# 1

CHAPTER FOUR
ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS
* Bending of beams on elastic foundations and solutions
** Solution by superposition and Contact stress problems
4.1 Introduction and Foundation Models ---- Winkler
Foundation
4.2 Governing Equations For Uniform Straight Beams on
Elastic Foundations
4.3 Semi-infinite and Infinite Beams with Concentrated Loads
4.4 Semi-infinite and Infinite Beams with Distributed Loads,
Short Beams
4.5 Contact Stresses ---- Problem and Solutions
Review and Summary
4.1 Introduction and Foundation Models
---- Winkler Foundation
l Concept of Elastic Foundations and the Effect of the
Foundation on the Beam (a kind of contact)

* Not to study the stresses in the foundation itself.
=
+
2
l Two Analytical Models on Elastic Foundation
(1) Model 1 ---- Winkler Model ---- a linear force-deflection
relationship is presumed

FIGURE 5.1.1. Deflections of foundation models under uniform pressure.
No beam is present.

A linear relationship between the force on the foundation
(pressure p) and the deflection w is assumed:

p = k
o
w k
o
is the foundation modulus (unit: N/m
2
/m)

For beams with width b, we use
p = kw = k
o
bw, unit of k: N/m/m

** An Important restriction of the model: the contact is
never broken between beam and foundation
(2) Model 2 ---- Elastic solid Foundation ---- More realistic
but bore complicated (not used here)

Winker foundation
Elastic solid foundation
w
3
4.2 Governing Equations For Uniform Straight
Beams on Elastic Foundations
l Governing Equations
(1) In Usual Beam Theory (MECH 101)

(2) Beam Theory on Winkler Foundation

Reaction kw of a Winkler foundation. The curve w = w(x) is the deflected shape of
the beam. (c) Forces that act on a differential element of the beam.

q(x)
q
(a)
(b)
q
dx
w d
EI
dx
w d
EI M
q
dx
M d
V
dx
dM
q
dx
dV
· → − ·
− · → · − ·
4
4
2
2
2
2
,
(a) (b) (c)
q kw
dx
w d
EI
dx
w d
EI M
q kw
dx
M d
V
dx
dM
kw q
dx
dV
· + → − ·
− · → · + − ·
4
4
2
2
2
2
,
4
l Solution of the Equation
The governing equation for a uniform beam on Winkler
foundation:
q kw
dx
w d
EI · +
4
4

By introducing a parameter b (unit L
-1
)
4
1
4
]
]
]

·
EI
k
β

The solution of the governing equation can be written as
( ) ( ) ) ( cos sin cos sin
4 3 2 1
q w x C x C e x C x C e w
x x
+ + + + ·

β β β β
β β

C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
are constants of integration, which are determined
by B.C. When w(x) is known, V, M, θ, σ etc can be calculated
by the relevant formulas.
For the convenience, the following symbols are defined:
( )
( ) x e D x x e C
x e B x x e A
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
β β β
β β β
β
β
β
β
β
β
β
β
cos , sin cos
sin , sin cos
− −
− −
· − ·
· + ·

These quantities are related by certain derivatives, and the value
of the above quantities are listed in the table.

Particular solution related with q,
w(q) = 0 when q = 0
5
TABLE 5.2.1 Selected Values of Terms Defined by Eqs. 5.2.7.

6
4.3 Semi-infinite and Infinite Beams with
l Semi-infinite beams with concentrated load

FIGURE 5.3.1. (a) Concentrated loads P
o
and M
o
at the end of a semi -infinite
beam on a Winkler foundations. (b) End deflection w
o
and end rotation θ
o
=
(dw/dx)
x=0
, both shown in the positive sense.
l Two kind of boundary conditions:
(1) prescribe P
o
and M
o
at x = 0
(2) prescribe w
o
and θ
o
at x = 0
l For Boundary condition (1)
Let w(q) = 0 in the general expression of solution. Since
w = 0 at x → ∞, we must have C
1
= C
2
= 0. The other two
boundary conditions determine C
3
, C
4
.

So finally we have:

(a) (b)
k
M
k
P
C P
dx
w d
EI V
k
M
C M
dx
w d
EI M
o o
o
x
x
o
o
x
x
2
4
0
3
3
0
2
3
0
2
2
0
2 2
0
2
β β
β
− · → − · · − ·
· → · − ·
·
·
·
·
) ( ), ( ,
4 2
,
2 2
) (
3 2
x V x M D
k
M
A
k
P
dx
dw
C
k
M
D
k
P
x w
x
o
x
o
x
o
x
o
β β
β β
β β
θ
β β
+ − · ·
− ·
7
All M(x), V(x), w(x), θ(x) are damped sine and cosine wave
l Example
A semi-infinite steel bar (E = 200GPa) has a square cross
section (b = h = 80mm) and rests on a Winkler foundation
of modulus k
o
= 0.25 N/mm
2
/mm. A downward force of
50kN is applied to the end. Find the maximum and
minimum deflections and their locations. Also find max.
flexural stress and its location.
(1) Necessary constants are:

mm
EI
k
mm mm
N
k k mm N x EI
/ 001645 . 0
4
,
20
80 , 10 827 . 6
12
80
200000
4
1
0
2 11
4
·
]
]
]

· →

· · ⋅ · ·
β

(2) The displacement w(x) = 2βP
o
D
βx
/ k
mm
k
P
w w w
o
o
x
225 . 8
2
0
max
· · · ·
·
β

The min. deflection occurs at the smallest distance for
which θ = 0. From
x
o
A
k
P
β
β
θ
2
2
− ·
, we find A
βx
= 0 at
βx = 3π/4 or x = 1432mm, corresponding D
βx
= -0.0670,
so
mm
k
D P
w
x o
551 . 0
2
min
− · ·
β
β

(This upward deflection reminds us our assumption on
the beam – foundation connection)
8
(3) Bending moment is M = -P
o
B
βx
/ β, from the table we
find that B
βx
has largest value at βx = π/4, the
corresponding B
βx
= 0.3234, so M
min
= -9.8 x 10
6
Nmm

MPa
I
Mc
115
max
· · σ
appears on top of the beam at
x = π/4β = 477mm.
l Infinite beams with concentrated load
(1) Concentrated force ---- by using previous solution ----
equivalent to:

FIGURE 5.4.1. (a) Concentrated load P
o
at x = 0 on a uniform infinite beam
that rests on a Winkler foundation. (b-e) Curves for deflections, rotation,
bending moment, and transverse shear force in the beam. These curves are
proportional to A
βx
, B
βx
, C
βx
, D
βx
, respectively.

9
By using the solution for semi-infinite beam under
at x = 0,
β
β
β
θ
4
0
4 2
2
2
2
o
o
o
o
P
M
k
M
k
P
· → · +

,
`

.
|
− · due to
symmetry (mirror at x = 0), we have V = 0 at x = 0.
Substituting P
o
/ 2 and M
o
= P
o
/ 4β in the previous solution
(semi-infinite beam under concentrated force and moment
at the end), we obtain the solution for infinite beam here:

Notes: In these solutions, x should be x / 0, for x < 0, the
w(x), M(x), θ(x) and V(x) must be obtained from the
symmetry and antisymmetry conditions: w(x) = w(-x), θ(x)
= -θ(-x), M(x) = M(-x), V(x) = -V(-x).

x
o
x
o
x
o
x
o
D
P
V C
P
M
B
k
P
dx
dw
A
k
P
w
β β
β β
β
β
θ
β
2
;
4
; ;
2
2
− · ·
− · · ·
10
(2) Concentrated moment ---- by using previous solution -----
equivalent to:

FIGURE 5.4.2. (a) Concentrated moment M
o
at x = 0 on a uniform infinite
beam that rests on a Winkler foundation. (b-e) Curves for deflection, rotation,
bending, moment, and transverse shear force in the beam. These curves are
proportional to B
βx
, C
βx
, D
βx
, and B
βx
,, respectively.
(1) Deformation analysis: Deflections are antisymmetric
with respect to the origin; so w|
x=0
= 0. Bending
moment
2
,
2
0 0
o
x
o
x
M
M
M
M − · ·
− +
· ·
. Substituting
into the expression w(x) for semi-infinite beam with

( )
2
2 2 2
0
0
β β β
o
o
o o
x
M
P
k
M
k
P
w · → − · ·
·
11
x
o
x
o
x
o
x
o
A
M
V D
M
x M
C
k
M
dx
dw
B
k
M
x w
β β
β β
β
β
θ
β
2
,
2
) (
, ) (
3 2
− · ·
· · ·
(2) Then substituting
2
,
2
o o
o
M
M
M
P · ·
β
into basic
solution, we have

The solutions for the left half of the beam must be
obtained from the following symmetry and
antisymmetry conditions:
w(x) = -w(x); θ(x) = θ(-x); M(x) = -M(-x);
V(x) = V(-x).
12
l Example:

A infinite beam rest on equally spaced linear coil springs,
located every 1.1m along the beam. A concentrated load
of 18kN is applied to the beam, over one of the springs.
EI of the beam is 441x10
9
Nmm
2
, K = 275 N/mm for each
spring. Compute the largest spring force and largest
bending moment in the beam.
(1) To “smear” the springs into a Winkler foundation:
force applied to the beam by a spring with deflection
w is Kw, so if the spring spacing is L, the associated
force in each span L is Kw, then the hypothetical
distributed force is therefore Kw / L

The “equivalent” Winkler foundation modulus is k =
K / L and the
[ ]
4
1
4EI k · β
= 6.136x10
-4
/mm
distributed force kw
of Winkler foundation
distributed force Kw / L
by a series of springs
=
P = 18kN
1.1m
13
(2) According to the previous solution for infinite beam
with concentrated load P, we have
x
o
x
A
k
P
w w
β
β
2
0
max
· ·
·
= 22.1mm, the maximum
spring force is F
max
= Kw
max
= 6075N
m kN C
P
M M
x
o
x
⋅ · · ·
·
33 . 7
4
0
max β
β

(3) If the beam length is finite with several springs, then
the problem can be solved as static indeterminate
beam.
14
l Example:

FIGURE 5.4.3. (a) Equal concentrated loads on an elastically supported beam.
(b-c) Resulting deflection and bending moment. Dashed lines represent results
of individual loads. Solid lines are superposed results. (d-f) Coordinate
systems used to solve the problem by superposition.
An infinite beam on a Winkler foundation has the following
properties:

Two concentrated loads, 18kN each and 2.6m apart, are
applied to the beam. Determine w
max
and M
max
.
Principal of superposition: total w and M are

mm x
mm mm N k mm N x EI
/ 10 136 . 6
/ / 25 . 0 , 10 441
4
2 9

·
· ⋅ ·
β
2 1 2 1
; M M M w w w + · + ·
15
We find that w
max
is at point B, M
max
is at A and C. The
resultant w is larger than a single load, but resultant M is a
little smaller than the case of a single load.
4.4 Semi-infinite and Infinite Beams with
l Semi-infinite beam with distributed load over the entire
span

FIGURE 5.5.1. (a) Semi-infinite beam on a Winkler foundation, loaded by
end force P
o
, end moment M
o
, and a uniformly distributed load q
o
over the
entire beam. (b) Deflected shape of the beam if simply supported and loaded
by q
o
only.
(I) Analysis: since q
o
is added to the entire beam, we begin
with the general solution. At large x, the beam does not
bend. There the load is carried by the foundation
uniformly with deflection q
o
/ k. So in the general
solution, we have C
1
= C
2
= 0 and w(q) = q
o
/ k, and

(I) (II)
M = 0
w = 0
(a) (b)
k
q
D C B C w
o
x x
+ + ·
β β 4 3
(due to q
o
)
16
The boundary condition at x = 0 leads to

The solutions are finally,

(II) In this case, the boundary conditions are M|
x=0
= 0,
w|
x=0
= 0 → C
3
, C
4
→ w → support reaction at x = 0 to be
β 2
o
q
.
l Infinite beam with distributed load over a length L

FIGURE 5.5.2. Uniformly distributed load q
o
, over a length L = a + b of
an infinite beam on a Winkler foundation.
(1) Method: Principal of superposition

k
M
k
P
C P V
k
M
C M M
o o
o
x
o
o
x
2
4
0
2
3
0
2 2
,
2 β β β
− · → − · · → ·
· ·
... ..., ,
4 2
2 2
3 2
2
· · + − ·
+ − ·
V M D
k
M
A
k
P
k
q
C
k
M
D
k
P
w
x
o
x
o
o
x
o
x
o
β β
β β
β β
θ
β β
(due to q
o
)
17
(2) Basic solution: infinite beam under concentrated force P

(3) The deflection at Q due to load q
o
dx at O is

(4) The total deflection at Q is

(5) By the same integration, we get the total M at Q
( )
b a
o
q
B B
q
M
β β
β
+ ·
2
4

and
( ) ( )
b a
o
Q b a
o
Q
C C
q
V A A
k
q
β β β β
β
β
θ − · − ·
4
,
2

x
o
A
k
P
w
β
β
2
·
x
o
Q
A
k
dx q
dw
β
β
2
·
[ ]
( )
b a
o
Q
b
x
a
x
o
b
x
a
x
o
Q
D D
k
q
w
D D
k
q
dx A dx A
k
q
w
β β
β β β β
β
− − ·
+ − ·
]
]
]

+ ·
∫ ∫
2
2
2 2
0 0 0 0
18
It is helpful to identify three cases:
(I) βL is small (or β is small), L is small: The deflection and
bending moment are greatest at the middle of the span L,
the corresponding condition is that βL £ π.
(II) βL is large: (1) deflection is constant in the center portion
w = q
o
/ k, and bending moment is zero except in the
neighborhood of the ends of the loaded zone.
(III) Intermediate values of βL. π < βL

FIGURE 5.5.3 Deflection and bending moment in uniform and uniformly
loaded infinite beams on a Winkler foundation.

(I) (II) (III)
(a) (b) (c)
19
l Short beams on a Winkler foundation

FIGURE 5.6.1. (a) Centrally loaded beam of finite length on a Winkler
foundation. (b) End deflection w
end
at x = t L / 2, as a fraction of center
deflection w
o
, versus βL. Also, the ratio of w
o
for a finite beam to w
o
for an
infinitely long beam.
(1) Four boundary conditions: At x = 0, θ = 0 and
2
P
V − ·

at
2
,
2
L L
x − ·
, M = V = 0
(2) Get four constants C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
, the results are known
and are tabulated for several cases.
(3) Also 3 cases can be classified: (a) short beams; (b)
intermediate beams; (c) long beams. The ratio of center
deflection changes with the length of the beam. The ratio
of end deflection to center deflection is also plotted in the
figure.

(a) (b)
20
4.5 Contact Stress ---- Problem and Solutions
l Features of the contact problem
(1) The area of contact between bodies grows as load
increases
(2) In the contact stress problem, stresses remain finite
l The pioneer work by Hertz in 1881
l Basic assumption:
(1) The contacting bodies are linearly elastic,
homogeneous, isotropic, and contacting zone is
relatively small.
(2) Friction is taken as zero → contact pressure is normal
to the contact area.

21
l Solution for two contacting spheres

FIGURE 5.8.1. Radius a of the contact area and peak contact pressure p
o
for
the cases of (a) two spheres of equal radius, and (b) a sphere on a half-space
(which amounts to a sphere of infinite radius). Poisson’s ratio is taken as υ =
0.3.
The maximum contact pressure p
o

3
1
2
2 1
2 1
2
2
388 . 0
2
3
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
| +
· ·
R R
R R
PE
a
P
p
o
π

when a sphere (R
1
) pressed into a spherical socket (R
2
),
R
2
> R
1
, the results are obtained by making R
2
negative!
l Solution for two parallel contact cylinders of length L (L /
10a)
(1) Contact area: long rectangle L x 2a
(a) (b)
sphere of infinite
3
1
2 1
2 1
109 . 1
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+
·
R R
R R
E
P
a
22
(2)

,
`

.
| +
·

,
`

.
|
+
·
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
418 . 0 , 52 . 1
R R
R R
L
PE
p
R R
R R
LE
P
a
o

l Solution for two crossed cylinders (R
1
= R
2
)
(1) Contact area: circular
(2) a and p
o
are obtained from equations in Fig. 5.8.1(b)
l Some discussions
(1) Contact pressure is not proportional to P
(2) Stress state in the center of the contact area between
spheres (x = y = z = 0)
o z o y x
p p − ·
+
− · · σ
υ
σ σ ,
2
2 1

FIGURE 5.8.2. (a) Circular contact area between two spheres. Contact
pressure varies quadratically from a maximum of p
o
at x = y = 0. (b) Principal
stresses and maximum shear stress along the axis of loads P in contacting
spheres, for υ = 0.3. (c) Rectangular contact area between parallel cylinders.
(a)
(b)
(c)

l Two Analytical Models on Elastic Foundation

(1) Model 1 ---- Winkler Model ---- a linear force-deflection relationship is presumed
w
Winker foundation Elastic solid foundation

FIGURE 5.1.1. Deflections of foundation models under uniform pressure. No beam is present.

A linear relationship between the force on the foundation (pressure p) and the deflection w is assumed: p = ko w ko is the foundation modulus (unit: N/m2/m)

For beams with width b, we use p = kw = kobw, unit of k: N/m/m

** An Important restriction of the model: the contact is never broken between beam and foundation (2) Model 2 ---- Elastic solid Foundation ---- More realistic but bore complicated (not used here)

2

2.4. (b) Reaction kw of a Winkler foundation. (a) Arbitrary loading on an elastically supported beam. =V → = −q dx 2 dx dx d 2w d 4w M = − EI → EI =q dx 2 dx 4 (b) (2) Beam Theory on Winkler Foundation (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 5.2 Governing Equations For Uniform Straight Beams on Elastic Foundations l Governing Equations (1) In Usual Beam Theory (MECH 101) q(x) q (a) d 2M dM dV = − q. dV dM d 2M = − q + kw . The curve w = w(x) is the deflected shape of the beam.1. =V → = kw − q dx dx dx 2 d 2w d 4w M = − EI → EI + kw = q 2 4 dx dx 3 . (c) Forces that act on a differential element of the beam.

l Solution of the Equation The governing equation for a uniform beam on Winkler foundation: d 4w EI + kw = q 4 dx By introducing a parameter b (unit L-1) 1  k 4 β =    4 EI  The solution of the governing equation can be written as w = e β x (C 1 sin β x + C 2 cos β x ) + e − βx (C 3 sin β x + C 4 cos β x ) + w ( q ) Particular solution related with q. C4 are constants of integration. V. When w(x) is known. Dβx = e − βx cos βx These quantities are related by certain derivatives. σ etc can be calculated by the relevant formulas. which are determined by B. θ. and the value of the above quantities are listed in the table. C3. Bβx = e − βx sin βx C βx = e − βx (cos βx − sin βx ). the following symbols are defined: Aβx = e − βx (cos βx + sin βx ). C2. 4 . M. w(q) = 0 when q = 0 C1.C. For the convenience.

2.7.2.TABLE 5.1 Selected Values of Terms Defined by Eqs. 5. 5 .

3. we must have C1 = C2 = 0. both shown in the positive sense. V ( x ) dx k k w(x) = 6 . (a) Concentrated loads Po and Mo at the end of a semi-infinite beam on a Winkler foundations.1. Since w = 0 at x → ∞. k k 2 β 2 Po 4β 3M o dw θ = =− A βx + D βx . l Two kind of boundary conditions: (1) prescribe Po and Mo at x = 0 (2) prescribe wo and θo at x = 0 l For Boundary condition (1) Let w(q) = 0 in the general expression of solution. (b) End deflection w o and end rotation θo = (dw/dx) x=0.3 Semi-infinite and Infinite Beams with Concentrated Loads l Semi-infinite beams with concentrated load (a) (b) FIGURE 5. The other two boundary conditions determine C3. M V x =0 d 2w = − EI 2 dx d w = − EI 3 dx 3 x =0 2β 2 M o = M o → C3 = k 2 βPo 2 β 2 M o = 0 = − Po → C 4 = − k k x =0 x =0 So finally we have: 2 β Po 2 βM o D βx − C βx . C4.4. M ( x ).

flexural stress and its location. so w min = 2 βPo Dβx k = −0.0670. A downward force of 50kN is applied to the end. deflection occurs at the smallest distance for which θ = 0. w(x).25 N/mm2/mm. mm ⋅ mm 12  k 4 →β =  = 0. Also find max. we find Aβx = k 0 at βx = 3π/4 or x = 1432mm. k = 80k 0 = . corresponding Dβx = -0.001645/ mm  4 EI  1 (2) The displacement w(x) = 2βPoDβx / k wmax = w x =0 = wo = 2βPo = 8. From θ = − 2 β 2 Po Aβ x . V(x). (1) Necessary constants are: 804 20N EI = 200000 = 6.All M(x). θ(x) are damped sine and cosine wave l Example A semi-infinite steel bar (E = 200GPa) has a square cross section (b = h = 80mm) and rests on a Winkler foundation of modulus ko = 0. Find the maximum and minimum deflections and their locations. 827x1011 N ⋅ mm 2 .225mm k The min.551mm (This upward deflection reminds us our assumption on the beam – foundation connection) 7 .

by using previous solution ---equivalent to: FIGURE 5. and transverse shear force in the beam.1.3234.8 x 106 Nmm → σ max = Mc = 115MPa appears on top of the beam at I x = π/4β = 477mm. These curves are proportional to A βx. Bβx.4. C βx.(3) Bending moment is M = -PoBβx / β. Dβx. so Mmin = -9. l Infinite beams with concentrated load (1) Concentrated force ---. the corresponding Bβx = 0. 8 . (a) Concentrated load Po at x = 0 on a uniform infinite beam that rests on a Winkler foundation. rotation. respectively. from the table we find that Bβx has largest value at βx = π/4. (b-e) Curves for deflections. bending moment.

we have: P 2β 2  o  2  θ=− k   4β 2 M P + o = 0 → Mo = o k 4β at x = 0. Substituting Po / 2 and M o = Po / 4β in the previous solution (semi-infinite beam under concentrated force and moment at the end). the w(x). M(x).By using the solution for semi-infinite beam under concentrated load. 9 . 2k dx k P P M = o C β x . x should be x / 0. we obtain the solution for infinite beam here: β Po β 2 Po dw w = A βx . θ = = − B βx . V(x) = -V(-x). for x < 0. M(x) = M(-x). due to symmetry (mirror at x = 0). we have V = 0 at x = 0. θ(x) and V(x) must be obtained from the symmetry and antisymmetry conditions: w(x) = w(-x). θ(x) = -θ(-x). V = − o D βx 4β 2 Notes: In these solutions.

moment. D βx. These curves are proportional to Bβx.M 2 x =0 − =− Mo . (b-e) Curves for deflection. so w|x=0 = 0. respectively. (1) Deformation analysis: Deflections are antisymmetric with respect to the origin. w x =0 = 0 = 2 βPo 2 β ( M o 2 ) M β − → Po = o k k 2 10 . bending. (a) Concentrated moment Mo at x = 0 on a uniform infinite beam that rests on a Winkler foundation.4.2. Cβx. and transverse shear force in the beam. Bending moment M x =0 + = Mo . rotation. 2 Substituting into the expression w(x) for semi-infinite beam with concentrated load.(2) Concentrated moment ---.by using previous solution ----equivalent to: FIGURE 5.. and Bβx.

M(x) = -M(-x). V = − Aβ x 2 2 The solutions for the left half of the beam must be obtained from the following symmetry and antisymmetry conditions: w(x) = -w(x).θ = C βx k dx k βM o M M ( x) = o Dβx .(2) Then substituting Po = solution. we have Moβ M . θ(x) = θ(-x). M = o into basic 2 2 β 2M o dw β 3 M o = w ( x) = Bβ x . V(x) = V(-x). 11 .

K = 275 N/mm for each spring. (1) To “smear” the springs into a Winkler foundation: force applied to the beam by a spring with deflection w is Kw. located every 1.136x10 -4 /mm 12 . the associated force in each span L is Kw.1m A infinite beam rest on equally spaced linear coil springs. Compute the largest spring force and largest bending moment in the beam. then the hypothetical distributed force is therefore Kw / L distributed force kw of Winkler foundation distributed force Kw / L = by a series of springs The “equivalent” Winkler foundation modulus is k = K / L and the β = [k 4EI ] 1 4 = 6. EI of the beam is 441x109 Nmm2.l Example: P = 18kN 1. over one of the springs.1m along the beam. A concentrated load of 18kN is applied to the beam. so if the spring spacing is L.

we have w max = w x = 0 = β Po Aβ x = 22.(2) According to the previous solution for infinite beam with concentrated load P. 13 . the maximum 2k spring force is Fmax = Kwmax = 6075N M max = M = Po C β x = 7 .1mm. then the problem can be solved as static indeterminate beam.33 kN ⋅ m 4β x= 0 (3) If the beam length is finite with several springs.

6m apart. Solid lines are superposed results.25N / mm/ mm β = 6. (d-f) Coordinate systems used to solve the problem by superposition.136x10− 4 / mm Two concentrated loads. 18kN each and 2.4.l Example: FIGURE 5. (a) Equal concentrated loads on an elastically supported beam. k = 0. (b-c) Resulting deflection and bending moment. M = M 1 + M 2 14 . An infinite beam on a Winkler foundation has the following properties: EI = 441x109 N ⋅ mm2 . are applied to the beam.3. Principal of superposition: total w and M are w = w1 + w2 . Dashed lines represent results of individual loads. Determine wmax and Mmax.

and w = C 3 B β x + C 4 D βx + qo k (due to qo) 15 . we begin with the general solution.We find that wmax is at point B. end moment Mo. we have C1 = C2 = 0 and w(q) = qo / k. There the load is carried by the foundation uniformly with deflection q o / k. M max is at A and C. (b) Deflected shape of the beam if simply supported and loaded by qo only. loaded by end force Po. and a uniformly distributed load qo over the entire beam. Short Beams l Semi-infinite beam with distributed load over the entire span (I) M=0 w=0 (II) (a) (b) FIGURE 5. 4. the beam does not bend.5. At large x. but resultant M is a little smaller than the case of a single load. (a) Semi-infinite beam on a Winkler foundation. The resultant w is larger than a single load.4 Semi-infinite and Infinite Beams with Distributed Loads. So in the general solution.1. (I) Analysis: since qo is added to the entire beam.

5. the boundary conditions are M|x=0 = 0.. w|x=0 = 0 → C3.. l Infinite beam with distributed load over a length L FIGURE 5.V k x =0 2 βPo 2 β 2 M o = − Po → C 4 = − k k The solutions are finally. over a length L = a + b of an infinite beam on a Winkler foundation. C4 → w → support reaction at x = 0 to be qo 2β . (1) Method: Principal of superposition 16 ..The boundary condition at x = 0 leads to M x= 0 2β 2 M o = M o → C3 = . V = . k k (II) In this case.. Uniformly distributed load qo.2. (due to qo) 2 β Po 2β 2M o qo w= Dβx − C βx + k k k 2 β 2 Po 4 β 3M o θ =− Aβx + Dβx .. M = .

we get the total M at Q Mq = and θ Q = qo (Bβa + Bβb ) 4β 2 β qo ( Aβa − Aβ b ).(2) Basic solution: infinite beam under concentrated force P w = β Po A βx 2k βqo dx Aβx 2k (3) The deflection at Q due to load qodx at O is dwQ = (4) The total deflection at Q is b a b β qo  a q Aβx dx + ∫ Aβx dx  = − o D βx 0 + D βx 0  0   2 k  ∫0 2k q w Q = o (2 − D βa − D βb ) 2k wQ = [ ] (5) By the same integration.V Q = q o (C βa − C βb ) 2k 4β 17 .

(III) Intermediate values of βL. π < βL (I) (II) (III) (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 5.5. (II) βL is large: (1) deflection is constant in the center portion w = qo / k. and bending moment is zero except in the neighborhood of the ends of the loaded zone. 18 . the corresponding condition is that βL £ π.3 Deflection and bending moment in uniform and uniformly loaded infinite beams on a Winkler foundation.It is helpful to identify three cases: (I) βL is small (or β is small). L is small: The deflection and bending moment are greatest at the middle of the span L.

(a) Centrally loaded beam of finite length on a Winkler foundation. The ratio of center The ratio deflection changes with the length of the beam.− . (3) Also 3 cases can be classified: (a) short beams. θ = 0 and V = − L 2 L 2 P 2 at x = . (1) Four boundary conditions: At x = 0.6. Also. (b) End deflection w end at x = ± L / 2.l Short beams on a Winkler foundation (a) (b) FIGURE 5. (b) intermediate beams. C4. (c) long beams.M=V=0 (2) Get four constants C1. 19 . the results are known and are tabulated for several cases. C2. as a fraction of center deflection w o. versus βL. of end deflection to center deflection is also plotted in the figure. the ratio of w o for a finite beam to w o for an infinitely long beam.1. C3.

and contacting zone is relatively small. homogeneous. isotropic.5 Contact Stress ---. stresses remain finite l The pioneer work by Hertz in 1881 l Basic assumption: (1) The contacting bodies are linearly elastic. 20 .Problem and Solutions l Features of the contact problem (1) The area of contact between bodies grows as load increases (2) In the contact stress problem. (2) Friction is taken as zero → contact pressure is normal to the contact area.4.

109  P  R1R2       E  R1 + R2  1 3 The maximum contact pressure p o   R + R2  3 P = 0.388  PE 2  1 2  RR   2 πa   1 2   2 po =     1 3 when a sphere (R1) pressed into a spherical socket (R2). R2 > R1. Poisson’s ratio is taken as υ = 0. Radius a of the contact area and peak contact pressure po for the cases of (a) two spheres of equal radius.3. the results are obtained by making R2 negative! l Solution for two parallel contact cylinders of length L (L / 10a) (1) Contact area: long rectangle L x 2a 21 .1.8.   Contact area: circle of radius a = 1.l Solution for two contacting spheres (a) (b) sphere of infinite radius FIGURE 5. and (b) a sphere on a half-space (which amounts to a sphere of infinite radius).

Contact pressure varies quadratically from a maximum of po at x = y = 0.3.2. 5. (a) Circular contact area between two spheres.418   LE  R1 + R2  L  R1R2      l Solution for two crossed cylinders (R1 = R2) (1) Contact area: circular (2) a and p o are obtained from equations in Fig.52 P  R1R2  PE  R1 + R2    . for υ = 0.σ z = − po 2 (a) (c) (b) FIGURE 5.1(b) l Some discussions (1) Contact pressure is not proportional to P (2) Stress state in the center of the contact area between spheres (x = y = z = 0) σx = σy = − 1 + 2υ po .8. (c) Rectangular contact area between parallel cylinders.8. (b) Principal stresses and maximum shear stress along the axis of loads P in contacting spheres. po = 0 .(2) a = 1. 22 .