May | June 2011 Feature title: Natural ingredients for sustainable aquaculture

International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

F: Natural ingredients

F: Natural ingredients

Natural ingredients
for sustainable aquaculture
nomical and ecologically viable solutions for high quality aquafeed. There are three key areas which producers in this area should pay particular attention to in order to make the most of their products, these include: • Provision of high quality vegetal protein sources • Improvement of intestinal health • The optimisation of the technical quality parameters of the extrudate ith aquaculture becoming increasingly important for the production of animal proteins on a global scale, it is no wonder that interest has also grown in the optimisation of the nutritional and technological quality of aquafeeds. Here, Greta Clabots, area sales manager at Beneo-Animal Nutrition, explores the ways in which ingredients can be incorporated into aquafeeds to offer further possibilities in this sector. Beneo-Animal Nutrition has created a range of ingredients to meet the global demand for sustainable aquafeed production. Thanks to a carefully selected portfolio of products, Beneo-Animal Nutrition can offer aquafeed producers innovative, eco-

Table 2: Amino Acid Profile of rice protein (RP) and wheat gluten (WG), compared to fish meal (FM)

% of protein Amino Acid Wheat gluten
2,5 3,3 3,0 2,2 36,1 3,0 1,8 3,4 6,6 1,6 1,9 5,8 11,8 5,3 2,6 0,8 3,4 3,8

W

WG/FM (%)
40,3 53,2 32,0 217,2 261,0 45,5 74,7 70,5 87,0 19,4 65,3 138,1 259,8 118,0 59,2 71,3 89,2 67,0

Rice Protein
5,0 9,1 8,4 1,4 21,1 3,7 1,5 5,1 8,4 5,0 2,5 6,3 3,4 5,0 3,8 1,3 5,6 6,4

RP/FM (%)
81,7 147,0 88,8 142,4 152,2 56,7 63,8 106,1 111,4 61,3 83,1 152,2 74,1 111,9 88,2 121,3 148,8 114,9

FishMeal protein is more unknown to aquafeed producers. However, it features a number of characteristics, which make it a valuable ingredient for fish feeds. As illustrated in Table 2, rice has a balanced amino acid profile and, compared to wheat protein, contains higher levels of lysine. Rice protein also contains high levels of arginine, tyrosine and phenylala-

bohydrates, which is especially important for those using condensed aquafeeds. In addition, neither Beneo-Animal Nutrition protein source contains any anti-nutritional factors, making them ideal for use with species that have sensitive digestive systems.

Ala Arg Asn/Asp Cys Gln/Glu Gly His Ile Leu Lys Met Phe Pro Ser Thr Try Tyr Val

6,2 6,2 9,5 1,0 13,8 6,6 2,4 4,8 7,6 8,1 3,0 4,2 4,6 4,5 4,3 1,1 3,8 5,6

BeneoPro W, vital wheat gluten
With a protein content of >80 percent, vital wheat gluten is one of the most concentrated vegetal protein sources available. It is a high-performance alternative to fish meal in formulations and has been shown to be beneficial in the nutrition of a wide range of aquaspecies. Studies involving sea bream (see Table 1) have reported that a 100 percent replacement of fishmeal with wheat gluten delivers significantly improved zootechnical results. The first thing that limits the amino acid content is lysine and, if high quantities of lysine are used, a supplementation of this amino acid is necessary. On the other hand, wheat gluten contains high levels of glutamine, which is crucial for the immune response in fish. Mink digestibility trials, which function as a reference for salmon digestibility, have shown that true protein digestibility of 99 percent is achieved. This makes vital wheat gluten one of the most digestible vegetal protein sources.

High quality vegetal protein sources

Producer of

Beneo -Animal Nutrition has two vegetal protein sources in its product range that will enable producers to optimise their products: • RemyPro N70, a concentrated rice protein • BeneoProW, vital wheat gluten With high levels of proTable 1: Effect of fish meal replacement by wheat gluten in various aquaspecies tein in both Growth RemyPro N70 Substitution AA performance vs Author Species and BeneoProW, level (%) suppl reference these ingredients offer producers Davies et al. (1998) R. Trout 57 Lys Comparable a sustainable alternative to the Pfeffer et al. (1994) R. Trout 100 Lys Slightly worse use of fish meal Storebakken et al. A. Salmon 35 Comparable in their aquafeed. (2000) The high Tibbetts et al. (2006) S. Bream 30 Comparable levels of protein concentration Helland et al. (2006) A. Halibut 30 Comparable in both ingrediLys, Arg, ents means they Kissil et al. (2004) S. Bream 100 better Thr contain less car-

Vital WHeat GluteN NatiVe WHeat StarcH Feed ProductS
Quality by Competence
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Active ingredients for healthy fish
BENEO-Animal Nutrition capitalizes on BENEO‘s unique expertise in the food world. It offers a broad range of ingredients from a natural source that improve the nutritional and technological value of fish food. It covers speciality products such as vegetable proteins, functional carbohydrates and prebiotics from chicory. www.BENEO-An.com Connecting nutrition and health

RemyPro N70, an alternative protein source
Compared to wheat gluten, rice

8 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2011

May-June 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 9

F: Natural ingredients
These studies also show that an inclusion of rice protein concentrate of up to 20 percent is feasible, without any negative influence impacting on the zootechnical performance of the fish or their fillet quality. nutrition can play an important role in optimising performance and disease resistance in fish. Prebiotics have proven to be beneficial for gut health both in human, as well as in animal nutrition. Inulin and oligofructose are fibres, which are resistant to enzymatic digestion and are selectively fermented by lactobacillae and bifidobacterium in the gut. This selective fermentation leads to a shift in bacterial flora, resulting in a reduced growth of pathogens as a consequence. Since lactic acid bacteria is part of the normal flora of healthy fish and may even antagonise fish pathogens (Ringo and

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Table 3: Effect of VWG addition to aquafeed on the technological parameters of pellets and extrudates (Kaushik, 2000)

Feed A Feed Mixture
Mass/volume (g/l) Durability (mechanical, pfost) (%) Durability (pneumatic, holmen) (%) Buoyancy (% residues at 30sec)

Feed B Pelleted
633 93 70 0

Pelleted Extruded
612 87 25 0 580 100 97 0

Extruded
504 99 94 10

"Whether aquafeed Sinking rate (cm/sec) 8 6,2 9,7 4 Water Stability (% residues at 10 min and 1hr) 30/89 0/4 17/37 11/92 poducers are looking for Slope of particle breakdown (10-60 min) 0,0114 0,0097 0,0052 0,0167 ingredients that impact Oil absorbing capacity (%) 16 18 16 31 zootechnical performance A: basal diet containing fishmeal, fish oil, gelatinised starch, vitamin and mineral mixtures B: 80% A + 20% wheat gluten or animal health, or have improved technological Gatesoupe, 1998), prebiotics may also have its production capacity a benefit in fish nutrition. depends on optimal zooparameters, BENEO-Animal Despite the fact that traditional fish technical performance. feed contains as little fibre as possible, Nowadays, aquaculNutrition’s range of aquafeeds can Orafti® trials with shrimp, turbot, salmon ture involves strategies do it all" to improve the overall and trout have all shown the positive effect
nine, which are reported to have a positive effect on growth performance and influence pigmentation of aquaspecies. From mink digestibility trials, it can be concluded that apparent protein digestibility has a value of 80 percent; the true protein digestibility of rice protein is 85 percent. These values are in line with other vegetal protein sources and confirm the potential Table 4: Beneo application matrix for using rice protein in aquafeed. Studies on sea bream (Palmegiano et al, 2007) and rainbow trout BeneoPro W (Palmegiano et al., 2006) Orafti® Prebiotics indicate that rice protein RemyPro N70 concentrate is a good Remy starches alternative to fish meal. functioning and efficacy of an animal’s digestion, to reduce stress and to prevent diseases. The latter can be achieved through strict environmental management and prophylactic strategies, such as vaccination. However, vaccines do not cover all the major aquaculture diseases. Therefore, other preventive measures must be taken as well. With this in mind, of using low dosages of inulin/oligofructose; both the zootechnical performance and the fish’s resistance to infectious diseases are improved. In Figure 1 and Figure 2 the results of a trial with 900 salmon are summarised. In this research, the fish were introduced to a Piscirickettsia salmonis infection. The results show a clear, positive effect of inulin on the overall mortality rate and feed conversion of the fish and confirm that prebiotic inulin Technological Optimising and oligofructose are ingredient gut health natural and sustainable alternatives for in-feed antibiotics. ***
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10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2011

May-June 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11

F: Natural ingredients
Kaushik, S (2000). Feed formulation, diet development and feed technology In: In. Recent advances in Mediterranean aquaculture finfish species diversification. Zaragoza: CIHEAM-IAMZ, 2000. p. 43-51 Kissil, G.W. & I. Lupatsch. (2004). Successful replacement of fishmeal by plant proteins in diets for the Gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata l. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture – Bamidgeh 56(3): 188-199. Ringo E., Gatesoupe F.J., 1998. Lactic acid bacteria in fish: a review. Aquacultural Research 26, 773-789. Palmegiano GB, Costanzo MT, Daprà F, Gai F, Galletta MG, Maricchiolo G, et al. (2007) Rice protein concentrate meal as potential dietary ingredient in practical diets for blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo). Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition. 2007 Jun; 91(5-6):235-9. Pfeffer, E., Henrichfreise, B., 1994. Evaluation of potential sources of protein in diets for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 45, 371–377. T. Storebakken, K. D. Shearer, G. Baeverfjord, B. G. Nielsen, T. Åsgård, T. Scott and A. De Lapor te (2000) Digestibility of macronutrients, energy and amino acids, absorption of elements and absence of intestinal enteritis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, fed diets with wheat gluten. Aquaculture, Volume 184, Issues 1-2, 3 April 2000, Pages 115-132 Tibbetts, S.M., Milley, J.E. & Lall, S.P. (2006) Apparent protein and energy digestibility of common and alternative feed ingredients by Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture, 261, 1314–1327

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diets for aquaspecies, it is not only the nutritional content of the feed, which should be considered. The physical characteristics of the final product are also of major importance; the texture, water stability and buoyancy of the pellets can be modified by not only altering feed processing techniques, but also by the physical nature of the ingredients themselves.

its cereal based equivalents, this results in increased resistance towards the formation of steam pockets. When the extrudate cools down, the rice starch product’s structure is more homogeneous and its surface smoother, improving the pellets the overall performance and durability in water. Not only is the surface of the pellet smoother when rice flour is used in the extrusion process, but the expansion of extrudate products is also modified when rice flour is added. Rice starch has a positive effect on the expansion of an extrudate and, since expansion characteristics are directly linked to the bulk density of the pellet, adding rice flour or starches to fish feed enables the aquafeed producer to adjust the floating capacities of extruded fish feed to suit their specific requirements.

An optimal binder for aquafeed
Because of its visco-elastic properties, vital wheat gluten is an interesting technological ingredient for aquafeed diets. It serves as a strong, cohesive matrix and prevents gas expulsion during extrusion. In Table 3, the effect of wheat gluten addition on the technological parameters of aquafeed is illustrated. It can be concluded that vital wheat gluten improves water stability of the extrudate and enables the feed producer to include higher dosages of oil in the feed.

Conclusion
Promoting multi-purpose nutrition and sustainable aquaculture production, BENEO ingredients are the obvious choice. So, whether aquafeed producers are looking for ingredients that impact zootechnical performance or animal health, or have improved technological parameters, BENEO-Animal Nutrition’s range of aquafeeds can do it all.

About BeneoAnimal Nutrition
Beneo-Animal Nutrition offers a broad range of natural ingredients with nutritional benefits. The product range comprises vegetable proteins, functional fibres and carbohydrates as well as chicory-based prebiotics. BENEOAnimal Nutrition translates Beneo’s unique expertise in human food to the world of pet food, animal feed and aquafeed. BENEO is a division of the Südzucker Group, employs almost 900 people and has production units in Belgium, Chile, Germany and Italy. More
inforMation:

cool and dry

References:
Davies, S.J., Morris, P.C., Baker, R.T.M., (1997). Partial substitution of fishmeal and full-fat soya bean meal with wheat gluten and influence of lysine supplementation in diets for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquacult Research, 28:317-328. Helland, S.J., Grisdale-Helland, B. (2006) Replacement of fish meal with wheat gluten in diets for Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus): effect on whole-body amino acid concentrations. Aquaculture 1363-1370

clean and lean

An extrusion enhancer
Following extrusion, rice flour and starch dough expansion is characterised by very high hot set temperatures and viscosity rates. As the viscosity of dough, made from rice derivatives, increases more quickly than

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