Population Unit

Topic 1. Population Indicators Key Points Know the definitions of, and be able to use: y Natural Increase ± Birth Rate, Death Rate, Fertility Rate, Mortality Rate, Infant Mortality. y Migration ± Net Immigration, Net Emigration, y Other key population terms: Life Expectancy, Literacy Rate, Population Density (Dense & Sparse) The two main parts to population change are NATURAL INCREASE and MIGRATION E.g. you could explain how population growth is like a bath. Know that the world¶s population has µEXPLODED¶ over time, particularly in LEDCs: y Know why LEDCs have high Birth Rates. y Know why MEDCs have a higher life expectancy and lower death rates. y Look at pages 10-11 for help on this. Case Studies/Examples

2. Population Distribution

Know the definitions of Sparse and Dense populations: y Remember it has to be per area (usually 1km 2). y These describe population density. Population Distribution shows spatial distributions± i.e. how a population is distributed across an area.

No specific case study required, but you must be able to look at a map and comment on the density and distribution of a population. Use the textbooks to practice this.

Know the advantages of the Choropoleth, Dot and Sizedotmethods. y y Pages 4-5 Make sure you know the physical (natural) and human factors that cause sparse and dense populations. No specific examples, but you must be able to look at figures of a country and be able to roughly picture its position on the DTM, and be able to explain it. Be able to draw a population pyramid for each stage and annotate it using: y Life Expectancy y Birth rate y Death rate y Dependency Ratio y Gender balance y Evidence of migration?

3. Demographic Transition Model (DTM)

Know what is ± Shows the demographics (population changes) of a country as it develops over time. 5 Stages ± High Stationary, Early Expanding, Late Expanding, Low Stationary and the Ageing Population Stage. y For each, comment on theBR, DR, Total Population & the rate of change (i.e. is there a rapid increase/decrease?) y You should be able to explain each stage (e.g. Low BR because of improved family planning and more career minded women). You need to be able to draw it from memory, and be able to give at least 2 example countries for each stage. Know and understand the development indicators which increase the development of a coun try and increase it along the DTM y HDI ± Education (literacy rate), Wealth (GDP) & Health (Access to medical care, sanitation etc). y Changing role of women ± A very important factor. y Pages 6-7 are very good.

4. Population Pyramids

Be able to sketch a typical LEDC & MEDC pyramid. y Comment on the BR, DR, Life Expectancy, balance of males : females. y Dependency Ratio ± The number of economically active per young & elderly dependent. y Be able to comment on the overall shape. y Infant Mortality± Does the pyramid suddenly narrow after the first cohort? Link each stage of the DTM to a population pyramid shape, and be able to explain the shape of the pyramid based on the theory from the DTM. Be able to use the word cohort ± age group. Although we studied it after, make sure you are able to show the impacts of migration on both SOURCE and HOST population pyramids and be able to explain the change in shapes, AND the environmental, economic, soc ial and demographic impacts this will have! y Pages 8-9 Stage 5 of the DTM ± Birth Rate falls below death rate. MEDCs -Due to development of technology, quality of life, services etc. the life expectancy of these countries is increasing. y Does this affect BR levels aswell as DR? y This increases the dependency level on the elderly side ± What are the impacts of this on society?

No specific examples, but you must be able to look at statistics of a country and be able to sketch a population pyramid for it, also stating which stage of the DTM it is in.

5. Ageing Populations

Spain ± TFR level is not being met y Govt encouraged migration. y BUT only received elderly dependents who moved into enclaves. y More pressure on the population.

y What are the environmental, economic, social and demographic impacts of an ageing population (both positive and negative) on a country? Make sure you can list these. y 6. Overpopulaton Pages 14-15 are brilliant for Ageing Populations.

Forced Spain to adopt strict immigration laws.

Overpopulation ± Total population exceeds amount of resources (e.g. food, housing, water) y Population-resource imbalance which hinders development. y Thomas Malthus said that population grows exponentially/geometrically (1,2,4,8«) but food increases at an arithmetic rate (1,2,3,4«). Point of overpopulation is when population exceeds the resources. y Esther Boserup ± Optimistic ± Declared that humans would develop new technologies which will increase resource supply (especially food). y Club of Rome ± Said that issues such as war, natural disasters, climate change, will reduce the population and therefore the imbalance wouldn¶t be as significant. y Use page 12 to remind yourself. China (LEDC) ± Make sure you state the location! y Originally Pro-Natalist up until the 1970s, when they calculated the Optimum population incorrectly. y Population had doubled in 40 years to 1.13 billion. y China tried to encourage people to have ³Later, longer, fewer´ or Wan Xi Shao.

7. The One Child Policy

y y y

Didn¶t work ± So the One Child Policy was introduced ± Anti-Natal policy. Know what the rules&incentives are. Give examples. You must be able to describe (and show) the changes on the structure after the policy was introduced.

The OCP worked! But at a cost«. y The BR was slowed down. y Economic, demographic and social (ethical) implicat ions accompanied the change in BR. Use page 13 to have a look at the case study more. There are normally 3 types of question for this: 1. Describe why China needed to change the laws on population. 2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the policy. 3. Describe & explain what China did to control a growing population (Sanctions & incentives!)

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