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WORKSHOP PRACTICE SERIES "Onl Argus Books
\. Hardening, Tt!mpNmg .mrl
He.JI T rPc1tmpnt
TulMI Lain
2 'vPffic.1i Milling In thl' Home'

Arnold Thtop
1 <;crt'wcuttmR In ,hE> Utll('
M.lrtm Clecvp
"' Foundf} work 'Of the '\mdtf'lJf
IJ, I A.Splfl
:'; ,\1illmll OperJtlons m the L.Il/)('
luhal LIIn
f, .m" ·\fclrkmg \I,'U!\
IVdn I ,Iv.'
The"" of Weldmg
\V A. VilUse
11. Electroplating
6. Sh!.>,'1 Ml'tdl ''''brA:
R. f W.lkt'lord
q So/ch-ring ,md Bt,Jl'Ing
Tubal (am
10. Soli"'.' .Jnd5.,wm;;
1.10 Bradlt>y
1 I f Ii'(
I PoynPr
1;> 0,,/1, Tap50 .md IJ,(>S
Tubal ( din
I i Draw/nu
T L1ball.lin
1-1 M.,l..inR Sm.J1/I,\orlohop

'lo. Bray
I',. l'Vorkho/ctmg In ,h(' Uthp
I uO.:l1 (am
lb t.1(,!lrIC \totors
\i ) (.ox
T - (,t'¥5 ,md (.(,,If (uttmg
I. Llw
1 rJ:. Sime Bem hwork
Lt'S Oldru/g('
I'J SprlllR ()coslg" ,lOci Ai.1nuf.Rture
TlIh •• 1 elln
lO. ,\I<>t.J/w(lrk ,,"ri t\1,l("/unmg
.lIld r 11)5
1.ln Brold!('v
The techniques of depositing a thin metallic layer on dn object lor
decoration, corrosion protection. electrical conductivity, wedr resistance
and so on have been known for many years but have been developed and
improved to a remarkable extent in the second hali of this century. This
book sets out to discuss the principles and practice of those forms of
plating most suited to the amateur and small workshop. using relatively
simpl and inexpensive equipment to procluce results virtually
uncletectable lrom work carried out by major plating concerns.
Jack Poyner, a professional involved in all forms of plating for many years,
is also a keen model engineer able to recognise the dividing line between
what his average fellow enthusiast would consider practical and
worthwhile and what is really better leit to experts in the field. The result is
a really useful and practical book which will be of value to both dmateur
and light industrial users in many diverse fields.
ISBN 0-85242-862-6
Br

(1) Busy Bee +
r-" -,-- .. -
- .
UK on y 9
,
Electroplating
J . A. Poyner
ARGUSBOOKS
_ .....
AlpIII......,
.... ilia.,
H._'llc_,e.,r
Ilcn_.h, .. 1I1'27ST
Eft,Lorw:l
OA.pa IIoob "'d. 1987
R.,... •• .., I • • 199(1, '991
All .;p ..... ""d. No '" ,bit po, ... -., ....... y be "' ............ I. aD)' Jomo, by pn....
pIooo..........,.. a t .011'" or any <><1>0, _ ...... "hou. "'"'teR ,..,.... ...... r ..... 11,. ,..,1>1;_
ISBNOU142W626
1'toM .... ",., by ............ .t. Daip ""d., ' , Je" WCI
"" •• «Iand' .... bJ 000 ...... lid.. Wiloslli ....
Contents
Chap'''' ,
Chap'''' 2
Chap'",3
Chapter 4
Chaptet 5
Chap'''' 6
Chllp.et 1
Chap'",8
Chapte,9

IntrOduction and princip'H
0/ electroplating
Th" electrical Supply
The e'eo;lropialing lank
Th, el.,nlng of 'he s"bSl,ata
Th" "Kt,olyle
EIKtrofOfming and .'ecuopl.ting
0" non..:(lnducto"
EIKt,ol,," .'ea,opll,ing
An example and Ihe c;:on,ide.atlorl 0'
.'ectroplating
The finishing of alumini um and ill.llor-
6
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50
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CHAPTER 1
Introduction and Principles of
Electroplating
Present d .... electropl,tlng h .. become
I _II-utabli,he<! br.neh 01 metal fin-
il.hing. Elect,opll,ing i. • multi·
ditcipline of ."g' .... 'ing. mechllniCIII
.nd elec1rieaJ. in co-o,dinllion w;m liP.
plied chemistry,
In the .. ,Iv dr(a 01 electroplating the
indulllry 1It'"1'd with wooden VIIS. D,e.
lIen"."o .. , •• perienee .nd "ule of
thumb' method. 01 pfocess control.
Ove, the yea,. _ m,,,.t finIshes heve
been Int.odu"d. Automatic pll"t has
been dflveloped 10 copt! with the in_
c.eased volume 01 parts to be finished
Bnd 10 oonlrol Ihe DroceSl, ensu';"1I a
conlllm quality 01 linish. Inc'eased
use. of metellllee', .II,nI8.1.leel) Ind
vlI.ioot plas,lee h,,,. beeo SHn in the
01 tquipment for thlll finishing
shop.
Pr_m dav finllh,,,,, shops off". I
WIde end "."ed r.nge of finishing 1"0-
.......,.; ion end g •• pl"ing. high spIed
sellICt ..... pleling •• nodlli"glrKI electro-
pla,ing on at ... mini ... m. Vlriol!. electro-
lell fi"i.h .. cov ....... ide •• nge of en·
ginee.ing .eq ... iremenl •. Various alloy
plallog .... carried OI.JI •• u<:h II
eob.lt ..... hich gi ..... herd thickness of
gold. There II aiM! b.a .. plallrlg for elll(;'
I.oplellng safety pin •• ,nd components
,
which hive varioul r ... bllers bonded 10
Ihem.
Over the IISI fift .... yea.s develop-
menl hat beln carried OIl! on Ihe plating
01 plastics.. The lechnolog.,. of primed
boa.ds in lhe elect.onif;$ ind ... strv 1111
added impel .... to IlIe developm&nl aod
many can be lIICCusfull.,. elae-
"opllled. Wtlll Ihe vlrious processes
involved In elect,oplating aod c ... r .. nt
req ... iremenll of lIealtll and safety,
'ppropriate preca ... tionl must be ... nde,'
taken to avoid Icxidenll and redu"., pol.
IUlion of IlIe environment. These ...
deall with In one of the following chap·
tell.
Wilh mOll of Iha processas ... sed in
model englneerinlllhere i. ready·made
eq ... ipmenl $Old on the marlce!., obvio ....
lumpl .. being lalh .. , milling aod drill.
ing mldlin .. , alonll .... lh Ihe material •.
and plallle • . I" CQmpa.ison, wilh
Ih. eleclfoplating proc-M Ih ••• i. verv
little choice av.ilab'- on the market.
Ipa" from UIS for electroplating. This is
d .... to Ill ... limited "N 11 compared to
Ihe machining Ind fabricatinll oper.
ations in model .nllineering and in
small worklhoPt' lIen .. ally.
Th. Olh.r main ,e .. on, ho_"" •• is
Ihe deg,.e of avail,bllity 01 the cheml.
cal • . Cenain chemicalS Ire ,.st.lettd.
and ,.,Iricllons Ire pl..:ed on th.m in
",nlit. The electrical eq"ipm.nl
needed can be adapted from othe,
so .. "':.. - electrical t.1I eq ... ipm.nt.
Or bauerv charg ... or larll.
capacity electrical cell,. If desired I pe ••
man.nl rig can be made. Thi. I, uMf ... '
for I comin",0"5 vol"m. of componenll
Ihel hay. to be f,ni.hed. A wiring dia·
gllm i. inCluded in the chapl.r on the
supply of current.
Wilh ,egard 10 the lanks req ... i •• d.Thi,
is depend.m on the lile of Ihe compo,
nent to be .11CI.oplaled. A uIII ... IIII. I,
Ihe 5 litr. plastic ice c.e.m conlainer.
Thell are ... ,.f ... 1 for mOlt pre·If.llmenl
Ind elect.opllting 501 ... lion •. For ..... rm
or hot 501 ... lion5 • ..... y • • nd m.an. of
heatinll the SQiution may be conlldered.
.... 1;11 IS fish lank heat ..... or. it "',1"111 a
lIatnl'" steel or mild 51eel tank, • 11"
ring or electrle h01 plale may be used
Chemical glass beakers mede 01 heat·
rllilling IIlall may be ... sed and Cln be
h.ated on an .Iectrle hot plate or oYer.
e ... nlln boJrnerwith ..... itabl •• tend and
ga ... te. Thi. 8<\ ... ipment c.n be pur ·
chased" most laborltory eq ... lpmeot
.... ppli •••.
The mod.1 engine.r mUSI dec:id40 on
.... hll .ile Ind volumeof compon.nll he
wanll to elect,oplate, .nd .... hlll.nllh ••
h ..... Ints 10 ... SI. These points willll.ve
10 be conlidered. """'ether he Wlnll a
",dlmenlary Of 1 more .... bsllnlial.1ee-
!fopl"inll facility. The Olh .. relev.nl
lectOfl.re the space eVlllllbl., COII,II<>d
the conveni.nce of "sing Ih. 8<\ ... Ip-
menl. For example. con.idering one fin·
ilh 10' IImll., sile componenll and I
lIeedy vol ... m •. it .... ould .uffice to hlv,
I .imple facility 01 en alkali cl.a"er ••
made of diluted Kid . .... Ith e rln ..
tank conteinlnll cold .... lIer or p.ele,ably
r ... nning .... ater. It co ... ld be made even
.Impler lor c.r1ain compon.nts by g'v,
lng lhem a $COlI' with .brHive pOWder,
Ihen rinsinll In cold .... el ...
Aftar these pretrHtmenll, lhe com·
ponents Ir. electrOplated '" ......,.tev ..
lIIectrolyte is dIoHn.
For In e/ectricallUpp!y a 12 YOIt bit
IIrv, or a battery chllg.r of 12 volt. or 6
VO!II. may be used.
AI the othar a"!reme. for varied com·
ponents and IlIga volume. one could
UII In .Iaborall line of pr'lfellm.m
and rinse \Inks, wilh a line 01 electro·
plllinll "nh all combined wllh the
c ... stom·b ... ilt rectifier.. healer, and
.gilllion. The cost oflhi ..... o ... ld be con·
,iderlble. and Ihere wo ... ld be Ill. prob·
lem 01 dispoling 01 eftl .... nt .nd tpenl
chemical •.
PftINClPlES Of ELECTROPlA. nNG
The fundamental la_ ol.lect,opl.ting
are bllsed on Faraday'. two la-. TkeM
lilt.'·
(1) The weighl of melll d.poaited IS
prOpOr1ionaJ to the quantIty 01
electriCity passed.
(2) For the same quantity 01 elec'
lricity. The waight of metal de·
posited i. propor1lonal to ill
electrO-Chemical eq ... ivlleot.
TheN two 1 __ need • liule expla·
nallon to ... ndersllnd their implicatIons.
Thi. is best provided by definIng Ihe
un;IS.ln I ..... 1.lhe_lIhllwll.lngraml
Of ounces and the q .... ntily of .Iect,icity
is in coulombs ..... hich Is .mpsla) x time
lse«lnds) It!.
Thereto ..... is ptoponionallo I x I.
In lew 2, the electro":hemical eq ... iv.·
'.1"11 i. defined as the weight an el.ment
.... ill ,eplac. or combine .... ilh eighl p.r11
by weight of oxygen in a reection.
The vllency is defined 11 Ihe number
,
EIect. olY'.
A o;onducting medium for mOlt electro·
plllling. An IIqUoroUI 100ulion wilh
water·soluble chemicllls of Ihe m'lat 10
be deposiled. These chemical. dllsolve
in _Ier Ind fo.m ionl which lCquire 11
posilive $ o< neglllive 6ch,rgt.
.,
Is en Ilom. Or etoml. wt>!ch "'ve g,ined
0< losl electron, IInd in consequenoa
carry 11 polilive (!) o< r>eg"'''' 6ch,rge.
The posilive chlrged ion I. called ,
CJllion, which .. diseh,rgoed " tha
cathode, The negltive charged ion il
call&d en aniOll. wh.ch i. diacl1argtcl It
the Inode.
,.'
The use of the te.m p.H will be men·
tioned In th. book In VlnOUI chapte.,.
Th' definilion of th' te.m p.H it defined
liS the log to the baSil 10 oflhll concan·
trelion of the hyd'ogen Ion. Of p.H • -
tog ,oIH+I .
In elecl.Oplallnll il i. uI&d to d.lln,
Ihe acidily or alkalinity ol an el.,;t.olvte.
In prllctical le.ms 8 p.H of I 10 6 I.
acidic; p.H 7 is neutrlll ; Ind p.H 8 10 14 is
A good of neut.,1 tol ·
ulion is pure W.tl' which i, p.H 7.
InMt. o.lnsoluble .no<le
tha anode olllllt partlculllr metal, wIlich
thus r&duca. the concentration 01 the
mltallic ion In solulion, causing an im·
bal,ne. in the elect.olyte. The olher l.,;-
to. aflected by In inert .node is Ihe p.H;
thl' will change and Ifleet Ihe efficiency
li>d phYlieel chlfecteristics of the elec-
troplated deposil. The mlin elecltoplllt-
'no procel." Ullng lnen llnodll$ I.e
chromium elecl'09lall (decor"ive and
lIard). u.ing I,ed .nodl • • end gold elec·
t.oplating, alklline and acid elec!.olvtes
respectively.
CURRENT DENSITY
Thi. term is defined a. the amounl of
cu".nl (limp') pe. unilarel of cathode
(componenl l, usullllv as
.mounll of CUffent ,amps) pII' squa.s
foot o. aquare decimet .... abbravill1ed
. ... f. or 11 dml.
The firll Ihing thet must be known
lbout th. electroplating electrolvte il
the preferred cur .. nl density .ange.
Thi. v,.lu wilh ellCh elocl.olvte. Tha
second considaralion i. Ihe tolal sur·
laca lIfea olthe components you a.6 go·
I"g 10 electroplale. The third Ihing 10
con,ider;' the shape of Ihe comPOnenl
o. components and it s position ,,, .e·
IlIion 10 Iha anode, in Ihe lank.
'"
This i. when ,,, .node ,ueh U lI, i"I ...
$Ieel , plallnlsed illinium or leid I. usad (2)
in a" electrolvte I"d Ihe a"odI don 110\
dissolve ,nto Ihe elect.olvte to keep Ihe
concenlrll,on in bllanee. Thi. 11 II di,·
The tinge 01 cu"ant density will
be givan for Iha electrolvtes In Iha
ch.ple. 0" elecl.olvtes.
The measurema"t of Ihfl surfaca
arN ol lhe componenlslo be "lac:·
Iropllled require .n elemenlary
k"owl&dge of mensu.al;O<l. Some
h, lpful examples for work,"g OUl
Ih' lurf8al IrflU .. 11 shown Wtg.
31.
IIIlC! f.om tM coppe •• nodt' in Ihe
coppe. elactrolvte.
Th. ,ne" anode h .. an advanll(je in
cartain elect.olyt .. for electropl"ing.
However, t'ghta. control i. nuded in
monito.ing Ihe bll,nee of Ihe elklro·
Iyts, due 10 lad! of repl.ni,hment from
MOll components Ire shaped ill a
comb, .... lion of Ihe IisllId shapes.
o. ID Ihese shapes.
SO ul'''I,ng Ihe .pp.oprillte form·

. .. -'
__ N
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---
-------
--
-
, . !?U"P( • • "tw'f
"
,
,-
"
-.., . ......... -.
,
,
ul .. III 5lIrface ar •• be ob-
I"..-d 10 achieve. good pllll'ed
appell.nce WIt" the requillte
t!'l,dlne". In 011'1 •• words, It il nol
.blOlulely nacosur)' 10 be ace ... •
tlte to III fraction 01 ,1'1_ , ••• ID
obialn Ihe corroct elewoplaled al·
f&eland thickness.
131 The .h.pe of the component. Or
wmponenls. end position 10 11'1,
Inodn In the {tOnk
can *1 IH! explained by • dia"
gram.
Fig. 4 shaWl In electroplatong 'ank w"h
enodes lInd 11 !Wspendtd in The
elect.olvte. Th" i, so Ihaped
Ihat it h1l5 "US labelled h'gh current
densnv lInd low current den,i'v. In elec·
I'opl"ing Ih" component wnh,n Ihe
IInge of Ihe currenl densilV la. the Plr'
lieul., el«iroIVl" 'hG wmponent may
Nove I coa'M. 'ough depol'l bu,1'II in
Ih' h'gh current density ,rel Ind Intll
0' no depOsol ,n the low CUfflfl1 dens,ty
• r ... To Impro ... the depoln V'fOOUI
m"ans If. pos"bll. The Inodl in front
"'.
011"1 high current dflnsil\l area mav be
moved 10 one alde of lI>a 0<
the bonom high w ..... t densilY .. e.
may haV1l I "'ob/)t, " IUIIICt>ed. which
take$ the excess current. Fo. the low
current dens'ty area the anode is bent
Or a sub-anode attached nep, •• the .'"a
of the component. Another method Is 10
redL>C<l Ill. tu" ... t density to 11'11 lowe.
part ollhe tange, and IncreaSfl lhe "m.
for eleclfopl'ling
met/>oclll'f. bosed on the an of
elec:t.opllling. and WI\h • bulld·up of
I(IlIpe,ienCllhey w>1I not be too d,ffICult
to eccomphll'l.
However. mOSI are of.
srraighlfofWlrd shape and will electro-
plale qune well when luspended in a
bath.
The olhe' Imparl.nl shapes in elec-
troplaling are blind holll5. These p'ove
difficull, leaY,ng 11"nl .round Ihe hole
The best waV 10 this ploblem ,.
to filllh" hole w'th Wlx Or sim,l.!Jr ml-
le,i.l; IhlS will ,n .ffect "OP eleo;tropllll '
ing in th. holl. but w-II .edtJGe the
staining effect On Ih' rompanent.
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CHAPTER 2
The Electrical Supply
Met.,s I .. mllnlv electrodeposiled bV
the action of In electrical CUffenl. Direcl
current IOC) I. l"lnlilll for electro·
dlposition. Alle,nating curren, (AC) will
not deposil mel.I •. However, th .. 1 Irl
vlI,iltiOJll on IlIlrnlting ,yslams which
Ire slill bting developed. These
methods g,ve ..... ooth .. IInd denser
metal depotll .nd Ire used in
lpe<;:illised engineering applications .
The mlin conlideration for an eleclrl.
ClI supplV in ,h. workshop 0, lighl In·
gin .. ';ng lacihtv will be derived from
the normallingle ph ... AC supplV.
The supply volllgel. immalerial. as I
transformer I. uled to ronvert it 10 •
working AC O!J'PUt.
The Ihould givllhe chlf-
lICIeristics .. follo_'
CHOICE Of' OUTPUT VOLTAGE
Ona mllin continuous winding tapped al
4,6,9, 10 and 12 YOlll, capable of giving a
subllanllel of !Jp to 10 Imp.
continuoul.
RECT1f1CATION OF THE CURRENT OF
TlfE AC SUPPL V
The /undion of 11>1 'ect,tier is 10 convarl
Ihe AC CUff"" from tl>l l,an.IOfme. 10
DC CUffenl. Rectil .... Cln be 01 the solid
lI.te Ylfietv, diodes etc., 0' Ihl older
copper or selenium typet.
Alo de."ibed in chapler one, Fara·
d'V'1 L,w Sl81es Ihat the mall 01 el ·
ement. In Ihis CilS8 m"ll deposited, is
directlv p.opoftionallO the quanti,v of
electrical ch.rge. coulombs or (.mPS x
lecon,",l. The .ectifie. should be ,uit·
eble 101" rectifying 12 voll •• nd
12 .mps withoul htolling .ff«;t. and be
of Ih. double W'VltyPII giving lull wa""
rectilicaTion. thus giving' ... sonably
,mooth OC output.
VARlA8LE RESISTANCE
The nexl illm 10 comple" ths package
of elllCl,ical equipment i. I varilble ...
,illenee. This usually ronli," of a ro-
\.Iry sel 011 I halNesisl,ng
board. Fo. high lImPII'ege lhe varillble
... illlnee board is often mlde 01 melal
0' .Ilfe. Set in'o tha board are b,ass
lIud •• rranged in a with Islid,ng
conlle! with I hlndl' m.dI 01 bflu.
Aft.nged .nd connectad behind the
lIud. are coils of metallic wire, Ylrying
In .Ila Ind 10 p'oduce differsnt
rlli.tlnces 10 obtain the dllired amptlr·
.g • • The vlri.ble , .. illlnee i. Ihan
COnflicted up with In Immele. and ... olt·
matef to permit ronvenienl monlloring
"
....
A
....
,.


!JI!
__ " __ 'I
ro .. a-R y
v
A
of the ampt.ege and voUage r.,ding •.
IAg.61.
On lome mod •• n oo.,dl,lnl,.ad 01.
,liding I;I)rltact on bl ... ,Iudt • , .. i$' -
ence wire I, uted, with •• nd
,witch.t inltrlperled. which ...
pr,Sled down fOf u.. delired Imper·
Ig'. Thi. i. when JO amps or mOre .r.
.eqUlled, end by placlr>g the coil. in
,JI.llAltead 01 M,i .. , I, .. hut is gene.·
,ted '1Ih, coils for Ihe high amperlge.
(Fig. 7).
An ideel smell electropl.ting elact,j·
eIIl supplv cen be Ht up UI'"g' battery
on ill own. 0' bettl!f "ill con-
nltCled up with a vollme"" ammeler
and variable resistance.
The home bene<y ct."ge. normally
h .. only en ammet •• , and lometimH'
6 10 12 volt plug. the maximum output
being 4 10 5 amps. If you !>eve. 6 volt
output. use thi, for normal llea,opl.,.
11>11. A 6 voll control unit must be made
IS • Mparat. item •• ,the. on its own
chHSis or in ils 0Wll metlll bolt. If m.c:le
in ils own do nollorgello prOVIde
.c:Iequale venlilallon, as quile I 101 of
hell is generated wIlen using m ... imum
.mps.
The 12 volt unit un .Iso be made IS.
A rypou/ '-')'CHI' '" ,,,. -,«!,JcM .uppIy and .,. ""k wi." an eiKf'"""" /N"'}.
_It"" /hrMJ
)

"
r-------------- -- - --,
I
I
,.
1
,
,
.. t1VI"< O ..... OU
, __ ________________ -l

.. '
",pa"ta Itlm il dn"ld. but If you hava
Inoogh loom Insldl thl battlry Chlfgll
casing. you ean flltha COnl.ol Itlm.lnto
thIS. Thin, whin thl Unil i, 0Ieded ...
battlry ch •• glr, w,nd Ikct polllmllomlllf
knob to fTMlI!mum vohs, maklng .....
thlll 11'11 one .mp meter is shOf1I1d 001
us'ng IhI 5 Imp switch, and you "1
,e.dy 10 ch •• g •.
Should you m.ke the control unit IS.
sapa.ata item, .. m.mbat 10 connect the
ehaui, o. metal casa to tha matsl case
o. chaUit of tha battary cha.ge •.
F.g. 8 shows thl ci'cuit dl.gr.m
which is vlry IImple.
The potentJomlt.r is corlOectlld
ac.oss tha ootput of lhe battary cha.ge.,
numbe.1Id 1 and 2 on the diltg.am, and
the slidlng .. m 3 taps off the voltlog. If
.equ"IId,.mI is shown on th. voltmlllf
,
11 you are electroplating a compon.nt
thal .equi ••• mo .. than one smp, then
th. one .mp .mmete. must be .honlld
oot by (IO$'ng the 5 .mp switch S.W.
The higher .mpe"gl can then be teld
on tne ch.rgar unil'. inllmal ammate •.
When you "";sh to electroplata a small
"
component 'equiflng I," than one
amp, lu.n th' pOtantiomlte. right down
10 uto put minim ... m voltage In thl cir·
cuit, open thl SWItch S,W .. and with ll'Ie
.nodes ami componlnll (cathodes)
.I •• .,ty in thl electrolytl, connect the
control unit OOlput to the <espec1ive
.node and eathodl connectIons. Then
w,nd up the potentiomete. unlll the .e·
qui.1Id .eading on thl ono amp am·
mete.;s shown,
The normol convention for a control
knob is clockwise la. Ind
Inti.clockwise fa. minimum, and If ll'Io
clfcuit is connecllld U fig. 8, this should
come out correctly, Should yoo fiml the
'IVlrse happening, brllk the contact
bet_n the voltmate. and I, (snown as
X on the diagram), .nd couple the volt·
meter connection. to pOint 2 on the d,a,
gram. This Iho ... ld correct thl fault.
Fig. 9 -shoWllhl back vi.w of. potan.
(iometo', Tlgs 1 and 2 arlthl two ends
of the varlabll resisto., .nd tlg 3 is the
sliding a.m.
Othe. methods of p.oviding • DC
• ... PP .... fa. llect'OpI",ng are I .. ge 3D
amp battery chargers IOf milk noalS.
o
2
3
(O.veysellypet hive bottn used by the
Ivtho.).
The simplest way of supplying 11 cu.·
,ent fa. elect.opllling is I 12 or 6 volt
battery connactlldln .er'" with 10 am·
""'-. 111 "'''fT.
,--
' ....... D
,-
IOOttr4IOWAm;
"-,,,
, ...... Uo
.-
mile. and switch. The limitflion of this
llthet the bll!lIry ha. 10 be
.fter I period of time, depending of
C(\une on thelmperag. d.awn.
"
CHAPTER 3
The Electroplating Tank
Tho electroplating tBnk, VDI, or bsth,
whatever ;t is called, contains the "IIIC'
trolyte. However. other pans of the pro-
cess Ilove 10 be considered, such as
cleaning end rinse lanu.
The electroplating and cleaning tanks
BrS the most imponant, because U'e)'
hold corrosive solutions of chemicals.
The rinse tanks. as their name
suggests. arS merely suitable v9ssels (2)
containing plain waler.
The main pOints 10 consider are Ihe
materials. Ihe const ruction, the Size.
end if requiting to be healed. This app-
lies to bolh cln";"g and electroplating
tanks. 13)
TakIng Ihe points in order:-
MATERIALS
Most chemical solulions are either add
Or alkaline. The only neut ral substances,
i.e .. p.H 7.0, lire usuelly organic solven(s
(used in the Initial cleaning) and waler.
Lisl ing the cleaning solutions and
electrolytes used in various chapters
with the relevant materialS will illuslrate
what can and cannOt be used fQr a par·
ticular sQlution (see Table ' I.
NOTES REGARDING TABLE ,
(' I Where plastics 8re mentioned, the
"
most usual are polythene and
polypropylene. These plastics
come under various trademarkS.
and can all be used. Good u ·
amplllS of these are half and one
gallon ice cream canons. Oiher
good plastic containers for tanks
are cut·down 2.5 li lre Chemical
containers o. len gallon carboys.
Using mild Or stainless sleellanh
has Ihe edvanlage that they can be
healed easily wilh a gas ring. They
elso have more rigidity. especially
when heated. This applies to tha
alkaline clean8n.
Pyrex· type glass is quoted be·
C8Use it is heat resistant. When it is
In Ihe form 01 chemislry lebore·
tory squat beakers it can be healed
Qn an electric hotplale or a Bunsen
burner. CustQm· made plastic
tanks cen be purchased from elec·
troplating supply hous.es.
Small plastic tanks Can be heated
by low watlage aquaria plastic·
covered haalers. For larger vol·
uma tankS, varying Siled watlage
of siHea sheathed beaters up to
2KW. or stainless steel or tilanium
immersion heaters 01 similar wan·
8ge, can be used.
N°' Zinc
N"2 Zinc
Dull Nickel
Semi.brighl Nickel
Dull Copper
Table 1 Recommended Malerial for
Electrolytes
Plastic. propylena Iype
Pyrex glass, stainless steel
Mild S!eel, Plastic. propylene type
Pyrex glass, stainless steel
Plaslic, propylene type, Pyrex glass
PlaSlie/rubber lined sleel, Pyrex
Plaslic, propylene type. Pyrex glass.
st ainless sleel.
Sem;· bright Copper stainless steal. Plaslle/rubber
rned sleel
Ti,
Alumrnium
Anodise
N°' Soak
Cleaner
N
G
l A Electrolytic
Cleaner
N°2 Cleaner
Aluminium
N°, Hydrochloric
Acid Pidle
N°' A Hydrochlori c
Acid
N"2 Sulphuric
Acid Pickle
N"3 Pickle
Aluminium
N"4 Slight Dip
N"5 Bright Dip
Aluminium
Zincate Dip
Mild sleel, Plastic, propylene type,
Pyrex glass, slainless steel
Plastic, propylene type.
glass, Lead·!ined
Pretreatment SOlutions
All this group
mild steel
Plsstic, propylene
Pyrex glass.
slalniou steel
All this group
PlastiC. propylene
typa, Pyrex glass
Stainless sl eel
Eanhenware (glaledl
Plastic. propylene type.
Pyrex glass, stainless steel

Mildlyacid, e
electrolyte
Alkaline
M'ldlyacidic
Acidic
Alkaline
Acidic
All Alkaline
N°'A Mild Stoal
can be used
lor Anode
and Cathode
All Highly
Acidic
Highly
Alkaline
"
---
, '

TANK CONSTfl UCTION
In the construction of electroplil!lng .nd
lor professional finill"",,,
ShOPI, 11111&1 and most plastic link. ,.,
med. by moulding, end these ••• pul '
ch ... d Iccordmg 10 \h, " l e .nd vol.
ume requited. Som. plfStic tan t>.
weld,d, SUCh" poly!hene Ind poly.
p.opylenll. Be <:lllIlullo check tll.1 Ihese
tin'" h'V8 no , ... .,.. h i, good p.-.:Iice
10 fill ,"-m wllh Wile, ,nd allow to
Ital>(l fot 11 dllV. 10 .... il any 1111" .p-
pear.
For metal 'snh thlt h8" 8 been
welded Il'Ie S8mt1 checkmg for leak,
Ipplies.
For stl,nl"ss ,,"'tenks mike lu" 11
good lI<ld8 01 st.'n!eft steel i. used.
fuch el 317512. Thi, will .Iand Ihe eor·
'Olive nltu.e of Ihe brlgl>t dipl .nd
pickl ••.
A typical Ulnk i. iIIu.I,"ed IInd th, fol·
Iowing numbers rei". 10 the' shown 1<1
Fig 10:
"
'01
1>,
13'
,.,
Inlullled holder. for .node IInd
ea,hode bar •. usually m.d, 0'
porcel"n Or pllSlie.. 11 the link i.
.... de 01 Sleel . theW holders Ihen
kHP "'It anodll and o;alhodll ba,.
In.ul.ted. These ,r. boiled or
screwed onlo the lI.nge5. for
plulic. the lank matedal providel
in.ulllion.
Th" .node ,nd o;alhode bar • .
ulU.11y .... d" of copper or brass.
typical d,emel" .. being I,(o;n.
to Iln, end l'hin .. depending on
Ih" size of Ih" lank ,nd Ih" weighl
of Ih" .noda Ih"ywill h,v" 10 sup-
""rt.
Anode. These o;an be .h .... l. drilled
and hooked. or hooIIltd .node • .
M,k" .u .. Ih" hooua .. OUI of lha
eleclrolyte.
Thl fim. or Ih" tlange .. ound Ihe
lOP of Ih" lank. ;,ulfllul/or hand·
ling .nd affi.ing Ih" hold"'l 10.
Ih. anode and CIIlhCHk bars. end
'"

holde" for the v.nou. heater.
and agilallon eqUIpment.
This is Ihe CIIlhode. Or compOnent
to be electroplated. It can .ithe. be
wired on Wilh eopp"r wir" o. alu·
minium will ' or pleting 0' anodil-
ing_ Th" CGmpO<>I'Inl o;an be jigged
or hooked. A "1fIfu! method for
small compon"nts is 10 pr«lean
and spread Iham oul on. piece 0/
"8inles$ ItHI mesh shaped lika.
busket, wilh I wire or hook
through Ihe middlelfig. 12). Ah".
Ip<eading th"m over U>e IUrf_
01 lhe meah. lhe b,sI<lII it im·
mersed In Ihe electrolyt" .u • •
pended by Ih" hook from Ih"
cathode bar, Shlke Ih" bllklll 11
various tim", to mo"" Ih" corn·
pOnents. Thi, will pt_n! 'r"a.
be,"g unpl'led.
,
, .
t)
"
Thl Cllco.olelion Of Ihl voluml of I
lank i' :-
Voluml lV) in gallons with Ihl dimen-
sions ln inc:he,.
V _ IInglh. width x hlight cu -,"ch ..
276.5 (Inches).
V _ IIngth K width ~ height cu -felt
0.18 I.
V In liv ..
""'- '11 100al
volume to lhe mU5Ured hlighl of Ihe
lenk. The .etual volume il to Ih' height
of tha IOlution.
If agitation of the elaclrolyt81 i,
needed Ilh,. depending on whit t',Ipe of
finish II required) two methodl are
luggUlld:·
(11 Fo< nic:lcel and copper Ilacllolyt ...
.. _11 " !he anodiling. !hev Cln
be aglllled by an ,Iactrit; ~ d l e
1I",er sitUlled 11 Ihe tide of Ihe
tlnk.
121 A good method ilia pllce Iplalllc
pIpe Illhe bonom olthe link. WIth
small hole. drilled in. Anached 10
thl •• by means of a nll.ible pipe. i.
I regulaled compressed air
lOurCI. When I" I. pened
"'r()IJgh the pipes. Ihi. glv .. I
"
bubbling action. which agl"t ..
thl 101I,Ilion. Care - regulate well.
ar ,I" it wIll froth .nd bubble
0 .....
Housekeeping with electroplating
prOCll-l llnh
(1) Alwa .... remOVI Ihe anode and
cethodl bar •. and dean down by
Nbbing WIth SCQIJring powder.
Scotchbrite or dOlh. Rinse in
will< and rel>l_. Check all elac-
tricel contact. on the tenk for he".
If hOI. make lure Ihat a beller COn-
nlClion i. Obt.ined. (Heat dissl'
pate. the current).
(2) Mak. lure III the sOlutions ere up
10 the requirld volume. If nOllhey
a.elopped up wllh clean wale'. or
distilled or daioni"d weler.
m Makl sura III Ihl anodH .. I
cleln, and thl eonllct. 10 thl
Inodl ba. a'l cl .. n. In all Ihl"
lreas Ihl currlnt denSIty will v.ry
if Ihere i. I bed CCH'IlIct.
141 Ensur. III 'aetifier alact.icll con·
tact5 a .. claln.
IS) Removl Ihl anode. and rinse
whIn thl Ilact.olyte Is nOI in USI.
161 Cove. th, ellctrolytes with lids
whIn nOl In u ...
CHAPTER 4
The Cleaning of the Substrate
The mOlt imponanl p .. t of thl lIact.o·
pl aling P'OCI .. i. Ihl preperatlon and
cleaning 01 the substrala. i.e. Ihe SUrfacl
of the componlm prior 10 Ihe elact.o·
plating Op!lrallon.
This Plrt of the p.ocess delefminl'
the appearlnce Ind the adhesion Ollhl
electroplate<! dlpo$lI, as well u ils anli_
corrosion prOptniU.
The important polnl to remember
lboul a cl"ning cycle i, to makl it 11
.imple 11 POlllbll within thll confin"
of the compon8fl1tO be cleaned, thl"_
quired appe ••• nC1l ollhl ellCl.opllled
depooit, and whet melal ilia be electro·
deposited. Elabor.llon of Ihl cleaning
process cen Ilad to I poorly finished
component. and (:Ontequently lead 10 I
waste 01 mall.ial,.
The fi'$1 pen of lilY cleaning cycll i.
da-greasing. Th" pan of thl deaniflg
ope.alion;' carried out wilh an organic
solvent Ind refe"ld 10 IS the sol ... nt
clean. There Ifl various de-g.ening
agenls "sed In Ihi, Plrt of Ihe cyde and
Ihey a.e ulu.lly lome form of paraHin.
white spi"I, indUII';al alcohol, o. h.lo-
genated hydrocarbon. luch 11 Gen-
kle ....
In indullri.1 fin"h,ng II>ops a vlpour
clean is used in cUllom-buil\ tan .. (:On-
taining haloglnated hY<lroc.rbons such
.. trichloroethylene. The .. Ire used
withIn Clrtain hl81th and u let',l
regulations. which mikes them en e ~ ·
pensive cepital process.
Fo. general use, 10 •• move SOil.
g ..... Ind oil (IIC. 'Ill being IOlubla in
organIC soIventsl Ihe COmPOfllnIS are
wired. hooked 0< p I ~ in I melal
bI.kll. usually 51.,nless ""1, which i,
th.n immersed in a metal conllinlf con-
taining thl soIvenl and aglllled from
one to len minutes. depending on lhe
amount of g.e88e and loll . ThlY a ..
then ,hakln end allowed 10 .ir dry.
Larga componen" can be wiped Wllh a
$OIvent-lOaked cioth befofa dipping.
Great Cl .. mull be liken WIth IOI ... nll
11 they Ite/llmmabfeo. gi ... 011 dlnger·
ous vapours .nd remOVI gT"" f.om
lhe Ikin and o;:Q\Ild Cl"" dermat.IIs. I1 is
bell la CI.ry OUI Ih" ope'"ion In an
open IImOlptllrl. wllh no naked /lImes
end uling glOVes.
The IOlvenl clean l •• preilmi"arv
clean which is c .... led 0"1 on III metals.
AlKAUNE CLEANERS
....... linl Sootk a.. .....
Thi' cI"nlng solulion Cln be used for
"
III f.rrou. m.tll., eoppe. Ind its
It ,.mOVH Ih. IUI trKH of g.ease aMI
oillnd ,Hidual poIi.h compouMls f,om
lhe! componetttl.
No.l Alkllin. Cl ...... '
Mak. up:·
SodIum Hydrfll.ida 6ol. pe. gallon 40
grms. pe. lit ••.
Sodium Cartxw.ra 40.1. pe. gellon 25
g.m • . per 1i1.1.
Sodium Tri.iUCiI,a 4oz.pe. gal1o" 25
grms. per lit.e.
Thi. can be m.dl up wllh wellr 10 thl
'UQuirttd volum •. Carl must be lakan
wilh sod,um which,s vlry al·
kalina; .nd gogglas must be
usttd.
Th. cll.n,. ,. used 'I ,tempe.lturl
of betwN" 6O'C Ind 8(f(:, (14O'F 10
176'f). fOl II"ous m.lals it .. besl 10
usa Ihllemperalurl of 80'(:. 11 is .ecom·
mended 10 un IIIHI conl., ... r for Iha
eI •• ".,. Th. imm".StId
Irom two 10 I.n minutls.
fo •• SfICOnd SIIga CIa.net o. EIf1c.
It()/yTHl Cle.ne. Ihl lbove blJlh can be
used. It can be used in Ihe lam" tlnll
wh.n m.dl of 11111. I1 is conside.ed
good praclice lo pilei lWO links in tan·
dem, the fi<lllor a cleanl •• and \hl
stK;ond an "ICI'Olytic ell ........
Fo. Ilrrous mltll, Ihl IInll is mlde
Inod,c. Ihll is the U,nk i. connlCled 10
Ih. po5Il,vl part of IhllllCl"CitI supply
end Ihl WI.,d Of hooked compon,nts
CQnnlCled 10 Ih' cathodIC: nag.at,ve pi"
of lhe .1Ict.ielllUpply. Mtk. su •• Ihll
Ihey I'. ,n.ullled, by IIp'ng tterOS'S Ih ...
lOP 01 Ih. link.
T1'II high and of Ih. tamperllu ••
.Ing. it utell, Ihll '. 8O"C al a cUffenl
denllty of 10 I • . f. - 30 • .•. 1. -
3.0a ·dm'l from on. to two minutes.
The mechan,sm ol lhlS type of clean·
ing i , thll hyd'ogen gH is lib •• etttd
"
ova. thlsurfac. Ollhl cathodl. i_I. Ihl
compon,nl. th' IIIrface of which Is
"ICrubbed" by Ih' hydn.gen gls Ind
Ihi, in conllqu.1IOI IfflClS I clean.ng
action
Fo. copPl< and it. IlIoys Ihl same
p.ocedU'1 Is used IS for Ih... f ..... ous
mllall. bullhelompe.alu •• usedil6O'C
(14O'f), th' low .. Ind of Ihl Ilmpera·
lurl r,ngl. The CUHent d ... nsity i, .150
10WI. at 5 a, • . f. (O.SIIldm'), for a pe.lod
01 tw,ntv 10 forty slconds.
To finish off Ih •• pi" of till cycle for
Dolh farrou. mal .. ials lInd coppe. Ind
copper alloy. Ihl pola, ity is .evlrsed.
1.1. Ih. component made anodk and
cleaned fOf I furthl' \on teConds allh.
,a",. CUHlnl dln,itlH IS fOf flrrOUS
• nd coppe •• nd coppe. Illoys respect·
ively. Th ... emov •• I ttny amount of
mllll. 111Il0l giving I clean and ICIIVI
surfKI.
Alkali", CI .. n .. fo< Aluminium ,nd
Zinc DlI Clltlngl
Thlse 1<1 cll.ned in • Iow
Cllanl •• wh;eh g,vl •• dull. f.osty .p.
pellrallOllo Ih. componlnts but off,,, a
good cll,n .u.lac. p.ior to electroplel'
;ng Of anodIsing.
No. 2 Alklllnl CI .. nl.
Mak. up:'
SodIum hrd,oxidl 31». pe. g.lIon
2Og.ml. pe. lil'e.
Sodium c.t,boII,,11 40.1. per g.lIon
2Sg.m • . PIt hlfl.
Th. eI .. ...,.. " used .t a lamplfllu •• 01
6O'C /14O'"F). Howev .. , il can be used"
• IOWlr Ilmpe'alu'l if. ,eduction in Ih.
!tO$ty appea •• nee i. desired. Thl im·
me<lion time i. I.om Onl minull 10
lit ... m,nul", depending Igain on Ihl
Ippearance'lqui,ed.
Thl lank fo. this cllana. can be 0 1
plastic. 11111 Or glal •.
""""
Th. nll<l Plrt of Ihl cleaning cycl. I, Ihl
pidcling P'OCIA. Pickling mellls mlanl
Ihl 'Imoval 01 impu.ilies IUd'IIII $CIII.
and, in Ihl case 01 steel, rust, from Ih.
aurflCe, with lin l. 0, no .nadc o •• ,.
of the actuII melal undemlalh
Ihl impufilils.
PidclH "I fo.mulotted !tom ml .... ral
adds .uch 11 hyd.ochlo.ic .nd 1111·
phu.ic acida.
No. 1 Plckll
Hydrochloric Acid Pickla.
Mike up: ·
Conct/n/fllr/ld Hydrochloric Acid
31511.oz.200 mls.
Wirer ma.dcl up 10 one gallon (0' 200m1
in 0111 lit,,) .
This pidcll is used a\ .oom IlITtpe,,·
tU' I . The .ecommlndadlank 10 uM is of
plllttc, usually polyp.opylene, Of gl.u.
11 I 11 .. 1 link i. used. it mull be lined
with rubbe. Of plestic.1t i, p'ller.bl. to
hlvlllid onwhan nol in uM beClUM of
Ih, fumH, which will cauM ,ulling 01
11111 objects In clOSI
Thl prOCedU'1 for making up is 10 hili
flll lhl lank wilh cold waler. Ihln pour In
the measu.ed volume of conclnt.aled
hydrochloric acid slowly. Tak. ca'l 10
un glov.s, goggl ... s Ind ov ... II •• nd
carry oul in an open Spacl. Aft .. the
Kid illS bIIn eddttd, makl up 10 Ihl fl·
qui.td volume. Tilt! ,.action of hyd.o·
Chlo<ic acid wilh watl' dOlI nOl .. ise
!he tlmpe.atu ••.
This pidcll can be used boIh 10' f •••
rOut matlfials and eoppe. .nd ill
.lIoys.
The imm.,,'on lim. VII",
10 how much seal. is presenl on Ihl
componlnll. FOf normal tee!e ,lmov,I,
on. 10 fou. minules i. thl ulual I, ml.
Thl compon ... nls are u5ually wi.ed up
with copper Wi'I, hooked, 0' on iiO"
To malll up an Inhibt"ted Pie.,., IIlI
mlkl up 10' Ihe pidcll Is
used w"h 0.5'4 by _ighl H.x,m,nl ad.
dition.
No.HA) Pickle
0.80>:. pe. galJon o. Sg.ml. PlO' hlrl of
Hlxaminl.
TlIa flIU!! 01 adding thl Hlx.minl
will be Ihe 'Imov,1 ol lh. teel, by Ih.
pickl •. bul lh •• t! will be no action of Ihe
pickle on lhl cll an mllll surfacl. In
olhe. wo.ds, Ihlaction of Iha pielll, will
ceasl Whin Ihe seall het been 'a·
movld. NOTE -Ihil inhibited plckll e.n
only be utell on flfrous mltlrials.
No. 2 PiclIl.
Sulphuric kId Pickl •.
up:·
Conctml,.,1rI Su/phunc Acid 9fl.oz. !Y.;
m,.
W., ... m.de up 10 onl gallon (SSml in
0lIl hIt.).
Thl uml mlll".1 " used for Ih.
lanu IS in No.1 Pickle. Thl procedU'1
10' m.king up Ihe pidll i •• Iso IhlUml
11 No. 1 Pickll, bul lotk. ca .. with lul·
phuric lcid - use goggles, glovH .nd
oVlrllll. as Ihis is co.rosivl. and wh.n
addld 10 wale. Ihe lemperatu'l of the
'Olulion .isos ropidly, so stir contlnu·
ou.ly whill.lowIy .ddingthlacid. (SII
lhl difflrlnCI with No.1 Pickll whlll no
h." i'glnefllttd).
Aft .. cooling, Ihl pickll i. ready fOf
uu. It il used 11 room l.mpe.lIIu'l.nd
used bolh 10. i.on and liNt ,nd COpPl<
and brill.
Fo. normal 5Cl11 removal. OnllO Iou.
m,nutH imm ... "ion liml i •• equired .
No. 3 Pickle
Aluminium and AJluys PI·eIIll.
Maka up:-
Concentrated Nitric Acid 3911 ,01
2SOmls.
Sodium FIIIOr/de 1.SoI. 10grm •.
Wa'" m.cle up 10 one gellon 12SOm1 in
OMli"e).
Thi. i.used 81a picklalo •• Iuminium.
or 10' da'lmoWng "",n, in aluminlom
.11oyI. and gen,,.lIy imlNrls a cl .. n
surlae..
The b-II(h be mllde up In e gl/l51 o.
plestic link. La. polyp.opylenl.
To mltl op Ihe pickle. hatl fill the lint
with water. add the mlllo.1d amoont
of nitric acid to 'hi werlr.
slowly. continuou,ly slirring. Next add
tha sodium lIuoriM and Illr Will ontit
dio.solYed. Finally. mlk. up '0 the ••
qoirod \IOluma wilh wat ... CARE with
ni,fic 3cld. being corrosiv.; use glov ...
gogglal.nd 0 .... ,11 •.
Th. pic:kJe i$ uH<! et room lempefl '
ture. wUh imm .... ion tim. of betweln
(hirty ncondl and one mino!a.
8ri;ht Olps
No. 4 D,p.
Mak, op:·
Concenll.fed Sulphuric Acid 8011 ,0' ,
500m11.
Nitne Acid 3011.0 •.
185mll.
Concentrated Hydrochlorit: Acid
0.511.01. 15m1s.
Warer 5OIl.o,z. JOOmII.
IMaking one gallon or onl li(ra re·
lpecI;lIaly).
Tha lint cln be m.cle of gins. pla'lic.
potyl/l_, P.V.C" or I good qU31ity
"ainl .... teel loch as 317512 glide.
To mlk. up the Drlght dip, th, w3ter 1I
poured In (ha tank..nd the COrocent'31ed
.olphoric acid Iddad slowly. stirring
coot inuou.ly; witch for ollerheating.
The lolouon illlllowed to cool to room
tamper3t U,.. The mtlaSllred amount 01
concen'flted nitric ,cid i. eddad. lIi ••
ring contInuously. then the measu.ed
26
amount 01 corocent.ated hydrochloric
acid .cIded,
It i. good p<actiC1ll0 st,nd plntic can·
tainer. in an outer tank containing cold
wa(a •.
Ca.e. whan m.king op thi. b-IIth, Th.
concentrated minefllacidl era corros·
illl ,nd burns, ther.for. gloves.
gogglasand olllrall, mOll be WOM.
The bright dip is uH<! et room tem·
per&lUII lor copper and copper allo.,.
and nickel lillll' only. The imme .. ion
tima i, 11 matter of second •• Ihls being
dependenl on the surl,c:e .equired.
Alter bfight dipping. O>ey must be fm·
merH<! in I cold water rinse 10 remOlla
Ih. acid. Put, ,malllmounl of sodium
in thoe IrnSflto neullllin. lily
2ou. per galion. Thtr cornponentllO be
bright dipped Irl wired with copper
will. $m,1I COmPOIlOll1I can be dipped
in lJt,in!ess IIHI beS",.. This process
mu" be -'I ventilat.cl, or done in tha
open ail. becaUM when diPPlllg th,
compononta, fume. of nllrog'll di.
oMiM III gillln oH from the dip. which
..a ",,"me1y h .... dou • .
For Brlllht Dippi ng of Aluminium
No. 5 Dip.
M ••• up:·
Conc.rrfraferi PtrosplK>rit: Acid 15."ll.o,z.
44Om1 •.
Hydrogan Perox;do 120 lIolumes)
O. UfI.o,z. "mlL
W.f .... O.73f1.Q.r.21ml •.
Tha IOlution i. &I I tempers·
(ur. 019O"C 119!i' f).
The link uH<! is m/lde 01 gl, .. O.
pI3.IIC. i.e. propylenl. The weter is
poured in tha link. Ind con<:e<ltreted
phosphoric aCid added Ilowly, stirring
continuously. Alter miMing, the IOlution
is allow.<:! 10 cool. then thoe hydrogen
peroxide i, added. Call. Concentrlled
phospho.ic acid Ind hydrogon peroxide
arl corro.' .... therefore gJOVH. gogglos
and oVflfatls must be WOM. The alu·
minlum componan'. lIa immlrsed
from ten IICOnds to ona minUle. dep-
ending on the btightnlll required and
the perticular Iluminium aUoy being
dipped. Imm.cli"lly ,Itar dipping th.
eomponen,. ,ra rlnlled in cold wlter 10
removl traces ollha dip.
OUllinad in this chapter aral number
01 chemical elealling methods. Thlse
give I claan wrlace. prior to
electroplating. whid> is thoeideals/tuation.
Howeva •• vllious methods
can be used with Or in IOml CIIII in·
.tead of cle.nlng.
We! seouring powder. Scotchbfitl
ped. and wi,. wool can be uMd on
compon"nl$, Hpacially copper or DII"
OnH. Th"se CIIl than be rinsed lod di·
ractly alectroplated, or put throogh the
lIarious chemic,rrl etesning p.oc ......
G.it or wet Dlesling I. an excellenl
mathod of deeoing COmponlnll. es·
peclllly caS( i.on, Cllt componanl. o'
healllly rulled "eet articles. Com·
ponants cl .. nad thil way be directly
alectroplated. In the caSI of casl
componants. thi. reduCH tha lilk of
occluded cleaf'HIl$ IllChing out alta,
electroplating.
AfI" the .ollllnt clesn process. I! dal'
Ired. clrtain aress which m_V not nettd
to be Ilectroplated m.y be 'masked off.
This I. carried out by uling muking
tape. PVC. O. simil., plaslic llpe. O.
'lIopping off' lacqu"l. The$ll "1 lac·
quell m3de 01 synthelic IHinl. auch IS
polyu."h.ne lIamish. They III peinted
on .nd allOwed to dry. It I, best to use a
tllpe or lacque. commensur8t" with tha
hotte.t pen 01 the electropl3t;ng pro-
cen or Ih, masking m_v Dllak down
during p<ocessing.
POINTS TO REMEMBER
Alway. add acid to water, not VIce va ....
Afler mi.lng with wale. il i. uwally IHs
tIa.lardou • •
Always _"gloves, goggles and ov".
.Ils.
I! there i, 'ny spiltaoe on P3rt. of thl
body. wash with running cold Wit ....
Work in tha open 11., or halll good lIan·
11I1(ion.
TABlES
The accomlNnying tables <;OlIlr tha
cleaning .nd Ihl alectrolyles uMd in the
deposition of thl metal •. I1 J. alum.
mary of chapl'" lour and flVa. aod INn.
of chaptlr, ,i. and nine.
It shOWl thl SIIDII"te mlllri.11 with
(he combinllioo of Ihe cl,aning cyclll.
the alectrolytes •• nd the optioos to
achill'le which finiSh you require.
Key to raference number5 on f/le fables.
" ,
12'
'"
'"
The preflrred cI .. n is I gill, or wel
bllIl. prior to electroplating.
To Ilect'oplate eithlr of tha acid
coppers I minimum 01 I /llIh 01
oil!>er 01 the nidell mull be de·
posited.
Fo. tin Ilectlopla(iog. to 13cil ita'l
$Olda.lng. it la recommended that
, flash of nicl<aJ be depo.ited be·
lorl tin electropllling. Thia is pa ••
ti<:ula.IV neeH18ry 00 bliSS,
bee&un il prll'lenls 01
brlN alter tha told ... opelltion,
Tha l1nc&ta dip ia nece'''ry when
Ilectroplating ,Iuminium wilh
nick,! ,nd other malal daposits
ftlectrOIVl ically.
"
N
~
SUBSTRATE Solvent N° ' Soak N" ,A N" N' , N°1A N" N"
MATERIAL Clean Cleaner EleC1rolylic Alkaline Hydrcx:hloric Hydrochloric Sulphuric Pickle
Cleaner Cleaner Acid
"Id
Acid Aluminium
Aluminium Pickle +Hexllmine Pickle
IRON V .. V ..
V"
Yesor lAor2 Yes or 1 or 2 Yes or 1 or lA
STEEL V ..
V" V"
YesorlAor2 Yes or 1 or 2 Vesor1 or lA
HIGH
TENSilE Vu V .. Optional
-
Yes or lA, 2 Yesorl , 2
Yes " lA
STEEL
IAONfSTEEL
l1
)
V ..
V" V"
Yes or lA, 2 Yes or 1. 2 Vesor' , lA
CASTINGS
ALUMINIUM
Vu
V" V"
lit AllOYS
ZINC
V" V" V"
OlECA5TING
- -
BRASS V .. V .. Oplional
-
Yes or 2
-
Ves or 1
COPPER V .. V .. Opt ional
-
Yes or 2
-
Yesor 1
BRONZE V ..
V"
Optional
-
Yes Of 2
-
Vasar 1
NICKEL
V ..
V"
Optional Yes or 2 Yes or 1
SILVER
-
CONTINUATION
CHAPTER 5
The Electrolyte
The term elec;lrolyte i, delloed .. thil
eonducu"lI medium lor mOl' elect.o-
pl'ling processes. The mOl' common
91ectrolyta i. IIn IIqUflOU. IOlut lon wit h
water ..oluble chemical •• When I CUr-
rent i. allowed 10 flow through the .al-
ution vi. Ihe anode and CiOlhode, •
deposilion of metlll ooeurt " \h8
cathode. The l1ecuolyt", v.ry in p.H
end mav Kid,,, solution., neutral.nd
elkali ... lIOIu\ions..
The elecl.olyte mUll conl.i" the di.-
lolved Hit of the melllla b.- d'p<"iled.
The lilt' dissolve in wlte. end form
lonl. For eumple. copper lulph&'e di,·
solved in wale. form. + SO--,
the Ion. of eu' • IInd 50.--.
Generally. the more complex the ion,
the more effICient, ,nd , much
tmootllar deposit ollh, ooeurs.
Mot' pro'es,iornol electfolytH .r. of the
c:y.nide ion. which is compte" ... di.·
from the ,imple ion of 1 ... 1.
ph" • . The mein rflasOn why CVlnide
electrolyte. are commonly 1,114<:1 11 Ih.I
w;Ih I eomple .. ion, Ihe Ictual COnlanl of
Ihe metal In Ihe ion I, rellliYl ly low
compared 10 • limple ion. ,nd Ihi. r.
"reil Ihe form&lion olln immertion de-
polil when Ih eIIllIodt i. In Ihe
eleclroIyte, whim eIIn CoIU .. problems
Wilh IIdltMion.
30
A good eK,mpla of Ihi. is Ihe dipping
of ,; """I in ac:idk copper .1,11·
rHul1I in an Immersion
is:-
<",
is:.
'" copper
Iulphate electrol yte
200gmlllilre
G"'fl BOgml of coppor.
Coming 10 more practie&1 I.,.,.,. lor
electrOlylfl. Ihe mosl common .. e Ihe
ones uNd 10r linc pilling, in their vlri-
()I.IS form •. The one Ihat I h''''' uNd, 'nd
is considered rellonably ... fe lor 1,1.. In
,workshOj) or g .. ege. i. a l ine chloride
bath.
ZINC ctllOftiDE BATtt
This i, , .Imple .Iectrolyte to u ... nd
m.inl,in ,nd h .. Ih I(Iv,nllgtl of &lee-
I'opt";ng on dilflCUh m'tals, aud! ..

..... .
01 rJlJ" _ _ NmJ·1lrig1ll nlclce/. r .... bo:>Ir;, Wlrh 1<f>C,
_ bIu, plUiV.rfd. rt.. .,."fOI1I....:J _rh NC/t;e/ from r .... ,1 .. ;(.*_
dpm'_ ill lion ...
CoIII or m.lle.bl. ilon. 11 i. OpItl'atad &I
room IImperalure. Ih."lo<e no healing
costs Ire incUrred, .nd the deposits Ira
easHy tre&lad with o;e",in chemical. to
give , coloured lini.h (p8Ss;v&tel.
The fo.mulat.on of the elea.olyle
;1:.
Zinc Ch/o,;dtl3oI; pe. g.lIon 2Og.ms pe.
iit ••.
Ammonium Chlrmd. 200. pe. gllllon
120grm. per hue.
To make up OM g,lIon 01 electrolyte
Idd pinls of liP wI, a. 10 Ihe pl .. I;ng
link, Ihen Idd 1he 200. of .mmonium
chlo.ide, $Iirrlng w,ll until complelely
diuolved.
In .nOlhe. com,ine •• put two pinl& of
Wlrm liP Wile •• Ind ,dd 30 •. of zinc
chloride. slirring until di'soIved. Pour
the two pint, Inlo Ihe ,i .. pints al.eady in
!he pIIoling link ,od well.
TlIfIlIOlUlion i, now ready for UM. It is
,dvi .. bl. 10 mark Ih. on. g.lIon leval.
Or whallv .. volume you use, OOlhe out·
,Ide 01 Ihe tank wilh , walerp.oof
marke. pen . .., Ihat as Ihe level of the
link lall. thr()l.lgh avaporation 0' d.ag
()1.11 il tin be lOPped up Iglin.
I1 you eIIn keep. lid on I". IInk....t>ef1
nOl ,n uM Ihi. will m'fllmise .... lpo •• I-
Iog.oo pr .... ""1 dustl,ni"" iflto Ih.l4I-
ulion.
Oper&ting Condition.
Th. link i, conneaed up 10 1"'1 power
supply. Ihe po"live connecled to Ihe ,n·
od ... In this eIIse piecH ol ll<>e 4in.
3in .• Or perfor.ted zi<>e Ih"l Sin. 600.
boughl from you. 10<:11 ironmongefl.
Pre-d •• n Ihe componentl, lOO 'm-
mene in !he el&<:trQlVle. Tu.n Ih. cur-
.enl on, ,nd rotgul&te 10 Ihe """lOt you
"
require whhin the current density ronge
for the electrolyte.
For this electrolyte the platIng current
should 00 ootween
14.4 a.s.1. to 28.8 a.s.f.
or 1.S4 aldm' to 3.1.,dm'.
The electrolyte is operaled rOOm
temperature 15',2O"C.
At 14.4 the zinG depOsited will 00
Iloolin. or 25 microns. at a plating time
of 83 minutes.
At 28.8 a.s.1. a depOsit of 0.001 in. or 25
mic'ons is 42 minutas.
Using the lower end of Ihe currenl
density r.nge for electroplaling will
give a finer, more even depOsit 01 zinc.
The faster the deposition. the more un·
even and coarse the deposit becomes.
OccasIonally It may be necessary to
electroplate a component of small area,
such as a small washer Or pin. The cur·
rent output may 00 tOO large at the low·
ItSt range of the supply. In thIS ",se,
hang a piace 01 steel plate or twO pieces
of plate Irobbersl each side of tile com·
pOnent. This will InGf8ase the surface
araa to correspOnd with the electroplat·
ing current, and thus bring it into the
current density range. The robbers will
also carry out a second lunction by re·
moving the high current density, giving
a more \!Ven and smooth appearance.
i.e. prevent "burning".
The p.H of the electroplating solution
The optimum is between p.H:I to p.H 4.
but the solution performs quite well up
to p.H 1. Strip papers can 00 used to
check Ihe p.H. These can be purchased
from chemical supply houses and large
electroplating equipment suppliers.
Atwavs koep the test papers well 5-8aled
wllen not in use. To use the papers you
will 508 tll el they ara numbered I - 14,
universal type, and thal between the
numbers 6 and 7 Is I strip. Immerse the
"
test paper in the electrolyte for a couple
of seconds, and note thal the strip be-
tween 6 and 7 changes colour.
this colour to one of the numbered col·
ours either si de of the strip. and
the number that matches is the p.H of
the solution. The p.H can also be
measured by ona of a numoor of p. H
meters and ponab\e p.H 'sticks' avail·
able on tho ma,ket. These in pr,ca,
and the ponable p.H Slkks are reason·
ablv priced between ( 40 and £130.
To obtain a satisfactory deposit in
most electrolytes it is necessary to ·elec·
troplate the electrolyta In'. This is done
by hanging 8 pieco of scrap steel in the
solution, and. using a current within the
current density range. leave it electro·
pl ating for about one hour . This electro·
lyses the solution, and takes out some
of tho impurities. However. 10 take out
impuritie'!l as e speci fi c operation. tho
electrolyte Is plated oul at a very low
current. Tllis induces the impurities to
deposit out l,rst on the scrap piece. then
the no. mal metal of the electrolyte is de-
posited.
ZINC HYDROXIDE 8ATH
This is an al kaline zinc electrolyte made
up with sodium Thi, chemi·
cal is caustic. and care must
be when using it GOGgles,
gloves and overalls must 00 worn when
handling, and also koep away from
children and animals. When nOI in use it
is kept in 8 tightly closed pl astic or glass
jar, because it in water f'om the at·
mosphere and decomposes to SOdium
carbonate end water.
The formulation of the electrolyte is:·
Zinc 1.00>: per gallon 6grms per
litre
Sodium Hydroxide 9.Ooz per Gellon
55grms per litre
1% addition by weight.
To make up the solution add the
weighed·out amount of sodium
ide (9,00>:.) to pints of water and ati,
until diSSOlved. Ne><l, add the weiGhed·
out . inc (1.00>:.) and stir until
dis50lved. The last to be added IS the
This is stirred in until dissolved.
The volume is then made up to one gal·
Ion with water, and the electrolyte is
ready for use. OOt. as mentioned in the
previous zinc electrolyte, it must be
'plated out" oofore it i, usable. For this
solulion the 'platinG out' requirements
are O.2amps for 12 hours with a piece 01
steel 2in. 2in.
Operating Conditions
The same conditions apply 8S lor the
previous !lnC chloride electrolyte. The
eleclfoplating currsnt density range i$
between
2 and 20 a.s.I. or 0.2a'dm' to
The electrolyce is operated 81 room
temperBlure 15' - 20'C.
a eing al kaline p.H 12 - 14, Ihe conltol
of the p.H is not needed with this sol·
ution.
GENERAL FAULTS IN ZINC
ELECTROPLATING
FAUL TThe deposit is rough or COar5-8 in
te><l ure, and may be discoloured.
REASON Cu"enl density too high.
REMEDYReduce the currant density.
FAULT Rough deposits can also be
by suspended matter in tile elec·
trolyte.
REMEDY Filter the electrolyte through a
fi lter paper or fine cloth.
FAUL T Deposits rough. and electroplat·
ing sluggish (i.e. lack of thickness),
REASON Low conductivity of electro·
Iyte.
REMEDY To No. t zinc electrolyte add
ammonium chloride to the SOlution 8t
the rate 2 to 40z. per gallon. For No.2
zinc electrolyte 0.250z. of linG and
lto 1.50!. of sodium pe, gal .
Ion of solution.
FAULT Electrolyte appears to be a rusty
colour ..
REASON Iron from the components
being electroplated is inlO the
solution.
REMEDY For No.1 zinc electrolyte add
50 millilitres of hydrogen st"
welt and leave to 58l1le. When settled,
carefully decanl of/ the clear solution.
FAUL TThe deposit is patchy.
REASON The pre·trealment clean ;s
faulty.
REMEDY Strip the deposit off to the
metal by immersing the component In
30% sulphuric acid 0' 15% hydrochloric
ecid untll ,11 the zinc is removed. Go
bad th,ough the pre·treatment, and ,e·
plate.
CARE A small amount of hyd,-ogen gas
is given oH, so make sure the area IS well
ventIlated. Using sulphuric or hydro·
chloric add. goggles and gloves must
be wOrn.
COLOURING ZINC ElECTROPlAnNG
Colouring linc. electroplating is usually
called passivating the zinc surface. As
we!! as berng decorative with the vari·
OUt colours. it enhances the perform·
ance of Ihe electrolyce by increning its
an!I-COffosive properties.
Zinc, along with cadmium, ara
classed as ',ac,ifi"ial coatings' on ler·
rous materials. This means Ihat the elec·
troplated deposit will be to
atmosphere instead 01 the component
,usting Or forming iron but ova' a
period of years the electroplated de-
posit WIll disappear from the compo·
nenl. To .educe the Kt .... deposit, e
'pauiYe' I.ye •• usually of ch.om,um
ion •. i •• pplied. This .educe. tM lie-
tiviTY, hence p.oIonginll the lile of the
depos't .nd enhenc,nll thl .nli.
corto,ive p.operties.
Fo. the diffe.ent colourinll' th. b3ths
.. e m.de up IS lollows:'
Black
M.k, up Ammonium Mo/ybd". 40>:.
per II.UOn. 25grms pe. ""e.
C«N:.nrr.ted Ammonl. 1.880 S.G) 6
fluid oz. pe. gallon. 375ml,. pe. lot ••.
W.,..-Io mlk. up to '1I.11on (0' litr.).
Le.v. tha eomponenl In the IOlut,on
unt,1 th. desirBd sh.d. I, obt.lned. for
d •• p bllld.s, h.allh. IOlul'On. bUI nole
Ih' ammonia w\ll lume and lIiv. olf •
'''onll smell, Ih ••• fo.e it mutt be w.1I
.... ntillted o. done outdoors.
In both cases, wh.n IIM COI.ect coloo.
;. obt.ined •• inse in cold w.t .... ttHIn in
hOt w"e'. and lelve to h .. den olf the
leye •. 00 not touch the colou.ed surfac.
until h •• dened.
Brown
M.k, up Double Nick.1 S,II, O.5oz. pe.
1I.1l0n 311'mS pa' "t ••.
COP{H' Sulpllat. 0.5o.r. par lIallon
3grml per lit ••.
Pot.mum Clllonte 0.5o.r. pe. 1I.llon
3grms pe. litra.
UM Ih.lOlution al6O"C. "",th In Int •• •
medlat. we, scr.tch-bfulhinll to even
outlh. colou •. W.Minll off imp.O'I.' Ihe
colour Nor. Potassium Chlo •• le i. e
powerful oxidisinll Ig.nt, and Ihe pow.
d., mull be kept in • well SIOppe/Bd
cont.lne •.
81ue Colou. (P,uivata)
M.ke up Sodium OH;/!romlte 0.8o.r. pe.
g.11on Sg.ml pe. litre.
COfI(;"''''Ied Nitric Acid 3.2 fluid al. pe.
1I.1I0n 2OmJ •• per "tr • .
D,uol .... the sodium dichrom.le In
ooe IIt.e of Wile •• then add Ihe nlt.ic
add car.lully. "i"lnll well in .Iowly
The balh ;. ope .. ted at room lemper ••
tu.e. Th, immersion time \ 0 to 20
seconds.
IrId ...... nt CoIoor (Pauivete)
Mate up Sodium Dichrom't' l00.r. pe.
1I.llon 6Og.ml pe.lit.a
Sulphurit Add 0.511uid
oz. pe. 1I.llon 3.Omls. pe. litr.
011101\1. tM sodium dichromat. in
th. voluma th.n add tM< con·
e.nt.ated lulphu.ie acid slowly and
ca.elully. Itl.ring continuoosly. Th.
baTh i. ope.atad .t .OOm tamper.lu ••.
Tha imm ... ion Ilm. is 8to 10 lOCOnd,
CARE WiTh nItric acid Ind sulphu.ie
acid, IIlov •• , 1101111181 .nd ov ... 1I1 mUll
beWOfn.
Th' Iln !WO formulations ' .. pU"
pnsiv"a coatinll' •• nd It. left for 24
hoofl la hltden off belo •• funh..- 1,1111.
Afta. hafCMning off th.y CIOn be plinted
if required. Th" combinl!ion 01 l ine.
pluiv"e Ind pllnt olf ... llood CO"
.0slon '.Iilllnce 10./0"01,11 malals.
NICKEL ELECmOLYTES
Nickel off.r. llood corrosion r,"i,"nce
whon ,IKt'OpI.,ed on bolh let/oul and
non-Ietfoo, ma'.I, .uch as copper .nd
.110 .... of copper.
1lMI mec.hlnitm of nickel. copper .nd
tin .Iectropl.ting 11 thlt """ d<!POllllltl
more 'nobll' thin lleel, $\eel be
comas anodic and the.alo.a dilsolves.
Thus il il Impotlanl to lIava good p'.
el •• ninll .nd to avoid pOrK .nd di.·
continuities on tha alectropl".d

This;' dilllnct f.om th. mech.ni.m 01
tlM IInc .lectrOpI.t., which 11 I ... nobl.
,h.n steet, .nd in COnseqU.nClt,", "'"
becomes cathodic ""'th!he zinc dislOl\I·
ir>g i.e. lICfiflCi.1.
A good .11 round nick" .lectroIyt. is
" lollows:.
w.tt'. Nickel
Nickel Sulphlla 38.50z.pe. gallon
240g.ms pe.lil ••.
Nk:kal CII/on"de 7.2oz.pe. 1I.llon 45grms
per "Ita.
Boric Acid 4.80 •. pe, 1IIIIon 3()g.ml per
lil, • .
To mike up tM< ,Iecuolyt •. w.rm up
three qUlrte .. oltM< 'tOluma 01 w.ter.
Idd The w.illhed .mount 01 n,cIt;.lsul·
ph"., sti, .• nd WI.m until dissolved.
Then add tha weillhed Imount 01 nick.1
chloride. r.pelt until d'ssolved. Finally.
,dd the bo.ic acid, which willt.ke tima
to dissolv •. AIt.r '"lh, chemicals Ira in
IOlulion, maka UP 10 th. required 't01.
ume with W.I ....
Th .. p.H thould be checked by wh.t·
...... mean •. papefl O. p.H meter. Tha
p.H Ihould be 3_5.
It is recommlnded th.t th;. soIUI;On
be 'plat.d oot' I1 • Iow curr.nt with
tom. scrap lleel pllla IImilar to Th"
No.2 zinc alectrolyt., Till . will .emov.
th. diSSOlved Imputitias in Ih. nickll
ulll.
The anod •• uMd in Ihis electrolyte
.. I 41n. ,,4in .• '11lI 01 pure n,cIt;.1. Thelll
can be Obtained Irom .Iectroplatlng
.upply hou,,". Thi •• izl 'pproMim" ••
to tha .nodes uMd on Hull c.J1 Appa ••
811,1,. How ....... for. 1"lIa Nt·Up bas_
keled nlckal.hot o. hoolt;ed Inodes may
be used. buttha .. eln be •• pens;"'e.
The ope .. tinll t.mpe.atu.a for this
el.c1tolyt. Is 5O'C 113O'FI.
Thl hea,inll m.y be accomplished by
vllious method •. If • "ainless steel
COntlina. is used, I 1111 ring i. placed
underneath, If th. con",in.. is Pyrex
111.15 o. pI.stic, Ihln.n aqu.rium TYpe
alec!ric he.,er ;. und.
1lMI ev."nT clantlTY .. is from 10
•.•. 1.104O . ..... or l .oa.dm 104.0. dm'
Thi. i, as pr.viously m.ntloned. The
pan 01 tM ,.nga chosen il dependant
on th. shape of Iha companlnl and the
of th. daposit required. Th.
low •• tha Current danSlTy Th. lin •• the
daposit.
Thi, ,lectrolyt. will dapo.il:.
0.OOOlin.(2.5microns) 11 lOa.'" in 15
minutes or o.OOOlin.(2.5micron.) at
lOII ... 1. in 5 minUles.
Thil electrolyt. gl_ a llood dull 10ft
dePOSlI which will polilh up to I hlllh
IUllrl. III p.opetli •• 11•• not lI.eatly
Iffected by I wide ch.ng. In p.H, tarn.
peratu.a Ind balance 01 ch.mical com.
position In tha bath.
Wh.n this deposit i, ov.r"lectro_
pI.ted w'lh decorative chrome illllves.
plea,inll dull chromo effect. IImilar to
the finish on mic.om.t..-. Ind simil ••
tool • .
Seml·8rllilht Nickel EIac!.olytl
Thl. Is baNd on I Wail's Formulllion
with tha .ddition of an orllanic b.illhT·
en ••.
Nick" Sulphltl lIallon
240g.m. per litre.
Nocllel Chloride 7.2oz.pe< ".1I0n 45g.ms
PIf'ille
BorIC AcId 4.80z..per "lIl1on 3()grm. pe.
li"a.
Saccll.n"n. 0.32oz.pe. 1I.,IOn 2.Ogrms
pe.lit.a.
Th, alectrolyt. IS m.da up .. for Ihe
prevloul nick.1 eleclrolyt. (Wall.), but
with th. addilion at Th. end 01 the
waillhed .mounl of sacch,"ne. Thil is
con.tantly "irrBd wh.n wa.m, unlll dis·
IOlvad. Th .. d.ssolulion may t.ka some
lime because SI ..,1-
ubi • •
"
The .. me current deflsity .anges ap-
ply lor Ihi. I. for the ptIYious electro-
lyte. u uthe IImperllu<8 .ange
Thi. llectrolyte wIll depoSit :-
O.OOOlin (25 micron.) II 10 a .s.f. in 18
minUllSOt
0.0001in 12.5 ml(fonll at 30 a.s.f In 8
mlnules.
Wilh Ih, .. elec1rolyte. ag'I81ion i,
recommended , it ha. by sli"ing or com·
pr"Hd air bubbled IhrOl.lgh Iha Sol·
utlon.
FAULTS IN NICKEL ELECTROPLA nNG
FAUL r PIttIng of d.posit.
REASON Acldlly of soIulion 100 high.
nick.1 conll"llow, boric acid 100 low.
REMEDY Adlust p.H 10 between J.nd 5.
Adjust p.H Wllh aqueous solulion of 10-
dium hydro.ide until between Ihe
I;mltt. Add lm. per gallon of nlCkalsul·
phall. Add 0.501. per gallon of borIC
lCid.
FAUL T NOI enough coverllge of Ihe
componenl.
REASON Electrolyte I8mpe.alure loo
low. or low currenl denlity.
REMEDY electrolyta tempera·
tU<8 10 5O'C - 55'C. lncrene currenl den·
• ity.
FAULT Poor .dhellon 01 Ihe nickel 10
lhe componenl • • nd may be of bumt ap-
pe ...
REASON Poor pte·deaning of Ihe com-
ponenl. Too hIgh p.H (alkllinity). Too
high amlnl density.
REMEDY Strip off lhe nickel pllte. dep-
ending wheth" 18<rou. or non-I8<'Oul.
Go IhrOl.lgh Ihl pre--cln" and re·plate.
To .edU(:ll Ihe p.H to betwee" 3 ,nd 5.
add diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric
acid. until Ihe correcl p,H rangl i, ob-
la'''ed. In th, correction of acidity or
alkalinity Ih. raagenls ar, added ape. ·
"
;ngly. and conSlantly Shrred a"d
checked. CARE - Wilh aqueou.lOdium
hydro.'de and hydrochloric: and .ul-
phurlC acid., gloves and goggles MUST
bewom.
Nickel depolltS from bolh elect.olytes
can be buffed or polilhed 10 • good
IU'I<8. It mull be remermberld Ihal .n
enO""flCI on Ihe th,ck...,ss muSI be
mlde for poli,hi"9.
COPPER ELECTROLYTE
Tha mOll u"d Ileclrolytes of copper
Ife Ihe CYlnide copper and Ihe acid
copper.
The main distInction between Ihe two
Ilectrolytes i, Ihll Ihe cyanide copper
c.n be used 10 deposil coppe. on bolh
ferroua and non·f8<rous mer"ll. The
acid coPPIIr un only be u.ed 10 deposn
coppe. on non·ferrous metals. For !he
Imaleur in Ihe home. Ihe use of CYlnide
.. a conslde"ble I\llard, and ... ilh the
difficulty of obtaining Ihis I
have nOI ,nclUded any p,ocesns in the
However, a method can be Uled 10
finally depOsit copper on a lerroul ma·
teri.l .... hich ... 1II be described.
A good lI,neral copper eleetrolyte
... hl(h c.n be buffed Ind pOlished:·
Copp.r Sulphll/II cry!lIl. 3201. per gal ·
Ion 200grml per lItre.
Concenrra/fd Sulphurk acid 4.5011.01
per g.lIon 3Qm11 per litre.
To up the electrolyte ..... m up
thr .. qu."e .. of the volume of .... Ier .
and add Ihe .mounl of coppe'
sulphltl C!'fllll • • • nd SI;r constanlly
unlll d"solved. To the cooled coppe'
sulpha" aoIUlion edd very slowly d.op
wiH the COflClntrlled lulphuric acid.
previOl.lsly me .. ured. SI;' ... 8'11 un\lt
ml.,d InlO Ihe 5OIul;On. Ne"', top
UP ... ,th ... lter 10 the required volume
Ind Ihe electrolyte il ready for uH. Th.
Curtenl denlitv i.4 .•. I. f. 10 30 a.l.!.
O .... dm·IO 3.08Idm·.
Tl\is ,lectrolyte will deposil :·
O.ooolin_ 12.5 micronl) al 10..s.f in 12
minUles.
O.oool ln. {2.5 microns) 1I 201 ..... if! 6
minutes.
Allltllion is recommended at lhe lOP
end of Ihe currenl density range. Pure
copper may be used for Ihe .nodes. AI
lIigh current densilies Ihere i. a rilk 01
the anodes polarising. with a reduction
In Ih' currlnl. The recommended .n·
odes lor Icid copper elactrolytes ale the
ph01phorrled IYpe. These are purified
copper uling. process of ramoving the
impuritie. 01 0><\'98n ""ith pho.phoric
ICld in the anode making slage.
The electrolyte is ope.alad It I tem-
plrllu,a of JO"C (86"F). For Ihin depO.1t1
01 copper 11 CIf! be used at room lem-
The h,"Mr lemperature of
JO"C gIves • smoother depOSIt of
."",.,.
..... 1.Brighl Coppe< Elecuolyte
M.ke up:-
Copper SulphBte 320L pet IIllIon
200grml pet litre.
Sulphur;'; Acid 1.40z. per
gallon 27 mls per IlIre.
Thlourell pinch O.OOSgrms per liue .
Welfmg Agent IT_pal} one drop Iml
per lilre.
The electrolyte is mllde up the ume
11 Ihe dull ecid copper, bul wilh lower
concentration of sulphUric acid. BefOfe
the bllh is mfde up 10 ill final volume,
the Ihlour,. and wetting agenl .... e
After making up 10 lhe final vol-
umelhe elect.olyte is ready IOf uH, N.B.
"'" Ihi!)Urn al 0.005 grml- un be ragll-
dad 11 I ' pinch'.
The electrolyte lIIould be opereled al
23'C (14' F) for Ihe beSl resultl. Allow.r
lIrnperelUre Ih. IXIppar depOsil I, In.
brighl. The electrolyte will depO.lt :·
O,OOOlin, (2.5micron') al 10e .•. 1. in 12
mInute.. O.OOOl in. (2.5micronll 1\
2O •. s.!. in 1 minutes.
Agltalion I1 recommended 8<lher by
lIofling, Or bubbling comPfHMd 8"
Ihr!)Ullh thl5Olution.
Th, lime anodes Ire used • • In the
dull acid copper electrolyte.
Fo. deposiling copper fTOm lhen
elldrolytu on copper and ill .1I0y.,
and on zinc diecastingl. Ihe pre-
cle.nlnglrealmenl as givan in Ih' chllp·
lar on cleaning is used, and Ihen the
copper deposiled on the lurface.
For fe"ouI melals, 'Ieel etc .• 11 differ_
ent procedure .ppli"". After pre-clun-
lnglhe component, il i. electroplated in
either of Ihe nickel electrolytll. usually
at medium current density. until a 'nuh'
of nic .... is deposited - O.ClOOOSin. Th'
compofllnl is removed. quicllly rinsed,
and ... hile lIi11_1 is immersed In .'Ih.r
acid copper electrolyte .• nd coppe. de
po. ited.
The .enon for this is Ihal copper de·
po,ited f.om an ecid electrolyte ... ill cor ·
rode Ihe lIeel 0' iron surface. If nick.1 i.
depOliled prior 10 Ihe copper electro·
plaling. no corrosion pl.ee.
80lh these eleClrolytes ... ill depOsit.
Ihick Ilyer of pink coloured coppa' Ihlt
can be polished or buffed to I high
IUltre.
Oflhe
,
10 Ihat rlCommended lor Ihe electro'
Iyte. Thl, fault mey be a combinllion 01
Ihe two lea sons, 10 ... ilh 11 small re
ductlon In currenl density, end Incr""
"
on .empereture .• he depO.iI 01 copper
will be uti,factory.
FAULT F.II in CUff,nl. and riu In "0'"
.ge. and. bleck Him formed on 'he an-
odn.
REASON Lact of lulphuric acid ,n the
SQlution.
REMEDY Add dilule .ulphuric acid in
smell .mounts untilthl anode 10sltS its
black film.
FAULT Poor coverege of thl compo-
nent.
REASON Poor pre-clnning or leek of
sulphuric ecid.
REMEDY Slrip Ihe COPP81. (10 bad<
'hrough ' he cycle of pre-cle.ning Ind
re·plele. Add e .mell amount of dilute
• ulphur;c acid. If .he faullls cauted by a
combinat,on of th' two r"'sonl. then
add th' ,ulphuric fCld first.
FAUL TNodular Or ,plky depo.'!.
eleclrolyla with un·
;;;"h. filler paper o.
TIN ELECTROLYTES
nn depollted from "n electrolY'es i.
used for pre"nf1ling corrosion on both
non·ferrous .nd ferroUI metel ••• nd il
Ilso u.ed ' 0 f"cill"" Ih" SQlderlng of
compOnln,.. In some cases illl ultld as
'decorll ..... finilh.
The pollssium lIannall eleclrolY'e
producel a depoli, of tin thal I, colou·
red light grey, mitt in eppear.nee. bUI
can be buffed to. Ill",.." finl.h. Thi' i,a
good all roond e'eclrolyte for use IS an
f1nl.h on "HI. Or for use
on bo,h I ' HI and bra .. for soldering
purpoMl. Thl up i ... follo_:·
Potltllum Stennlla ElactrolY'a
PoIISllum Sumnar. 1 Sol. per gallon 95
"
grms. par li"",
PoIassium per glllon 12
grml. pe. lit.".
To make up theelecl.olyte ttl'H quar-
ters of 'he yoluma of distilled Or de·
Ionised water is wlrmtd up in the bath.
The weighld amount 01 pot.allium
"snnete il added 10 Ihe warm Wile ••
and "i .. ed continuoully until di,·
solved. NeKI, the weighed amount of
potassium hydrOKide 11 added. and
I1I .. td un,lI dissolved. CARE- with POl·
allium hydroKide la IIrO,"", Ilklli)
gloves. 1I001lles and overelll mUll be
worn.
After the chemical. are dissolved. lhe
eleclrotyte 1I made up to the final \/0'.
ume wilh dillllled Or de-ionised w.'er.
Thaelect.olyl e is now rlady fo. ule. but
il i. r.,.;ommended ,h.t soma Krap
pieces of Ileel o. copper are wi rld up
lAd connacted up to the calhodtt. and
'he electroryle 'plated in' .t medium cur-
rant den,ity fo. " bauI one to 'wo hours.
The .nod" used In 'hi. procesl are
pu.e tin .nodes. usually in Ihe form 01
II,bs 'hll can be CllIIO tha ruqu;.1d lile.
The elecl,olyte i. operaled 11 I ,em·
pe.alure betw&en 6O"C and 8O'C. (14O"F
and I76"F). No ellilll10n I. required.
The el-.;uolyte will deposil :- O.oool;n.
(2.Smicronl) at 10..1.1. In 10 minutn.
O.ooolln. 12.5micronl) at 21la.I.I. In 6
minutes.
The current denlity il between
10. .•. 1 .• nd 408.1.1. U.Oaldm' and 4.081
dm").
The p. H of 'he solution i. highly Ilka·
line. and Itays alkalin,. When opetlting
Ihi, solution it mUlt be remembered
Ihlt It is best Ihll befota electroplating.
I piece 01 Ktlp mlteri.1 (ItHII. i. con·
nKled 10 Ihe cathode bar in tha fl lecI'O'
Iyte. The eleclrical ,upply is .witched
on. and th' anodes .ta placed in the
eleclrotyte. and connecced 10 the ,node
bar. The K.ap pi8(:e should Slafl being
elect.opllled Immtdlately, Al lhe seme
time a.the se.ap PIece i. elecl.oplating.
wi" Or hook the companentt 10 be elec.
Iroplaled to 'he calhode ba •. This is car.
rild Oul wi'h th' current swilched on.
This procedure p. oduces an ;.idescent
gold coloured film on 'heanodes. which
is pen 01 the mechanism of llIe electro-
plating process. Mode.ala Currenl den_
l ity II used on Ihe scrap piece.
FAULTS WITH STANNATEnN
ELECTlIOPlAn NG
FAUL T Elect.olyl e works sluggishly.
and th. anodes Ira I grey colou.,
REASON Initial currenl denllty lOO low
to form Ihe corfKllilm. FrH patnsium
hyd.o.ideloo low.
REMEDYRemova anodes one 11 a timl.
and r'place tham in Ihe elect.olyte .
Somet,me. a llighl increlU In (he cu.-
rent density is benefICIa .. Add O.50l. pe'
gallon of po"uium hydrOXIde.
FAUL T Th, solution turnl I slighlly pink
colou,. with I spongy tIn depollt.
REASON A build up of POlalllum
"snn"eln the solution.
REMEDY Add I smlll amount of hyd.o.
gen peroxide dropwise. Ind SI .. until
the pink ooloor diuppeefl. SI"p lhe tIn
ciePOSlt. pre-de"n. and re-pia ... I1er
.dding the hydrOgen peroxide.
FAUL T Anodes coye.ed in a bllck Iilm.
.nd currlft' drops oH
REASON The InOO.. have become
polarised. and become cove.ed in tin
o.ide. u ..... lly b.ooghl ,bout by too
high Cllrrent denllty.
REMEDY Reduce currenl density. Re-
moye Inodu one" I 'ime. and ICOur
Ihe .nodes with. sIIH brush until the
fIlm is .emoved. R,pI_. until III the
snodes h,ve bMn scoured.
"
CHAPTER 6
Electroforming and Electro-
plating on Non-conductors
ELECTROFORMING
Elec'uoforminll " • p.oc;eSll 01 electro-
plll"ntl1h1t I. used in the manulac\ure
of int,ice'. components Ih".re difficult
to I,b';';"e or machine. 11 is an idoll
method la< m.klng c;QmponenlS 10 tight
lolerenen.oo dimensions.

of metal deposited ;,
I more Ihan conventional
(.nythin; from 0.0121n.
\
The most common metals deposited
in electroforming". copper and nickel.
Ho_,. 1Il0l moSI essential pll" of
\h, proc;e .... n(! sometimes Ihe moat
._pen.,ve, i, \h. mllnd.el. which i. th.
shaped material \h. metal i. deposited

M'I>I:l<el. be divided into two CM·
ego.iH.
.1 Dispoubl. M.ndrels.
Thue 'f' • type of mandr .. 1 Ih81
An IKl mple 0/. cl'opMlf>I. 'rom low m"lmp (JOIn' alloy. N(I1. ,,,.. in"",
mw/lied in 10' eH'Klng Pe .. ".,,, Windows, and COMHI<:""II'N CI'_ b8r
A m",,/d mMJ. from " I>y ./«;t,,:>forming ... , In 11 wckmg d' e 1I 10 W uH<S
for ' q".nl,'y of mouldlnQ' In v.r/ou. moulding m.,.".lo.
cannot be eHtr&eted by pulling OUI 01 the
,'eClrolo,m. due 10 being either I bend.
o. hiving smaller dim,msion. at th'
,nd • •
Th, mate",' used cen be Pe,speH.
low melting ,lIays. (Celrobend. CellO'
cestl. end some gredes of WaH. All these
m,t"i." cen be melted 0, diuo"'-d in
IOIven ... The e55enlial piece of equip'
menl fa' thi, mllnd.eI;' I mould to cell
in. However. with Perspex Ihi. i. usullly
machined to shape. IInd nol moulded.
b). Pe,manem Mandrels.
TheM lI'e u,ulllly made of ,,"nlell
".el 01 nickel electroplated Ileel.
Sometlml1 certain plaslics are used.
These mand.els lI'e e"t'lIC1eble by pull ·
ing on a press.
Other forms of aleet.olorming .. ,
qune ueeful. such es building up worn
,hllhs, 0' ,hllhs \hlt hlJYl been meeh ·
inod down 100 fll' .
Small moulds can be mllde for ..... ,.
00. other processes, by milking I ''P'
lica. elearoforming, .amoving Ih,
raplice .nd seuing the elec!.ofOfm in I
blocking die. Thl, mould can be ulld 10_
making' quantiry 01 componentl. From
• mould liklthi. ilems can be made .nd
UMd on, lor , xllmpla, modal boat • .
The two elect'olytel used In el&et'o'
lorming are coppe, and nickel.
"
Th. copPe' .I.,;trolyt. is th. dull
In th. dlapler on electro·

El«'lrofOfmln9 Electrolyt.
Make up;·
Copper Sulphal' Crysla/. 320.<.per gal-
lon 200grms per litre.
Concenlratfd Sulphuric Acid 4.Sfl.oz
per gellon ]Oml. per !iUOit.
A Imlll Imount of phanol dissol"ed
up In wal" can be added. This gi"e.
graln·fellnlng propenle. to the electro-
lyte. The current density is between
10..1.1. - 201 .•. /. 1.0a.dm' - 2.0a.'dm'.
The OJ)8rltong temperatu,a is 3O'C.
!86"fl
For nidel, the Dull Wltt's electrolyte
can be ulUld. but a good elect.ofonning
electrolyte la one fOfmulaled as
follows :-
Nickel Electroformong Electrolyte
Mllkeup: ·
N,,;k.t Su/pMmala per glllon
450grms pe. hl.e.
&wr: Add Soz.pe. gallon ]0 grms per
I,tn>.
The um. !ank can be u5eCI as 10f t"-
dull nickel, and up t"- samOit. with
the n,ekel .... Iphamate dissolved firsl.
Ihen th. boric .cid Idded and dissolved
and made up 10 the final volume.
The p.H i. 4.0. To reduce p. H 8dd sui·
phemic acid. To increase p.H add am·
monil O.880SG. Howe"e •. being stable.
it usu.lly ... yl 11 about p. H 4.0.
The soIullon IS oper81ed et 45'(:-SO"C
(ll3'"F - 12O'FI. with 19'1allon if POSI'
Ible. depending on the thicknen re-
quired.
The cu ..... t denlllty is between
10. .• .1 -SOl .•. ! 1.0.dm'-S.Oadm'.
11
., .
-,-? -F' " ;...:
........ ________ ... _-.;J._
....... -,,-;,:,." /' -------
..
"
A simple example of .Iectrolormingl.
I funnel Ihaped component. Sea
u,,,'3Ind,1I.
Figure 14 is me assembly lor ,1«'1,0-
IOfmlng tha shape. The mandril ia
macla wrth insert. \lIUewadl. if
moulded. from low melting point IIIOYI.
If made from the ho," are
d.iI1ed and tapped.
windows are affixed al each
and, the hanger attached. and th' ,r,"
that ara conducting are 'stopped olf'
with molten 'Clamea' wax, o. Ilmll ..
material.
If low melting ,lIoys .. a uNd. lhe pre-
treltment 11 a light cle.n WIth scou,ing
powder or Scotdlbrile. then a dip in the
alkaline cleaner and electrolytic cleane._
but the electrolytic deaner " opltOnal.
The mandrel f;g is rinsed on wlter Ind
Immersed in the particular elearolytl.
Ind gfown to thtI required thickn ....
11 Pe .. pel< is used. thit it mlde con·
ducti"e with either. layer 01 aqueous
grlphite. 0'. preferably. sllver·IOlded
conductive paint. whic'" i, p,lnted on
the .urface of the Perapex, m,' inp 'uti
the conlaet lor Ihe hanglflg bar I1 well
,An ex,mpI, ol.n eIect",·lomti"fl rn.nd", Wllh window and a/hods /HI, _"«10Id
.-od _.0Id. /lot> '-hi. r"" ngh • ... _1d/'rI"" with ctMducfi"fl si/wT tyifll. {No" ",.
OOM«f'fItI /H, 01 {»in. OIl I'" ItdoIJ. r". Doff.,... ;,," of ,htt pho/Of1t1ph P,awI 'he
eIect",fo<....-J .n.p.s. in lit .. a ... , and lid electro-fDnnMI it> si_
"
A" "f ,JeclrDplarl"fI 0" .lumi"i<Jm 10 I.cllitare 1'1>1. uti/iSM z,,,,,.r, JOlu·
Iron, loIlowf<l br' I.ye, of "", w,rh r;""ed C<JPfJ'" ruboo JOldertId olllo rite fl".1 rin on
rhe .Iumlnlum.
painted. The conductive SutfaC6 is al·
lowed to dry, is immers&cl in the
particular el&<:lrolyte, end grown la Ihe
required thickness.
I1 nickel·plated st&£ll or SUlinless steel
mendrels are used, i,e, permanenl man"
drels, the .."me procedure lor cleaning
aa for low melting painlllloy mand'els
is fOllowed. and growing i! the same.
Ahe, growIng, Ihe wa" and windows
are removed, and depending On what
Ihe mlndrells made of, il is e"'ractad by
Ihe following processes.
Low melting III/oy. This is melled. either
in an oven, o. hot oH unlil the aUoy Ilows
oul.
Pe,Spa". The mandrel is immaf'!led in I
solvent Such as warm Genklene unlil
..
dissolved up. It mey also be eXlracted by
holding Ihe elec{rofo.m snd pulling OUI
the Persptl" mandrel.
Nickal-plared s/&£II or Slainless slooI.
This is e"'racted the same as Perspex,
putling lrom the wide end.
PoinU t o 'emember on electroforming
(1) If 8 18rge quantity of al&<:l,olorms
ara required, slainless steel man-
drels are more economical.
(21 Wilh permanent mandrals (ex-
tra<:tabb.l), Ihe511 can only be used
on el&<:lrolorms that have shapes
Ihal can make Ihem axtreclable.
(3) A small d.aughl 8ngle should be
included on permanent mandrels
10 aid extraction.
ElECT"AOPLATING NON. llneale SOlution
Make up:·
Included in this section is Ihe electro- SQdium Hydroxide 701n. per gallon 440
plating 01 aluminium. This is n01 strictly grms. per litre.
a non electricel conductor, but neve'" Zinc Oxide 130l. pe'gallon 87 9rms. per
Ihelen it will nOI electroplate like con- IIt'e.
veOlionat metals. The solution ;s made up in hall Ihe
Ana, going through tha lisled pre- volume 0Iw8te., adding the sodium hy"
cleaning cycle lor aluminium, as in droxide slowly. and slirring conl;nu.
chlptet Iou., lincale solUlion is re- oUlly. Aftef dlssolv;ng the sodium
quired. This is made up as follows:· hydroxide, aod While still warm, add the

A mOiJld<Id A'8IdM (fIsin li.
gU(fI. "".irised wtln .i_
/cuded and "ecrrop.
1.led .
zinc stirring unti! dissolved. Make
up to the final volume and aUow to cool.
The solution i. tllen ready for use.
Idaal containers are glass Or
Thll solution is uslld at room

To imprOlie \he deposit. that is to
make a mOra even deposil, a small
amount of ferric chloride cryst als (a
large pinch, approximatllly O.5grms PIIr
litrel and 5 grms of Rochelle salt are
addlld. However. tile aulhor has found
the original formula satisfactory for
most finishes on aluminium.
The immersion time is between len
and thlr1y seconds. After "nsing in
watar Ihe aluminium should have a grey
apPllarance.
While still wet from the rinse, im·
men;e in either of the nickal elactrolVles
to deposit approximataly 0.0002in. -
0.0003in .• remove, and rinse, and Irans·
fer to any other electrolVl8 you would
like 88the finish.
This is \I useful aid to soldering on alu·
minium. either all over Or selectiVflly.
with the lid of masking. The process is
as mentioned, bUI after depositing
nickel, the final finish i. a deposition of
tin O.OOO31n. epproxim,uely. This finish
is ideal for applying solder.
Non-conductors ere usuaUy classed
as plastics and caramics, but these can
be electroplatlld when they have been
made electricaUy conductive.
In industry the classic of electroplat·
ing non-conductors is the process in the
electronics industry of 'plating through
hole" on printed circuits. Briefly, this is
wllen the COPPII' dad plastic is driUad.
The holes through the middle have plas·
tic f aces. This has to be sensiti$8d wilh
various chemicals, such as stannous
Chloride. then palladium chloride. to
make tile surface conducive to a layer of
copper from an alectroless copper 601·
uti on. After rinsing. the leyer of copper
is built up in the holes with high throw
electrolVlic copper, followed by 8 tint
lead electroplate.
A simpler method for electroplating
on non·conductors was mentioned in
the lI!ectroforming section. namely aQu,
eous graphite and silver·loaded paint.
paint can be purchaslld
'rom paint or chemical supply houses.
and comes in quit e a few formulal ions.
Some can be painlad On and air dried.
Some can be fired, or even be put on
with 8 silk screen process.
For ceramics, the firlld·on variety is
usefuf. After firing. the surfaca Can
lIither be elllClrolVlic plaled. provrded
Ihere is a contact for the current. or elac·
troless plated wilh nIckel, COPPllr, gold
or even tin.
An idea for making decorative
jewellery is 10 dry leaves from trees or
use clean seashells, paint with silver.
loaded paint. air dry, and bright copper
electroplate to 0.001 in.
Also moulded epoxy figures Or bust s
can be made in 8 similar wav and this is
an inexpensive means of making
ornaments.
CHAPTER 7
Electroless Electroplating
The r&8son for the tWe ollhis chapter is
Ihat tha deposition of metals can be car·
rilld OUI without using an electrical
current. No electrical equipment is in·
volvlld in the actual electro·deposition.
It is somatimes referred to as chemical
plating, because the chemicals in the
formUlation effect the metallic depo·
sil ion. The main consti tuents of the
solutions ar8 an aqueous solution of the
chemical containing the metal to be de--
posited. and an equeous solulion con-
taining a chemical .lIducing agent .
These Can be together to form the
pl,,;ng solulion, but before any depo·
sition t akM plaCfl, a catalyst must be
present. In this process the COmponent
is the catalyst. No anodes are used. !t is
merely a tank containing the electroloss
50lution, wilh 0. wilhout agiTation, set
10 tile cOrr8CI temperature, with the
component immersed in the solution.
The most popu!ar and usolul e!ectro·
less solution is for depositing nickel.
Usually this is depositlld 8S an alloy of
nickel and phosphorus.
12% phosphoru$.
ElECTROlESS NICKEL
Make up:·
Nickel Chloride Crystals. 5 Ol. per gallon
30grms pe. litre.
Sodium Hypophosphire 1.5 - 1.60. per
gallon 1 Ogrms per litre.
Sodium Acetate Crystals Sol. PIIr gallon
!;O grms per litre.
The Sodium hypophoaphiTe is the re·
ducing agent in the $Olul ion. The best
method for using Ihis SOIUlion is 10
make up a solution of the nickel chloride
and keep in one glass bottle, and make
up a solution of the sodium hypo'
phosphite and !:IOdium hydroxyacetale
tOGether .• nd keep in anOlher glass
bo"le. These can be stock solutions.
When required. enough volume Is
to plate the componant. The ideal
container W plate with Ihis !:IOlution is 8
heat rasiatant glass beaker, healed by a
Bunsen burner, lIas ring or el ectriC hot
plate.
Thll oPllrating temperature for this
solUl ion i, 88'C - 94' C flSS"f - 200'F) .
Some agIt ation is required. bulan oc·
casional sh8ke of the 'Nirlld CQmponent
will release the bubbles of hydrogen
that collect On tha component as prod·
uct of the .eduction process.
The deposilion rale for the solution at
88"C (lSS' F) is:.
O.OOO6in. (IS microns) in sil<1y minUles.
However. to mainlain this rate of de·
position, small addilions of the
solullon. of niCkel cllloride . nd tile to-
dium lIypopllolpllne wllh lOdium
lIydfo><vlcell" h,v, 10 be added.t in·
tefVals, 10 keep the balance of th,
501 .. uon wtllle pllling. p.H should be
ma;n\llned between 40 end 6.0 by
addltionl of aqueoullOdium lIyro"ide.
.. there il no eleclfOlytl KIIon.
i.e. anode w,tll ootlid, elkl"ClI ",pply.
tllere is no pfobiem wIth 'tllrow'. m'l·
kIng 0, lIigll .nd law CU"lnt denlllY
.reas On the componenll n.. deposit
of niclcel .lIay il of lVen IlIockneu all
over !.lie component Tllis 01"0«111 is
uleful fOf nickel ,flay pilllng down n'f·
rOw holes, oflficelor tuba.
Ferroul mal.ls ean be plated In thl,
solutIon aft er Ihl pre-<:Iean fiiled in
ch'pter four. Coppe' and its alloys ean
.Iso be pl'led, but, being
nMd to be touched wilh iron or .Iu·
mlnium wife 10 .UI., the plallllg oper·
alion. AlumInIum ean be pI.ted direct
WIth Ihis solulion, no zincale dip being
- .
Th' ",-"llurlilCaI p' 0p8rties of Ihe
pllllng .. , Inleo"ting. As plaled il has ,
IIlfdneu of 500 V.P. N. By heallreallng
up 10 4OO"C the h .. dness ean be in-
erea.ed 10 900 V.P.N. The appearance of
lhe dePOSIt ean va'V from dull 10 semi·
brlglll melll.
An 0' mild roI.o<1lO1eu ndM "u.fId. This depos,t wilt 11''' .,.
...... I_".,,_ . .u ,''' WI''''' o"IHJ cornPOl .... 110', •• _ corn"I ...... .., rIHJ sh."..
,
..

Tile eleclropll1rnlil lupply lIoule. of.
Itrr In eKcellenl ranlile of elecl roless
nickel •.
TIN ElECTROlfSS PlATING
The followlrtg two formul.e are uHful
for pulling' thin Ilyer of lin oyer ferroul
metlland coppel.nd ill.lloys.
Oeposili"g ti" o. copper by IlIi.
m"lIod makes it useful for solderirtg,
espec .. lly on prinled whanl
Ihlle .. no common co"necllon '0' elK·
trolytoc ti" 11e<:t.Opllli"liI
For d.positl"lI on eopptf ,r>d tu .lIoys
EllCtroleu TI"
M,k,up: ·
Stannous Chloride 1.60z per g.11on
lOa.m. pe. litre
T/'rjoorllll 13.60z per g.lIo" 85grml per
lil'lI.
COflC/ln!r,ted Hydrochloric: /Wld 2.311.02
per 1iI.lIo" ISm1. pe. litre.
W"lIrto makll up Ihll volume.
The soh.llio" i. uled 11. tempeflturll
of 5O"C ,t22"F).
Thll ululllmme •• ion timl i. fiYII min·
ules. Notl : thil formula ia patented,
For. quiek pra-<:Iun on prinlad dr·
eu;ts, giYI a li"ht rubbing wilh a Ilurry
of scouring powder, rinM. Ind immer50
in IlIe lolut;on.
For immllrsion coating tin 0" IUtel,
IhIIlollowing solutio" i. used.
For d.po..;tinll on Iron and . , N1
EIKtroleu tin for i.on , r>d dNl
Make up:·
Stllnnou.f Sulplt-alll 0.24ol per "allon
l.5grml per lilll.
Conc/Inrrlled Sulphuric Acid 0 14n.0J!
pe. gallon 4m1. per lilrl.
Wllllno make up the voluml.
UM Ihe pre--dean for steel as set out in
<;hapter foo •• then immerse i" the IIn
soh.I\io" 81 I temperlh."e of Il2"C
"8O"Fl,
The time of immlrsion will YI'V WIth
thl 'Urlace co"ditio" o. ttlll mlteril1.
Thi. could be between one Ind le"
minulH.
Cofltli"ers for immll .. io" tin plall""
..I hel l·resiSlant gl ass. or plastic con·
IIiners, usually polytllene o. propyll"l.
Fo, these conlainftrs Ihe aqullia 1111111.
cln be used.
The Ihickness of deposit from electro·
less Iln solution is Ihin.
CARE with the aci ds used - glovel,
gagglH and overalls musl be wo'''.
Tile electrollss tin solution for copper
being ralhe, solid, whe" heali"g I.om
cold some 'bumping' will tak8 pilei<, un·
tilthe solid chemicals ara disSOIYed.
"
CHAPTER 8
An Example and the
Consideration of
Electroplating
All the chlJPters dea!! wllk IJO la' lIava
been set down in • kind of logical ...
quence 01 tile processes of 818(:"0918'-
ing. So, IIl$uming Ih. IV8'fge •• ..cI •• ;,
Itarti"9 on • smell loCale. end may be 11
model eng'nHr, he Or Ih' Win .. to elee-
ifopl.ilt I bitch of ,milt campo"e"".
TakIng Ihe hub cups of • ,",,11 IrK-
tion engine 11 en ."empt. ,. The
components hive Ihe I hape and dimen.
sion. set DuI In Fig.15.
The component. hev, bun macho
ined 10 11 good surface lini.l>, end .re
reedy lor electroplating, efte. bei";
510red in e dry ere •. In Olher words,
IlIefa;. no heavy 1..,.leee .u.t.
The .... XI pan oltheope.alion isto cal-
cullte IlIe surf.ce • .,tll of the corn-
pon.nll 10 be electroplated. This Un be
dont f.om the di"9fllrnl. 0. the pans
menuted by hand. Either way il is the
.. me.
To cal\:ul"e,he .rea ohlle hub cups;-
1) Fo, "'11'. di, thurea in,.>' _ 22 x 9'
- -
, "
- 0.99 Iq in
2) T ,king ci I"(:um fe renee x height 01", '" n.
2" K' x height
2a x 'i, K ." .
Tot.1 a'ea i, _ (0.99
Both inside and outside _ '" . .
Fo'lourhubcaps K13.68sqln.
, I
OU.,.mv. 0"
............ _DS ..
r--- ---- --,
, '
, I

,
, .. """"
50
The hub boting m.<ko 01 mild
lleel. the eleelroplating WIll bot O.OOOlln.
01 S.mi Bright Nickel and O.OOO5in. 01
Stlmi B.ight COpPer.
The cu"..,1 density in both .Ieelro-
Iyte. will bot 10. .• .1., (Me ch.pter fiv.!.
Th.r.lor •• 10. nickotl ,nd copper the
eleel'Opllli"ll C\lrr.nl will be: ·
10 x 13.68 . 0.95 .mperes.
'" Remembtfl"ll on. $qu ... loot _ 144
$qulralnch ...
TlM Ilm. IOf thl Ilee1roplatl"ll for
nielel - 18 minUles.
TIll lime for Ihe .Iact.oplltong 10'
copper _ 60 mlnut". ISM ch.pta. livel .
Th.t compl" .. pert of
Iha eleel,opllling p,oce .. , .nd now
come. the p'8Cl1c11 pe ... .
Th. hub cap. are buffed to the deslted
lus!te with a mop O. Olher polishing
1001. Attar polishing. Ih. compon.nts
• r. immefled In an organIC solvlnt. e.g.
white .pirit. for live mlnullI. th.n wiped
with. rag ",.ked In tha Ipirit. The com-
ponenll are thin .ir dried. They .ra then
hung vi. one of the sm,lI KreW hole.
on copper wire 1I the requlfed length to
fit the dapth of the cleaner •• nd the elec·
\folyll.
Aher wiring. lmmer .. b.ck in Ihe
whila fpillt 10f thirty MConds .• nd .lIow
to air dry. Thl. i. to m.ke 'ure the.e Ife
no flng,r m.rU.
Being m.de 01 mild .teel. Ih' cl"nlng
cycla i ... lollow •• from tha tlble. in
ch. pte. four.
111 Immern in alk'line SO.k cleane •
11 8O"C 117f1"F)lo. th," minUIII.
121 Immer .. In .Ikallne .Iect.olytlc
clll"" ., 8O"C 07frFl. Ior one
minutl. Wllh 1"- compolWll't1l con·
necled to lhe e negl1ive
pan 01 Iha rectifie •. Thi. gIves a
cathodic clean.lWatch 10. glSllng
on the eomponen1l, Ihi. glves.n
indicallon of tha cloning eHeeI)
Afte. one minute, rev .... the p0-
larity, i .•. connecl lhe e poa.l iva
reel,lier clip 10 the eomponenll
and anodic cion IOf .bout ten
sec:onds.
Aft .. the alkali cleaning. rlnu in
cold water fOf thirty wo;onds .nd
!tansler to No. 1 0' No. 2 pickll,
imme'te lor one minute 11 .oom
lemperetu ...
R,nte in cold wale. 10' thirty sec-
onds.
Conneel lhl reeli!;e. 10 Ihe nielal tank.
positiv. $10 the nickotl .nodH. calhoda
e neol1ive, 10 Ihe cathode be,. ChICk
the circuit by switching on Ihl reelifie.
on sm.1I adjustment of currenl. and dip
Ihl clip Irom the cathode blI. into Ihe
aleel.olytl. 11 curranl rlading i. ob-
tained, thl circui l i.,he correct polarity •
Wtlh Ihe eleelrolyte 81 tha .equi.ed
tempe."ur, 01 5O"C l \3O'FJ and Ihe .ec·
tifler III to approximately one ampe.e.
connect the wired componenl. to Iha
cathode ber. immersing in Ihe eleelro-
Iyte 11 Ihe lime time. Afte. Ihe com·
ponents hava been wired onto the
cathode ba. Ihe currenl il .dJusled 10
0.95 Or 1.0 .mpe.e •.
Tha comp.essed.i. agitalion I •• djus-
ted 10 •• steady bubbling action. thIn
left 1o. eighteen minutll to lleeI.oplate.
WhIn Ihis lime hnelapHd. Ihlwi.ed
componenlS .. 1 removed .nd ,inHd in
cold watar.
Whilti they 1'8 ,inling conf1.l'Cl Ihe
'eelllie. to Ihe copper eleel.olytl IlhI
same procedure IS 1o. the nickll elec-
trolyta). The cirC\lIt polarity it ehedted
(_ nickel electrolyte). With thl eleel'o-
Iytl I1lhe r&qui.ed temperllU,e 01 23'C
"
(74"Fj. end the fectili .. set el one Imp.
Ihe _fed componenll Ife 'l'Il'Iove<!
Irom Ihe ,inse lInk Imd connecte<!IO the
cathodl bar. immefling in Ihe electro-
lyI. 41lhe SIImel;me.
When alllhe componenll heve been
wi,ed onto the cathode bar. Idjust the
currlnt to 0.95 or t .D emp. The com-
pr .. nd elr is edjuste<! for e steedy bub-
bling ection end teh fo, ... Iy minUles.
Aller "><IV minutes the c:omponents
Ifl remove<! end rinsed in cold wlter.
IhIn in hol wat ... TheyereU ... n dried oH
in hOteir
Alter drving. Ihl componlnts e,e un_
w"ed. end lightly rubbed WIth multon
clOlh 0' "milar s.oft 'Ig. 11 neede<!. I
light bull enhances the eppearanCI.
CON$lOEAA noNS IN
ElEC'TAOPLA nNG
Thil i. by way of Illn.1 word on som. 01
thl espects mentioned. but not elaborl'
ted on in verious ch,pI ... ollll4 book.
M.ntion is mede of slripping the llee.
Uopl"e<! deposits for leulty Ippel"1l«I
Or u.d .dhelion. Ther. fOllow some
met,l.trippe"ormulation.:
11. Fo. 'tripping nlcllel Irom 1, ,,ouI
m"er1ell. end C"pP4'I' end tu 1110.,.. :-
Nlckelllrlpper.
M.kl up:·
Th... pens OI1nCfffltreted ,ulphu.ic
-.
Two pertl W4ler. by "olum • .
The ".ipper is use<! et .oom Ilmpere.
cu.e. wllh Ihe components lood1c. posi.
tivI ID Ind uling lead "ripe .. e4lh.
od ••• e negat've. Vohe\le4 - 6 volt •. 11
required. 30,. per gallon 01 glyc.fine
may be Idde<!. This prevlnll elching.
"peclllly on st ..... l. The nickel'pl4led
c:omPOnenlllr. left in Ihe ItllPpe' until
Ihe nldtel il completely dissolved 011,
Ihowing IIIe lubst,ete. 11 I.ft 100 long in
"
the stripper thl $Ubstrate will .. ert to
diuol"l.way.
2). for " ripping COpper depr;>li1a trom
IIHI I nd eoppe • • nd its 1110.,...
Use Ihe recommended nickel ,tripper.
INot).
3). For "ripping 01 copper with nick. 1
undlrccNrt.
Use the recommended niclel Strlppe •.
(Noli-
4). Fo. Ittlppi"i! nlckellrom I lumlnlum.
Imm .... in SO% equeous nitfie acid. o.
concentrated nllric ecid at room I.m-
perature, unlillha nlcklll dllposil is di',
solved off the Iluminium,
5). Fo • • t rlpplng enodlll.
The loIlowlng .alulion can be used; .
Meke up;-
Ccncenlref«/ .ulphurit: K,d. 1611,01
loomls pe. ti" • .
PoreuJUm FIIJOF'cH. 6 01_ 40grms pe.
litr,.
W'fer. to mlk. up I gellon (to mek, 1
Iilr'.1
The SOlution Is mad. up by adding
wale, tQ e h.1I r .. ist ant glass Or pl .. tic
tank 1pc>lylhen, Iype). The sulphuric
acid il Idded ,lowly. Ind stirred con.
tinuously. All,. lhe Idditlon ollh. Kid.
add the potelllum fluo.rd., slIrrrng con.
linuously until dllSOl"rtd. Allow to COOl
to .oom tl'll'lperature. Adjust to linll "01.
ume wi!h W81er. Use Ihe stripper It
room temper.lu... Allow the com.
pc>nen15 to '''nd In Ih. ''';PP'' untIl the
anodise i, d,llolvtrd off. The info, .
mat ion on stripping d.fedive Inodi ..
in chapter nine i, IIill but e
separe" .Uipper mey be needed, es-
pecielly WIth dyed pen" which would
colour the !he lnodise pre-trutment
This glvtrl e choice.
6). For Itrlpplnt tin trom steel end
c:GpJl4f Ind Its ello.,...
The lollowing lOIution C4n be used:-
Meke up:·
CopPlr sulphete errsfe/s. 6 Ol, per gal·
Ion 50grms per litre.
Concentrated sulphuric e"id. 1611.0:.pI.
glllon loomls per lit ...
Water. to meke up 1 gellon Ho make 1
lit .. ),
The solulion is used et room tampe'l'
ture.
All tha listed IItippers can be used in
plntic con"i.,..,. lik, pOlylhllne. CARE
with sulphufic Ind Kidl, both .rI
Use goggl •• , glovtr$ Ind
OVllralls. Add acid to water. nOI ylce·
versa. Watr;h fo. h"1 generated by the
f41Ci;On. After .ach Plft 01 the pro'
cessing. i,l. belween 1114 cleaners.
pickle, bright dip .. ndthe electrolytes. 1
cold wit .. rinse must be carried out
Thi' cleans the component .. end stops
the .Netion, and pr_nil C4rrv-over 01
the solutions, thus pr_nting conllmi_
nllion.
All of the lormuletion. hive
,1I\h' cyanides end chromic ,cld. They
hay. "-en mentioned in but the
'8Ison lor excluding the .. elect.olyles.
auch .. silve, end gold. 11 because they
COnllln cyanide. You might be eble 10
purd>.SI !h.m from th' VI"OUI IUpply
housel. but td>edule<! poilOns , .. only
mIde ",eilabi, to genui.,. indu'triel
,It<;t.opllle.s.
Th •• of r;h.omium electro-
plating 11 because ch.omic acId il uslld
in the p'(>CfIss. In Industrlel .Ieclroplet·
ing mendatory ,egul8110ns apply. and
thl haurd, with chromium ,Iect.oplet·
Ing, wh.n ClIrrirtd out in In un'l9ullled
.. ... cen be verv con,id .. ebl • .
USEFUL INFORMATION
To convert ' Fto"C {Temp "F -32) H'I.
To convert"C to "F (Temp "C" -If) + 32
To convert ounc .. pergtllon 10 gramm ..
per 1i1re
To conveft gramm .. pe. lilreto ouncet
per glnon
To cony.rt "uid ounces 10 millilt" .. o. CC
Nickel Sulphete CryStalS
Nickel Chloride
Sodium Hyd.o)(id. (Caustic Sod.t
Potassium HydroHide lCaustic Potuhl
Sodium Carbonata (Sode Ash)
Concentrated Sulphuric Acid (SG 1.841
Concentrlied Nitric Acid S.G 11.36)
Hydrochloric Acid
Copper Sulphate
Hydrogen P ..
multiply by 6.25
mUltiply by O. 16
muluply by 28.35
formule NiS0
4
eH.O
NiCI.6H.o
NoOH
KO"
N •• C0
3
H.S04
HN0
3
"Cl
CuSO.5H.O
",0,
CHAPTER 9
The Finishing of Aluminium
and its Alloys
The linllhlng of Ilumlnlum can be 8C-
eompli,tu,d by eilh •• an anodising p,o-
cess 0( I conllltf'SiOtl coating.
The MIOdi,ing Thl. a1n be
divided inlO 11II).ptOCflnes:_
SUlPHURIC ANODISE AND CHROMIC
AOOAHODlSE
Sulphuric _nodi .. i. the mote p • ..,_
lio;al PfOC'" for th. ,mlteu •• nd model
englnee., Most g .. des 01 ,Iurninil,lrn
lOO aluminium alloys GIn be anodiHd
by rhlt proc,,"; the pur., Iha alu-
mi nium the bene. the 81lodiMd film.
The 1I1.10UI aluminium alloy COn-
l tituenll. I .• . silicon .nd m'nglnase,
lend 10 'M'td the process o f Ih •• no.
dind film, elll'I" in the pn",re.lment Or
the actual,nodl,lng.
MOll labric"ionl from I"", 0.
and 10",. calling. GIn be
.ucceufully lnodiMd. HOWlIYflt, some
,lIays lrod IOmtI clltlngl fire not con-
ducive 10 Ihl anodl"ng proces •. C ...
tlng. .r. usually anodised by Ihe
Chromic KId p.oceu;.
The Pr1lCKf; of afl(ldi,ing il,h. laying
down or tha growing of a film of Ilu.
mln;um oxida over Ihe turf,ca or Ihe
• Iumlnlum. Aluminium lonn •• Ilyer of
the oxide very quickly, 0118<1 alter •
dlemlelol clnn, but lhe !hidul_ of the
"
laver is dependent on liml, Thl InOdI,.
ing proee .. Iccelerlt .. Iha lime and
allO giv .. a denser unblOk"n 11";'. 01
oxidl, whICh enhanc:a till p.opetIies 01
Iluminium againsl oo.,o,ion.ln Ihl .ul.
phuric acid process il .dd, a mordlm
layer which can be used for Ihe dyemg
0<' colOUring of aluminium. Ho_er
for colOUring lhe maIn IUenl;al i,
h.v" a good laver of alumin;um oxide.
Mlgnified 1000 .. thl laver would look
likl Fig. 16.
Thl impOrt.nt ch"lCIerilllc$ are Ihl
layer and Ihl pOrI . izl. Thl
Ih.ckness of the bl"'I' I.ver i, p.o.
portlonll 10 Ihl voltage. The pore.lzl Is
dependem on Ihl conclnlralion of Ihe
Iltctrolytl iMllphuric KId). !h" Ilactro.
Iytl IImpe"lur. and Ihe applied cur.
rent.
Two faclors emergl whiCh make lor a
PIIrtlcul" anodising film •
Lower c:on.;."lration. 1.1. MlI.
phurlc ecid. and low temperatU.I glvI a
'mall pore .izl bul produce a h.rd
• nodiled film.
High"r con.cenlf.tion. 1.1. 15% MlI.
phurlc acid • • nd higher lemperatu.I
• '.,'ger pora ,iH which prodUCI ••
f.lm ,ulllble ' or dyling •
A good compromise I, 12% vtv lul.
phuric: acid which mi kes. good g_ral
,nodising bath.
,
""'" "', ,
1"", t l
Solution Prep • • l1lon
To make up an anodising bath a 111891 o.
, polythene Iype DIUlic link i, .ecom-
mended A good link 10' domg small
componlnts il • IlIge icl crllm con-
IImar. These havI. tlpacity of about 1
gallon 14.5 lilrll). Hall fHl Ihe tlnk with
distilled or de.on."d waler, .nd th.n
slowly add lna necesury voluml of sui.
phu.ie acid. constanily stirr ing. CAREI
Tha aCId must be added to Ihl wlte. and
not vice h I1 adviUble 10 wl ..
prOlectivl gloves and ufllY glasses.
Altar allowing Ihl IOlution to cool Ihl
volume 11 coulded by Ihl addilion of
mar. di,tolled wate •. An I .. ample of Ihl
dilution i, as foIIOW' :-
10*4 volume IOlution for h"d .nodi.-
ing.
450 m's per 4.5 "t" •.
16 flu.d al. per gallon.
0'
12% volume IOlutlon lor general
anodiSIng.
S40 ml. per 4.5 lit ....
19.2 fluid oz. per glllon.
For else Ind convlnilnce balllIV
acid .old 11 g ... g .. be used. This i,
of I dilution of 33"<0 of sulphuric acid In
distillld Wit... IpproMimlte specific
011.275/ 1 .280.
If Ihl balllry aeid i, dilulid 1 volume
10 2.0 volumes 01 dislollad wlt"r. Ihi,
would g,vI • 10"1. ,ulphu"c .cid con-
cemration.
li the Iunery acid I, dilulld 1 voluml
10 1.5 volumas of dj'lllIad w .... , Ih"
would giVfl I 12"4 Mllphuric .clll Con·
cenlrllion.
For. g.lIon 10lUllon the dllulion i. 3
p,nts of bl"lry acid 10 4"., p.nll 01 dis·
1.llad wallf. giving I total of 7"., p,nts
lotal volum". JUSI undar Ihl g.lIon. If
measuring1n "I". or ml •. the dilullon IS
2 lit". or 2000 mll. to 3 litres o. 3000
mls .. giving I t01l1 volume of Slit .. s Or
5000 mll .• which i, jU$! ov,. the 4.5
htres; Ih' equivallnllO a gallon.
Sen lng up 01 th, anodll lng lank
AIt" th, required volume of IOlulion 01
lulphu.ic: Kill i. midi up (IIIher 10% or
12%) !wO piec". of cllln sh .. tlead 1'1
down two oppo.ite sodll of Ihe
tlnk. TheM "I bent OVIf the lap Olthl
tank 10 po'lil.on lhem and to mak'll>Im
conVflnient to connect to thl llectric.1
supplV ThIS/! a.. Ihe cathode.. The
anode bar i. pllced down the m.ddle •
and the componlntl to be anodised are
connectld to this. Thau.ual WIV to con·
IIecI Ihl aluminium components for
Inodismg i. 10 Jig them in a I.lln.um
made .prung jig. The .. come in differ'
enl sh.paslor variouI components. but
are a>cpanliVIIO buy To1anium rod Ind
,
--
,
,
.-
-
fig. 17
small "«Id bit can bt' for
makinglhlM jig •. fh_CIOn be used 10'
,nodi.,ng I la.ge QuantIty of ,imlll'
components, which would p.oya the
mOlt ""onomlcal way of processin"
,k",rn.
Generally t ha U51 01 al umlnum Wire IS
Ihe most for Imall Quan.
tities. and it Cln be bought In VI"OU' d"
amete, ,iled 'eel, 01 va'V'ng stiffn ....
Lengths are CUI .Iight ly IO!'lg8' I han re_
quired and coil\ld over a bar of "",'11 or
wood so 11,,1 some tension i, obllioad.
The component i, wired up u11nll' con-
venoent hole. or I PlrI of Ihe surface , h"
will 50!1CUre 11 good electrical conl Kl .
TI>e Will il then twisted 10 .n .... '. I rigid
contact. Tt,,, 'e51 of the componen" I',
wired lhe sama. if vou •• e anod .. ing I
batch Or I sel of component • • The wired
components should hlng Ipp.o_i.
ma,ety midway in ,he elllCtfolyll, .. , ,,th
an allowll'ICfI Q<1 \h, wire for " ' .ching it
on the lnode bat. Th wir .. lie then
sn.pped off.o thlt I<H. Thll will redtH;tl
tllfl surplus w" .... d avoid tile pOl'"
bility 01 on the cathod' bar ..
"

,
,
I
/
/
I
,
,
.-
well .. makinll i, easier Ind to
w". onto lh. anode bar.
Wilh the components wired up • • he
power II switched on and edjust9d to
the rlquired <;!.IlIent density lor anodis·
inll.'t illhen leh for Ihe required lime 10
obl"n the 'lKIuired 01
anodise.
To enhellCtl and improve . he quality
of anodised finish. agitalion is ,ecom·
mended. bUI good quali.y anodise ean
be oblaln9d in still bOlhs. To agitate the
electrolyte a plutlc pipe wilh holes
dtlll9d in is connected 10 a flexible pipe
(Fig. I 7f. end In tu,n conneclftd to a rellu.
laled compressor. Thi, wHl blow air inlO
.h, 'Iectrolyte cau'lnll movement by
bubbllnll. Ca,e must be &J<ercised In
ragullllnll the air flow, Or the electrolyte
WIll blJbble ove., and could prove
and eause accidents.
Operltlng Conditions
The plllinll ClJlfefll for anodising
Ihould be be_n 10 - IS amps pe.
SQuire fOOl , o. O.069.omPs PI< SQuare
il\(:h 10 O. 1000mps per SQuare il\(:h ol the
surface Irea 10 be 'nodll8<l . Th. volllge
i. to be between 12 and 20 volt • • Al IS
ampI per squI.e fOOl lhe d.po.it of ano·
dise will be O.OOOlln. in 6.S minules.
HOWl .... '. lhi. w,1I Ilk' lonller depend·
ing on lhe ,moum of "!Iitation. Wi!h no
lIIitllion il will tau 10 minules to de-
po,It 0.00011n. of ,nodiH.TtHr temperl'
lure of the proceu 11 betwe&f1 20 - 2S
dlll'_ C, 70 _75 dag'_ F, If !he elee· fit. " s..t.d".". .. '_
t,oIyI' ,,,ceedl Ih' t09 limit allow to

Sealing of the Anodised FIlm
11 desi.ed the anodised film can be
selled. Thi. P'OC .. I in 'ffKt "Ill over
,lie pOf, .. tes of ,lie g.own aluminium
oxide.
Thil i. broughlabotJ' by an il\(:rease in
lemperature in I sealanl. in·
c.ease. the volume Ind swelll Ihe",1
wallland close. the po •••.
The seal In' il UIUllty boilinll de-
ionised w.'er" tempere,ureol l OO de·
g"" C for • pe.iod 01 20 mlnut ... I, la
best dOn, In • 11.1nlen steel container.
An altern"ive is 10 boil pure deion;ud
water In I ,"inl ..... eel conlliner with
• lid. and IUlpend Ihe Inodiud a"iele
in ,he .. um oH for 30 mlnu, ...
The .. ,led "tieles Ire li ken out end al·
lowed '0 dry In Ihe air. Or In I convenient
ov.n.
THE DYEING OF ANODISED
ALUMINIUM
The mljorlty 01 Iluminium 1110'(1 when
anodised h.ve In Ippearence of nllurel
aluminium or '"Iver' c(>lOl.l'. Some
allo'(l conUrln alloy con,muanll luch ..
mang,...,. ... !rcon. magnesium and
copper. If the .. materials are pr,""nt
between 5%-8%. ,hey produce a coIor.
t.on ol lhe .. IOdised him. Th. colore"on
varies from a brown for mangan,"", for
silicon Ind mag ...... um I bluish g.ey.
and for eopper In o"nge yellow
To obelin I consistent ,.p.odOKible
uniform colour, the easiest and most
,",nomal wily ia to use an orlllnic dye
tllat i. soluble in waler. To obtain the re·
qui.ed shade of colou. y",oua con·
c,nt.ations of 'he dyes have to be used.
A guide is between I IIrm.pe. li,re 10
100,ms pe. lit ... O.1SoB.pe. gallon '0
1.60z •. pe. glllon. This concent.ation
will plso yary wilh colou •.
()pe<.rinll Conditlon. lor Dy. Tlnk,
The idul tank 10' dyeing should be
made 01 good quolity ,"inleu l ' lel .
Austlnlt;C grade 320S17. Howeva •.
most plaSlic 0' glass can also be
used. but they will 811 .equlre hel1lnll to
BpplOK'mately 40 - SO deg"" C. 104 -
122 deg ..... F.
The dyl is welglled ou, to
the concentration. Ind added '0 hall the
yolume of hot w"er conllined in .he
dye link. The solution i. agillled by,,""
ong O. by air agitl1ion f.om I 'egula,9d
comP'I$$OI. This il continued until all
Ihe dye h .. dissolved and no partlC ....
remain in wspension. Suspended pi.·
of dye are the m.in Clull of
" .. ab on thedyed of ,he com·
ponents. Aher dissolullon of ,lie dye.
the solulion i, made up 10 vof·
ume. end H'e desir&<!
maintained by the heater.
After thoroughly the com·
ponents in cold weter Ihey Irl hur>g
IICtoSS I bar 01 meud o. pll"k; Ind
totelly immersed in the elyl, preflf.bly
with egltallon for the requi.ed time. The
time. beinll dependenl on Ihe inten,ity
of the colour. I1 usullly between 5 and
15 minutM. lo mllntainlhl con.iller\CV
01 colour for .ubtequet\t batehH 01
componlf'l\S, the condilion. ollempera-
ture and liml must be closely adhlred
, •.
A flow p.oc.ss chIn 10' Ih' v.rlous
process" In Inodl.ing is shown In Rg.
".
Poinllto .emember 10f good practice in
the Inodising process are:-
1') Tho.ough clllninll in th, p.e-
tr8lltmenl CYCII, Ind the complete
removll of lI.elSllnd .mut I.om
Ihe compOr'lenta.
Ibl omlin, fnd mlintain, a good elec-
tricel contKC be1V>elnthe wire on
the component end the enode blr.
FIg. 19
..
A point to remember is thet the
Inodlsed film letl 115 In eleeui.
cllly insullting surfece, .0 if Ihl
contltCl moVH, the conducting
IUrface under tlM wire ;nth' elec-
trolyte i. 1011. Tlte consequ'nce 01
this iSlhlltlMgrowth of anodised
r;lm .IOP., bUI Ihe worst pin 01
this action I, thatttle resi.lance"
thlt poinl inc.ease,lhe he"ingef_
fact. ceu";ng Ifo";on 011 thl su.·

Id After the Inodill pan of Ihe pi'o-
eelS, the components Ir, r.
moved 1ft .. switching 011 It the
rectifier. and quickly rinsed In cold
Wller, then quic:kJy imm,rMd
,ithe. in IIM dye bath or lhe HII·
ing tlnk Ilor nllu.I' enodill). At
nO lime should Ihl In.odiced mm
be allowed 10 dry. To do 110 would
givl I PlInlll closurl of the pore
lrel, Ind hlnce rest.ict Ihe in-
g._ ollhe dye.
ldj A good method of checking InO·
dill is to UII I tHt meler IAvo
type) set On D.e. Iow vOltagl. and
-
.
",I 10 rnilllnce. Lightly pan thl
mell' probe. across thl lurf&Cl.
Any ,'ee. with no 8nodi .. will (el
conduct. which will ceu.e I deltec-
lion On the meter. A simp'l check
10. I .. eled surface 011 MtU'I'
Inodill i. 10 moisten. IOny .... of
the surfIC', Ind touch th, IUrface
with In Indelible pencil. If Ihe IU',
face i. thin wiped cleen. leaving
no trac. of Ihe colour of Ihe pencil.
the IUrf_ het ,,"n sl1islacto.ily
SIlled.
lo strip delective Inodise f.om
,0mpOnentl. ttle wi.ed
ponenlS ."Immersed'n Ihellkall
Cl ...... for • few minutel. "nsed
in cold wlter, Imm •• sed 'nlhe ni_
t.ic &CId IIOlulio" fo •• few min-
ut .. , rinsed and ,,·enodised. In
other word •. blek th.ough the
pretreatments.
"
Index
Ag,'-lion
"
Alk.lin;ly
"
AllefMIi"ij CV"e<11 (AC)
"

"
Amphou.
,
A""',
,
Anod'H
54, 55, 56, 51
AnodiH electrol.,.,. 55
Amon
"
A .... 10,12
Atomi.; weight
,
Atom.
,
BI1tery j12 and 6 voll)
"
Sa1tlry chalg" 15.16.17
Bright dip.
"
C.thode
,
Celion
"
CI .. ne ..
"
Coppe.llect.oIytel 36.37,42
CooJlomb$
,
CUlfe<1t denlity
"
Dj.ect current (DC)
"
i)ye,nglenodiH'
"
ElectfO Chlmkel Equivlllnt IECE)
,
Elect.ofo.mlng 4O,41,42,4J
E leet. ol... .1 tclfOoP I "i ng 47. 48, 49
Eleet.ol.,.,.
"
"
Faraday.' 1._
FI.lday (unil)
Gl ...
Heate ..
'00
Mlnd"ls
Masking off
Mouldl
Nickel elect.olytes
Non-eondueto.
""
Pickles
PI.lties
Potenliomete.
Rectifi"
Sulingl.oodiH'
51"1 (,"inlesl end mildl
Solvenls (o'genkl
St.lpPtllt
Tsnks
Tin .llet.olyte.
,
,
"
"
"
40,41
"
"
34. 35, 42
45.46
"
2S
18, 19, 20
"
"
"
20
"
52. 53
"
38,39
V.I.ncy
V.".bI.,ellsIIJ'lCe
VOlumes (links)
w.""ij up
Ziocale
Zinc elect.oIytes
,
"
"
"
"
30,31,32
"

WORKSHOP PRACTICE SERIES "Onl Argus Books
\. Hardening, Tt!mpNmg .mrl
He.JI TrPc1tmpnt
6. Sh!.>,'1 Ml'tdl ''''brA: R. f W.lkt'lord
q
In

I',. l'Vorkho/ctmg I uO.:l1 (am

In

,h(' Uthp

TulMI Lain
2 'vPffic.1i Milling
Worlc~hup

So/ch-ring ,md Bt,Jl'Ing

thl' Home'

Tubal (am
10. Soli"'.' .Jnd5.,wm;;
1.10

lb t.1(,!lrIC \totors \i ) (.ox
T(,t'¥5

Arnold Thtop
1 <;crt'wcuttmR In ,hE> Utll(' M.lrtm Clecvp
"' Foundf} work IJ, I A.Splfl

,md (.(,,If (uttmg

Bradlt>y

I. Llw
1rJ:. Sime Bem hwork Lt'S Oldru/g(' I'J SprlllR ()coslg" ,lOci Ai.1nuf.Rture TlIh •• 1 elln lO. ,\I<>t.J/w(lrk ,,"ri t\1,l("/unmg Hmt.~ .lIld r11)5
1.ln Brold!('v

1 I f Ii'( troploJt/O~
I PoynPr
1;>

'Of

the '\mdtf'lJf

:'; ,\1illmll OperJtlons m the L.Il/)('

0,,/1, Tap50 .md IJ,(>S Tubal ( din
W(l,*~h"fl

luhal LIIn
f, M(',l~uflng .m" ·\fclrkmg \I,'U!\ IVdn I ,Iv.'
~

I

i

Draw/nu

TL1ball.lin

1-1 M.,l..inR Sm.J1/I,\orlohop
Too/~

The"" of Weldmg
\V A. VilUse

'lo. Bray

11. Electroplating
The techniques of depositing a thin metallic layer on dn object lor decoration, corrosion protection. electrical conductivity, wedr resistance and so on have been known for many years but have been developed and improved to a remarkable extent in the second hali of this century. This book sets out to discuss the principles and practice of those forms of plating most suited to the amateur and small workshop. using relatively simpl and inexpensive equipment to procluce results virtually uncletectable lrom work carried out by major plating concerns. Jack Poyner, a professional involved in all forms of plating for many years, is also a keen model engineer able to recognise the dividing line between what his average fellow enthusiast would consider practical and worthwhile and what is really better leit to experts in the field. The result is a really useful and practical book which will be of value to both dmateur and light industrial users in many diverse fields.
ISBN 0-85242-862 -6

+ r-" - -,-- ..(1) Busy Bee
.

Br

UK on y

9

,

Electroplating
J . A. Po yn er

ARGU SB OO KS

.pa IIoob "'d. _.... I • All Chaptet 5 Chap'''' 6 ...:(lnducto" pIooo...... Th.. AlpIII. "'"'teR .........". ilia. -... "hou. by EIKtrofOfming and ._ pn.. •• .......e. el.'ecuopl.olyle • 199(1. I.....lropia ling lank 6 O A.." .. 1987 R..........ing An example and Ihe c....:on.....9 I"de~ ..~d".8 Chapte._'llc_. ""d. Chap'''' 2 IntrOduction and princip'H 0/ electroplating Chap'".... aD)' Jomo..nlng of 'he s"bSl.p.. '991 No ~ '" ......llor- " '" 1'toM..h...a t ...atlorl 0' " " " " " " 50 The finishing of aluminium and ill... H... r...'ectroplating EIKt.et 1 Chap'"....011'" or any <><1>0....r Ilcn_.'ea.. 1I1'27ST Eft..ol.3 Chapter 4 Th" electrical Supply The e'eo. ....Lorw:l Contents Chap'''' ..ata Th" "Kt. "" •• «Iand' . 11.bit po.opll.1>1.. .. _ ISBNOU142W626 .. .t.... .. Chllp.ide.. Wiloslli .. ..... Je" WCI bJ 000 .ting 0" non..... ....... T_~.... ' ..... by .......... lid.y be "' . Daip ""d.

oplating aod c .. plallrlg for elll(.ni. Ipmenl.... TkeM lilt.lhe_lIhllwll. Cenain chemicalS Ire .m liP...11CI.m and rinse \Inks. or 6 VO!II. ensu'. verv little choice av.. lh Ihe material •.... Thell are . is best provided by definIng Ihe un. 01 pfocess control. Various alloy plallog.eq........ Ipa" from UIS for electroplating.. shops off".uffice to hlv..egard 10 the lanks req ..nll he wanll to elect. ipm.. hlll.e...· '.1 engine..1I eq .Iect.r11 by weight of oxygen in a reection ..nI8.. obvio ..CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Principles of Electroplating Present d..Iricllons Ire pl.dlmenlary Of 1 more .. propor1lonal to ill electrO-Chemical eq .eplac.. prob· lem 0 1 dispoling 01 eftl ..nd elec1rieaJ.nd components Pr_m dav finllh..... the yea.Iaborall line of pr'lfellm.el.. These . milling aod drill. lIen". Ihen rinsinll In cold . to be f. For example..r mUSI dec:id40 on .eased volume 01 parts to be finished Bnd 10 oonlrol Ihe DroceSl. plied chemistry ..ally. The electrical eq"ipm. is depend. lion •.. I . A wiring dia· gllm i. relev. This is d ...nce of "sing Ih. beeo SHn in the m8~inll 01 tquipment for thlll finishing shop.. stom·b .. high spIed sellICt..ds in lhe elect."1I a conlllm quality 0 1 linish. . ...he<! br. ivlleot. Aftar these pretrHtmenll... alonll .0"5 vol"m...ln I.m conla iner.. nt . lumpl. • multi· ditcipline of . carried OI.electrical t..ably r..1"111 a lIatnl'" steel or mild 51eel tank. te. ations in model .."g'. ing mldlin. e. 8<\ ..... Olh. deall with In one of the following chap· tell..II<>d the conveni. to Ill .s developmenl hat beln carried OIl! on Ihe plating 01 plastics. the electro":hemical eq .. m •..ated on an .. limited "N 11 compared to Ihe machining Ind fabricatinll oper. ld be con· . Wilh ..:ed on th.... inCluded in the chapl. PftINClPlES Of ELECTROPlA. wilh Ih.m in ".a"er•• plc~le made of diluted Kid ..nt. and Ihere wo .nl needed can be adapted from othe.m on the lile o f Ihe compo..leel) Ind vlI. mechllniCIII .. I WIde end "... iremenll of lIealtll and safety.ele. lhe com· ponents Ir. Ihe 5 litr.... of primed boa...ing on at .ing i. being lalh. Inc'eased use.. TheN two 1__ need • liule expla· nallon to . or."ed r. . For the same quantity 0 1 elec' lricity... ilt rectifier. con. become I _II -utabli. A uIII . ld be Ill. ho_"" •• is Ihe deg. of componenll Ihel hay.ison.. ion end g •• pl"ing.. one could UII In .. pleling •• nodlli"glrKI electropla... Avom~erl.. 1.. and . nlln boJrnerwith .'ing.. The vllency is defined 11 Ihe number ... Ints 10 ...bllity 01 the chem l... nt req .. sed in model englneerinlllhere i.. Ith e rln ...dinllion w. rm or hot 501 . and . lIIectrolyte is dIoHn.t finIshes heve been Int. ipment c... in co-o.nllh •• h .idering one fin· ilh 10' IImll. COII. The mod..imple facility 01 en alkali cl. I.. ide •• nge of en· ginee.nl lectOfl.neh 01 metal finil. .brHive pOWder. For . .... Wtlll Ihe vlrious processes involved In elect.opl...r main ..11 IS fish lank heat ..$ ind . strv 1111 added impel . or a battery chllg. Wilh mOll of Ih a processas . iremenl •. ill .. In lew 2.. .. These points w illll.....poaited IS prOpOr1ionaJ to the quantIty 01 electriCity passed. tank conteinlnll cold ..'· (1) (2) The weighl of melll d. cal • ... bllers bonded 10 Ihem. ' for I comin".oplaled.. ppli •••.nllineering and in small worklhoPt' lIen. nde.. • 11" ring or electrle h01 plale may be used Chemical glass beakers mede 0 1 heat· rllilling IIlall may be . it .nNG The fundamental la_ ol.ile Ind volumeof compon. .."o..... o f metellllee'.Iv dr(a 01 electroplating the indulllry 1It'"1'd with wooden VIIS.lect. it "'. In the .... .nd . elae"opllled.II. If desired I pe •• man. pol.. Automatic pll"t has been dflveloped 10 copt! with the in_ c..nl rig can be made.lt . may be used. ntily of .. For In e/ectricallUpp!y a 12 YOIt bit IIrv... ready·made eq . is ptoponionallo I x I. i •• d....... """'ether he Wlnll a ".... y • • nd m..... o . for varied com· ponents and IlIga volume. wilh a line 01 electro· plllinll "nh all combined wllh the c .. m~all and plallle • . Over the IISI fift .e o f avail. IIII.r on the supply of current.lngraml Of ounces and the q . hll .gilllion. hich Is . The Olh...nlit.' taken to avoid Icxidenll and redu".f. ater.. lIer or p..JI •• u<:h II ~Id eob. Thi.... 'ppropriate preca ."':.nd tpenl chemical •. electrOplated '" ... yea. hich gi. lng lhem a $COlI' with ... The waight of metal de· posited i. healer. sed and Cln be h. capacity electrica l cell.... tionl must be .. cov.. ilh eighl p..opllting 501 .. . Thereto. which hive varioul r.. eleclfoplating proc-M Ih ••• i.......ilab'. Thi..nge of finishing 1"0- ..hed . or combine .r of 12 volt. of heatinll the SQiution may be conlldered.. I" CQmpa.an. Th.llmenl Ind elect. bsllnlial.. lpmeot .1. ould ....lettd....Thi..mpsla) x time lse«lnds) It!... SI.. uMf . Thi.on.IS. •• perienee ......... iv. defined as the weight an el.n be pur · chased" most laborltory eq ....on the market.onif.ve 10 be conlidered.hing.... AI the othar a"!reme...re the space eVlllllbl..Impler lor c. There II aiM! b.oplellng safety pin •• . electropl. mini .nd Ove. to IlIe developm&nl aod many ptasl~ can be lIICCusfull. electrolell fi"i.1ee!fopl"inll facility.ing .... r... sile componenll and I lIeedy vol .a.opll.h ..odu"d.e. Elect.tev. or larll.........itabl••tend and ga .lee h.. IUlion of IlIe environment.. The cost oflhi ... ... _ "ule of thumb' method.. 1for mOlt pre·If..ting are bllsed on Faraday'.... plastic ice c.... Vlriol!. The lechnolog.r1ain compon... . I...' I..ioot plas.. Or bauerv charg....... ld be made even . 8<\ . two la-.. nning ..1"11 i.tlng h.. D.nts by g'v..icity is in coulombs . m... so.. herd thickness of gold. ndersllnd their implicatIons...ment ... m.Iectrle hot plate or oYer. It co . 1. ipmenl $Old on the marlce!.oplate.st.... nent to be ..e.iderlb le.... lion5 • .

s foot o... SO ul'''I. nl density . However.H. aflected by In inert . In prllctical le. wh. 11 II d i.. . ..m p. alklline and acid elec!.. due 10 lad! of repl.. -.H 7 is neutrlll ... 31. 0< Is en Ilom... .H 7.node . diacl1argtcl It the Inode..ass&d as .H 8 10 14 is .. . when ... The firll Ihing thet must be known lbout th..olY'. The third Ihing 10 con.al..ne" anode h.H of I 1 6 I. components and it s position . wt>!ch "'ve g. An IIqUoroUI 100ulion wilh water·soluble chemicllls of Ihe m'lat 10 be deposiled.nl (limp') pe.olvtes.e· IlIion 10 Iha anode. control i.lu wilh ellCh elocl. The mlin elecltoplllt'no procel. the concentration 01 the mltallic ion In solulion. Th... f.· IIIlC! f..' The use of the te. . MOll components Ire shaped ill a comb. an advanll(je in cartain elect. .to... A o. plallnlsed illinium or leid I. . In elecl.onducting medium for mOlt electro· plllling. for electropl"ing .t. CJllion.. The olher l.Oplallnll il i. electroplating electrolvte il the preferred cur . which .. ~IQ_ N _.olyt.rge..ple. --- ------"tw'f . Ihe acidily or alkalinity o l an el.. in the elect. or 11 dml. i"I. The negltive charged ion il call&d en aniOll. usad in a" electrolvte I"d Ihe a"odI don 110\ d issolve .~.mounll of CUffent .n~ I~ ' _.1~lIline .ne.lI.. lion of Ihe IisllId shapes.11 shown Wtg... wIlich thus r&duca. - .ange.ing I.pp.on in bllanee. Ind p. p.rgt. CURRENT DENSITY Thi. Tha second considaralion i. Of p. uI&d to d. r>eg"'''' tha anode olllllt partlculllr metal.H it defined liS the log to the baSil 10 oflhll concan· trelion of the hyd'ogen Ion. in Ihe lan k.1 tol · ulion is pure W. !?U"P( • • . t'ghta. The posilive chlrged ion I.H • tog .!!( ~ . Ihe tolal sur· laca lIfea olthe components you a. .ined losl electron.' _ _N .ed . Thi.hment from '" (2) The tinge 01 cu"ant density will be givan for Iha electrolvtes In Iha ch..lln. term is defined a. d iseh. ..n elemenlary k"owl&dge of mensu. book In VlnOUI chapte. ... called .. unilarel of cathode (componenl l. . -- InMt.m ionl which lCquire 11 posilive $ o< neglllive 6ch..ide r. 0 acidic ." -." Ullng lnen llnodll$ I. v. A good e~lImple of neu t.- . Th' definilion of th' te. IInd in consequenoa carry 11 polilive (!) o< 6ch.ue h U lI..ng Ihe . .olvtes respectively. .. abbravill1ed ..olvte to keep Ihe concenlrll.m p.H will be men· tioned In th..olvte. .e chromium elecl'09lall (decor"ive and lIard ).. o.rgoed " tha cathode.amps) pII' squa. .om tM coppe•• nodt' in Ihe coppe. appro~j ". elactrolvte.ms 8 p.' the shape of Ihe comPOnenl o.."ng ID Ihese shapes. dllsolve in _Ier Ind fo. These chemical.ing Ihe bll.node is Ihe p.oIH+I.. nuded in mon ito. o.nodl• • end gold elec· t. The measurema"t o f Ihfl surfaca arN o l lhe componenlslo be "lac:· Iropllled require . . lpful examples for work..ch i. causing an im· bal.O<l.oprillte form· " " . $Ieel . p. Or etoml."g OUl Ih' lurf8al IrflU . Some h. aquare decimet .ni.oplating. the amounl of cu". .olyte.olvte.lnsoluble .nto Ihe elect..no<le This i.6 go· I"g 10 electroplale.. u. usullllv e~p.tl' whic h i. 0" elecl.nee of Ihe elklro· Iyts.EIect. Th i.. thl' will change and Ifleet Ihe efficiency li>d phYlieel chlfecteristics of the electroplated deposil.o.

'"a of the component. uled to ronvert it 10 • working AC O!J'PUt... AC supplV. Alo de.1'1_ .-d 10 achieve.t...opoftionallO the quanti.i.ical equipment i. •• the .ffect "OP eleo. Rectil . 4 shaWl In electroplatong 'ank w"h enodes lInd 11 ~lI'hode !Wspendtd in The elect.illlnee board is often mlde 01 melal 0' . III 5lIrface ar•• ~n tlte to III fraction 01 f&eland thickness. to filllh" hole w'th Wlx Or sim.an.~Ia. diodes etc. should be . Aft. In Ihis CilS8 m"ll deposited. tu" ..illlnee i. the low CHAPTER 2 ID current dens'ty area the anode is bent obialn Ihe corroct elewoplaled al· 131 The . part ollhe tange.. t density to 11'11 lowe.h. .illenee. srraighlfofWlrd shape and will electroplale qune well when luspended in a bath. but w-II .nl shapes in electroplaling are blind holll5.IOfme.. holl. RECT1f1CATION OF THE CURRENT OF TlfE AC SUPPL V The /undion of 11>1 'ect.tlnces 10 obtain the dllired amptlr· ... In 011'1 •• words.n the low CUfflfl1 dens..10 and 12 YOlll.6. These p'ove difficull. In elec · I'opl"ing Ih" component wnh. ClI supplV in .. Fo.1'II in Ih' h'gh current density . The mlin conlideration for an eleclrl. Cln be 01 the solid "'.sonably .l. To Impro ... *1 In the elllC'l'OpI"'~ {tOnk IH! explained by • dia" for eleclfopl'ling The~ met/>oclll'f.Ila Ind sh~ptI 10 p'oduce differsnt rlli.ooth.uit· eble 101" rectifying 12 voll •• nd ~lIing 12 .. is directlv p..ty • r.9... l"lnlilll for electro· dlposition." of a ro\. so Ihaped Ihat it h1l5 "US labelled h'gh current densnv lInd low current den. .ienCllhey w>1I not be too d. immalerial.edtJGe the staining effect On Ih' rompanent. wh ich take$ the excess current. capable of giving a subllanllel ~Ufflnl of !Jp to 10 Imp...be obI".dI 01 bflu. 0 Inodn can gram . These methods g. 10 DC CUffenl. (AC) will not deposil mel. The . Fara· d'V'1 L..ectifie.g• • The vlri. The olhe' Imparl.ve .nd Ire used in ~in lpe<.ff«.l. However.. the Plr' lieul.1 Irl vlI.mPS x lecon. mOSI ~ompanenlS are of.I •. However.te Ylfietv. and .:illised engineering applications .n Ihe IInge of Ihe currenl densilV la. and WI\h • bulld·up of I(IlIpe. 0< the bonom high w . th .mooth OC output. Fo.. This usually ronli.. bosed on the an of elec:t. Ylrying In .l. the depoln V'fOOUI m"ans If. end position 1 11'1.pe of the component.v of electrical ch..ass lIud •• rranged in a ~. . Ihould givllhe chlflICIeristics ... It il nol . and be of Ih..iltiOJll on IlIlrnlting .. as I transformer I. with Islid. and IncreaSfl lhe "m. I varilble . 'ough depol'l bu. are coils of metallic wire. " IUIIICt>ed.ng 11"nl .nating curren.yslams which Ire slill bting developed. Or Or a sub-anode attached nep..".ffICult The Electrical Supply Met. Set in'o tha board are b.round Ihe hole The best waV 10 ...'.blOlulely nacosur)' 10 be ace .h. • ul. Direcl current IOC) I. thus giving' .!Jr mlle. lighl In· gin. follo_ ' lI.Ilfe.e.tropllll ' ing in th.ng lacihtv will be derived from the normallingle ph. leaY. Ihan COnflicted up with In Immele. Th" ~8lhode i.ng board. Another method Is 10 redL>C<l Ill. double W'VltyPII giving lull wa"" rectilicaTion. high lImPII'ege lhe varillble .. olt· matef to permit ronvenienl monlloring Fig..w Sl81es Ihat the mall 01 el · ement.tdu~e this ploblem . t densilY .tier is 10 convarl Ihe AC CUff"" from tl>l l.s I .ng conlle! with I hlndl' m. VARlA8LE RESISTANCE The nexl illm 10 comple" ths package of elllCl.opllling. Alle.mps withoul htolling ..n . The supply volllgel. el«iroIVl" 'hG wmponent may Nove I coa'M.olvte. IhlS will .rel Ind Intll 0' no depOsol . may haV1l I "'ob/)t... The Ir. ••• 011"1 high current dflnsil\l area mav be moved 10 one alde of lI>a ~mponent. " .ns1~.ble .i'v. - CHOICE Of' OUTPUT VOLTAGE Ona mllin continuous winding tapped al 4. IInd denser metal depotll . mllnlv electrodeposiled bV the action of In electrical CUffenl."ibed in chapler one.nged .. coulombs or (. 0' Ihl older copper o~lde or selenium typet. The Inodl in front to eccomphll'l.dlne"...nce WIt" the requillte t!'l. wmponenls.Iry Iwn~h sel 011 I halNesisl. good pllll'ed appell..nd connectad behind the lIud. continuoul... pos"bll. workshop 0..rge.

/Id com~n'..R A rypou/ '-')'CHI' _It"" "~I>d. A 6 voll control unit must be made IS • Mparat... (Fig. uted.c:le in ils own bo~....opl..lnl. and lometimH' 6 1 12 volt plug. ~ropY"Iti/ ""k wi. " .."'...61. only en ammet ••. end by placlr>g the coil. pr... item ••... i$' ence wire I.eqUlled. delired Imper· Ig'." an eiKf'"""" /N"'}. ..ding •.Iudt • . The home bene<y ct.ege and voUage r."ge.. ":'--'. as quile I 101 of hell is generated wIlen using m .Iso be made IS.j· eIIl supplv cen be Ht up UI'"g' battery Ch'f~ on ill own. 0' bettl!f "ill con- nltCled up with a vollme"" ammeler and variable resistance.JI.. which ..i.ting elact.. If you !>eve..a .t inltrlperled. 11>11.c:Iequale venlilallon.. when JO amps or mOre .the.. ~~~ r--------~. If m.dl.ted '1Ih. Thi. imum .. -.Sled down fOf u. hut is gene. .--------~ IAg. the maximum output 0 being 4 10 5 amps. with ~ • • nd .-~ _ _ _ _ 'I " y ODH'~T v A ) • .. The 12 volt unit un .· . .witch.. in ~r· .. 7).r.I)rltact on bl. .llAltead 01 M.ad 01... normally h . A !JI! ro . I.liding I.«!. .. use thi. 6 volt output.of the ampt. . coils for Ihe high amperlge...Iti/ /hrMJ '" .. On lome mod •• n oo. do nollorgello prOVIde .. An ideel smell electropl. on its own chHSis or in ils 0Wll metlll bolt. for normal llea.uppIy and . i.JcM .mps.

and with ll'Ie . inllmal ammate •.pa"ta Itlm il dn"ld.--.. Tlgs 1 and 2 arlthl two ends of the varlabll resisto.ata item. then th. t1VI"< O . brllk the contact bet_n the voltmate. I I . Then w. lu.ent fa.r is corlOectlld ac.. . . Ind Inti.W. PP .node and eathodl connectIons.mp meter is shOf1I1d 001 us'ng IhI 5 Imp switch.opllling is I 12 or 6 volt battery connactlldln .nd couple the volt· meter connection.. thlll 11'11 one .nodes ami componlnll (cathodes) .nt thal . o. connect the control unit OOlput to the <espec1ive .. and If ll'Io clfcuit is connecllld U fig.oviding • DC • . gram.. F.dy 10 ch••g•.. ld correct thl fault. ~ I.sh to electroplata a small " " . D IOOttr4IOWAm.. 11 you are electroplating a compon. sapa.1Id .l 2 3 .- "'''fT.honlld oot by (IO$'ng the 5 .-.ke the control unit IS...... m..W.. but If you hava Inoogh loom Insldl thl battlry Chlfgll casing. .n th' pOtantiomlte. methods of p. (snown as X on the diagram). this should come out correctly.. llect'OpI"..nd Ikct polllmllomlllf knob to fTMlI!mum vohs. must be .oss tha ootput of lhe battary cha. ma~imum.. . .. numbe. The higher .fter I period of time..ty in thl electrolytl.mp ... potan.awn.. than one smp.ge 3D amp battery chargers IOf milk noalS. 8. Fig.mp switch S.g..e.. ' ".· ..OU ~ ' .ge. d." (O.clockwise fa. 10 be .m which is vlry IImple. unlll the . metal casa to tha matsl case o. whin thl Unil i. 0Ieded .1Id 1 and 2 on the diltg. m voltage In thl cir· cuit..er'" with 10 am· mile.. The potentJomlt. chaUit of tha battary cha...mbat 10 connect the ehaui.nd tlg 3 is the sliding a.veysellypet hive bottn used by the Ivtho.eading on thl ono amp am· mete. (iometo'..eo(:h~. Should yoo fiml the 'IVlrse happening. and you "1 .. open thl SWItch S . and switch. Uo ________________ .. " " ' .. maklng . minimum. and the slidlng . . The limitflion of this llthet the bll!lIry ha.. This Iho .mmete.mI is shown on th. .m.a. When you ""... depending of C(\une on thelmperag. The normol convention for a control knob is clockwise la. 111 o .lnto thIS.equi••• mo . w..gr.I••.equ"IId. Thin.. ..s shown. one . I f . you ean flltha COnl. right down 10 uto put minim .ng are I. 8 shows thl ci'cuit dl.ge •. 9 -shoWllhl back vi.am..w of.mpe"gl can then be teld on tne ch.. elect. __ . . and I. . voltmlllf component 'equiflng than one amp. fa.rgar unil'."-. Should you m.ged ..ol Itlm.. The simplest way of supplying 11 cu.). Othe. m 3 taps off the voltlog.r-------------. to pOint 2 on the d. battlry ch •• glr.-...nd up the potentiomete. 1 ..e· qui.

stainless steal. propylene type. lire usuelly organic solven(s (used in the Initial cleaning) and waler. Dull N ickel Semi. Alumrnium Anodise whatever . Lisl ing the cleaning solutions and electrolytes used in various chapters with the relevant materialS will illuslrate what can and cannOt be used fQr a par· ticular sQlution (see Table ' I. stainless steel Plaslic. can be used. Lead·!ined Pretreatment SOlutions N°' Soak Cleaner NG l A Electrolytic Cleaner N°2 Cleaner Aluminium N° .t is called. CustQm· made plastic tanks cen be purchased from elec· troplating supply hous. Plaslle/rubber rned sleel Mild sleel. (' I Where plastics 8re mentioned. propylene type. stainless steel Mild S!eel. stainless steel Highly Alkaline " " . The main pOints 10 consider are Ihe (2) materials. most usual are polythene a nd polypropylene. p.e . Hydrochloric Acid Pidle N°' A Hydrochloric Acid Pic~le N"2 Sulphu ric Acid Pickle N"3 Pickle Aluminium N"4 Slight Dip N"5 Bright Dip Aluminium Zincate Dip All this group mild steel Plsstic. Pyrex glass. They elso have more rigidity. Pyrex glass. and can all be used. Pyre~ glass. propylene type.0. Pyrex glass Stainless sl eel Eanhenware (glaledl All Alkaline N°'A Mild Stoal can be used lor Anode and Cathode All Highly Acidic Remar~s Mildlyacid. NOTES REGARDING TABLE . stainless sleel. the Size. TakIng Ihe points in order:MATERIALS 13) Most chemical solulions are either add Or alkaline. propylene type. varying Siled watlage of siHea sheathed beaters up to 2KW. other pans o f the process Ilove 10 be considered. Pyrex gla ss PlaSlie/rubber lined sleel. slainless steel Plastic. such as cleaning end rinse lanu. Small plastic tanks Can be heated by low watlage aquaria plastic· covered haalers. Pyrex glass. Pyrex· type glass is quoted be· C8Use it is heat resistant.5 li lre Chemical containers o. propylene typa.brighl Nickel Dull Copper Sem. because U'e)' hold corrosive solutions of chemicals. Ihe const ruction. For larger vol· uma tankS. propylene Pyrex glass. The electroplating and cleaning tanks BrS the most imponant. end if requiting to be healed. propylene type. Plastic.· bright Copper M 'ldlyacidic Acidic Alkaline Acidic Ti. contains the "IIIC' trolyte. Plastic. or bsth. i. propylene type Pyrex glass. as their name suggests. The only neu tral substances.H 7.. len gallon carboys. Good u · amplllS of these are half and one gallon ice cream canons. the Plastic.es. This applies to tha alkaline clean8n."g and electroplating tanks. VDI. especially when heated. Pyrex Plaslic. When it is In Ihe form 01 chemislry lebore· tory squat beakers it can be healed Qn an electric hotplale or a Bunsen burner. Oiher good plastic containers for tanks are cut·down 2. The rinse tanks. propylena Iype Pyrex glass. e electrolyte Alkaline The Electroplating Tank Tho electroplating tBnk. slalniou steel All this group PlastiC. Using mild Or stainless sleellanh has Ihe edvanlage that they can be healed easily wilh a gas ring . This app- lies to bolh cln". These plastics come under various trademarkS.CHAPTER 3 N°' Zinc N"2 Zinc Table 1 Recommended Malerial for Tan~s Electrolytes Plastic. or stainless steel or tilanium immersion heaters 01 similar wan· 8ge. arS merely suitable v9ssels containing plain waler. However.

. 10 the' shown 1<1 Fig 10: and hooked.u • • pended by Ih" hook from Ih" cathode bar. being I."ed IInd th. Th" .. for . For metal 'snh thlt h8" 8 been welded Il'Ie S8mt1 checkmg for leak... to Iln...noda Ih"ywill h. .u . Iowing numbers rei".alhodll ba.. 11 the link i. . boiled or screwed onlo the lI.opylenll.nd Ih" weighl of Ih" . 12).I. For stl.Iand Ihe eor· 'Olive nltu."-m wllh Wile. These ..sI<lII it im· mersed In Ihe electrolyt" .n.~~ ' . fol· 13' ""rt. .r.e of Ihe brlgl>t dipl .. d" of copper or brass. used. . ~n .ulllion.. weld.node• . be wired on Wilh eopp"r wir" o.. wilh I wire or hook through Ihe middlelfig .ninlllanks lor professional finill"".-----+.(o. fuch el 317512. be. typical d. M.an be jigged or hooked. or hooIIltd . lhe b.. 11111&1 and most plastic link.'n!eft steel i... for plulic. to mo"" Ih" corn· pOnents. Ih. Be <:lllIlullo check tll.ulfllul/or hand· ling .. or Ih" tlange .ithe.nd o.d Iccordmg 10 \h. ' --~~~------------~. These o.. A "1fIfu! method for small compon"nts is 10 pr«lean and spread Iham oul on.. iIIu. end holde" for the v.1 Ihese tin'" h'V8 no .. ulU..nou. alu· minium will 'or pleting 0' anodiling_ Th" CGmpO<>I'Inl o. drilled Anode. plfStic tan t>.:Iice 10 fill .. p..emel" .nd vol. t) -'--i-..node IInd ea. It can .node ..v" 10 sup- "'It '" 1>.d.d. . ShOPI. de 01 Sleel. piece 0/ "8inles$ ItHI mesh shaped lika. il any 1111" . Som.. h i.alhode bar • . the lank matedal providel in.nge5. Or compOnent to be electroplated. 0' porcel"n Or pllSlie..nd allow to Ital>(l fot 11 dllV... by moulding.. and agilallon eqUIpment.. . Thi. med.. 10 .. Ih" hooua. depending on Ih" size of Ih" lank .ted. anode and CIIlhCHk bars. Thi. SUCh" poly!hene Ind poly."g unpl'led.ound Ihe lOP o f Ih" lank..nd affi. Ah". will .an be . ume requited... pear..nd ~". A typical Ulnk i.ing Ih" hold"'l 10.. good p.-.~ TANK CONSTfl UCTION In the construction of electroplil!lng .nl"ss . Ipplies."'tenks mike lu" 11 good lI<ld8 01 st.ul. This is Ihe CIIlhode.11y . In. busket. Ip<eading th"m over U>e IUrf_ 01 lhe meah.p- '01 Inlullled holder.l.nd pickl ••.. end these ••• pul ' ch.hode bar •. " l e .. Thl fim. usually m. theW holders Ihen kHP anodll and o. will pt_n! 'r"a. Shlke Ih" bllklll 11 various tim". " " . end l'hin .k" . OUI of lha eleclrolyte. heater.h.

5 (Inches). da-greasing. (Heat dissl' pate.:Q\Ild Cl"" dermat.n immersed in a metal conllinlf containing thl soIvenl and aglllled from one to len minutes.nless ""1.ry if Ihere i. Mak.om lhe Ikin and o. V In liv.nd bubble . and dean down by Nbbing WIth SCQIJring powder.llon of Ihl cleaning process cen Ilad to I poorly finished component. Ihl preperatlon and cleaning 01 the substrala. Great Cl. as well u ils anli_ corrosion prOptniU. glv.ening agenls "sed In Ihi. make lure Ihat a beller COnnlClion i.ir dry.e88e and loll . WIth small hole.al alcohol..logenated hydrocarbon. Ensur. then . claln.. If agitation of the elaclrolyt81 i. V _ IInglh. This Plrt of the p. A lKAUNE CLEAN ERS .I cleln.... 011 dlnger· ous vapours .rbons such .o· plating Op!lrallon. depending on lhe amount of g... the current). V _ IIngth K width ~ height cu -felt 0. Plrt of Ihe cyde and Ihey a..icll con· tact5 a .er sitUlled 11 Ihe tide of Ihe tlnk. The fi'$1 pen of lilY cleaning cycll i. Ihe SUrfacl of the componlm prior 10 Ihe elact. _11 " !he anodiling . needed Ilh.t of thl lIact. and (:Ontequently lead 10 I waste 01 mall.1 fin"h..e. mull be liken WIth IOI .. width x hlight cu -. . When I" I. I regulaled compressed air lOurCI. led 0"1 on III metals. Rinse in will< and rel>l_.. Th" pan of thl deaniflg ope. . indUII'.regulate well.ible pipe.IIs.e ulu.Thl Cllco. (:Ontaining haloglnated hY<lroc.n. !hev Cln be aglllled by an .. hooked 0< pI~ in I melal bI. .etual volume il to Ih' height of tha IOlution. Makl sura III Ihl anodH .. In all Ihl" lreas Ihl currlnt denSIty will v. pened "'r()IJgh the pipes.ocess delefminl' the appearlnce Ind the adhesion Ollhl electroplate<! dlpo$lI.ial.. 276."ch. thl 101I.. or distilled or daioni"d weler..ng II>ops a vlpour clean is used in cUllom-buil\ tan.. i.kll...ined..... which mikes them en e~· pensive cepital process. Ire used withIn Clrtain hl81th and u let'. bubbling action.. I bed CCH'IlIct. III 'aetifier alact.. I (2) m 121 141 IS) 161 Alwa .hakln end allowed 10 .alion. Cove. There Ifl various de-g.olyte Is nOI in USI. Fo.18 I. h..o· pl aling P'OCI. If hOI. 'Ill being IOlubla in organIC soIventsl Ihe COmPOfllnIS are wired..nd remOVI gT"" f..Iactrit.opllled depooit. luch 11 Genkle . which agl"t..l regulations. i. nt clean.I" CHAPTER 4 0 . Elabor.Ipe of finish II required) two methodl are luggUlld :· (11 Fo< nic:lcel and copper Ilacllolyt..elopped up wllh clean wale'.. Removl Ihl anode. The . The. o. If nOllhey a. Check all elactricel contact.olelion Of Ihl voluml of I lank i' :Voluml lV) in gallons with Ihl dimensions ln inc:he. and thl eonllct. Larga componen" can be wiped Wllh a $OIvent-lOaked cioth befofa dipping. 10 thl Inodl ba.. 10 •• move SOil.. The Cleaning of the Substrate The mOlt imponanl p ..lly lome form of paraHin. th.....ry OUI Ih" ope'"ion In an open IImOlptllrl. ellctrolytes with lids whIn nOl In u. and rinse whIn thl Ilact. A good method ilia pllce Iplalllc pIpe Illhe bonom olthe link. I1 is bell la CI. The important polnl to remember lboul a cl"ning cycle i. nll 11 they Ite/llmmabfeo. Thi' cI"nlng solulion Cln be used for " " . ar it wIll froth .Ilion. on the tenk for he".. ThlY a .' carried out wilh an organic solvent Ind refe"ld 10 IS the sol .... In indullri. general use. a'l cl. i. th. The IOlvenl clean l• • preilmi"arv clean which is c.. Anached 10 thl •• by means of a nll. depending on whit t'. thl"_ quired appe ••• nC1l ollhl ellCl. trichloroethylene. which i.. remOVI Ihe anode and cethodl bar •.. Ho usekeepin g with electroplating prOCll-l llnh (1) ""''11 100al volume to lhe mU5Ured hlighl of Ihe lenk. Ihi... g ... usually 51. gi .. wllh no naked /lImes end uling glOVes... lure III the sOlutions ere up 10 the requirld volume... to makl it 11 .. Obt.. and whet melal ilia be electro· deposited. linl Sootk a.imple 11 POlllbll within thll confin" of the compon8fl1tO be cleaned. ~dle 1I". white spi"I. Care . Scotchbrite or dOlh . Ind oil (IIC. drilled in.

!tO$ty appea •• nee i. by Ih.mpe.. s Ind ov. This pidcll is used a\ . 8O"C al a cUffenl denllty of 10 I • . bullhelompe.a 4oz. bul lh ••t! will be no action of Ihe pickle on lhl cll an mllll surfacl.nadc o ••.'on lim.emov •• I ttny amount of mllll..StId Irom two 10 I.nts CQnnlCled 10 Ih' cathodIC: nag. The imm..1. pickl •.•. 0' on iiO" m. !Y.tll.ease aMI oillnd . EIf1c.n only be utell on flfrous mltlrials.ed.l Alkllin.nd COpPl< and brill. no . for a pe.ds...80>:.~ cleanl •• and \hl stK. fumH. NOTE -Ihil inhibited plckll e. 111Il0l giving I clean and ICIIVI surfKI. so stir contlnu · ou. The CUHent d .1 . Sulphuric kId Pickl•.Ing.ida 6ol. glovH . thlsurfac. gallon 40 grms.eh g.net o. I.td volume..um hyd. ca'l 10 un glov.ed good praclice lo pilei lWO links in tan · dem. Ihlaction o f Iha pielll.ed volume of conclnt. can be 0 1 plastic. th' low. Th.ond an "ICI'Olytic ell . imm".vl •• dull. per 1i1.om Onl minull 10 lit.u.lals it .. No. pe.ielllUpply. Ihl lbove blJlh can be used .osty .. m..t. used.nd Zinc DlI Clltlng l Thlse 1<1 cll. Thl lank fo. makl up 10 Ihl fl· qui.n m.ed up with copper Wi'I.1rI Su/phunc Acid 9fl. .ntv 10 fo rty slconds.. «lmpo~IS. tamperllu •• . normal 5Cl11 removal. Ih l pola..n. lit •• . Mak. p.t a lamplfllu •• 01 6O'C /14O'"F).lIIu'l.lmov.nutH imm .ngl. No...ecommlndadlank 10 uM is of plllttc. It il used 11 room l. I1 is conside.use goggles. ~ding 10 how much seal.nul". TlIa flIU!! 01 adding thl Hlx.gen gls Ind Ihi. desired.sm o l lhlS type of clean· ing i.. Wirer ma.ng Of anodIsing. fOl II"ous m. It()/yTHl Cle.king up Ihe pidll i•• Iso IhlUml 11 No. eI.ng action Fo.mulotted !tom ml .ilies IUd'IIII $CIII. a good cll. per g. Howev. pe. Fo. nll<l Plrt of Ihl cleaning cycl. with lin l. g.. Tilt! ..lod 01 tw.x. it utell.opylene. 3 Pickle Aluminium and AJluys PI·eIIll..o· Chlo<ic acid wilh watl' dOlI nOl . lanu IS in No. nls are u5ually wi.ic pidcll Is used w"h 0. bu l lotk. and wh. up :· SodIum Hydrfll.oxidl 31». on. Tak. lOP 01 Ih. i. componlnts but off..n minutls.itlH IS fOf flrrOUS • nd coppe •• nd coppe.. Illoys respect· ively..on and liNt ..ullled.150 10WI. In o lhe.nd gogglas must be usttd.m • . . ml. • . (1 .s.. Thl uml mlll"..lowIy . Ihl pickll i..f...30 • . "ion liml i•• equired .rosivl.ecom· mended 10 un IIIHI conl. II •• nd carry oul in an open Spacl.. This pidcll can be used boIh 1 f••• 0' rOut matlfials and eoppe.. PlO' hlrl of Hlxaminl.1IOI IfflClS I clean.. The mechan. copPl< and it. Alkali". f. nsity i. mo~al of the actuII melal undemlalh Ihl impufilils.1.ior to electroplel' .1t i. Carl must be lakan wilh sod.nl. by IIp'ng tterOS'S Ih . fo< Aluminiu m .. goggl . . 3911 .ials lInd coppe. To finish off Ih •• pi" o f till cycle for Dolh farrou.bl. Ilrrous mltll. CUHlnl dln. lil'e..ne..ise !he tlmpe. It can be used in Ihe lam" tlnll wh.nl ad. FOf normal tee!e .boII. Ind of Ihl Ilmpera· lurl r.ochlo...o~. eoppe.11 40.eduction in Ih.s vlry al· kalina. Thl prOCedU'1 for making up is 10 hili flll lh l lank w ilh cold waler..action of hyd. (14O'F 10 176'f).01 " . PidclH "I fo. No. IUI trKH of g. it mull be lined w ith rubbe. 2 PiclIl.minl will be Ihe 'Imov. . Cl . . (O.. po5Il.alu•• usedil6O'C (14O'f)..e. 11 is .aled hydrochloric acid slowly. dition . Fo...lIon 2Og.at..1 " used for Ih. . Thl procedU'1 10' m. ready fOf uu.de up 10 onl gallon (SSml in hIt. used 'I . Of gl... Ma~e up:· Conctml. i_I.ml. Th... 1.nd 1111· phu..5'4 by _ighl H. th' IIIrface of which Is "ICrubbed" by Ih' hydn.. will ceasl Whin Ihe seall het been 'a· movld . glo~H .) .. in Ihl case 0 1 steel. to two minutes. . ' Mak.ned in • Iow '1~11i Cllanl •• wh.. pe. Maka up:Concentrated Nitric Acid 2SOmls. p'ller.pe. rust.. the fi<lllor a 'o. PIt hlfl.mOVH Ih...ulling 01 11111 objects In clOSI p. pe.. as Ihis is co. Of plestic..ic .. hooked.nd used bolh 10.ddingthlacid.SIIldm'). depending Iga in on Ihl Ippearance'lqui.tempe. minules i. Sodium c. 10 fou .. r for Iha eI ••". Ind copper alloy.. (SII lhl difflrlnCI with No.n addld 10 wale. besl 10 usa Ihllemperalurl of 80'(:.HA) Pickle 0.nk i.200 mls.lac.uch 11 hyd.dl up w llh w ellr 10 thl 'UQuirttd volum •. gal1o" 25 grms.ocedU'1 Is used IS for Ih.c. VII".a".nd oVlrllll.· tU'I .ly whill. 11 I 11. a t 5 a.dl which.1.ml. pe. I. Sodium Cartxw. " used .iUCiI...I. Th.Hidual poIi. 1 Plckll Hydrochloric Acid Pickla. Aft . is presenl on Ihl componlnll. per lit.u. Ih. can be m. Sg. wo.m • . Ihl IInll is mlde Inod. and. Ihl pidcling P'OCIA.1 Pickll whlll no h. Ind its III~. gellon 25 g. connlCled 10 Ih...h compouMls f.... T1'II high and of Ih.ra 40.oz. 0. To malll up an Inhibt"ted IIlI mlkl up 10' Ihe h~drochlo. Aft . Ollhl cathodl.1 Pickle . Mike up: · Conct/n/fllr/ld Hydrochloric Acid No.n.III f. CI.evlrsed.d Of hooked compon. OnllO Iou. Ihe lemperatu'l of the 'Olulion . aurflCe. il can be used" • IOWlr Ilmpe'alu'l if.. m. fo •• SfICOnd SIIga CIa.. the Kid illS bIIn eddttd. Thl im· me<lion time i. ral adds ..1Ict.. ca.lturl of betwN" 6O'C Ind 8(f(:. 2 Alklllnl CI.ve pi" of lhe . cooling. m.. cll.f. this cllana.. 1 Pickll. n. . thll hyd'ogen gH is lib •• etttd ova.. with lul· phuric lcid . No. Th. ..nl..ous mllall.n ..om lhe! componetttl. to hlvlllid onwhan nol in uM beClUM of Ih.o~imity. Ihl compon.p.dl of 11111. mal. usually polyp.atu ••. component made anodk and cleaned fOf I furthl' \on teConds allh.. Ihln pour In the measu. Pie... pe. . IlIoys Ihl same p.ic acida.oom IlITtpe.dcl up 10 one gallon (0' 200m1 in 0111 lit. 0lIl W.0a ·dm'l from on. Thl compon . which will cauM .). Mtk.oz.0a 'dm~ 3.1 link i... f. Pickling mellls mlanl Ihl 'Imoval 01 impu. No . ity is . m." i'glnefllttd) . link.nd ill . from Ih.m.. pellrallOllo Ih...lIoys. thl ulual I.. teel. Ihll '. su •• Ihll Ihey I'.. It .lIon 2Sg... up:' SodIum hrd.1 ol lh.. Ihll is the U. The .. """" Th. in conllqu.isos ropidly.rrou. 31511.vl part of IhllllCl"CitI supply end Ihl WI. Sodium Tri.. Thi. 11111 Or glal •..1. galJon o.

Sodium FIIIOr/de 1.equired. .. Concentrated Hydrochlorit: For Brlllht Dippi ng of Alu minium No.y be 'masked off. 4 D.nd plntic can· tainer. CO~nI"fed Nitne Acid 3011.nd 0 .nd the COrocent'31ed ... of nllrog'll di.. es· peclllly caS( i. witch for ollerheating.solYed. This I.. or put throogh the lIarious chemic. O. oMiM III gillln oH from the dip.lng with wale.ng pro- cen or Ih.e.nd allOwed to dry. n surlae. auch IS polyu.. The mtlaSllred amount 01 concen'flted nitric . 10grm•. 26 " . $m. Imm.ne lIamish. alum .do 120 lIolumes) O. an excellenl mathod of deeoing COmponlnll. stirring continuously. plestic link.in!ess IIHI beS".ly slirring.on. OUllinad in this chapter aral number 01 chemical elealling methods.. gloves. The imme . op:· Concenll.11oyI.dou • .. PVC.. compononta. operal~ &I I tempers· (ur. add the mlllo. Hpacially copper or DII" OnH. wUh imm .11 with (he combinllioo of Ihe cl. Th.OlIlr tha cleaning ...ly. Afler mi. which .. The b-II(h ~n be mllde up In e gl/l51 o. Thia is pa •• ti<:ula. To mltl op Ihe pickle.V.Q. This process mu" be -'I ventilat.ic acid Ind hydrogon peroxide arl corro. Thtr cornponentllO be bright dipped Irl wired with copper will.. Finally..01.. 185mll.f .Iuminium wilh nick.. Put. in aluminlom . The alu· minlum componan'. of chaptlr. Ca. prior to electroplating.lIy imlNrls a cl... phospho.. masking m_v Dllak down during p<ocessing.<:! 10 cool.cid i. 0.. Th"se CIIl than be rinsed lod di· ractly alectroplated. o' healllly rulled "eet articles.0 •. 15m1s.fed Sulphuric Acid 8011 . hatl fill the lint with water. of betweln (hirty ncondl and one mino!a.ht Olps No. Warer 5OIl.·~incing 01 brlN alter tha told . To mlk.. or 10' da'lmoWng "".p. therefore gJOVH. b-IIth..lng.73f1. 5 Dip. up the Drlght dip.t pen 01 the electropl3t. or done in tha open ail. il i. Fo. lily 2ou. r~ fume. 'ny spiltaoe on P3rt. Tha IOlution i. lIa immlrsed from ten IICOnds to ona minUle. or wel bllIl. gogglal.IIC. use glov . wool can be uMd on compon"nl$.Itar dipping th. slowly. potyl/l_. POINTS TO REMEMBER Alway.ra rlnlled in cold wlter 10 removl traces ollha dip..used 81a picklalo•• Iuminium. I1 J. ion tim.C" or I good qU31ity "ainl.olphoric acid Iddad slowly. TABlES The accomlNnying tables <. i. pI3. La... or halll good lIan· 11I1(ion.i. add acid to water.. .' . lIi •• ring contInuously. We! seouring powder.nlng. It i. eomponen..ion tima i.cl..cli"lly .o. and nickel lillll' only. O>ey must be fm· merH<! in I cold water rinse 10 remOlla Ih. added.o.e.n is I gill.z. Tha lint cln be m."h.nd ~u" burns.n. Call.Ils. Mak. in an ou ter tank containing cold wa(a •.1I COmPOIlOll1I can be dipped in lJt..ated hydrochloric acid . gogglos and oVflfatls must be WOM... UfI.rrl methods can be used with Or in IOml CIIII in· .1d amoont of cO~nt'3ted nitric acid to 'hi werlr. The lolouon illlllowed to cool to room tamper3t U.. per galion .rrfraferi PtrosplK>rit: Acid 15. electroplating.oc. reduCH tha lilk of occluded cleaf'HIl$ IllChing out alta.cle up 10 one gellon 12SOm1 in OMli"e). stirring coot inuou. aod INn. Next add tha sodium lIuoriM and Illr Will ontit dio. then thoe hydrogen peroxide i. and gen. I! there i.malllmounl of sodium ~. ther. carried out by uling muking tape... polyp..tead of chlmi~1 cle. and nine. wash with running cold Wit . becaUM when diPPlllg th.lIaly). opelltion. pic:kJe i$ uH<! et room lempefl ' ture.o... up '0 the •• qoirod \IOluma wilh wat ...ited be· lorl tin electropllling. Thi. Howeva •• vllious ph~ic. Concentrlled " .lardou • • Always _"gloves. 'lIopping off' lacqu"l. 44Om1 •.nad thil way ~n be directly alectroplated. 8ri.IV neeH18ry 00 bliSS. not VIce va . to 13cilita'l $Olda. whan m. Alter miMing. Hydrogan Perox. 500m11. Cllt componanl. ..511. uwally IHs tIa. mary of chapl'" lour and flVa. It I.cle of gins. To Ilect'oplate eithlr of tha acid coppers I minimum 01 I /llIh 01 oil!>er 01 the nidell mull be de· posited.11 •. plaslic llpe.r. mlk. simil. P. being corrosiv. gogglasand olllrall.. 11 matter of second •• Ihls being dependenl on the surl.. Com· ponants cl. The link uH<! is m/lde 01 gl. propylenl.! . eddad. and wi. I! dal' Ired.. 019O"C 119!i' f). thi.SoI. They III peinted on ..rrl etesning p.nd Ihl alectrolyles uMd in the deposition of thl metal •..for.. IMaking one gallon or onl li(ra re· lpecI. CARE with ni.... O.cIded. w3ter 1I poured In (ha tank.0' . i. Wa'" m. The bright dip is uH<! et room tem· per&lUII lor copper and copper allo. The$ll "1 lac· quell m3de 01 synthelic IHinl. Tha l1nc&ta dip ia nece'''ry when Ilectroplating . O.. clrtain aress which m_V not nettd to be Ilectroplated m.. acid. concentrated minefllacidl era corros· illl . then the measu. The weter is poured in tha link. flash of nicl<aJ be depo. mOll be WOM. In the caSI of casl componants.nd other malal daposits ftlectrOIVl ically.21ml •.ed 12' '" '" The preflrred cI. commensur8t" with tha hotte. It shOWl thl SIIDII"te mlllri.. the IOlution is allow. th. best to use a tllpe or lacque.king op thi.. O.z.opylenl. Th. of thl body.. Alter bfight dipping. Thlse give I chBm~lIy claan wrlace. Acid amount 01 corocent. goggles and ov".. "mlL W. bee&un il prll'lenls d.ollllnt clesn process. G.. the alectrolytes•• nd the optioos to achill'le which finiSh you require. Scotchbfitl ped. whid> is thoeideals/tuation..teel loch as 317512 glide. prior to electroplating. JOOmII. Key to raference number5 on f/le fables.bonlll in thoe IrnSflto neullllin. continuou. M ••• up:· Conc."me1y h. Work in tha open 11. it la recommended that . Ind con<:e<ltreted phosphoric aCid added Ilowly."ll. pla'lic.z.a ". good p<actiC1ll0 st.. AfI" the ..fic 3cld.it or wet Dlesling I. .aning cyclll. tin Ilectlopla(iog.c:e . depending on the btightnlll required and the perticular Iluminium aUoy being dipped.

2 Vesor' . V .N ~ SUBSTRATE MATERIAL Solvent Clean N° ' Soak Cleaner N" . V . Vu V . 2 Yesorl .. V" V ... 2 Yes or 1.. V" V" Oplional V" Yes or 2 Yes or 2 Yes Of 2 Yes or 2 V" COPPER BRONZE NICKEL SILVER Optional Optional Optional - - Ves or 1 Yesor 1 Vasar 1 Yes or 1 CONTINUATION ... V" V" V" Yes or lA. 2 Yes " lA V.. lA V" ZINC OlECA5TING BRASS V. V. V" V" Optional Yesor lA or2 Yes or 1 or 2 Yes or 1 or lA YesorlAor2 Yes or 1 or 2 Vesor1 or lA TENSilE STEEL IAONfSTEELl1 ) CASTINGS ALUMINIUM lit AllOYS - Yes or lA.A EleC1rolylic Cleaner N" Alkaline Cleaner Alum inium N° 1A Hydrcx:hloric Hydrochloric N' . Acid Pickle +Hexllmine "Id N" Sulphuric Acid Pickle N" Pickle Aluminium IRON STEEL HIGH V . Vu V" V . V .... V ..

bl. The l1ecuolyt". IOlut lon w it h A good eK. .iornol electfolytH . a. Ihe po"live connecled to Ihe . ..nd elkali ..IS form •.· solved in wale.. fe lor 1.. $Iirrlng w.(.n· od."lo<e no healing costs Ire incUrred. . in their vlri()I. .olyle Zinc Ch/o.. walerp.olyte mUll conl.. lpo •• IIog. OpItl'atad &I room IImperalure. a l ine chloride bath.nd Ihi. ~ 3in . IIn IIqUflOU.. thil eond ucu"lI medium lor mOl' elect. I1 you eIIn keep. . now ready for UM..dtl3oI.nd h.o91ectrolyta pl'ling processes. dpm'_ ill lion _ 01 rJlJ" _ ~v"l _ NmJ·1lrig1ll nlclce/. .ted zi<>e Ih"l Sin. v.on of the elea. lOO 'mmene in !he el&<:trQlVle... ilon. The fo. Mot' pro'es. The mOl' common i. The mein rflasOn why CVlnide electrolyte.ms pe.workshOj) or g .bl. which is compte". In . pen . I..i" the di.... delloed .lgh avaporation 0' d. '" . IInk. Cl.""1 dustl.i .l4Iulion. to g ive . 200. 10<:11 ironmongefl. 10 Ihe pl . di.. lor electrOlylfl. plUiV. . "reil Ihe form&lion olln immertion depolil when Ih eIIllIodt i.oluble chemical •• When I CUr- rent i..nd the deposits Ira easHy tre&lad with o. allowed 1 flow through the . • deposilion of metlll ooeurt " \h8 cathode... ~or.~I>""hr NC/t.enl on. link i..nd .. It is . the Ion.. problems Wilh IIdltMion. the more effICient.mulat.rfd. bo:>Ir. The elecl. end form lonl. Ammonium Chlrmd. 1. Pre-d •• n Ihe componentl..nd m.dd 30•. the more complex the ion."fOI1I...... pe.t>ef1 nOl . 'nd is considered rellonably ..al0 ution vi.imple ion of co~r 1..od mi~ well..nOlhe.CHAPTER 5 The Electrolyte The term elec. Th.inl. Ihe mosl common ..ng link. neutral. copper lulph&'e di.. Coming 10 more practie&1 I.Iectrolyte to u. boughl from you.:J _rh "".lrolyte i. slirring until di'soIved. volume you use.. is Ihe dipping of .nllgtl of &leeI'opt".d'p<"iled. The one Ihat I h''''' uNd.Ide 01 Ihe tank wilh .. whim eIIn CoIU . CoIII or m. pints al.. of eu' • IInd 50.n Ih. Pour the two pint..n uM Ihi.114<:1 11 Ih.j·~ + SO--..e Ihe ones uNd 10r linc pilling. . Ih I(Iv. The lilt' dissolve in wlte..in chemical. form.I w..mmonium chlo. Ih. ~.~1 ooeurs..lIon leval. . 11 i.. g.. . 10 mark Ih.lle. In .lolved Hit of the melllla b. g. To make up OM g.. Or whallv.Imple ... ion. iit ••.e"... Generally.oo pr. Tu...1:..*_ 1<f>C.eady in !he pIIoling link .11· rHul1I in an Immersion • . .mpla of Ihi.1. re llliYl ly low compared 10 • limple ion. is:.• Or perfor.ll until complelely diuolved. For eumple. on.1. Ihen Idd 1he 200.. are commonly 1. <".lIon 2Og.r. pe. r .nide ion.in .11 il tin be lOPped up Iglin..nd rotgul&te 10 Ihe """lOt you 30 " .ag ()1.· li~ from the .ide.lIon 01 electrolyte Idd . . cop per Iulphate electrol yte 200gmlllilre G"'fl BOgml of coppor. i..v&tel. of the c:y.Ih I eomple . In this eIIse piecH ol ll<>e 4in.1. TlIfIlIOlUlion i.oof marke. Ihe anode and CiOlhode. pi~ In Ihe eleclroIyte.. gllllon 120grm.ege . r.ni"" iflto Ih..dvi . """I in ac:idk copper ....H is:&~ end mav ~ Kid. Inlo Ihe . thr()l.ine •• pu t two pinl& of Wlrm liP Wile •• Ind . of zinc chloride. OOlhe out· . cur.. com. m.. ... ZINC ctllOftiDE BATtt This i. lIOIu\ions. Ihe Ictual COnlanl of Ihe metal In Ihe ion I.h (p8Ss. per hue.. Ihat as Ihe level o f the link lall. rt.. of . ~ 600.e/ from r. ph" • .ng on dilflCUh m'tals. will m'fllmise . solution. water .. """~'Ied Wlrh bIu. Oper&ting Condition.ry in p. aud! . coloured lini. much tmootllar deposit o llh. . ..i~ pinls of liP wI. lid on I". conneaed up 10 1"'1 power supply..--.

gal .2amps for 12 hours with a piece 01 steel 2in. and care must be e~ercised when using it GOGgles. REMEDY Filter the electrolyte through a Zinc. OOt. then pOnent. Howe ver. add the weiGhed· out .. H temperature 15'.s. of linG o~ide and lto 1. Using the lower end of Ihe currenl most electrolytes it is necessary to ·elec· density r. These can be purchased mosphere and decomposes to SOdium from chemical su p ply houses and large carbonate end water. of the p. dm~. a depOsit of 0.H 1. FA ULT Electrolyte appears to be a rusty colour . it enhances the perform· cau~d by suspended matter in tile elec· ance of Ihe electrolyce by incre ning its trolyte. and the ponable p.H Slkks are reason· of 83 minutes. goggles and gloves must ELECTROPLATING be wOrn. until diSSOlved. but the solution performs quite well up is kept in 8 tightly closed pl astic or glass to p.I. Using sulphuric or hydro· GENERAL FAULTS IN ZINC chloric add. Sodium Hydroxide 9. period of years the electroplated deREMEDY To No. giving up with sodium hydro~ ide. COLOURING ZINC ElECTROPlAnNG REASON Cu"enl density too high.ac.dm'. bu t ova' a Iyte. to 28. and. To use the papers you litre will 508 tll el they ara numbered I .-ogen gas ution. and the electrolyte is ready for use.14.H.e· a eing al kaline p. Immerse the De~trin 1% ad dition by weight.nge for electroplaling will troplate the electrolyta In'. or 0. Colouring linc. The p. per ga llon . For this electrolyte the platIng current tween 6 and 7 ch a nges colour.2 zinc electrolyte 0. The cur· of tho impurities. using a current within the even and coarse the deposit becomes. the more un· solution.S4 aldm' to 3.1. electrolyte Is plated oul a t a very low hang a piace 01 steel plate or twO pieces current.H o f or 1. more even depOsit 01 zinc . as mentioned in the previous zinc electrolyte.H can also be measured by ona of a numoor of p. 10 ta ke out rent ou tput may 00 tOO large at the low· impuritie'!l as e speci fic o peration. ammonium chloride to the SOlution 8t the rate 2 to 40z.ket. i. Atwavs koep the test papers we ll 5-8aled Zinc O~ide 1. ~ 2in.) to ai~ pints of water and ati. When settled.I. current de nsity range.8 a. and also koep away from The p. Operating Conditions FAUL TThe deposit is patchy. t zinc electrolyte add posit WIll disappear from the compo· " .11 the zinc is removed. ara fi lter paper or fine cloth.2a 'dm' to 2. REMEDY For No. or 25 microns. it must be 'plated out" oofore it i.250z.ough the p re·treatment. To obtain a satisfactory deposit in mic'ons is 42 minutas.4 ~.4 a. carefully decanl of/ the clear solution. leave it electro· OccasIonally It may be necessary to pl ating for about one hour .0a.se. FA UL TThe deposit is rough or COar5-8 in te><l ure. As we!! as berng decorative with the vari· FA ULT Rough deposits can also be OUt colours. The last to be added IS the de~lfin. lyses the solution. The volume is then made up to one gal· Ion with water.f. These ~ary in pr. chemi· a more \!Ven and smooth appearance. Tllis induces the impurities to of plate Irobbersl each side of tile com· deposit out l. Ne ><l.1 zinc electrolyte add 50 millilitres of hydrogen paro~ ide. usable. The formulation of the electrolyte is:· electroplating equipment suppliers.H 4.50!.require whhin the current density ronge test paper in the electrolyte for a couple of seconds. mal me tal of the electrolyte is dearaa to correspOnd with the electroplat· posited. Go te mperBlure 15' . the number that matches is the p.usting Or forming iron 0~id8. Ion of solution. and thus bring it into the current density range. bad th. For this solu lion the 'platinG out' requirements a re O. To ma ke up the solution add the weighed ·out amount of sodium hydro~· ide (9. by hanging 8 pieco of scrap steel in the The faster the deposition. electroplating is usually REMEDYReduce the currant density. classed as '. M2 t~h this colour to one of the numbered col· should 00 ootween ours either si de of the ~entre strip. inc o~ide (1. and ta kes out some such as a small washer Or pin.H 12 .14. is given oH. the zinG depOsited will 00 mete rs and ponab\e p. and note thal the strip befor the electrolyte. st" welt and leave to 58l1le. gloves and overalls must 00 worn when handling. and 14.H 'sticks' avail· Iloolin.2O"C.1. The faulty. The robbers will ZINC HYDROXIDE 8ATH also carry out a second lunction by re· This is an al kaline zinc electrolyte made moving the high current density. eleclfoplating currsnt density range i$ REMEDY Strip the deposit off to the between metal by immersing the component In 2 and 20 a. Thi. of sodium hVdro~ide pe. In thIS ". and ma y be discoloured.. Whe n nOI in use it The optimum is between p.Ooz per Gellon universal type. ing current. Th is is stirred in until dissolved . cal is e ~tremely caustic. tho ItSt range of the supply. The same con ditions apply 8S lor the REA SON The pre·trealment clean . bec ause it ta~es in water f'om the at· check Ihe p. atmosphere instead 01 the component REA SON Low conductivity of electro· . Ihe conltol plate.ca. This will InGf8ase the surface the no.. so ma ke sure the area IS well ven tIlated. called passivating the zinc surface. The electrolyte is operaled ~t rOOm the solution. and thal between the 55grms per litre numbers 6 and 7 Is I strip. This is done give a finer. At 14.00>:. At 28. at a plating time able on tho ma.e. an!I-COffosive properties.rst on the scra p piece. This means Ihat the elec· FA UL T Deposits rou gh.00>:.e.s. REA SON Iron from the components being electroplated is di~solved inlO the solution.s prev ious !lnC chloride electrolyte. For No. or 25 ablv priced between ( 40 and £130. This electro· electroplate a component of small area. lack o f thickness). along with cadmium.H is not needed with this sol· CARE A small amount of hyd.8 a.s.H:I to p.. and electroplat· troplated deposit will be o~idised to ing slug g ish (i.001 in. prevent "burning". and . 30% sulph uric acid 0' 15% hydrochloric The electrolyce is operated 81 room ecid untll .H of the electroplating solutio n children and animals.20'C.) and stir until dis50lved.1. Strip papers can 00 used to jar.ifi"ial coatings' on ler· rous materials.00>: per gallon 6grms per wllen not in use.s.

.ml pe. 1I. 1I..H thould be checked by wh.t· . ope. 1I. . pe. g. 0. .ect coloo. p. 40>:.s. alectrolyt. corto.-Io mlk.k..15 o.on unt.um ion •.a for this prevloul nick.a C~ntr.olytl Thl. desirBd sh.. r. pe.nd enhenc.•'11lI 01 pure n.).upply hou... or l .5microns) 11 lOa.. el •• ninll .1. soIUI.nd to avoid pOrK . hafCMning off th.1.elully....1.uivata) M.n add tM< con· e.. Boric Acid 4. gl_ a llood dull 10ft dePOSlI which will polilh up to I hlllh IUllrl. Then add tha weillhed Imount 01 nick..alo. Ihln. Nk:kal CII/on"de 7. Itl. I.. litra.n wa.•nd WI. gallon 240g.nenl. w ill dapo.ent colourinll' th. 1I. pe.5micron. 81ue Colou.hlnitm of nickel. eln be •• pens. und. Wh. Afta. tha eomponenl In the IOlut. obt.1111. Finally..H Ihould be 3_5. In p.. How .. . lin •• the daposit. IOlul'On. be used.ting 11 thlt """ d<!POllllltl more 'nobll' thin lleel.ined •• inse in cold w.•. 375ml. Till . ma'.om. Idd The w.Iectroplatlng PIf'ille . deposit.I'I'IOI. nobl. If th....n"n. . position In tha bath.11 round nick" .1l0n 311'mS pa' "t ••. o ltM< 'tOluma 01 w. of copper..Iilllnce 10.ed surfac.lne •..t. Sulphltl 38.. W. It is recommlnded th.e.da up ..nClt. .ring continuoosly.rium TYpe ubi • • " .r '"lh. th.)...' dilllnct f.~lu. e powerful oxidisinll Ig. Th..nd tin . ted at room lemper •• tu. 25grms pe.nd ov.nga chosen il dependant on th. pluiv"e Ind pllnt olf.On be 'plat. 00 not touch the colou.ie acid slowly and ca.. scrap lleel pllla IImilar to Th" No.".. e 'pauiYe' I.lit.1111.t th.e of Wile •• then add Ihe nlt. h. Is 5O'C 113O'FI."nT clantlTY .I. D. dm' Thi.oa.Iectropl. colou •. Th. up Ammonium Mo/ybd".nt.nrr.IKt'OpI.pe< ". III p..in."nce whon .mpe. . To mike up tM< .5o. Potassium Chlo •• le i.. Th..lu ••.ddition of an orllanic b... ntillted o. par lIallon 3grml per lit ••.. In both cases..m until dissolved .ter. peratu.Minll off imp. Th . IrId .1.t . which 11 I.mum Clllonte 0.le In ooe IIt. copper .5oz. mech.de up IS lollows:' Black M. Ind simil•• tool • ..32oz.. 1"lIa Nt·Up bas_ Saccll. AIt.' Ihe colour Nor.1I0n 2OmJ •• per "tr • .. low •• tha Current danSlTy Th.e of th."''''Ied Nitric Acid 3.Iecuolyt •.educe the Kt . done outdoors.m.illhed . the sodium dichrom.e m.5o.mical com. pe.er . tM lietiviTY.. ume with W.OOm tamper.red Sulphurit Add 0. addilion at Th.nd in COnseqU. IImilar to the finish on mic.. in th. alec!ric he.il:.a Ind balance 01 ch...ted w'lh decorative chrome illllves.tantly "irrBd wh. is used.pe.1 chloride.80 •.eatly Iffected by I wide ch.y CIOn be plinted if requ ired. llood CO" ./!romlte 0.stic.H meter.. i• • pplied..urf~. end 01 the Thl hea.II. pe.. Tha imm .Omls. th. up Double Nick. COfI(.ie acid.pe.. Is baNd on I Wail's Formulllion with tha .1I0n 45g.ed on bolh let/oul and non-Ietfoo..2 fluid al.lil ••. 011101\1.-."'e. but el..1 S. b3ths . (P. Le. ttHIn in hOt w"e'.e.h. This .8o. buttha.O'I.llon 3. for d •• p bllld... tinll t. for. litre.~. A good . to tha . To .uol. Th' Iln !WO formulations ' . 1.educe.1 th.n this deposit i.OOOlin. .n steet..1I1 mUll beWOfn.per "lIl1on 3()grm. wh. Ih ••• fo. Th.llon 3grms pe. in 5 minUles. "i"lnll well in .oIonginll the lile of the depos't .) at lOII . C«N:.hot o.. litr..· continuities on tha alectropl". voluma r~uired. Thil electrolyt. will . nt CoIoo r (Pauivete) Mate up Sodium Dichrom't' l00.ms pe. ~nd $\eel be comas anodic and the. 1I. The pan 01 tM .d..mounl of sacch. until h •• dened.2 zinc alectrolyt..atad .(2.c1tolyt.ic add car. is Pyrex lime because SI (h~. left for 24 hoofl la hltden off belo •• funh.ms can be Obtained Irom .r..0slon '. IS m.. pe. we. 1I.d ./0"01.880 S.. • . ~' is from 10 •.lectrOpI.ye •• usually of ch.nt.uch as copper .... Th" combinl!ion 01 l ine."i. 1I.nodes uMd on Hull c. baTh i.I 41n. immersion time \ 0 to 20 seconds. 0..lsul· ph".llon 45grms per "Ita. Thil is vllious method •. pI.. maka UP 10 th.pe..r.. nickll Nickel Sulphlla per II..nli.lOlution al6O"C. unlll dis· COntlina. ope.. mull be kept in • well SIOppe/Bd cont.r.cIt. per litre .lectroIyt. which willt. W.."..104O . Thi •• izl 'pproMim" •• BorIC AcId 4. If • "ainless steel con..1. is " lollows :. (Wall.. Thi.Ogrms keled nlckal.r.ated lulphu. Thelll Nocllel Chloride 7.om..opetli •• 11 •• not lI. tarn.ic acid.rm up three qUlrte . pe. diSSOlved Imputitias in Ih.dm 104. lot ••.v.80z. mean •. 1. ov. . IIlov•• .I .ng.. d. Nickel off.2oz.dd the bo.r"lectro_ pI.th In Int •• • medlat.11on (0' litr. I 1111 ring i. pU" pnsiv"a coatinll'•• nd It. 811.om th.cIt.ntloned. and Ihe pow.110.e it mutt be w.ssolulion may t. for Ihe The ope .. i. "".operties. . olf • '''onll smell... Pot.'" in 15 minutes or o.. daposit required. Th .emov. scr.t.n IIM COI. d.H.UOn. papefl O. 1lMI mec. is 8to 10 lOCOnd. pe.inll m.ka some underneath..in. llood corrosion r. O.nll thl .(2.ke tima to dissolv•.ml pe.G) 6 fluid oz.tt'. tM sodium dichromat. placed IOlvad. required 't01. with th. Nickel 38.J1 Appa •• li"a. 1IIIIon 3()g.lned..ke up Sodium OH. NICKEL ELECmOLYTES becomes cathodic ""'th!he zinc dislOl\I· ir>g i. Thus il il Impotlanl to lIava good p'. plea. "'" Seml·8rllilht Nickel EIac!..lully. hence p.. lIallon Nick" The anod •• uMd in Ihis electrolyte 240g.illhT· en ••. the diffe.Iowly The balh .ted Ammonl. 0.-. . obt.y be accomplished by waillhed .11on Sg. and lelve to h. CARE WiTh nItric acid Ind sulphu.r.k. w.inll dull chromo effect. This.lit. p.ed Inodes may pe.atu. w. sti.ni. ulll.nd .. up to '1I.n aqu.t . pe.tch-bfulhinll to even outlh. con"..ive p.pe.m 01 tlM IInc .. lICfiflCi. 1101111181 . Fo.den olf the leye •. as pr.11 malals.viously m... Brown M."ne.ion Ilm.lectrolyt. 1lMI ev.4in .a dilsolves...d oot' I1 • Iow curr.allh.llon 6Og. gallon. pe.0. bUI nole Ih ' ammonia w\ll lume and lIiv.OOOlin.m. COP{H' Sulpllat.mount 01 n.IOn 2.nt with tom. Tha p.ml per lil.2oz.rv . chemicals Ira in IOlulion.1 eleclrolyt.1I . shape of Iha companlnl and the t.50z.511uid oz. hoolt. ""e. pe.a.pelt until d'ssolved.nd di. UM Ih.

per gallon 27 mls per IlIre. electroplated in e ither of Ihe nickel electrolytll. for the ptIYious electrolyte.5011. FAULT Poor . Acid 1.lgh Iha Sol· utlon..1. (2.. Too high amlnl density. end Incr"" " " . boric acid 100 low..phoric ICld in the anode making slage. Agltalion I1 recommended 8<lher by lIo fling. If nic k. a rilk 01 the anodes polarising.ooolin_ 12. and add Ihe ~Ighed . 80lh these eleClrolytes .. The main distInction between Ihe two Ilectrolytes i. REMEDY Strip off lhe nickel pllte. s. hile lIi11_1 is immersed In .'Ih. FAULTS IN NICKEL ELECTROPLA nNG FAUL r PIttIng of d.. A good lI.. It mull be remermberld Ihal .alad It I templrllu. lncrene currenl den· • ity. In. 10 Ihat rlCommended lor Ihe electro' Iyte. process of ramoving the impuritie.f in 12 minUles.OOSgrms per liue . recommended .r constanlly unlll d"solved. gloves and goggles MUST bewom .f...H (alkllinity).. After making up 10 lhe final volumelhe elect. raagenls ar... The electrolyte will depO. Welfmg Agent IT_pal} one drop Iml per lilre... hl(h c.d ~II InlO Ihe 5OIu l.OOOlin .H 10 between J.. bul wilh lower concentration of sulphUric acid.. componenl. brighl. REMEDY l~reaH electrolyta tempera· tU<8 10 5O'C .r acid copper electrolyte . To .s. (2.!."Mr lemperature of JO"C gIves • smoother depOSIt of .. ill cor · rode Ihe lIeel 0' iron surface.dm·IO 3.un be raglldad 11 I ' pinch'..op wiH the COflClntrlled lulphuric acid ..mltt... Th' compofllnl is removed ..005 grml.l . or non-I8<'Oul. REMEDY Adlust p. AI lIig h current densilies Ihere i.neral copper eleetrolyte . with a reduction In Ih' currlnl..ss muSI be mlde for poli.ide until between Ihe I.. until Ihe correcl p. and Ihen the copper deposiled on the lurface. Allltllion is recommended at lhe lOP end of Ihe currenl density range . 8'11 un\lt ml.r lIrnperelUre Ih.n enO""flCI on Ihe th. ited. I. Th.Wilh aqueou. on non·ferrous metals..s.08Idm·.. in 1 m inutes. For fe"ouI melals.ngly.oool ln .f In 8 mlnules .a of JO"C (86"F). a conslde"ble I\llard.55'C. Allow.H to betwee" 3 .mounl of coppe' sulphltl C!'fllll • • • nd SI. lter 10 the required volume Ind Ihe electrolyte il ready for uH. Con~lIntra/ed Sulphur.nclUded any p. I. 01 0><\'98n ""ith pho.lectrolyte will deposil :· O. Curtenl denlitv i.anges apply lor Ihi.The ......!.ck.hi"9. llectrolyte wIll depoSit :O. 'Ieel etc . CARE .e ~.m u p thr. quicllly rinsed.ke up :Copper SulphBte 320L pet IIllIon 200grml pet litre.ClOOOSin.1 i.... obla'''ed. and . {2. BefOfe the bllh is mfde up 10 ill final volume. Th .....OOOlin (25 micron. FAUL T NOI enough coverllge of Ihe . ..me current deflsity .. elec1rolyte..' . previOl. These are purified copper uling. Wilh Ih. il i.0001in 12. by sli"ing or com · pr"Hd air bubbled IhrOl. and on zinc diecastingl. top UP .edU(:ll Ihe p. Ihe use of CYlnide . u ~II uthe IImperllu<8 .nodes. O. O. per gallon of nlCkalsul· phall. The recommended .OOOl in...~e up the electrolyte . the Ihlour. Thl.5micronll 1\ 2O •. ured.ulphurlC acid. Add 0.Brighl Coppe< Elecuolyte M. in 12 mInute. . ill depOsit. Fo..lsly me. until a 'nuh' of nic .5 ml(fonll at 30 a. added ape.. Ier . REASON Acldlly of soIulion 100 high . qu. ilh the difficulty of obtaining Ihis ~hemical I have nOI . Go IhrOl. lime anodes Ire used • • In the dull acid copper electrolyte.B. For Ihin depO.n· odes lor Icid copper elactrolytes ale th e ph01phorrled IYpe..5 microns) 1I 201 . Too hIgh p . Concenrra/fd Sulphurk acid 4. Ihe precle.. 1. 3201. N. no corrosion ta~es pl.ee. is deposited ..om an ecid electrolyte . Or bubbling comPfHMd 8" Ihr!)Ullh thl5Olution. on bolh ferroua and non·f8<rous mer"ll.• 11 differ_ ent procedure . The electrolyte lIIould be opereled al 23'C (14' F) for Ihe beSl resultl... 10 30 a.1 conll"llow.40z.. "'" Ihi!)Urn al 0. it ha. To m.olytes can be buffed or polilhed 10 • good IU'I<8. Oflhe .ange Thi.. and conSlantly Shrred a"d checked. deposiling copper fTOm lhen elldrolytu on copper and ill . in 18 minUllSOt 0 .r Sulphll/II cry!lIl.lt :· O..lOdium hydro.H Wllh aqueous solulion of 10dium hydro. Ihick Ilyer of pink coloured coppa' Ihlt can be polished or buffed to I high IUltre.th .nlnglrealmenl as givan in Ih' chllp · lar on cleaning is used.. The electrolyte is mllde up the ume 11 Ihe dull ecid copper. a method can be Uled 10 finally depOsit copper on a lerroul ma· teri.""...dhellon 01 Ihe nickel 10 lhe componenl • • nd may be of bumt appe.01 per g. COPPER ELECTROLYTE Tha mOll u"d Ileclrolytes of copper Ife Ihe CYlnide copper and Ihe acid copper. ilh 11 small re ductlon In currenl density.H rangl i. depending wheth" 18<rou. add diluted hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. ag'I81ion i.alure loo low. The .) II 10 a . Add lm. After pre-clunlnglhe component.1II be described.. Nickel depolltS from bolh elect. usually at medium current density.1t1 01 copper 11 CIf! be used at room lem~IU". Thlourell pinch O.n be used 10 deposil coppe.ed 10 deposn coppe..5 micronl) al 10.4 .1I0y. SI. REASON Electrolyte I8mpe. · . per gal · Ion 200grml per lItre.lIon 3Qm11 per litre. REASON Poor pte·deaning of Ihe componenl.... Ihll Ihe cyanide copper c.•.olyte is ready IOf uH.ppli"". de po... f. and . 10 ..enon for this is Ihal copper de· po.'de and hydrochloric: and . and wetting agenl . For !he Imaleur in Ihe home. hich . IXIppar depOsil I. Pure copper may be used for Ihe .n be buffed Ind pOlished:· Copp. nick. if! 6 m inutes. fault mey be a combinllion 01 Ihe two lea sons. The h."e .posit.nd 5.nd 5. However.. The acid coPPIIr un only be u. To the cooled coppe' sulpha" aoIUlion edd very slowly d.l. ~ . Ne"'.. The electrolyte is ope. or low currenl denlity.5micron') al 10e.. In th. per gallon of borIC lCid .lgh Ihl pre--cln" and re·plate..On.s. O.O. depOliled prior 10 Ihe copper electro· plaling. Adjust p. correction of acidity or alkalinity Ih.•nd coppe.'. Tl\is .501.•.ited f.ocesns in the te~l . of the volume of .

1Sol.. copper are wi rld up lAd connacted up to the calhodtt. REMEDY Remova anodes one 11 a timl. U.. with I spongy tIn depollt.ooghl . I1er .em· pe..iI will be uti.lI dissolved. (2.ed continuoully until di. SI"p lhe tIn ciePOSlt. Whe n opetlting Ihi. After the chemical..II in CUff. Add e .. The el-.pI_. REASON Poor pre-clnning or leek of sulphuric ecid.td un.ity fo. FAUL T Th.ide. operaled 11 I .e tin .1. Add O. lly b. con· nKled 10 Ihe cathode bar in tha fllecI'O' Iyte. required.a good all roond e'eclrolyte for use IS an anli~ffOllon f1nl.node bar.oplating. and th' anodes .me. w hich is pen 01 the mechanism of llIe electroplating process.ed in tin o.ulphuric acid in smell . NeKI.o.50l.081 dm"). elecl. used for pre"nf1ling corrosion on both non·ferrous .. FA UL TNodular Or .n.nod" used In 'hi.nee. CARE.he faullls cauted by a combinat.· solved. the w eighed a mount of potassium hydrOKide 11 added. pe.nl.'er. \/0'.•he depO.nd currlft' drops oH REASON The InOO. REMEDY Add dilule .1. and become cove. and.. 12. " bauI one to 'wo hours.. r. but il i. If . FAULTS WITH STANNATEnN ELECTlIOPlAn NG FA UL T Elect.ooolln... and Itays alkalin. O... sIIH brush until the fIlm is .. Somet..t medium currant d e n.uolyte will deposil :.. wi" Or hook the companentt 10 be elec.mounts untilthl anode 10sltS its black film.ve bMn scoured.olyte . pe' gallon o f po"uium hydrOXIde. TIN ELECTROLYTES nn depollted from "n electrolY'es i.. FA UL T Anodes coye. Mode." finl.1. oduces an .mell amount of dilu te • ulphur.factory.olyl e is now rlady fo.upply is .I. cu.ap pi8(:e should Slafl being e lect.. solution it mUlt be remembered Ihlt It is best Ihll befota electroplating. REASON Lact of lulphuric acid . then add th' . ule. REASON A build up of POlalllum "snn"eln the solution. The K. i.ap PIece i... No ellilll10n I. Thi' i.on .with POl· allium hydroK ide la IIrO. of tin thal I. mitt in eppear. The weighld amount 01 pot..h I ' HI and bra. 01 copper FAULT F.opllled Immtdlately. In 10 minutn.1d lile.idescent gold coloured film on 'heanodes. PoIassium Hydro)Cidfl20~ per glllon 12 grml."h.I... bleck Him formed on 'he an- odn. I piece 01 Ktlp mlteri.- .. are dissolved.dding the hydrOgen peroxide. solution turnl I slighlly pink colou. rild Oul w i'h th' current s w ilched on .ed in a bllck Iilm.nodes with..nodes.t soma Krap pieces of Ileel o.bout by too high Cllrrent denllty. eleclrolyla with un· .1.. . REMEDY Reduce currenl d ensity.n the SQlution. procesl are pu.olyl e works sluggishly. Or for use on bo. The p.emoved. Ilklli) gloves. R.. usually in Ihe form 01 II. REASON Initial currenl denllty lOO low to form Ihe corfKllilm.•. This is car. FA ULT Poor coverege of thl component. (10 bad< 'h rough ' he cycle of pre-cle.h."".alure betw&en 6O"C and 8O'C.. and I1I .1 (ItHII. a nd r'p lace tham in Ihe elect. Ill".allium "snnete il added 10 Ihe w arm Wile •• and "i .c acid. (14O"F and I76"F). anodes Ira I grey colou. The eleclrical ..witched on.ning Ind re·plele. and ICOur Ihe .ed '0 f"cill"" Ih" SQlderlng of compOnln.. and re-pia.olyte ttl'H qu a rters of 'he yoluma of distilled Or de· Ionised water is wlrmtd up in the bath.". Iroplaled to 'he calhode ba •.Oaldm' and 4.1. until the pink ooloor diuppeefl. The elecl. filler paper o. REMEDY Add I smlll amount of hyd.o. for soldering purpoMl.the se..ulphuric fCld first. finilh. colou· red light grey. The pollssium lIannall eleclrolY'e producel a depoli. In some cases illl ultld as 'decorll. In 6 minutes.h.a la Currenl den_ l ity II used on Ihe scrap piece. Th is procedure p. REMEDY Slrip Ihe COPP81.ge.. To make up theelecl. lit.ommended . H of 'he solution i..bs 'hll can be CllIIO tha ruqu. Thl ma~e up i . FrH patnsium hyd. bUI can be buffed to. follo_:· Potltllum Stennlla ElactrolY'a PoIISllum Sumnar.on of th' two r"'sonl. The . . pre-de"n. Ind SI .•nd 408. highly Ilka· line. have become polarised.O.oool. Remoye Inodu one" I 'ime. The current denlity il between 10.5micronl) at 21la. Al lhe seme time a. per gallon 95 grms. and 'he electroryle 'plated in' .. u .h on "HI.plky depo.Smicronl) at 10.'!. a llighl increlU In (he rent density is benefICIa . and riu In "0'" . Thaelect. 1I001lles and overelll mUll be worn. lhe eleclrotyte 1I made up to the final ume wilh dillllled Or de-ionised w.ideloo low. par li"". until III the snodes h. " " . a nd th.empereture.olyte i.nd ferroUI metel ••• nd il Ilso u. and connecced 10 the . gen peroxide dropwise.ta placed in the eleclrotyte.

TheM lI'e u. M. Thl. raplice . elearoforming.. such es building up worn . low melting ..... b).CHAPTER 6 Electroforming and Electroplating on Non-conductors ELECTROFORMING Elec'uoforminll " • p.nl.lo. due 10 being either I bend. i. Ho_. mllnd. IInd nol moulded.'. (Celrobend.'. .hllhs \hlt hlJYl been meeh · inod down 100 fll'...eI.' used cen be Pe.. ." cen be melted 0.els lI'e e"t'lIC1eble by pull · ing on a press.olorming ..m. The e55enlial piece of equip' menl fa' thi.ice'. usullly machined to shape.."' of metal conventional I more Ihan deposited . mate". CellO' cestl. i. lor . N(I1. 11 is an idoll method la< m.'. with Perspex Ihi.~1 I>y .amoving Ih.'~':'../d mMJ. hiving smaller dim. ego.. metal i.manem Mandrels. .eSll 01 electroplll"ntl1h1t I. from 0.' I mould to cell in. These mand. However.el 01 nickel electroplated Ileel. Pe.QmponenlS 10 tight lolerenen. \h.t. cannot be eHtr&eted by pulling OUI 01 the .1I0wo~ 1I 10 W uH<S for m'~"'Q ' q". Other forms of aleet.. cl'opMlf>I.oc.ofOfm in I blocking die... Windows.. diuo"'-d in IOIven .. which i. proc.".'eClrolo."e or machine.t"i.. \ An IKl mple 0/.msion.klng c..b'.. shaped material \h."nlell ".nd seuing the elec!.ndrels. and nickel.. modal boat • . in"".:>forming.re difficult The most common metals deposited in electroforming".ulllly made of . ilems can be made .. xllmpla.e. ~n be divided into two CM· to I.. mllnd..oo dimensions. qune ueeful. :Th~. mould can be ulld 10_ making' quantiry 01 componentl.el. \h..r/ou. used in the manulac\ure of int. 00. moulding m. (...ndr~ m.nd • • Th. n(! sometimes Ihe moat .hllhs.~ 'rom low m"lmp (JOIn' alloy.nd UMd on.'y of mouldlnQ' In v. o.. Sometlml1 certain plaslics are used.1 Dispoubl. copper and nickel. . by milking I ''P' lica. and COMHI<:""II'N CI'_ b8r " .lIays. Small moulds can be mllde for .'. th.. ... end some gredes of WaH. All these m.. deposited ~. from " m._pen. From • mould liklthi. other processes.iH. mw/lied in 10' e H'Klng Pe . m. In 11 wckmg d'e .0121n. 1Il0l moSI essential pll" of M'I>I:l <el./«. Thue 'f' • type of mandr..".1 Ih81 A m".speH. 0' . The two elect'olytel used In el&et'o' lorm ing are coppe.ve. at th' . . components Ih".nythin.

·lomti"fl /lot> '-hi. it usu. r". !86"fl For nidel.. hl.0. dlapler on electro· "'~ Co~ El«'lrofOfmln9 Electrolyt.Th. copPe' . the Dull Wltt's electrolyte can be ulUld. yl 11 about p.s. OIl I'" ItdoIJ...I.. material.. boric .g is rinsed on wlter Ind Immersed in the particular elearolytl.0a.· Copper Sulphal' Crysla/. depending on the thicknen required. .' inp 'uti the conlaet lor Ihe hanglflg bar I1 well _.n WIth scou. ~ and lid electro-fDnnMI it> si_ .tn>.. 320.0Id...nd". 11 Pe . ..n eIect"..pe. A simple example o f .: . from low melting point IIIOYI.p. _"«10Id _1d/'rI"" with ctMducfi"fl pho/Of1t1ph {No" ". Ihen th.t Su/pMmala n~..e. The um.lnted on the . 0'.0IOfmlng tha shape.. then a dip in the alkaline cleaner and electrolytic cleane.. Make up. Howe"e •.a uNd. and th' . with the n.lIoys .J..k. -F'.0.-. I funnel Ihaped component. thit it mlde con· ducti"e with either... \lIUewadl. per !iUOit.Iectrolormingl.•. the ho.ofonning electrolyte la one fOfmulaled as follows :- Nickel Electroformong Electrolyte Mllkeup: · N.." that ara conducting are 'stopped olf' with molten 'Clamea' wax.htt 'he Doff. P"lpe~ windows are affixed al each and... pel< is used.! 1.2. If made from Per5pe~._ .. 01 . " " ..1. ________ _-.201 ." are d.samOit.'dm'.:.Oadm'... The OJ)8rltong temperatu.. Figure 14 is me assembly lor ... is th.1«'1.12O'FI. To increase p.trolyt..• . This gi"e. The mandril ia macla wrth insert.cid Idded and dissolved and made up 10 the final volume... but a good elect.mpI. o. !ank can be u5eCI as 10f t"dull nickel.a is 3O'C..oz per gellon ]Oml.per gallon 200grms per litre. r"" ngh • .. ~ rn..ing powder or Scotdlbrile. ...0a. a ... The mandrel f." /' ------- . OOM«f'fItI /H. To reduce p. t denlllty is between 10. The soIullon IS oper81ed et 45'(:-SO"C (ll3'"F .. layer 0 1 aqueous grlphite.880SG. /.. H 4. with 19'1allon if POSI' Ible.'3Ind. if moulded.. gallon ]0 grms per I. Ilmll.H i...n." P. dull eo~ Ii. to the electrolyte. and ma~ up t".•.. m. lhe pretreltment 11 a light cle.... H 8dd sui· phemic acid. in lit. 4. &wr: Add Soz. Sea I~­ u.<. 1.~""--- 11 -. Concenlratfd Sulphuric Acid 4.-od If low melting .. A Imlll Imount of phanol dissol"ed up In wal" can be added. preferably. Iphamate dissolved firsl...iI1ed and tap ped. sllver·IOlded conductive paint. The cu . {»in. The p.-J .awI eIect".0..An ex. being stable.H add am · monil O.ekel . p. the hanger attached.dm' . Ind gfown to thtI required thickn.Sfl. graln·fellnlng propenle.fo<.. of . Wllh "'~tH" window and a/hods /HI.r. ........ whic'" i.1...-?. " -._ but the electrolytic deaner " opltOnal. . si/wT tyifll..1 -SOl ..t~ In th. The current density is between 10. per glllon 450grms pe. ol.lly .urface of the Perapex. ~-.1I.dm'-S..

This is melled. The mandrel is immaf'!led in I solvent Such as warm Genklene unlil dissolved up. per IIt'e. on rhe .led. Zinc Oxide 130l. PoinU t o 'emember on e lectroforming (1) If 8 18rge quantity o f al&<:l. growIng.aughl 8ngle should be included on permanent mandrels 10 aid extraction.~. going through tha lisled precleaning cycle lor aluminium. of "". (3) A small d. and depending On what Ihe mlndrells made of. but neve'" Ihelen it will nOI electroplate like conveOlionat metals.. . JOlu· Iron..s made up in hall Ihe volume 0Iw8te. slainless steel mandrels are more economical.. lincale solUlion is required.. This is n01 strictly a non electricel conductor. the . w.. Low melting III/oy. add the A" e"~mple "f . wtln .rh r. Ihe wa" and windows are removed. I1 nickel·plated st&£ll or SUlinless steel mendrels are used. Nickal-plared s/&£II or Slainless slooI.JeclrDplarl"fI 0" .. Aftef dlssolv.. Ihe511 can only be used on el&<:lrolorms that have shapes Ihal can make Ihem axtreclable.cllitare .nu. painted. hot oH unlil the aUoy Ilows oul. o. adding the sodium hy" droxide slowly. uti/iSM z.oI~""f1' 1'1>1. The solution .Spa". aod While still warm.i_ 1. A mOiJld<Id A'8IdM gU(fI. and growing i! the same. oUlly. "". CON~UCTORS Included in this section is Ihe electroplating 01 aluminium. This is made up as follows:· r-------------~~ llneale SOlution Make up:· SQdium Hydroxide 701n.lumi"i<Jm 10 I.Iumlnlum. i. (21 Wilh permanent mandrals (extra<:tabb. Ahe. il is e"'ractad by Ihe following processes.irised ~Inr. This is e"'racted the same as Perspex. loIlowf<l br' I. /cuded and "ecrrop. and slirring conl."me procedure lor cleaning aa for low melting painlllloy mand'els is fOllowed. It mey also be eXlracted by holding Ihe elec{rofo.ye. either in an oven. The conductive SutfaC6 is al· lowed to dry.e.1 rin I. Pe. per litre. (fIsin li. putling lrom the wide end. .l). per gallon 440 grms. as in chlptet Iou. permanenl man" drels.olorms ara required. Ana.m snd pulling OUI the Persptl" mandrel.. pe'gallon 87 9rms.ElECT"AOPLATING NON . ~nd is immers&cl in the particular el&<:lrolyte.r.ng the sodium hydroxide. end grown la Ihe required thickness.""ed C<JPfJ'" ruboo JOldertId olllo rite fl".

The deposilion rale for the solution at 88"C (lSS' F) is:. Thll solution is uslld at room \emPllr~!Ure . After "nsing in watar Ihe aluminium should have a grey apPllarance. per gallon 30grms pe.e in either of the nickal elactrolVles to deposit approximataly 0. Silv8r·jo~d8d paint can be purchaslld 'rom paint or chemical supply houses.O grms per litre. bulan oc· casional sh8ke of the 'Nirlld CQmponent will release the bubbles of hydrogen that collect On tha component as ~ prod· uct of the . Usually this is depositlld 8S an alloy of nickel and phosphorus. The solution i. the leyer of copper is built up in the holes with high throw electrolVlic copper. healed by a Bunsen burner. gold or even tin . the final finish i. such as stannous Chloride. provrded Ihere is a contact for the current. O. These can be stock solutions. The process is as mentioned.0002in. tile aulhor has found the original formula satisfactory for most finishes on aluminium. that is to make a mOra even deposil. Sodium Acetate Crystals Sol. Some can be painlad On and air dried. 88'C . a catalyst must be present.de.200'F) . Thll oPllrating temperature for this solUl ion i. An idea for making decorative jewellery is 10 dry leaves from trees or use clean seashells. stirring unti! dissolved. After rinsing. However. wilhout agiTation. These Can be mi~ed together to form the pl. Non-conductors ere usuaUy classed as plastics and caramics. PIIr gallon !. . • nd keep in anOlher glass bo"le. 5 Ol. wilh 0. small addilions of the stoc~ ElECTROlESS NICKEL Make up:· Nickel Chloride Crystals.5grms PIIr litrel and 5 grms of Rochelle salt are addlld.eduction process. The holes through the middle have plas· tic faces. and Irans· fer to any other electrolVl8 you would like 88the finish. or even be put on with 8 silk scree n process. and make up a solution of th e sodium hypo' phosphite and !:IOdium hydroxyacetale tOGether. and an equeous solulion containing a chemical . tllen ready for use. bUI after depositing nickel. COPPllr. This has to be sensiti$8d wilh various chemicals. but before any depo· sition takM plaCfl.001 in. This is \I useful aid to soldering on alu · minium. litre.• remove. Some can be fired. A simpler method for electroplating on non·conductors was mentioned in the lI!ectroforming section. because the chemicals in the formUlation effect the metallic depo· sil ion.OOO6in. 0. im· men.zinc o~.uely . The main consti tuents of the solu tions ar8 an aqueous solution of the chemical containing the metal to be de-posited. Some agIt ation is required. The Sodium hypophoaphiTe is the re· ducing agent in the $Olul ion. to make tile surface conducive to a layer of copper from an alectroless copper 601· uti on. In this process the COmponent is the catalyst.5 . This finish is ideal for applying solder. The immersion time is between len and thlr1y seconds. a deposition of tin O. !t is merely a tank containing the electroloss 50lution.0003in .1. the surfaca Can lIither be elllClrolVlic plaled. and comes in quite a few formulal ions. followed by 8 tint lead electroplate. No electrical equipment is in· volvlld in the actual electro·deposition.94' C flSS"f . approximatllly O. air dry. per gallon 1Ogrms per litre.OOO31n. After firing. In industry the classic of electroplat· ing non-conductors is the process in the electronics industry of 'plating through hole" on printed circuits. and rinse. CHAPTER 7 Electroless Electroplating The r&8son for the tWe ollhis chapter is Ihat tha deposition of metals can be car· rilld OUI without using an electrical current. The most popu!ar and usolul e!ectro· less solution is for depositing nickel. To imprOlie \he deposit.. Sodium Hypophosphire 1. set 10 tile cOrr8CI temperature. For ceramics.60. paint with silver. loaded paint. with the component immersed in the solution. When required. namely aQu. then palladium chloride. the firlld·on variety is usefuf. Briefly. to mainlain this rate of de· position.ng solulion. this is wllen the COPPII' dad plastic is driUad. However. The best method for using Ihis SOIUlion is 10 make up a solution of the nickel chloride and keep in one glass bottle.lIducing agent . but these can be electroplatlld when they have been made electricaUy conductive. lIas ring or electriC hot plate. Make up to the final volume and aUow to cool. No anodes are used. Also moulded epoxy figures Or busts can be made in 8 similar wav and this is an inexpensive means of making ornam ents. a small amount of ferric chloride crystals (a large pinch. The ideal container W plate with Ihis !:IOlu tion is 8 heat rasiatant glass bea ker. either all over Or selectiVflly. epproxim. (IS microns) in sil<1y minUles. and bright copper electroplate to 0. eous graphite and silver·loaded paint. appro~imately 12% phosphoru$. enough volume Is mi~1Id to plate the componant. with the lid of masking. glass Or plut~. While still wet from the rinse. or elac· troless plated wilh nIckel.. Idaal containers are Pyre~. It is somatimes referred to as chemical plating.

Iu· mlnium wife 10 .N1 EIKtroleu tin for i. or plastic con· IIiners..tll ootlid.pply. UM Ihe pre--dean for steel as set out in <.positl"lI on eopptf . w he" heali"g I. W"lIrto makll up Ihll volume.ted Hydrochloric: /Wld 2.e are uHful for pulling' thin Ilyer of lin oyer ferroul metlland coppel.Iso be pl'led. Coppe' and its alloys ean . This depos. espec.on . -. n..60z per g.~ 0' mild ~wI ~"n.ts.. " . no common co"necllon '0' elK· trolytoc ti" 11e<:t..0J! pe.N . p. By heallreallng up 10 4OO"C the h. The Ihickness o f deposit from electro· less Iln solution is Ihin.. Ferroul mal. quiek pra-<:Iun on prinlad dr· eu. Tile eleclropll1rnlil lupply lIoule. solid.. could be between one Ind le" minulH. ...02 per 1iI... lIigll .llio" i. pe.-"llu rlilCaI p' 0p8rties of Ihe pllllng ..f Sulplt-alll 0. ~ 110'. Tile electrollss tin solution for copper being ralhe. nMd to be touched w ilh iron or ..u .fId.io" tin plall"" . For d.po..dness ean be inerea. usu ally polytllene o. being no~talytic. m'l· kIng 0. gagglH a nd overalls musl be w o'''. propyll"l....0 by addltionl of aqueoullOdium lIyro"ide..reas On the componenll deposit of niclcel . Thll ululllmme •• ion timl i. pe. An D.lIoys EllCtroleu TI" M.ted direct WIth Ihis solulion. "8O"Fl. litre T/'rjoorllll 13. . TIN ElECTROlfSS PlATING The followlrtg two formul.solullon. oflficelor tuba.. •• _ corn"I..60z per g.t22"F). Ind immer50 in IlIe lolut... litre. cln be used. per lilrl.UI..t wilt 11''' . anode w..Opllli"liI For d. Cofltli"ers for immll ..''' WI''''' o"IHJ cornPOl..lIo" 85grml per lil'lI..k.nd law CU"lnt denlllY . As plaled il has . solutIon a fte r Ihl pre-<:Iean fiiled in ch'pter four.t in· tefVals. uon wtllle pllling.._.glovel.P.n\llned between 40 end 6. the plallllg oper· a lion.cun. For immllrsion coating tin 0" IUtel. fiYII min· ules. ttlll mlteril1. 501 ..I hel l·resiSlant gl ass.lloys. N.5grml per lilll. lly on prinled ~. AlumInIum ean be pI.ed 10 900 V. ... Notl : thil formula ia patented. Oeposili"g ti" o. B~u . IhIIlollow ing solutio" i.311.on . Wllllno make up the voluml. whanl Ihlle . The soh.o<1lO1eu ndM "u.om cold some 'bumping' w ill tak8 pilei<.r>d tu . Conc/Inrrlled Sulphuric Acid 0 14n.e.P. there il no eleclfOlytl KIIon. COflC/ln!r. no zincale dip being Th' ".I\io" 81 I temperlh. The appearance of lhe dePOSIt ean va'V from dull 10 semi· brlglll melll. un· tilthe solid chemicals ara d isSOIYed. .lIo" ISm1.H should be ma. IIlfdneu of 500 V. 10 be added.. CARE with the aci ds used . For. • .v. nd tile todium lIypopllolpllne wllh lOdium lIydfo><vlcell" h. tllere is no pfobiem wIth 'tllrow'.nd ill. Inleo"ting. rinM.hapter foo •• then immerse i" the IIn soh. elkl"ClI ".". these conlainftrs Ihe aqullia 1111111. of. rIHJ sh.lIay il of lVen IlIockneu all over !. copper by IlIi.lie component Tllis 01"0«111 is uleful fOf nickel . roI. m"lIod makes it useful for solderirtg.flay pilllng down n'f· rOw holes.24ol per "allon l. gallon 4m1. 10 keep the balance of th. uled 11. but. used.11on lOa.. r>d dNl Make up:· Stllnnou. i.ls ean be plated In thl.. Itrr In e K cellenl ranlile of elecl roless nickel •."e of Il2"C The time of immlrsion will YI'V WIth thl 'Urlace co"ditio" o . I_"..m.up: · Stannous Chloride 1. Thi.tinll on Iron and .. Fo.. tempeflturll of 5O"C . giYI a li"ht rubbing wilh a Ilurry of scouring powder. of niCkel cllloride .

1 density in both . 510red in e dry ere •.inHd in cold watar. Aft.compolWll't1l con· necled to lhe ~Ihoda negl1ive e Conneel lhl reeli!. lollow •• from tha tlble. Immer. The cirC\lIt polarity it ehedted ( _ nickel electrolyte). Ih'lhlO. ' . end .68sqln.. ..k cleane • 11 8O"C 117f1"F)lo. Itarti"9 on • smell loCale . . i. on copper wire 1I the requlfed length to fit the dapth of the cleaner•• nd the elec· \folyll.. $qu . IIl$uming Ih. me.. The The .--.- reedy lor electroplating.t compl".oom lemperetu .nte in cold wale. 10 Ihe nielal tank. bun mach o 2" K' x height ined 10 11 good surface lini.. Remembtfl"ll on..inling conf1..n indicallon of tha cloning eHeeI) Afte.. boting m.99 _ ' " ~sqln .rea ohlle hub cups . Olher polishing 1001 ..ilt I bitch of .mperes.• .bout ten sec:onds.re -" . Ior one minutl. agitalion I•• djusted 10 •• steady bubbling action."ur. Aher wiring.t. hub cap."empt. and dip Ihl clip Irom the cathode blI. gIves a cathodic clean.... Thl.. _ (0.ir dried.<ko 01 mild lleel..ight COpPer. TakIng Ihe hub cups of • .68 .lWatch 10. quence 01 tile processes of 818(:"0918'ing.. one minute.1 removed . rlnu in cold water fOf thirty wo. will bot 10.king ci I"(:um fe renee x height 01".ra th en hung vi.>' _ 22 x 9' ..nd !tansler to No.... the nickll electrolyta). 'i. . no heavy 1. Either way il is the . r--. the p0larity.ed componenlS . 2 pickll... Tha comp. Th. hev.mv. 10' thirty seconds.rU. "'11'. Ih' cl"nlng cycla i. one of the sm. Tot. To cal\:ul"e.lor•• 10. pte..ce • . 10 Ihe cathode be. the pans menuted by hand. I .. lmmer. ISM ch.1I adjustment of currenl.de 01 mild .ec· tifler III to approximately one ampe. thurea in. sion. calhoda neol1ive...milt campo"e"". . loot _ 144 $qulralnch.e•.. _DS . positiv.l>.e.Iect. Th.. 01 5O"C l \3O'FJ and Ihe . . th. i.nd copper the eleel'Opllli"ll C\lrr.mi Bright Nickel and O." .Ikallne .CHAPTER 8 An Example and the Consideration of Electroplating All the chlJPters dea!! wllk IJO la' lIava been set down in • kind of logical . set DuI In Fig.0.olytlc clll"" . .essed. So. Afte.". efte. ~ ' 111 121 Immern in alk'line SO.1.I • OU. Th.n wiped with. Thi.---. 1 0' No.nl will be: · 10 x 13. b. di. 0.99 Iq in pan 01 Iha rectifie •. The component. for live mlnullI. ChICk the circuit by switching on Ihl reelifie. rag ".... . glSllng on the eomponen1l.1) Fo. into Ihe aleel. 2a x K . rev .teel.Iact.. 2) T. 8O"C 07frFl.lier clip 10 the eomponenll and anodic cion IOf . 0 .. In Olher words. Ihe currenl il ... .. nickotl .. Attar polishing.0 .oce. connecl lhe poa.oplate. IOf thl Ilee1roplatl"ll for nielel .oplltong 10' copper _ 60 mlnut". Ihi.. connect the wired componenl. TlM Ilm. The componenll are thin .tll of the cornpon..18 minUles." minUIII.pter fiv..equi. are buffed to the deslted lus!te with a mop O. e e components hive Ihe I hape and dimen..lIow to air dry .g .ed tempe.olytl IlhI same procedure IS 1o.OOOlln.lI KreW hole.. '" n.e Ife no flng. in ch. """" . With thl eleel'oIytl I1lhe r&qui.nts • r. In .i. eighteen minutll to lleeI. to eleeifopl. to Iha cathode ber. he Or Ih' Win . white ..nd now come. bei". 01 Stlmi B.dJusled 10 0.pta.• nd .l iva reel. on sm..he .nd . (Me ch.leee . thl circui l i.opllling p.... $10 the nickotl .onds ....nodH. . This Un be dont f... compon. IlIefa. Ih. imme'te lor one minute 11 .•..11 IrK- The hub ~pt. WhIn Ihis lime hnelapHd. '" tion engine 11 en . immersing in Ihe eleelroIyte 11 Ihe lime time.cI•• .r. 11 curranl rlading i. Ih e com· ponents hava been wired onto the cathode ba..l'Cl Ihe 'eelllie.r m.1 a'ea i. the p'8Cl1c11 pe . Wllh 1"..ked In tha Ipirit.95 Or 1. obtained.OOO5in . e . Both inside and outside Fo'lourhubcaps K13. Being m.om the di"9fllrnl. TIll lime for Ihe .e.ke 'ure the.. thIn left 1o.eli~1 pert of Iha eleel. glves.!. Ihlwi. livel ..olytl.nll 10 be electroplated.e 01 23'C 50 " . XI pan oltheope.. to m. They . 01 S.15.95 . The cu". end may be 11 model eng'nHr. to Ihe copper eleel.pirit.ed temperllU. Whilti they 1'8 .ck in Ihe whila fpillt 10f thirty MConds . R. 0" .u.. the alkali cleaning. the eleelroplating WIll bot O.alion isto calcullte IlIe surf.he correct polarity • Wtlh Ihe eleelrolyte 81 tha .IeelroIyte.mpe. th. IV8'fge ••. four. immefled In an organIC solvlnt.

1611 . cu. o. per gal· Ion 50grms per litre. wllh Ihe components lood1c.Ieclroplet· ing mendatory . belween 1114 cleaners.. elect. The solulion is used et room tampe'l' ture. Use Ihe recommended nickel . The sulphuric acid il Idded . litr.. glllon loomls per lit .. but not elaborl' ted on in verious ch. 6 01_ 40grms pe. o~J.. nOI ylce· versa.O "Cl ".1I r. Idjust the currlnt to 0. end lightly rubbed WIth multon clOlh 0' "milar s.d .(74"Fj. 1 undlrccNrt.5H.lowly. 'tripping nlcllel Iro m 1 . pickle. up by adding wale.cld. Adjust to linll "01. Iype). Ihowing IIIe lubst. Meke up .. The lollowing lOIution C4n be used:Meke up:· CopPlr sulphete errsfe/s. posi.e. by "olum• . (Temp "C" -If) + 32 multiply by 6..6 volt •. CC Nickel Sulphete CryStalS Nickel Chloride Sodium Hyd... For "ripping 01 copper with nick.oom tl'll'lperature. Kid. .. Concentrated sulphuric e"id. but the '8Ison lor excluding the.It<. 11 because they COnllln cyanide.. auch .ulphurit: K.. h"1 generated by the f41Ci. Ind stirred con. Use the recommended niclel Strlppe •. Aller "><IV minutes the c:omponents Ifl remove<! end rinsed in cold wlter.rt "uid ounces 10 millilt".ft 100 long in -.. hive I~c!uded . The ". glovtr$ Ind OVllralls. lik.1 word on 01 thl espects mentioned.. thus pr_nting conllmi_ nllion.fedive Inodi ..Iect..rd.25 mUltiply by O.ion of r. per 1i1re To conveft gramm.. Ittlppi"i! nlckellrom I lu mlnlum. 5).. with chromium .G 11. m"er1ell...o)(id. Imm. pergtllon 10 gramm. M.. per gallon 01 glyc. Use Ihe stripper It room temper. TheyereU. 11 I.On. pe.. . '''.l.e un_ w"ed..0:. left in Ihe ItllPpe' until Ihe nldtel il completely dissolved 011. Two pertl W4ler. in SO% equeous nitfie acid. Use goggl •• . ...95 or t .). 1 ElEC'TAOPLA nNG Thil i..dhelion. immefling in Ihe electrolyI.h fo. "peclllly on st . l.:Nlckelllrlpper.ic som.n dried oH in hOteir Alter drving.. They hay. ollll4 book..01 loomls pe. 30.eilabi.m from th' VI"OUI IUpply housel.. Fo • • t rlpplng enodlll. (Noli4 ). Watr.t. You might be eble 10 purd>.trippe"ormulation. IhIn in hol wat .i~a.. wh. .tic tank 1pc>lylhen. 1 Iilr'.ach Plft 01 the pro' cessing. Ihe _fed componenll Ife 'l'Il'Iove<! Irom Ihe . and thl haurd. rinse must be carried out Thi' cleans the component. for " ripping COpper depr.me.olyles. especielly WIth dyed pen" which would colour the !he lnodise pre-trutment This glvtrl e choice. Uopl"e<! deposits for leulty Ippel"1l«I Or u. od ••• negat've. Allow to COOl to . M. I light bull enhances the eppearanCI. Allow the com . Hydrogen P.l.oft 'Ig. All. but td>edule<! poilOns ..oom Ilmpere.pI ..omium electroplating 11 because ch. concentrated nllric ecid at room I.. Vohe\le4 .. solved off the Iluminium. 11 required. end gold. tinuously... slIrrrng con . Add acid to water.egul8110ns apply..llolvtrd off. unlillha nlcklll dllposil is di'. .fine may be Idde<!.PP'' untIl the anodise i..0. add the potelllum fluo.ipper is use<! et .. end C"pP4'I' e nd tu 111 0..ebl • . to genui.36) Hydrochloric Acid Copper Sulphate C~tal.6H. 1611..D emp.h. both . " . 2).opllle.>li1a trom IIHI I nd eoppe • • nd its 11 10. 16 muluply by 28...ert to diuol"l.n ClIrrirtd out in In un'l9ullled .. ume wi!h W81er.. After .S0 4 HN03 CuSO.. USEFUL INFORMATION To convert ' Fto"C To convert"C to "F To convert ounc.. ti" • ..pI...ntion is mede of slripping the llee.Ccncenlref«/ .mperature..nd elr is edjuste<! for e steedy bubbling ection end teh fo.. fOllow some met. but e separe" .O NiCI.t Potassium HydroHide lCaustic Potuh l Sodium Carbonata (Sode Ash) Concentrated Sulphuric Acid (SG 1..ulphu. In Industrlel . pens OI1nCfffltreted . Water.o NoOH N •• C03 KO" H. in chapter nine i..1I\h' cyanides end chromic . PoreuJUm FIIJOF'cH. and pr_nil C4rrv-over 01 the solutions. Fo.. 6).841 Concentrlied Nitric Acid S.lu.. cen be verv con.ed onto the cathode bar. Fo r Itrlpplnt tin trom steel end c:GpJl4f Ind Its ello. The nickel'pl4led c:omPOnenlllr. 3). end stops the . o..ouI .. 11 neede<!. set el one Imp. silve.35 formule NiS04 eH. cold wit. All tha listed IItippers can be used in plntic con"i.. INot). linuously until dllSOl"rtd. 41lhe SIImel. only mIde ". tQ e h. Ther. (Caustic Sod. The compr.oplet· Ing.ndthe electrolytes..alulion can be used.id.de {Temp "F -32) H'I..inse lInk Imd connecte<!IO the cathodl bar. i.: 11. CARE w ith sulphufic Ind nitr~ Kidl. lilreto ouncet per glnon To cony.ist ant glass Or pl. lhe Idditlon ollh. e4lh. W'fer. end the fectili . up I gellon (to mek.ete. IIill rele~enl. 6 Ol. indu'triel ... Th•• ~clu.SI !h..1 The SOlution Is mad...way. Fo.omic acId il uslld in the p'(>CfIss. bright dip. All of the lormuletion. This prevlnll elching. pc>nen15 to '''nd In Ih.kl up:· Th. CON$lOEAA noNS IN the stripper thl $Ubstrate will .d. When alllhe componenll heve been wi.Uipper mey be needed. mat ion on stripping d.Netion. Ihl componlnts e. "-en mentioned in Ihlle~t. by way of Illn. pOlylhllne.Iy minUles. to meke up 1 gellon Ho make 1 lit ..tripper. The info.. e The loIlowlng .s. to mlk.rI corro. d. tivI ID Ind uling lead "ripe .

Solution Prep • •l1lon To make up an anodising bath a 111891 o. Iccele rlt. Ihi.. An I . li the Iunery acid I. phu ric acid process il .d by e ilh •• an anodising p.ulphu"c . dilulld 1 voluml 10 1. Ih.'. For.10UI aluminium alloy COnportlonll 10 Ihl voltage. di. dependem on Ihl conclnlralion of Ihe lend 10 'M'td the process o f Ih • •no.tu.prung jig. Two faclors emergl whiCh make lor a 8l<lru~on. anodll lng la nk AIt" th. CAREI Tha aCId must be added to Ihl wlte. 1.o.. whICh enhanc:a till p.ic: Kill i.lm . h I1 adviUble 10 wl . Sen lng up 01 th. Chromic KId p. 01 The MIOdi..r. thl laver w ould loo k englnee.lment Or Iytl IImpe"lur..1.• which i. . of cllln sh. 16. ing proee. JUSI undar Ihl g. dind film. .. but are a>cpanliVIIO buy To1anium rod Ind laver is dependent on liml. prOlectivl gloves and ufllY glasses. and 10".ptOCflnes:_ Iluminiu m againsl oo.. p..ul..mlteu•• nd mode l Mlgnified 1000 ..I down or tha grow ing of a film of Ilu. midi up (IIIher 10% or 12%) !wO piec". the mote p•.. Ih' equivallnllO a gallon..um oxide. i. This i.._ h. "t"•. dilulid 1 volume 10 2. lOO aluminium alloys GIn be anodiHd Thl impOrt.. I.um made .d al. .rd tlng. rent.1 supplV ThIS/! a. Thau.ver i.n slowly add lna necesury voluml of sui. C. giving I t01l1 volume of Slit. 3 p. ~n be used.ion. Ih" would giVfl I 12"4 Mllphuric . izl.0 volumes 01 dislollad wlt"r. the oxide very quickly. ample of Ihl dilution i. Iltctrolytl iMllphuric KId). laying phurlc acid • • nd higher lemperatu.ckness of the bl"'I' I.nll 01 dis· 1. Ihe cathode.nts of bl"lry acid 10 4". but lhe !hidul_ of the . 19.. . constanily stirr ing.1.iH which prodUCI •• mln.lzl Is l tituenll.g . p. t~ Sulphuric ~d _nodi . 15% MlI. .opetIies 01 divided inlO 11II).um oxida over Ihe turf.CHAPTER 9 ""'" "'. . 3000 mls .tion.lln.cid concemration.. lio.nts lotal volum". of I d ilu tion of 33"<0 of sulphuric acid In distillld Wit...dd. IpproMimlte specific grl~lly 0 1 1.al i. the dilullon IS 2 lit". to 3 litres o.ca o r Ihe f. The 1I1. and low temperatU. The anode bar i. a denser unblOk"n 11".. The Pr1lCKf.tolled wate •. a mordlm layer which can be used for Ihe dyemg SUlPHURIC ANODISE AND CHROMIC 0<' colOUring o f aluminium. 450 m's per 4.. If measuring1n "I"..Iurninil..ual WIV to con· IIecI Ihl aluminium components for Inodismg i.. If Ihl balllry aeid i.ln Ihl .paslor variouI components. allO giv.5 lilrll). come in differ' enl sh.5 volumas of dj'lllIad w . For else Ind convlnilnce balllIV acid . elll'I" in the pn".izl bul produce a h. good g_ral dlemlelol clnn.. ..nt ch"lCIerilllc$ are Ihl by rhlt proc. Most g . polythene Iype DIUlic link i.lng. calling.lIon. 12% vtv lul. the 4. 12% volume IOlutlon lor general anodiSIng. jU$! ov.~ed down two oppo.des 01 .2 fluid oz.lIays lrod IOmtI clltlngl fire not con.s Or 5000 mll .'ger pora . The Finishing of Aluminium and its Alloys 1" ".lrn likl Fig.• . phu. usually anodised by Ihe • nodiled film .ucceufully lnodiMd. The pore. 0' " .v" a good laver of alumin..nd th. required volume of IOlulion 01 lulphu." .ulllble ' or dyling • • Iumlnlum . Altar allowing Ihl IOlution to cool Ihl volume 11 coulded by Ihl addilion of mar.ing ~U. giving I total of 7".I glvI a ducive 10 Ihl anodl"ng proces •..ing il.nodl.h..5 htres.cenlf."lration. the 81lodiMd film.nd m'nglnase..lIon 10lUllon the dllulion i.vI • 10"1. Iha lime and cess 0( I conllltf'SiOtl coating. MOll labric"ionl from 0. Thl.5 16 flu.. tl would g.. silicon ..o- I"".ecommended A good link 10' domg small componlnts il • IlIge icl crllm conIImar. HOWlIYflt.. tlpacity of about 1 gallon 14.phurlc ecid. High"r con. !h" Ilactro. as foIIOW' :10*4 volume IOlution for h"d ... . some Lower c:on.280. ~ive • '. Iha alu~"tfi layer and Ihl pOrI . 10 Jig them in a I. GIn be PIIrtlcul" anodising film • . I~ MlI. or 2000 mll.al PfOC'" for th."d waler.5 lit.. 'mall pore .ing.on lhem and to mak'll>Im conVflnient to connect to thl llectric. a1n be oxidl... and Ihe applied cur. Aluminium lonn •• Ilyer of A good compromise I. the actual. Ho_er AOOAHODlSE for colOUring lhe maIn IUenl. The linllhlng of Ilumlnlum can be 8Ceompli.re.nodising bath.clll Con· cenlrllion. the pur. per 4.. per gallon. per glllon. These havI. . Hall fHl Ihe tlnk with distilled or de. 1.ddle • and the componlntl to be anodised are connectld to this..old 11 g . Thl mi nium the bene.o. pllced down the m.. Thl InOdI. and not vice ver~. S40 ml. g.ite sodll of Ihe tlnk.. 0118<1 alter • phuric: acid which mi kes. p. TheM "I bent OVIf the lap Olthl tank 10 po'lil.nodi. of afl(ldi.275/1. or ml •.ie acid..on. The.oceu..llad wallf.tlead 1'1 pl.

the po •••.. To enhellCtl and improve ..SO deg" " C. most plaSlic 0' glass tan~s can also be used.led "tieles Ire li ken out end al· lowed '0 dry In Ihe air.. 1000mps per SQuare il\(:h ol the Sealing of the Anodised FIlm 11 desi. soluble in waler. Suspended pi. .moum of "!Iita tion. pe.'11 or wood so 11.IlIent density lor anodis· inll.. The id ul tank 1 dyeing should be 0' made 01 good quolity . An altern"ive is 10 boil pure deion. Wilh the components wired up • •he power II switched on and edjust9d to the rlquired <...iod 01 20 mlnu t.IOdised him.. tities. If the.!rcon.069.rn... end In tu. Howeva •...~inll vof· ov. 01 va'V'ng stiffn .ud water In I . obllioad. O. mang.muanll luch .oIyI' .t. he qu ality of anodised finish.. y"..he . F.pe. but they will 811 . '.. I. w.. 104 122 deg ... broughlabotJ' by an il\(:rease in lemperature in I sealanl.Iightly IO!'lg8' I han re_ quired and coil\ld over a bar of "". '. The .. If !he elee· t...n conneclftd to a rellu..dlng to the concentration. wh~h in· c. Ca... Th.. the easiest and most . Or the electrolyte WIll blJbble ove..eel conlliner with • lid.th an allowll'ICfI Q<1 \h. ...1SoB.e fOOl lhe d.oya the . in 6..d". I 7f. / / ~. remain in wspension.!.OOOlln. of ... Tt..imlll' components.l'.1 wallland close. The component i.. I rigid well . . agillled by. volllge 0 i.S minules. lie then sn. mOlt ""onomlcal way of processin" Generally tha U51 01 al umlnum Wire IS Ihe most II~Qnomjc..lie pOf. glllon.y anodise ean be oblaln9d in still bOlhs.."inl .nomal wily ia to use an orlllnic dye tllat i.ations of 'he dyes have to be used.1 some tension i. Austlnlt.own aluminium oxide. Ind added '0 hall the yolume of hot w"er conllined in . um I bluish g. Lengths are CUI . "~ surface Irea 1 be 'nodll8<l.hey produce a coIor. SQuire fOOl..nodiH.00011n .k". ma.· 1~les of dye are the m.re 10 100. contact. if vou •• e anod . ag italion is . magnesium and copper.ng I la. ing I batch Or I sel of component • • The wired components should hlng Ipp...IS amps pe. . TI>e Will il then twisted 10 .rinll Conditlon. 'Iectrolyte cau'lnll movement by bubbllnll.2S dlll'_ C..tl tllfl surplus w".nt. ~. The seal In' il UIUllty boilinll deionised w...1I Ilk' lonller depend· ing on lhe .9d comP'I$$OI. To a g itate the electrolyte a plutlc pipe wilh holes dtlll9d in is connected 10 a flexible pipe (Fig..ey. Thi.n.ety midway in . ..h" will 50!1CUre 11 good electrical conlKl .1nlen steel container.nodi.equlre hel1lnll to BpplOK'mately 40 .it o f ano· dise will be O ."". easier Ind ne~ter to w". for silicon Ind mag .TtHr temperl' lure of the proceu 11 betwe&f1 20 . and eause accidents.ge Quan tIty o f ... laled compressor.in Clull of " .. Or In I convenient and for eopper In o"nge yellow To obelin I consistent .ease. lhi.. . . fig.. Tlnk. bUI good quali. This il continued until all Ihe dye h. or I PlrI of Ihe surface ..ng on the cathod' bar . Thll will redtH..ed sha de of colou.. Wi!h no lIIitllion il will tau 10 minules to depo. wired up u11nll' con- venoent hole..'_ .'er" tempere.".-. . dissolved and no partlC . um gl~en o H for 30 mlnu. O..om I 'egula. This concent. lor Dy. 'e51 of the componen" I'.he com· ponents.. . ()pe<. . la best dOn.. tes of .n.I in 'ffKt "Ill over . to be between 12 and 20 volt • • Al IS ampI per squI..pe.ation will plso yary wilh colou •.- I I small "«Id bit can bt' pur~h8Sed for makinglhlM jig •. HOWl . by air agitl1ion f. 70 _75 dag'_ F. P'OC. . Th.pped off.ms pe.on o l lhe .oua con· c. wired lhe sama.It 0.. onto lh."" ong O. THE DYEING OF ANODISED ALUMINIUM The mljorlty 01 Iluminium 1110'(1 when anodised h. 17 .1 for Imall Quan . makinll i.ecom· me nded.p. .ching it on the lnode bat.odOKible uniform colour.. wire for " ' .. materials are pr.ceedl Ih' t09 limit allow to fit.po. the solulion i. The solution i. the volume Ind swelll Ihe".C grade 320S17. Operltlng Conditions The plllinll ClJlfefll for anodising Ihould be be_n 10 ."inle u l ' lel .ureol l OO de· g"" C for • pe..omPs PI< SQuare il\(:h 10 O.ed the anodised film can be selled. Some allo'(l conUrln alloy con..d avoid tile pOl'" bility 01 ~".ve In Ippearence of nllurel aluminium or '"Iver' c(>lOl. t.. made up 10 wo. Thi.lie dye. and IUlpend Ihe Inodiud a"iele in . To obtain the re· qui. o.he dye link. which would p... Aher dissolullon of .iled 'eel.. In • 11. The dyl is welglled ou. fh_CIOn be used 10' . and it Cln be bought In VI"OU' d" amete.. anode bar.o thlt I<H.. colore"on varies from a brown for mangan. " s. A guide is between I IIrm.h. Thil i.. Th wir...o_i. .. and could prove dl~'ou. wHl blow air inlO .'t illhen leh for Ihe required lime 10 obl"n the 'lKIuired thic~ness 01 anodise. " ..60z•. li.e must be &J<ercised In ragullllnll the air flow.". lit .""nt between 5%-8%.lie g.he elllCtfolyll.. gallon '0 1.ab on thedyed wrl~ of .

the condilion. If Ihe IU'. switching 011 It the rectifier. which will ceu.iller\CV 01 colour for . lo mllntainlhl con..odiced mm be allowed 10 dry. ldj After the Inodill pan of Ihe pi'oeelS. and quickly rinsed In cold Wller.. beinll dependenl on Ihe inten. thatttle resi.e I delteclion On the meter. Id 10' Ih' v. . lo strip delective Inodise f.i~ the com· ponents in cold weter Ihey Irl hur>g IICtoSS I bar 01 meud o..om .. p. the conducting IUrface under tlM wire .. I1 usullly between 5 and 15 minutM. . The time.IOP.. rinsed and .. face i.. r._ ollhe dye. A simp'l check 10.bly with egltallon for the requi. of Ihe colour of Ihe pencil.lhe he"ingef_ fact.ity of the colour.· I~. Any . Ind touch th. for • few minutel. Tlte consequ'nce 01 this iSlhlltlMgrowth of anodised r.ed time. thin wiped cleen."n sl1islacto. fnd mlintain.I 10 rnilllnce. A good method of checking InO· dill is to UII I tHt meler IAvo type) set On D. After thoroughly rin..ed ~om­ ponenlS . 1') Ibl Tho.0 if Ihl contltCl moVH.. blek th.rlous process" In Inodl. To do 110 would givl I PlInlll closurl of the pore lrel.·enodised.ss chIn •.. "nsed in cold wlter.nth' electrolyte i. ceu". Lightly pan thl mell' probe. FIg .I' enodill).. Ind hlnce rest. leaving no trac. preflf.ume.eled surface 011 MtU'I' Inodill i.ubtequet\t batehH 01 componlf'l\S.ily SIlled. At nO lime should Ihl In.ithe.ing is shown In Rg. cllly insullting surfece.ough clllninll in th.0mpOnentl. a good electricel contKC be1V>elnthe wire on the component end the enode blr. A flow p.emember 10f good practice in the Inodising process are:- ". ttle wi. the components Ir."Immersed'n Ihellkall Cl. Ind totelly immersed in the elyl.elSllnd .om Ihe compOr'lenta. IUrface with In Indelible pencil. Iow vOltagl. ~ " .etr8lltmenl CYCII. Ind the complete removll of lI. in IIM dye bath or lhe HII· ing tlnk Ilor nllu. 10 moisten.e. Poinllto . bUI Ihe worst pin 01 this action I.. then quic:kJy imm. ollemperature and liml must be closely adhlred A point to remember is thet the Inodlsed film letl 115 In eleeui. I . of the surfIC'.on 011 thl su.ict Ihe ing.ease. end H'e desir&<! I~mperllur~ maintained by the heater.ng Ifo".ic &CId IIOlulio" fo •• few minut. -.oc. across thl lurf&Cl. will conduct. (el the IUrf_ het .'ee. 1011.mut I.lance" thlt poinl inc. pll"k. Imm •• sed 'nlhe ni_ t.. IOny .. moved 1ft .rMd . and ".ough the pretreatments. with no 8nodi . 19 .. omlin. In o ther word •.lm .

oodiH' 51"1 (. AnodiH electrol. C. 20 Rectifi" Sulingl.ofo.. " " .41 BI1tery j12 and 6 voll) Sa1tlry chalg" Bright dip.'-lion Alk. " .1 tclfOoP I"i ng 47. Atomi. 35.. ..ol.olyte. 55. 42 45.ne . Coppe. 51 55 10. Mlnd"ls Masking off Mouldl Nickel elect.12 Faraday._ FI.41. 56.bI..ol.ncy V..42.nglenodiH' " " " " " " " " " " 2S " 15..mlng Eleet.."inlesl end mildl Solvenls (o'genkl St. 52..V. Amon A.46 36. "" Pickles PI...oIytel CooJlomb$ CUlfe<1t denlity Dj. Anod'H Amphou.31.. 49 Eleet.lin. 19. '00 ".thode Celion CI. l~lt .4J Elect. weight Atom. Heate.olytes Non-eondueto.. .llet.lpPtllt Tsnks Tin . 40.17 34.llect...lday (unil) Gl.. 53 38. " "..I."..ellsIIJ'lCe VOlumes (links) w.42 " ".39 " " . 20 ElectfO Chlmkel Equivlllnt IECE) 4O.37. 54. 18..lties Potenliomete.. 48.ect current (DC) i)ye.32 " Index Ag..oIytes . " " " 30. " ".16.""ij up Ziocale Zinc elect.ly AllefMIi"ij CV"e<11 (AC) Am~~ A""'. " " " .ni~i"ijl .' 1.

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