Physica C 469 (2009) 1873–1877

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Physica C
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/physc

A study on the improvement of protective relay system for the utility application of HTS power cable
J.H. Kim a,*, M. Park a, I.K. Park b, S.R. Lee c, J.D. Park d, Y.K. Kwon d, I.K. Yu a
a

Changwon National University, 55305, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773, Republic of Korea RTDS Technologies Inc., Innovation Drive Wannipeg, Manitoba, 300-137, Canada R3T 6B6 c Uiduk University, Gangdong, Gyeongju 780-713, Republic of Korea d Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-120, Republic of Korea
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
In this paper, the analysis and improvement of protective relay systems are performed with respect to HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power cable applied in a model power system. The over current relay and differential relay with proposed new decision making algorithm are implemented under a couple of fault conditions, a single line-to-ground fault and three phase short circuit. According to the analysis results, there is not a particular aspect for the protection system of HTS power cable, but the impedance variation of HTS power cable should be taken into account under the fault conditions. In the case of the differential relay system, the induced current ratio based fault detection scheme is proposed and applied for the bus to bus connection of HTS power cable protection. The circuit breaker operates according to the proposed algorithm well. The results obtained through the analysis of the simulation would provide more useful data for the protection system design of HTS power cables and their installation in power systems. Ó 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Available online 29 May 2009 PACS: 28.41.Te 85.25.Àj 85.25.Am 84.71.Fk Keywords: HTS power cable Fault detection scheme Induced current ratio Protective relay Real time simulation

1. Introduction Because of its large capacity and compactness compared with conventional power cables, the HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power cables are being developed by LIPA (Long Island Power Authority), AEP Ohio (American Electric Power) and Albany projects [1–3]. Several HTS power devices have already been connected to the real utility grid. Power system analysis regarding the HTS power devices is getting more required from the endusers. Before the installation of HTS power cable to a utility grid, the analysis of power system using a certain simulation tool should be carried out in order to evaluate the reliability and stability during both normal state and transient state like fault. The peak power demand in Korea is increasing about 4–5% annually, and it will be over 68,000 MW by 2017 [4]. A research group in Korea has completed the development of HTS power cable system of 22.9 kV/50 MVA, 3 phase 100 m as a part of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Project supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology [5–7]. However, before the installation of the HTS power cable into a utility grid, it is necessary to confirm

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 55 281 3170; fax: +82 55 281 3150. E-mail address: potopia@changwon.ac.kr (J.H. Kim). 0921-4534/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.physc.2009.05.131

reliable performances and stability during both normal and transient states. A conventional power cable having copper or aluminum conductor does not experience any serious problems caused by the short circuit current or over current because of its large thermal capacity. In case of conventional power cable, the conductor impedance does not change even under fault conditions except the fault point impedance. HTS power cable, on the contrary, will have problems as stated in [8,9]. If the fault current flows through the HTS power cable, quench occurs in both conducting and shield layers of the HTS power cable. After the quench, the resistance appears and each self inductance value does not change largely, but the mutual inductance value is directly affected. The line impedance between source and fault spot will be transiently changed, and the level of fault current will consequently be decreased to a certain value. The decreased current value depends not only on the condition of power system but also on the characteristics of HTS power cable core. Perfect protection can be basically achieved by the clear analysis of the quench mechanism of HTS power cable [10,11]. There are various kinds of relay for protection system, and protective relays are also classified in different ways according to operation system, operation time delay, usages, etc. Important performance indicators include security (no false tripping), dependability

higher current will cause a faster operation of the relay. current I1 (sending end) is equal to current I2 (receiving end). The simulation results are discussed in detail and the outcomes of the simulation for both inside and outside of the protection zones demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed differential relay algorithm. Protective relay configurations of the model system The distribution line is connected to many protection devices and machines including instrument devices and switches. The communication device and other devices are required for the comparison between both sides of current due to the development of long distance HTS power cable. as shown in Fig. Over current protection system is mainly used for the radial distribution feeder. The protective relay system is also coupled with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) in which a utility grid is modeled and simulated. and each section requires only one circuit breaker at the source end. Grounding methods for power transmission line in this simulation. or for a fault outside of the protected zone. Novel fault detection scheme for HTS power cable Fig. The operating time is about 10 ms. 1 shows the circuit diagram of fundamental concept of the protection system for the large transmission capacity of HTS power cable in utility power network. 2.H. currents I1 and I2 are no longer equal. (b) Differential relay. In general. and the differential protection method is used for the bus connection in general. The operational characteristics of protective relay. Conceptual circuit diagram of the protection system for HTS power cable. Section B (feeder) composed of circuit breaker. 3. The authors assume that the HTS power cable is used for a bus to bus connection and a radial distribution feeder. 3. The results obtained through the analysis of the simulation would provide useful data for the protection system design of HTS power cables and their installation in power systems. fault current and voltage class. the direct grounding method is used. . Most of the faults on the radial power lines can be detected by applying over current relay.9 kV/50 MVA class HTS power cable system. and no current flows through the relay. considering various factors such as system configuration. 2b shows the operating characteristics of differential relay. since the fault current is normally higher than the load current. 2. This paper proposes a novel protective relay scheme for HTS power cable and analyzes the operational characteristics of the protective relay system for the HTS power cable under utility fault conditions using the OCR (Over Current Relay). the protective relay system has been designed by experienced protection engineers based on their wealth of domain knowledge. OCGR. Kim et al. Therefore the induced currents of the current transformers are also equal. Section A (bus to bus connection) is protected against the inside fault of protection zone introducing the HTS power cable using differential protective relay system. Fig. 2a shows the characteristics of the over current relay with the functions of inverse and instantaneous time limits. Under normal conditions. HTS power cable. High speed bus protection is often required to limit the damaging effects on equipment and system stability or to maintain service to as much load as possible. They are used for the high current faults occurred close to the source. The simulation is performed under a couple of fault conditions using 22. / Physica C 469 (2009) 1873–1877 (no missing operations) and availability (percentage operational time of the equipment in the considered time period). and the difference between the I1 and I2 current flows through the relay. The direction of shield layer current reverses against the conducting layer current Fig. Fig. the authors propose a novel fault detection scheme of differential protective relay using electrical characteristics of HTS power cable as shown in Fig. The HTS power cable consists of a conducting and a shield layers for carrying the required current. Instantaneous time limit relay operates without intentional time delay. OCR. OCGR (Over Current Ground Relay) and the proposed new differential relay algorithm. A current differential relay system uses Kirchhoff’s current law. currents on both sides of the equipment are compared. For that reason. Fig. load.1874 J. (a) Over current relay. Proposed algorithm of the differential relay for HTS power cable. etc. Fig. Conventionally. Inverse time limit relay operates with a time delay which is adjustable. 2. If a fault occurs inside of the protected zone. 3. The minimum current at which the relay operates is also adjustable. and so on. 1.

95 (95%). OCGR and reclosing sequence shown in Table 2 are used in the simulation. 80 K. quench occurs in both conducting and shield layers of the HTS power cable. Table 3 shows the parameters for the 22. the real over current relay and new algorithm-based differential relay are applied for a Table 1 Parameters of the 22.04 0.3 Close puls 2. Hardware composition for the protective relay system of HTS power cable. 295 mX/km 50 mX/km 0.2 3. However.237 mH/km IO/IC = 5.04 Disc time 2 Pickup (A) 40 10 Recl time 180 Ext. 232 mX/km 11. The setting parameters of OCR. and the same process and devices are used in this work. RC_stabilizer: resistance of copper stabilizer at conducting layer.145 mH/km 0. IS: current of shield layer. 4. In the Fig.9 kV/50 MVA. the decision making of fault is done through the following concept. RS_stabilizer: resistance of copper stabilizer at shield layer. In Table 1. The current distribution of conducting and shield layers changes due to the above mentioned phenomenon caused by the fault current [12]. RS_HTS: resistance of HTS wires at shield layer. 1 km long HTS power cable used for the analysis in RTDS. The induced current ratio of HTS power cable in steady state (DIconstant) is greater than or equal to 0. In this paper. DI will be used as a reference value of the protective relay for the HTS power cable section.5 400/5 Second time 15 CT ratio KVI 5. DIfault: induced current ratio in fault state. There are OCR.7 mX/km 0.H. DIconstant: induced current ratio in steady state. Table 2 Setting parameters of protective relay.9 kV which is the main distribution system voltage in Korea. IC: current of conducting layer. then the protective relay detects the fault and outputs the circuit breaker operating signal. 1 km HTS power cable. blk No No Fail puls 60 Instantaneous time limit Curve DT DT Pre time 60 DT time (s) 0. the circuit breaker control signals are directly delivered from the real protective relay during the fault conditions. The real protective relay is used for the fault detection of the model distribution system. LC: self inductance at conducting layer. Therefore. 4. 80 K. the induced current ratio of HTS power cable (DIfault) is suddenly decreased due to the increased resistance of shield layer caused by quench. respectively. respectively. RC_HTS: resistance of HTS wires at conducting layer. blk Yes Yes First time 0. LS: self inductance at shield layer and LM: mutual inductance. Fig.0 Ext. DI: induced current ratio of conducting and shield layers.9 kV/50 MVA class.J.0 Shots num 2 . Conducting layer RC_HTS RC_stablilizer (copper) LC RS_HTS RS_stabilizer (copper) LS LM IO/IC = 5. In the proposed fault detection algorithm. two protective relay cases.137 mH/km Shield layer Mutual inductance Fig. Kim et al. / Physica C 469 (2009) 1873–1877 1875 and its value is over 95% of conducting layer current at the steady state. OCGR and the reclosing function included. if the DIfault is less than the DIconstant. if the fault current flows through the HTS power cable. 4 shows the hardware composition of the protection system simulation. Relay Product Inverse time limit Curve OCR GD311–ABK01 OCGR Auto reclose Reclose GD311–ABK01 Pickup (A) Time dial (step) 3. Table 1 represents the parameters of the 22. Consequently. 3. The users can input all parameters of circuit except the circuit breaker on/off signals of the protective relay by typing in GUI (Graphic User Interface). and the secondary rated voltage of the system is 22. Fig. However.0 KVI 1.14].9 kV class power system used in RSCAD (Real time Simulator Computer Aided Design)/RTDS (Section B). if the fault current flows through the HTS power cable. Simulation and the results The authors have developed a real time simulation algorithm for the analysis of the utility power network which includes HTS power devices [13. 1 shows the simplified practical distribution system including the HTS power cable.

operation (OCR) Second time: failed fault detection single line-to-ground fault and three phase short circuit fault. Fig. (OCR) Second time: time limit. 100 MVA 60 MVA (D À Y).7 10 MVA Three phase short circuit fault Table 3 The 22. %Z1–3 = 56. operation 1.133. 15.315.2 s and 1. operation (OCGR) Second time: time limit.5 s First time: time limit. Fig.5 s. HTS power cable Conventional power cable Fig.35 + j113.4 ALOC 58 mm2.2 s Inst.2 s Inst.6 + j152.1876 J.H. Z1 = 205.3 + j37.9 + j426.27 + j2. The fault durations are 0. Z1 = 19.2 s Failed fault detection Second time: time limit. Z0 = 49. operation (OCGR) Table 4 Comparison of the operational characteristics of protective relay between the conventional and HTS power cable.operation (OCGR) 1. Z1 = 0. / Physica C 469 (2009) 1873–1877 Generator 3 Transformer 3 HTS power cable 1 km Line 1 Line 2 Load 154 kV. %Z1–2 = 31. %Z2–3 = 13.2 s Inst.5 km.5 s First time: inst. 154/22. Z0 = 325. 5a depicts the result of the conventional power . 100 MVA Parameters of Table 1 ALOC 160 mm2. (a) In the case of the only conventional power cable used (line 1 and line 2). operation of OCGR 0. (b) In the case of the HTS power cable used instead of line 1. operation of OCR 0. 1. 5. Z0 = 0. 5 km.5 s First time: inst.9 kV class model power system in RSCAD/RTDS (Section B).453.5 s First time: inst. 5 shows the waveforms of the single line-to-ground fault condition.667.6 + j4. respectively. Kim et al. Simulation results of the protective relay under single line-to-ground fault condition. operation of OCGR 0. Fault point Single line-to-ground Fault duration Three phase short circuit fault Single line-to-ground 1. operation Between line1 and line2 0.9 kV.1. operation.156.

The induced current ratio of shield layer is 95% in steady state. quench occurs at the HTS wires.35 + j113. Appl. As a result. Fig. Table 5. Z1 = 0. the circuit breaker operates according to the proposed algorithm. K. Supercond. Appl. 5 km. Supercond. Fig. the inside and outside protection zones of HTS power cable could readily be determined by the induced current ratio. V. Appl. 6. X. Z0 = 0. 2005. The induced current ratio at shield layer decreased from 95% to 80%. The results obtained through the analysis of the simulation would provide useful data for the protection system design of HTS power cables and their installation in power systems. IEEE Trans. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation). S. Jensen.1. and it makes the fault detection impossible.9 kV.9 kV class model power system in RSCAD/RTDS (Section A). Z0 = 49. Z1–2 = 31. Cho. the induced current ratio based fault detection scheme is proposed and applied for the bus to bus connection of HTS power cable protection. However. Acknowledgment cable used with the real protective relay and the real parameters. 2 Transformer 1. The circuit breaker operates according to the proposed algorithm well.L. J. A novel protective relay scheme for HTS power cable is proposed and applied for the 22. O. (a) The inside of protection zone under fault condition. In the case of the HTS power cable is used instead of a conventional power cable. Consequently. C. Consequently. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] T.2LPW01. the This research was supported by a grant from Center for Applied Superconductivity Technology of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program funded by the Ministry of Education. the induced current ratio at shield layer decreased from 95% to 39%.6 + j4. The electrical characteristics of HTS power cables are dominantly dependent on the property of HTS wire. Simulation results of the differential protective relay under three phase short circuit fault condition. Appl. Republic of Korea. the correction of protective relay is required for the quench properties of HTS power cable for secure operation of protective relay. Therefore. From this result. Appl. Physica 386 (2003) 162. 17 (2007) 1668.315. 2 HTS power cable 1 km Line Load 154 kV. 17 (2007) 1648. Physica C 463–465 (2007) 1163. IEEE Trans. %Z2–3 = 13. Conclusions The authors have analyzed the operational characteristics of the protective relay system with respect to HTS power cable under utility fault conditions using a real digital protective relay and RTDS.Y. 100 MVA Parameters of Table 1 ALOC 160 mm2. J. Wu. S. the HTS power cable is not interrupted under three phase short circuit fault condition. 6a shows the simulation result of the differential protective relay under three phase short circuit fault condition using the proposed algorithm. M. 11 (2001) 1824. 5.133. / Physica C 469 (2009) 1873–1877 1877 resistive heat is generated at the quenched HTS wires. Masuda. the operational characteristics of circuit breaker are similar under a single line-to-ground fault condition. However. Supercond. because the fault current is over the critical current. 16 (2006) 1598. Supercond. (b) The outside of protection zone under fault condition. Table 4 shows the comparison results of operational characteristics of protective relay under fault conditions.3 + j37. Table 5 The 22. Ichikawa. Tonnesen. Fig. %Z1–3 = 56. the utility current suddenly increases.H. presented at Appl. 6b shows the operational characteristics of protective relay under outside of protection zone fault condition. 5b represent the simulation results when the HTS power cable is used instead of line 1.H.H. IEEE Trans. Kim.H. Physica C 468 (2008) 2067. Xiao. the temperature dependent resistance and the heat capacity. the line impedance of HTS power cable is sharply increased. IEEE Trans. Z1 = 19. IEEE Trans.H. Prog. In the case of the differential relay system. Long-Term Prospects Transmission System. Appl. 2008. 17 (2007) 1652. Appl.453. The operational characteristics of circuit breaker are similar to the case of conventional power cable used.9 kV/50 MVA class HTS power cable system protection. IEEE Trans. Supercond. Generator 1. and consequently the circuit breaker instantaneously operates at 0. the protective relay detects the fault current. IEEE Trans.667.156. therefore the fault current is decreased and it makes the fault detection impossible. When a fault occurs. Supercond.H.49 s. Kim. Consequently. Vysotsky. Supercond. Kim. The temperature rise of the HTS wires. Sim.4 30 MVA for . 11 (2001) 1103. 154/22.. J. Appl. Cryogenics 46 (2006) 333. Science and Technology. Conf. The HTS power cable is not interrupted under three phase short circuit fault condition. because the fault current is over the critical current.27 + j2. Kim. Supercond. the HTS power cable is quenched and the resistance of HTS power cable is increased.Num.S. If the fault current flows through the HTS power cable. Kim et al.J. In the case of Fig. 100 MVA 60 MVA (D À Y). J. Supercond. the HTS power cable is quenched and the resistance of HTS power cable is increased. if the fault occurs inside of protection zone. 11 (2001) 1781.D. IEEE Trans. 16 (2006) 1622. the correction of protective relay is required for the quench properties of HTS power cable for secure operation of protective relay.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful