot set temperatures and viscosity in diets for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Website: www.
rates. As the viscosity of dough, made from hippoglossus): effect on whole-body amino acid Geelen Counterflow
rice derivatives, increases more quickly than concentrations. Aquaculture 1363-1370
Holland / USA / Argentina / China

6 ||InternatIonal
12 AquAFeed||May-June
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