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and a planned social architecture which commits people to the vision´ (Bass. the major concepts of the theory will be explored and the subjects of person. However. the structure itself is transformed. health. with the use of transformational leadership. and evaluate whether the intended results have occurred. the staff will automatically consider them be a leader and follow. The greatest concern of the transformational leader is to facilitate followers to engage in thed support organizational objectives (Leithwood & Jantzi. The conceptual components of the theory will be evaluated for practical application in nursing management and the strengths and limitations of the theory will be discussed. position is title and does not denote leadership. environment. transformational leadership denotes change. Within the hospital organization. rather a culmination of several author¶s ideas.A Closer Look at Transformational Leadership As the name of the theory implies. 1985). The customary approach to change is to assess the environment. and nursing will be defined. a vision of a preferred future. determine change strategies. In reality. Leadership theory differs from nursing or educational theories in that it is not guided by one author¶s model. With a nursing mindset. Management verses Leadership The role every manger must fill in the workplace is leadership. 2000). a major change is traditionally planned and facilitated within the existing structure of the nursing departments. Finally. A frequent mistake made by a manager is to believe that by assuming the manager¶s role. the Christian worldview will be compared with the basic values of transformational leadership theory to identify compatibility or conflict. The transformation process is threefold and includes ³creating dissatisfaction with the present. implement the strategies. .
According to Marriner-Tomey. The purposes of both the leader and follower become focused and create unity. The process promotes a transcending beyond self interest for the good of the organization. inspirational motivation. Boland. Wolf. Each will be discussed to identify the use of this style of leadership in the nurse manager¶s . Rather than focusing on direct coordination. and Aukerman (1994). The four components describe characteristics that are invaluable to the transformation process. 1997).To be an effective leader. and individualized consideration (Bass. He emphasizes that the transformational leadership focuses on developing the organizations capacity to innovate. 2009). based on trust that positively impacts both the leader and the follower. intellectual stimulation. the leader is concerned with staff development toward self leadership (Williams & Jones. Key Concepts There are four components to transformational leadership: Idealized influence. managers must influence colleagues in a positive way to reach the goals of the organization. wrote that changes occur when transformational leaders broaden and elevate the interests of their staff and generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and mission of the organization. and supervision. Bass (1997). The leader motivates others to perform beyond expectations by empowering followers with a sense of a commitment to a mission. the use of transformational leadership in nursing is an effective process of influencing colleagues to achieve shared goals. The high-performing transformational leader demonstrates a strong commitment to the profession and the organization and is willing to use the team approach to problem-solve and tackle obstacles. 38). further define the leadership style as ³an interactive relationship. control. wholeness and collective purpose´ (p.
This serves as a way of forming a cultural bond between the two participants which leads to finding common ground. Many times the successful leader must possess charisma in their personality (Avolio & Bass. they encourage creativity among followers and new ways of doing things and new opportunities to learn. Wysocki. the leader must demonstrate exceptional abilities to communicate the vision of a new mission and successfully inspire commitment to the vision. When managers are strong role models. Idealized Influence Transformational leaders not only challenge the status quo. The leader inspires followers to see the attractive vision of the future. & Kepner. The transformational leader may use motivational speeches and public displays of optimism and enthusiasm to mobilize the vision (Hall. Johnson. while communicating expectations and demonstrating commitment to goals and the shared vision (Bass. The development of a shared vision is an integral component of the leader¶s role. The transformational leader garners respect by making good decisions for the organization. achievement. encouragers. They work to build trust and confidence while and serving as a role model of exemplary behavior. Inspirational Motivation According to Bass. MarrinerTomey (1993) also links this leadership style to charisma. In the role of clinical nurse leader. innovators and coaches. 2009).approach to employee relationships. 1997). transformational leaders motivate others by providing meaning and challenge to their followers¶ work and strive to build relationships through interactive communication (1997). 2002). they are utilizing all four concepts to transform their staff to higher levels of empowerment. To be recognized by followers as charismatic. and exemplary professional practice and which ultimately results in increased excellence in patient care and nurse satisfaction. inspirational .
In order to effectively convey expectations and keep momentum in line with goals. Education.) Colleague mistakes are not publicly criticized.checking to see if additional support or direction is needed. et al. it is important to facilitate colleague involvement in both unit issues and hospital wide initiatives. Individualized Consideration The transformational leader disburses personal attention to followers based on the individual follower¶s needs for achievement and growth (Avolio & Bass. 2002). The leader acts as a mentor or coach developing followers in a supportive climate to ³higher levels of potential´ (Bass. The ultimate result of individualized consideration is empowerment of followers (Behling & McFillen. Empowerment may be defined as ³self-direction.motivation can also be utilized through frequent staff meetings. 2002). allowing nurses . (Hall. the leader fosters two-way communication through effective listening (Avolio & Bass. Nursing staff are openly encouraged to use innovation and creativity and are included in problem-solving strategies. The intellectually stimulating leader encourages the use of new approaches to old problems but emphasizes rationality (Bass. and evidence based practice councils serve as a great intellectual stimulator. The promotion of specialty certification and conference attendance also support professional enrichment. frequent communications and updates are important. clinical ladder. The leader develops followers by delegating tasks and then unobtrusively monitoring those tasks. Intellectual Stimulation The transformational leader challenges the norm and questions assumptions. and email communications. 1996). By doing this. newsletters. Managing nurses in the clinical setting. Recognizing contributions and celebrating positive outcomes. 1997). 1997).
This style of leadership views health as a continued . fully capable of problem solving and decision making. Shared governance is a decentralized style of management in which all team members have responsibility and managers are facilitative. and talents. 2003). et al. but treats each person as a unique individual of great worth with needs. Transformational leadership values interpersonal relationships and is positively associated with higher employee satisfaction and better job performance (Hyett.to take responsibility and authority for decisions that affect them.. The leader listens to all viewpoints and fosters an atmosphere of professional collegiality and a spirit of cooperation (Hall. et al. 2002). As nurse leader. encouraging and supporting nurses to become active participants in decisions that involve patient care. Empowerment permits speed in decision-making. Environment Defined The transformational leader promotes a professional environment of shared governance. The leader allows for transmission of values and ethical principals and for the provision of challenging goals ( De Geest. allows people to collaborate freely and promotes the cultivation of creativity and quality nursing care´ (Trofino. 2003). 2005). abilities. and resource allocation will assist nurses to grow in their professional roles. unit policies. This leader promotes an environment of collaboration to provide optimum patient care and encourages continual learning and nurse education to promote evidence based practice and highly competent nurses. Health Defined Health is defined as a state of optimal engagement of all talents and abilities and using every resource available to the fullest extent. 1995). Person Defined This leadership style does not look at the follower as simply an employee. rather than using a controlling or hierarchical style (Scott & Caress.
The abuse of power and undue influence is a possibility. The transformational nurse manager seeks to empower nurses to believe in their own ability to create and adapt to change (Outhwaite. at optimal functionality and maximum empowerment. mental. 2003). Limitations According to Marquis and Huston. particularly with respect to idealized influence. it is not likely to occur. With regard to the future of nursing. relational. Strengths Demonstrated The most obvious strength of transformational leadership is that it is an effective change agent in the face of perpetual changes in the health care industry. Another strength of transformational leadership is that it strives to bring the best out in colleagues and emphasizes the importance of valuing people. But with such a diverse population as what comprises the nursing community. emotional. Health encompasses the physical. some transformational leaders. listening. and . There is caution that it is easy to overlook that some leaders are effective without being either visionary or very inspiring. transformational leadership is proving to be useful in navigating the profession through a turbulent economic climate. and spiritual dimensions. nursing shortage. ³Although transformational qualities are highly desirable. As the world has seen. transformational leadership has limitations. they must be coupled to some degree with the more transactional qualities and traditional skills for the day to day managerial role or the leader will fail´ (2009). There are some risks associated with the use of this form of leadership in very powerful positions. and mentoring.transformation toward fulfillment of overall missions and goals. such as Hitler and Jim Jones have done great harm. Health is achieved when the person is fully engaged.
politically. 2009). In these times of organizational instability. who are capable of igniting fellow nurses with a sense of unified vision towards education. The Christian Perspective . and managerially take the profession forward (Trofino. as seen in the facilitators of Magnet (ANA.educational challenges. professionalism. Nursing has looked for. The movement toward transformational leadership is currently developing visionary nurses. 1999). 2000). visionaries who can academically. transformational leaders have great potential to effect enormous changes within individuals and the nursing profession as a whole. and to. leaders with their eye on the horizon. autonomy and empowerment (Antrobos & Kitson.
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