184

12
C H A P T E R
Inventory Management
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. The four types of inventory are:
„Raw material—those items that are to be converted into
product
„Work-in-process (WIP)—those items that are in the pro-
cess of being converted
„Finished goods—those completed items for which title has
not been transferred
„MRO—(maintenance, repair, and operating supplies)—
those items that are necessary to keep the transformation
process going
2. The advent of low-cost computing should not be seen as
obviating the need for the ABC inventory classification scheme.
Although the cost of computing has decreased considerably, the
cost of data acquisition has not decreased in a similar fashion.
Business organizations still have many items for which the cost of
data acquisition for a “perpetual” inventory system is still consid-
erably higher than the cost of the item.
3. The purpose of the ABC system is to identify those items that
require more attention due to cost or volume.
4. Types of costs—holding cost: cost of capital invested and
space required; shortage cost: the cost of lost sales or customers
who never return; the cost of lost good will; order cost: the costs
associated with ordering, transporting, and receiving the items;
unit cost: the actual cost of the item.
5. Assumptions of EOQ model: demand is known and constant
over time; lead time is known and constant; receipt of inventory is
instantaneous; quantity discounts are not possible; the only vari-
able costs are the costs of placing an order or setting up produc-
tion and the cost of holding or storing inventory over time and if
orders are placed at the right time, stockouts or shortages can be
completely avoided.
6. The EOQ increases as demand increases or as the setup cost
increases; it decreases as the holding cost increases. The changes
in the EOQ are proportional to the square root of the changes in
the parameters.
7. Price times quantity is not variable in the EOQ model, but is
in the discount model. When quality discounts are available, the
unit purchase price of the item depends on the order quantity.
8. Advantages of cycle counting:
1. eliminating the shutdown and interruption of production
necessary for annual physical inventories
2. eliminating annual inventory adjustments
3. providing trained personnel to audit the accuracy of
inventory
4. allowing the cause of errors to be identified and remedial
action to be taken
5. maintaining accurate inventory records
9. A decrease in setup time decreases the cost per order, en-
courages more and smaller orders, and thus decreases the EOQ.
10. Discount points below the EOQ have higher inventory costs,
and the prices are no lower than at the EOQ. Points above the
EOQ have higher inventory costs than the corresponding price
break point or EOQ at prices that are no lower than either of the
price beaks or the EOQ. (It depends on whether or not there exists
a discount point above the EOQ.)
11. Service level refers to the fraction of customers to whom the
product or service is delivered when and as promised.
12. If the same costs hold, more will be ordered using an eco-
nomic production quantity, because the average inventory is less
than the corresponding EOQ system.
13. In a fixed-quantity inventory system, when the quantity on
hand reaches the reorder point, an order is placed for the specified
quantity. In a fixed-period inventory system, an order is placed at
the end of the period. The quantity ordered is that needed to bring
on-hand inventory up to a specified level.
14. The EOQ model gives quite good results under inexact inputs;
a 10% error in actual demand alters the EOQ by less than 5%.
15. Safety stock is inventory beyond average demand during
lead time, held to control the level of shortages when demand
and/or lead time are not constant; inventory carried to assure that
the desired service level is reached.
16. The reorder point is a function of: demand per unit of time,
lead time, customer service level, and standard deviation of demand.
17. Most retail stores have a computerized cash register (point-
of-sale) system. At the time of purchase, the computer system
simultaneously rings up the bill and reduces the inventory level in
its records for the products sold.
18. Advantage of a fixed period system: there is no physical
count of inventory when items are withdrawn. Disadvantage:
there is a possibility of stockout during the time between orders.
ETHICAL DILEMMA
Setting service levels to meet inventory demand is a manager’s
job. Setting an 85% service level for whole blood is an important
CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT 185
judgment call on the part of the hospital administrator. Another
major disaster means a certain shortage, yet any higher level may
be hard to cost justify. Many hospitals do develop joint or regional
groups to share supplies. The basic issue is how to put a price tag
on lifesaving medicines. This is not an easy question to answer,
but it makes for good discussion.
ACTIVE MODEL EXERCISES
ACTIVE MODEL 12.1: Economic Order Quantity
(EOQ) Model
1. What is the EOQ and what is the lowest total cost?
EOQ 200 units with a cost of $100
2. What is the annual cost of CARRYING inventory at the
EOQ and the annual cost of ORDERING inventory at the EOQ of
200 units.
$50 for carrying and also $50 for ordering
3. From the graph, what can you conclude about the relationship
between the lowest total cost and the costs of ordering and carry-
ing inventory?
The lowest total cost occurs where the ordering and
inventory costs are the same.
4. How much does the total cost increase if the store manager orders
50 MORE hypodermics than the EOQ? 50 LESS hypodermics?
Ordering more increases costs by $2.50 or 2.5%. Order-
ing LESS increases costs by $4.17 or 4.17%
5. What happens to the EOQ and total cost when demand is
doubled? When carrying cost is doubled?
The EOQ rises by 82 units (41%) and the total cost rises
by $41 (41%) in EITHER case.
6. Scroll through lower setup cost values and describe the
changes to the graph. What happens to the EOQ?
The curves seem to drop and move to the left. The EOQ
decreases.
7. Comment on the sensitivity of the EOQ model to errors in
demand or cost estimates.
The total cost is not very sensitive to mistakes in forecast-
ing demand or placing orders.
ACTIVE MODEL 12.2: Production Order Quantity
Model
1. What is the optimal production run size for hubcaps?
283
2. How does this compare to the corresponding EOQ model?
The run size is larger than the corresponding EOQ.
3. What is the minimal cost?
$70.71
4. How does this compare to the corresponding EOQ model?
The total cost is less than the cost for the equivalent EOQ
model.
END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS
12.1
Total Cost Unit
Code Cost u Demand
XX1 $ 7,008
B66 $ 5,994
3CP0 $ 1,003.52
33CP $ 82,292.16
R2D2 $ 2,220
RMS $ 1,998.88
Total cost $100,516.56
70% of total cost $70,347.92
The item that needs strict control is 33CP so it is an “A” item.
Items that should not be strictly controlled are XX1, B66, 3CP0,
R2D2, and RMS. The “B” items will be XX1 and B66. With so
few items, an exact breakdown into the general A, B, C categories
is flexible.
12.2 You decide that the top 20% of the 10 items, based on a
criterion of demand times cost per unit, should be A items. (In this
example, the top 20% constitutes only 58% of the total inventory
value, but in larger samples the value would probably approach
70% to 80%.) You therefore rate items F3 and G2 as A items. The
next 30% of the items are A2, C7, and D1; they represent 23% of
the value and are categorized as B items. The remaining 50% of
the items (items B8, E9, H2, I5, and J8) represent 19% of the
value and become C items.
Annual
Item Demand Cost ($) Demand u Cost Classification
A2 3,000 50 150,000 B
B8 4,000 12 48,000 C
C7 1,500 45 67,500 B
D1 6,000 10 60,000 B
E9 1,000 20 20,000 C
F3 500 500 250,000 A
G2 300 1,500 450,000 A
H2 600 20 12,000 C
I5 1,750 10 17,500 C
J8 2,500 5 12,500 C
186 CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT
12.3 First we rank the items from top to bottom on the basis of
their dollar usage. Then they are partitioned off into classes.
Item Usage ($) Class
13 70,800 A: These four items (20% of 20)
15 57,900 have a combined dollar usage
7 44,000 of $206,100. This is 71% of
3 33,400 the total.
19 19,000 B: These six items (30% of 20)
20 15,500 have a combined dollar usage
12 10,400 of $69,000. This is 24% of
1 9,200 the total.
4 8,100
14 6,800
18 4,800 C: These ten items (50% of 20)
16 3,900 have a combined dollar usage
5 1,100 of $13,500. This is 5% of
8 900 the total.
17 700
10 700
6 600
2 400
11 300
9 100
The dollar usage percentages do not exactly match the predictions
of ABC analysis. For example, Class A items only account for
71% of the total, rather than 80%. Nonetheless, the important
finding is that ABC analysis did find the “significant few.” For the
items sampled, particularly close control is needed for items 3, 7,
13, and 15.
12.4
7,000 u 0.10 700 700 y 20 35 35 A items per day
7,000 u 0.35 2,450 2450 y 60 40.83 41 B items per day
7,000 u 0.55 3,850 3850 y 120 32 32 C items per day
108 items
12.5 (a)
2(19,500)(25)
EOQ = 493.71 494 units
4
Q
(b) Annual holdings costs [Q/2]H [494/2](4) $988
(c) Annual ordering costs [D/Q]S [19500/494](25) $987
12.6
2(8, 000)45
EOQ 600 units
2

12.7 This problem reverses the unknown of a standard EOQ
problem.
u u

u

2 240 480
60 ; or, 60 , or,
.4 10 4
60 120 , so solving for results in = $30.
S S
S S S
That is, if S were $30, then the EOQ would be 60. If the true or-
dering cost turns out to be much greater than $30, then the firm’s
order policy is ordering too little at a time.
12.8 (a) Economic Order Quantity (Holding cost $5 per year):
2 2 400 40
80 units
5
DS
Q
H
u u

where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost, H holding
cost
(b) Economic Order Quantity (Holding cost $6 per year):
2 2 400 40
73 units
6
DS
Q
H
u u

where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost, H
holding cost
12.9 D 15,000, H $25/unit/year, S $75
(a)
2 2 15, 000 75
EOQ 300 units
25
DS
H
u u

(b) Annual holding costs (Q/2) u H (300/2)
u 25 $3,750
(c) Annual ordering costs (D/Q) u S (15,000/300)
u 75 $3,750
(d)
15,000 units
ROP = 8 days 400 units
300 days
d L
§ ·
u u
¨ ¸
© ¹
12.10 Reorder point demand during lead time
100 units/day u 21 days 2,100 units
12.11 D 10,000
Number of business days 300
Lead time 5 days
ROP [Demand/Day](Lead time) [10,000/300](5)
166.67 # 167 units.
12.12 (a) Economic Order Quantity:
2 2 4, 000 25
149.1 or 149 valves
0.10 90
DS
Q
H
u u

u
where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost,
H holding cost
(b) Average inventory 74.5 valves
Demand 4, 000
(c) Number of orders per year
EOQ 149
26.8 or 27 orders

(d) Assuming 250 business days per year, the optimal
number of business days between orders is given by:
250 1
Optimal number of days 9 days
27 4

(e) Total annual inventory cost Order cost holding cost
4, 000 25 149 0.1 90
2 149 2
671.14 670.50 $1, 341.64
DS QH
Q

u u u


Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to
rounding of the EOQ to a whole number.
(f) Reorder point demand during lead time
16 units/day u 5 days 80 valves
12.13 (a)
2 2(2500)18.75
1.50
250 brackets per order
DS
Q
H

(b)
250
Average inventory 125 units
2 2
Q

Annual holding cost 125(1.50) $187.50
2
Q
H
CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT 187
(c)
2500
Number of orders 10 orders /year
250
D
Q
= = =
Annual order cost 10(18.75) $187.50
D
S
Q
= = =
(d) TC 187.50 187.50 $375/ year
2
Q D
H S
Q
= + = + =
(e)
working days
Time between orders
( / )
250
25 days
10
D Q
=
= =
(f) ROP = dL = 10(2) = 20 units (where 10 = daily demand)
2500
10
250
d = =
12.14 (a) Total cost order cost + holding cost
2
DS QH
Q
= = +
1,200 25 25 24
For 25: $1, 500
25 2
1,200 25 40 24
For 40: $1,230
40 2
1, 200 25 50 24
For 50: $1,200
50 2
1, 200 25 60 24
For 60: $1,220
60 2
1, 200 25 100 24
For 100: $1,500
100 2
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
× ×
= = + =
× ×
= = + =
× ×
= = + =
× ×
= = + =
× ×
= = + =
As expected, small variations in order quantity will
not have a significant effect on total costs.
(b) Economic Order Quantity:
2 2 1,200 25
50 units
24
DS
Q
H
× ×
= = =
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost,
H = holding cost
12.15 (a) The EOQ assumptions are met, so the optimal order
quantity is
2 2(250)20
EOQ 100 units
1
DS
H
= = =
(b) Number of orders per year = D/Q = 250/100 = 2.5
orders per year.
Note that this would mean in one year the company
places 3 orders and in the next it would only need
2 orders since some inventory would be carried over
from the previous year. It averages 2.5 orders per year.
(c) Average inventory = Q/2 = 100/2 = 50 units
(d) Given an annual demand of 250, a carrying cost of
$1, and an order quantity of 150, Patterson Electron-
ics must determine what the ordering cost would have
to be for the order policy of 150 units to be optimal.
To find the answer to this problem, we must solve the
traditional economic order quantity equation for the
ordering cost. As you can see in the calculations that
follow, an ordering cost of $45 is needed for the order
quantity of 150 units to be optimal.
2
2
2
2
(150) (1)
=
2(250)
22,500
= $45
500
DS
Q
H
H
S Q
D
=
=
=
12.16 Production Order Quantity, noninstantaneous delivery:
2 2 10, 000 200
2309.4 or 2,309 units
50
1 1.00 1
200
DS
Q
d
H
p
× ×
= = =
| | | |
÷ ÷
|
|
\ .
\ .
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost, H = holding
cost, d = daily demand rate, p = daily production rate
12.17 Production order quantity, noninstantaneous delivery.
(a) D = 12,000/yr.
H = $.10/light-yr.
S = $50/setup
P = $1.00/light
p = 100/day
12, 000/yr.
40 / day
300 days/yr.
d = =
2 2(12, 000)50
40
.10 1 1
100
DS
Q
d
H
p
= =
| | | |
÷ ÷
| |
\ .
\ .
= 4,472 lights per run
(b) Average holding cost / year 1
2
4, 472 40 $26,832
1 (.10) $134.16
2 100 200
Q d
H
p
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
| |
= ÷ = =
|
\ .
(c)
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
=
12,000
Average setup cost / year 50
4, 472
$134.16
D
S
Q
(d) Total cost (including cost of goods)
= PD + $134.16 + $134.16
= ($1 × 12,000) + $134.16 + $134.16
= $12,268.32/year
12.18 (a) Production Order Quantity, noninstantaneous delivery:
( )
2 2 10, 000 40
50
1
0.60 1
500
1217.2 or 1,217 units
DS
Q
d
H
p
× ×
= =
| |
÷
÷
|
\ .
=
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost,
H = holding cost, d = daily demand rate, p = daily
production rate
(b)
max
1 1, 095
d
I Q
p
| |
= ÷ =
|
\ .
188 CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT
(c)
10, 000
8.22
1, 217
D
Q
= =
(d)
max
328.50 328.80 $657.30
2
I D
TC H S
Q
= + = + =
12.19 At the Economic Order Quantity, we have:
EOQ (2 36, 000 25) / 0.45 2, 000 units. = × × =
The total costs at this quantity are:
Holding cost = Q/2 × H = 1,000 × .45 = $450
Ordering cost = D/Q × S = 36,000/2,000 × 25 = $450
Purchase cost = D × P = 36,000 × 0.85 = $30,600
Total cost = $900 + $30,600 = $31,500
At the quantity discount, we have:
Holding cost = Q/2 × H = 3,000 × .45 = $1,350
Ordering cost = D/Q × S = 36,000/6,000 × 25 = $150
Purchase cost = D × P = 36,000 × 0.82 = $29,520
Total cost = $1,500 + $29,520 = $31,020
The quantity discount will save $480 on this item. The company
should also consider some qualitative aspects of the decision, such
as available space, the risk of obsolescence of disks, and the risk
of deterioration of the storage medium over time, as 6,000 repre-
sents one sixth of the year’s needs.
12.20 Under present price of $50.00 per unit, Economic Order
Quantity:
2
2 1, 000 40
80 units
0.25 50
DS
Q
H
Q
=
× ×
= =
×
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost, H = holding
cost, P = price/unit
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
1, 000 40 80 0.25 50
(1, 000 50)
80 2
500.00 500.00 50, 000 $51, 000
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× × ×
= + + ×
= + + =
Under the quantity discount price reduction of 3%:
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
1, 000 40 200 0.25 50 0.97
200 2
1, 000 50 0.97
200.00 1212.50 48, 500 $49,912.50
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× × × ×
= +
+ × ×
= + + =
Therefore, the pumps should be ordered in batches of 200 units
and the quantity discount taken.
12.21 The solution to any quantity discount model involves de-
termining the total cost of each alternative after quantities have been
computed and adjusted for the original problem and every discount.
We start the analysis with no discount:
2(1, 400)(25)
EOQ (no discount) =
0.2(400)
= 29.6 units
Total cost (no discount) = material cost + ordering cost
+ carrying cost
1, 400(25)
$400(1, 400)
29.6
29.6($400)(0.2)
2
$560, 000 $1,183 $1,183
= +
+
= + +
$562, 366 =
The next step is to compute the total cost for the discount:
2(1,400)(25)
EOQ (with discount) =
0.2($380)
= 30.3 units
EOQ (adjusted) = 300 units
Because this last economic order quantity is below the discounted
price, we must adjust the order quantity to 300 units. The next
step is to compute total cost.
Total cost (with discount) = material cost + ordering cost
+ carrying cost
1,400(25)
= $380(1,400) +
300
300($380)(0.2)
2
$532, 000 $117 $11, 400
$543,517
+
= + +
=
The optimal strategy is to order 300 units at a total cost of
$543,517.
12.22 Economic Order Quantity:
2DS
Q
H
=
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost, H = holding
cost, price/unit
- Economic Order Quantity, standard price:
2 45 10
30 units
0.05 20
Q
× ×
= =
×
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
45 10 30 0.05 20
(45 20)
30 2
15 15 900 $930
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× × ×
= + + ×
= + + =
- Quantity Discount, 75 units or more. Economic Order
Quantity, discount over 75 units:
2 45 10
31.19 or 31 units
0.05 18.50
Q
× ×
= =
×
CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT 189
Because EOQ = 31 and a discount is given only on orders
of 75 or more, we must calculate the total cost using a 75-
unit order quantity:
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
45 10 75 0.05 18.50
(45 18.50)
75 2
6 34.69 832.50 $873.19
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× × ×
= + + ×
= + + =
- Quantity Discount, 100 units or more; Economic Order
Quantity, discount over 100 units:
2 45 10
33.81 or 34 units
0.05 15.75
Q
× ×
= =
×
EOQ = 34 and a discount is given only on orders of 100
or more, thus we must calculate the total cost using a 100-
unit order quantity. Calculate total cost using 100 as order
quantity:
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
45 10 100 0.05 15.75
(45 15.75)
100 2
4.5 39.38 708.75 $752.63
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× × ×
= + + ×
= + + =
Based purely upon cost, the decision should be made to
order in quantities of 100, for a total cost of $752.63.
It should be noted, however, that an order quantity of
100 implies that an order will be placed roughly every
two years. When orders are placed that infrequently, ob-
solescence may become a problem.
12.23 D = 20,000/yr.
I = 20 percent of purchase price per year in holding costs,
where H = IP
S = $40/order
P = $20/tire if fewer than 500 are ordered;
$18/tire if between 500 and 999 are ordered; and
$17/tire if 1,000 or more are ordered
20
18
17
2 /
= (2 20, 000 40) /(.2 20)
= 632.5 (not valid)
2 /
= (2 20, 000 40) /(.2 18)
= 666.7 (valid)
2 /
= (2 20, 000 40) /(.2 17)
= 686 (not valid)
Q DS H
Q DS H
Q DS H
=
× × ×
=
× × ×
=
× × ×
We compare the cost of ordering 667 with the cost of ordering 1,000.
667
/2 /
= $18 20, 000 (.2 $18 667)/2
($40 20, 000)/667
= $360,000 + $1,200 + $1,200
= $362,400 per year
TC PD HQ SD Q = + +
× + × ×
+ ×
1,000
/2 /
= $17 20, 000 (.2 $17 1, 000)/2
($40 20, 000) /1, 000
= $340,000 + $1,700 + $800
= $342,500 per year
TC PD HQ SD Q = + +
× + × ×
+ ×
Rocky Mountain should order 1,000 tires each time.
12.24 D = 700 × 12, H = 5, S = 50
Allen
1–499 $16.00
500–999 $15.50
1000+ $15.00
Baker
1–399 $16.10
400–799 $15.60
800+ $15.10
(a)
2 2(8, 400)50
409.88 410
5
DS
Q
H
= = = ÷
(b,c) Vendor: Allen
410 8, 400
at 410, (5) (50) 8, 400(16) $136, 449.36
2 410
500 8, 400
at 500, (5) (50) 8, 400(15.5) $132,290
2 500
TC
TC
= + + =
= + + =
1, 000 8, 400
at 1,000, (5) (50) 8, 400(15)
2 1, 000
$128,920 BEST
TC = + +
=
Vendor: Baker
410 8, 400
at 410, (5) (50) 8, 400(15.60) $133, 089.39
2 410
800 8, 400
at 800, (5) (50) 8, 400(15.10) $129,365
2 800
TC
TC
= + + =
= + + =
190 CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT
12.25 S = 10, H = 3.33, D = 2,400
12.26 Calculation for EOQ: S = $50, H = 50%, D = 9,600
(d) Other considerations include the perishability of the
chemical and whether or not there is adequate space
in the controlled environment to handle 1,200 pounds
of the chemical at one time.
12.27 (a) u = 60; o = 7
Safety stock for 90% service level = oZ(at 0.90)
= 7 × 1.28 = 8.96 ~ 9
(b) ROP = 60 + 9 = 69 BX-5 bandages.
12.28 (a) Z = 1.88
(b) Safety stock = Zo = 1.88(5) = 9.4 drives
(c) ROP = 50 + 9.4 = 59.4 drives
Costs
Qty Price Holding Ordering Purchase Total
120 $33.55 $199.80 $200.00 $80,520.00 $80,919.80 Vendor A
150 $32.35 $249.75 $160.00 $77,640.00 $78,049.75
300 $31.15 $499.50 $80.00 $74,760.00 $75,339.50
500 $30.75 $832.50 $48.00 $73,800.00 $74,680.50
120 $34.00 $199.80 $200.00 $81,600.00 $81,999.80 Vendor B
150 $32.80 $249.75 $160.00 $78,720.00 $79,129.75
300 $31.60 $499.50 $80.00 $75,840.00 $76,419.50
500 $30.50 $832.50 $48.00 $73,200.00 $74,080.50 BEST
120 $33.75 $199.80 $200.00 $81,000.00 $81,399.80 Vendor C
200 $32.50 $333.00 $120.00 $78,000.00 $78,453.00
400 $31.10 $666.00 $60.00 $74,640.00 $75,366.00
120 $34.25 $199.80 $200.00 $82,200.00 $82,599.80 Vendor D
200 $33.00 $333.00 $120.00 $79,200.00 $79,653.00
400 $31.00 $666.00 $60.00 $74,400.00 $75,126.00
EOQ = 120 with slight rounding
(a) Price EOQ Vendor
$17.00 336.0672 feasible A
$16.75 338.5659 not feasible
$16.50 341.1211 not feasible
$17.10 335.0831 feasible B
$16.85 337.5598 not feasible
$16.60 340.0921 not feasible
(b), (c)
Costs
Qty Price Holding Ordering Purchase Total
336 $17.00 $1,428.00 $1,428.57 $163,200.00 $166,056.57 Vendor A
500 $16.75 $2,093.75 $960.00 $160,800.00 $163,853.75
1000 $16.50 $4,125.00 $480.00 $158,400.00 $163,005.00

335 $17.10 $1,432.13 $1,432.84 $164,160.00 $167,024.97 Vendor B
400 $16.85 $1,685.00 $1,200.00 $161,760.00 $164,645.00
800 $16.60 $3,320.00 $600.00 $159,360.00 $163,280.00
1200 $16.25 $4,875.00 $400.00 $156,000.00 $161,275.00 BEST
CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT 191
12.29
12.30
12.31
12.32 Only demand is variable in this problem so Equation
(12-15) applies
(a) ROP = (average daily demand × lead time in days)
+ Zo
dLT
( )
o = × +
d
(1, 000 2) (2.05)( ) lead time
= + 2, 000 2.05(100) 2
= 2,000 + 290 = 2,290 towels
(b) Safety stock = 290 towels
12.33 Only lead time is variable in this problem, so Equation
(12-16) is used.
Z = 1.88 for 97% service level
ROP = (daily demand × average lead time in days)
+ Z × daily demand × o
LT
ROP = (12,500 × 4) + (1.88)(12,500)(1)
= 50,000 + 23,500 = 73,500 pages
12.34 Both lead time and demand are variables, so Equation
(12-17) applies, in weeks. Z = 1.28 for 90% service.
ROP = (200 × 6) + 1.28 o
dLT
where o
dLT
2 2 2
(6 25 ) (200 2 ) = × + ×
= × + × = + (6 625) (40,000 4) 3,750 160, 000
= ~ 163,750 405
So ROP = 1,200 + (1.28)(405) ~ 1,200 + 518 = 1,718 cigars
12.35 Fixed-period model.
Q = Target – onhand – orders not received
= 40 – 5 – 18 = 17 poles.
12.36
Note: Items of New Product Development, advertising, and re-
search are not part of holding or ordering cost.
Incremental Costs
Safety Stock Carrying Cost Stockout Cost Total Cost
0 0 70 × (100 × 0.2 + 200 × 0.2) = 4,200 4,200
100 100 × 15 = 1,500 (100 × 0.2) × 70 = 1,400 2,900
200 200 × 15 = 3,000 0 3,000
The safety stock that minimizes total incremental cost is 100 units. The reorder point then becomes
200 units + 100 units or, 300 units.
Demand during Reorder Period Probability
0 0.1
50 0.2
100 0.4
150 0.2
200 0.1
1.0
Incremental Costs
Safety Stock Carrying Cost Stockout Cost Total Cost
0 0 50 × (50 × 0.2 + 100 × 0.1) = 1,000 1000
50 50 × 10 = 500 50 × (0.1 × 50) = 250 750
100 100 × 10 = 1,000 0 1000
The safety stock that minimizes total incremental cost is 50 sets. The reorder point then becomes
100 sets + 50 sets or, 150 sets.
Safety Additional Total
Stock Carrying Cost Stockout Cost Cost
0 0 10 × 0.2 × 50 × 7 + 20 × 0.2 × 50 × 7 + 30 × 0.1 × 50 × 7 = 3,150 3,150
10 10 × 5 = 50 50 × 7(10 × 0.2 + 20 × 0.1) = 1,400 1,450
20 20 × 5 = 100 10 × 0.1 × 50 × 7 = 350 450
30 30 × 5 = 150 0 150
The BB-1 set should therefore have a safety stock of 30 units; ROP = 90 units.
Holding Cost Ordering Cost
$2,000 1,500
600 500
750 800
280 30,000
12,800 500
800 1,000
300 $34,300
$17,530
192 CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT
$34, 300
Cost per order $171.50
200
$17, 530
Holding cost per unit $1.753
10, 000
= =
= =
(2)(1000)(171.5)
Therefore, EOQ 442.34 units.
1.753
= =
12.37 Annual demand, D = 8,000
Daily production rate, p = 200
Set-up cost, S = 120
Holding cost, H = 50
Production quantity, Q = 400
(a) daily demand, d = D/250 = 8,000/250 = 32
(b) number of days in production run = Q/p = 400/200 = 2
(c) number of production runs per year = D/Q = 8,000/400 = 20
annual set-up cost = 20($120) = $2,400
(d) maximum inventory level = Q(1 – d/p)
= 400(1 – 32/200) = 336
average inventory = maximum/2 = 336/2 = 168
(e) total holding cost + total set-up cost = (168)50 + 20(120)
= $8,400 + $2,400
= $10,800
(f)
2 2(8000)120
213.81
32
50 1 1
200
DS
Q
d
H
p
= = =
| | | |
÷ ÷
| |
\ .
\ .
total holding cost + total set-up cost = 4,490 + 4,490 = $8,980
Savings = $10,800 – $8,980 = $1,820
12.38 (a) d = 75 lbs/day 200 days per year D = 15,000 lbs/year
H = $3/lb./year S = $16/order
Q = 400 lbs of beans
(b) Total annual holding cost = = (200)($3) = $600
2
Q
H
(c) Total annual order cost = = (37.5)(16) = $600
D
S
Q
(d) LT = 4 days with o = 15 Stockout risk = 1%
Z = 2.33
ROP = Lead time demand + SS
where SS = (Z )(o
dLT
) and lead time demand = (d)(LT)
( ) ( )
o = = =
dLT
(15) 4 (15) 30 LT
ROP = 369.99 where ROP = (d)(LT) + SS
(e) SS = 69.99 from part (d)
(f) Annual holding cost = $209.37
(g) 2% stock out level ¬ Z = 2.054
SS = (Z)(o
dLT
) = 61.61
The lower we make our target service level, the less
S.S. we need.
INTERNET HOMEWORK PROBLEMS
Problems 12.39–12.51 are found on our companion web site at
www.prenhall.com/heizer.
12.39
Annual
SKU Demand Cost ($) Demand × Cost Classification
A 100 300 30,000 A
B 75 100 7,500 B
C 50 50 2,500 C
D 200 100 20,000 A
E 150 75 11,250 B
Obviously, with so few items, the breakdowns into A, B, and C
cannot follow the guidelines exactly.
12.40
Annual Demand ×
Item Demand Cost ($) Cost Classification
E102 800 4.00 3,200 C
D23 1,200 8.00 9,600 A 27%
D27 700 3.00 2,100 C
R02 1,000 2.00 2,000 C
R19 200 8.00 1,600 C
S107 500 6.00 3,000 C
S123 1,200 1.00 1,200 C
U11 800 7.00 5,600 B 16%
U23 1,500 1.00 1,500 C 33%
V75 1,500 4.00 6,000 B 17%
12.41
2(1000)62.50
500 units
0.50
EOQ = =
12.42
2(8, 000)45 720, 000
300 90, 000
720, 000
$8
90, 000
H H
H
= ¬ =
= =
12.43 (a) Economic Order Quantity:
2 2 1, 500 150
100 units
45
DS
Q
H
× ×
= = =
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost,
H = holding cost
(b)
100 45
Holding cost $2,250.00
2 2
QH ×
= = =
(c)
1500 150
Order cost $2, 250.00
100
DS
Q
×
= = =
(d) Reorder point:
Reorder point = demand during lead time
1,500
units /day 6 days
300
30 units
= ×
=
12.44 Reorder point = demand during lead time
= 500 units/day × 14 days
= 7,000 units
CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT 193
12.45 (a) Economic Order Quantity:
2 2 5, 000 30
77.46 or 78 units
50
DS
Q
H
× ×
= = =
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost,
H = holding cost
(b) Average inventory
78
39
2
= = units
(c) Number of orders per year
Demand 5, 000
78 EOQ
= =
= 64.1 or 64 orders
(d) Assuming 250 business days per year, the optimal
number of business days between orders is given by:
250
Optimal number of days 3.91 days
64
= =
(e) Total cost order cost holding cost
5, 000 30 78 50
2 78 2
1,923.02 1, 950 $3,873.08
DS QH
Q
= +
× ×
= + = +
= + =
Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of
the EOQ to a whole number. If an EOQ of 77.46 is used, the order
and carrying costs calculate to $1,936.49 for a total cost of
$3,872.98.
(f) Reorder point:
Reorder point = demand during lead time
5, 000 units
10 days 200 units
250 days
= × =
This is not to say that we reorder when there are 200
units on hand (as there never are). The ROP indicates
that orders are placed several cycles prior to their ac-
tual demand.
12.46 (a) Total cost = order cost + holding cost
2
DS QH
Q
= +
For Q = 50:
600 60 50 20
720 500 $1,220
50 2
× ×
+ = + =
(b) Economic Order Quantity:
2 2 600 60
60 units
20
DS
Q
H
× ×
= = =
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost,
H = holding cost
For Q = 60:
600 60 60 20
600 600 $1,200
60 2
× ×
+ = + =
(c) Reorder point:
Reorder point = demand during lead time
600 units
10 days 24 units
250 days
= × =
12.47 Economic Order Quantity, noninstantaneous delivery:
( )
2 2 8, 000 100
1,651.4 or 1,651 units
40
0.80 1 1
150
DS
Q
d
H
p
× ×
= = =
| |
÷ ÷
|
\ .
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost, H = holding
cost, d = daily demand rate, p = daily production rate
12.48 Economic Order Quantity:
2DS
Q
H
=
where: D = annual demand, D = setup or order cost, H = holding
cost, p = price/unit
(a) Economic Order Quantity, standard price:
2 2, 000 10
200 units
1
Q
× ×
= =
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
2, 000 10 200 1
(2, 000 1)
200 2
100 100 2, 000
$2,200
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× ×
= + + ×
= + +
=
(b) Quantity Discount:
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
2, 000 10 2, 000 1
2, 000 2
(2, 000 0.75)
10 1, 000 1, 500 $2,510
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× ×
= +
+ ×
= + + =
Note: No, EOQ with 200 units and a total cost of $2,200 is better.
12.49 Under present price of $7.00 per unit, Economic Order
Quantity:
2
2 6, 000 20
478.1 or 478 units
0.15 7
DS
Q
H
Q
=
× ×
= =
×
where: D = annual demand, S = setup or order cost, H = holding
cost, p = price/unit
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
6, 000 20 478 0.15 7
(7 6, 000)
478 2
251.05 250.95 42, 000
$42, 502.00
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× × ×
= + + ×
= + +
=
194 CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT
1
Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of
the EOQ to a whole number. Under the quantity discount price of
$6.65 per unit:
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
6, 000 20 3, 000 0.15 6.65
(6, 000 6.65)
3, 000 2
40.00 1, 496.25 39,900 $41, 436.25
DS QH
PD
Q


u u u
u

Therefore, the new policy, with a total cost of $41,436.25, is
preferable.
12.50 Economic Order Quantity:
2DS
Q
H

where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost, H holding
cost, P price/unit
(a) Order quantity 9 sheets or less, unit price $18.00
2 100 45
50 units
0.20 18
Q
u u

u
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
100 45 50 0.20 18
(18 100)
50 2
90 90 1,800
$1, 980 (see note at end of problem
regarding actual price)
DS QH
PD
Q


u u u
u

(b) Order quantity 10 to 50 sheets: unit price $17.50
2 100 45
50.7 units or 51 units
0.20 17.50
Q
u u

u
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
100 45 51 0.20 17.50
51 2
(17.50 100)
88.23 89.25 1, 750.00 1,927.48
DS QH
PD
Q


u u u

u

Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding the
EOQ to a whole number. See note at end of problem regarding
price.
(c) Order quantity more than 50 sheets: unit price
$17.25
2 100 45
51.1 units or 51 units
0.20 17.25
Q
u u

u
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
100 45 51 0.20 17.25
51 2
(17.25 100)
88.24 87.98 1, 725.00 $1,901.22
DS QH
PD
Q


u u u

u

Therefore, order 51 units.
Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to
rounding of the EOQ to a whole number.
Important Note: Students will likely complete all
three sets of calculations, including the calculations of
total costs. They should be prompted to realize that calcu-
lations of total cost under (a) and (b) are actually inappro-
priate because the original assumptions as to lot size
would not be satisfied by the calculated EOQs.
12.51 Z 1.28 for 90% service level
Safety stock (1.28)(15) 19.2 or 19
Reorder point 36 19 55 TVs
CASE STUDIES
ZHOU BICYCLE COMPANY
1. Inventory plan for Zhou Bicycle Company. The forecasted
demand is summarized in the following table.
Jan 8 July 39
Feb 15 Aug 24
Mar 31 Sept 16
April 59 Oct 15
May 97 Nov 28
June 60 Dec 47
Total 439
Average demand per month 439/12 36.58 bicycles. The stan-
dard deviation of the monthly demand 25.67 bicycles. The in-
ventory plan is based on the following costs and values.
Order cost $65/order
Cost per bicycle $102.00
Holding cost ($102.00) u (1%) u 12 per year per bicycle
$12.24 per year per bicycle
Service level 95%, with corresponding Z value of 1.645
Lead time 1 month (4 weeks)
Total demand/year 439 units of bicycles
The solution below uses the simple EOQ model with reorder point
and safety stock. It ignores the seasonal nature of the demand. The
fluctuation in demand is dealt with by the safety stock based on
the variation of demand over the planning horizon.
Economic order quantity (Q*) is given by:
2 (Total demand) (Ordering cost)
Holding cost
Q
u u

where the total demand and the holding cost are calculated on the
same time unit (monthly, yearly, etc.). Thus,
2 439 65
68 units of bicycles
12.24
Q
u u
|
CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT 195
2
2. The reorder point is calculated by the following relation:
Reorder point (ROP) = average demand during the lead time (u)
+ z × (standard deviation of the
demand during the lead time (o))
Therefore, (ROP) 36.58 1.645 (25.67) 79 = + ~ bicycles.
Safety stock (ss) is given by 1.645(25.67) 42 ss zo = = ~
bicycles. Inventory cost is calculated as follows:
Total annual
Annual holding cost Annual ordering cost
inventory cost
1
= *(Holding cost) (Holding cost)
2
Total Demand
+ (Ordering cost)
*
$416.16 $514.08 $419.63 $1,349.87
(rounded to integer values)
Q ss
Q
= +
+
= + + =
This case can be made more interesting by asking the students to
trace the inventory behavior with the above plan (assuming that
the forecast figures are accurate and ignoring the forecast errors)
and to see the amount of total stockout, if any. The students then
can calculate the lost profit due to stockout and add it to the total
cost.
3. A plot of the nature of the demand clearly shows that it is not
a level demand over the planning horizon. An EOQ for the entire
year, therefore, may not be appropriate. The students should try to
segment the planning horizon in a way so that the demand is more
evenly distributed and come up with an inventory plan for each of
these segments (e.g., quarterly inventory planning). The challenge
is then to manage the transition from one planning period to the
next. Again, a plot of the inventory behavior may be of help to the
students.
STURDIVANT SOUND SYSTEMS
1. Compute the optimal order quantity. First, determine the cost
under the present policy:
Number of orders/year = 52 weeks ÷ 4 weeks = 13 orders
Average order size = 5,000/13 = 384.6 or 385 units
Total cost = order cost + holding cost + purchase cost
Purchase cost = 5000 units × 60/unit = 300,000
Order cost = $20/order × 13 orders = 260
×
= =
384.6 units/order $6/ unit
1154 Carrying cost
2
Total cost = $301,414
Next, develop an Economic Order Quantity, and determine the
total costs:
2 2 5, 000 20
182.5 or 183 units
6
DS
Q
H
× ×
= = =
where: D= annual demand, S = setup or order cost, H= holding cost.
2. Determine the appropriate reorder point (in units).
Reorder point = demand during lead time = 20 × 5 = 100
3. Compute the cost savings that the company will realize if it
implements the optimal inventory procurement decision.
( )
Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost
2
5, 000 20 183 6
5, 000 60
183 2
546.45 549.00 300, 000.00
$301, 095.45
DS QH
PD
Q
= + +
= + +
× ×
= + + ×
= + +
=
Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of
the EOQ to a whole number.
The cost savings under the EOQ ordering policy would then be:
Cost under present policy: $301,414.00
Cost under EOQ policy: 301,095.45
$ 318.55
which is a very small savings.
4. The typical costs associated with procurement of materials
include costs of preparing requisitions, writing purchase orders, re-
ceiving merchandise, inspecting goods, storage, updating inventory
records, and so forth. These costs are usually fixed, regardless of the
size of the order. A large order may require more processing time (in
inspection, for example), but the increase in procurement costs is
typically minimal. As lot size increases, the number of orders de-
creases (assuming a constant requirement level). Consequently, pro-
curement costs typically decrease with an increase in lot size.
VIDEO CASE STUDY
INVENTORY CONTROL AT WHEELED COACH
The 7 minute video, filmed specifically for this text, is available
from Prentice Hall and designed to supplement this case. A
2 minute edited version of the video also appears on the student
CD in the text.
1. Wheeled Coach implements ABC analysis by identifying the
annual use of those high dollar items and classifying them as A.
They represent some 15% of the total inventory items, but
70–80% of the total cost. B items are those items that are of me-
dium value that represent 30% of the items and 15–25% of the
value. The low dollar items are class C items, which represents 5%
of the annual dollar volume, but about 55% of the total items.
2. The inventory control manager at Wheeled Coach would want
to not only have ABC analysis but implement tight physical con-
trol of the stockroom. He would also implement a cycle counting
system, and ensure that issues require engineering change notices
196 CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT
2
1
for those items not initially included on the bill of material. To the
extent feasible, stockrooms would be consolidated.
3. The inventory control manager would implement these changes
through effective leadership, hiring and training of cycle counters,
and effective training and education of all staff, from engineering
through cycle counters, so that each understands the entire system
and the importance of maintaining accurate inventory. We would
also want to be assured that all concerned employees understand the
importance of accurate inventory records, tight inventory control,
and locked stockrooms. Management would have to exhibit the
proper leadership and support of the entire system, including accu-
rate bills of material, rapid issuing of ECN’s, training budgets, etc.
INTERNET CASE STUDIES*
MAYO MEDICAL CENTER
1. The benefits of bar codes in hospitals are much the same as in
any inventory application. These benefits include ease (low cost)
of collecting inventory data and accuracy of inventory records.
Such systems in turn contribute to systems with low inventory
investment, but that have materials when they are needed.
2. A natural extension with the hospital suggests accurate
charges to patient bills, reduced pilferage, and improved care
through reduction of shortages.
3. A natural extension in the supply chain suggests more accu-
rate inventory, which means orders placed at the correct time for
the correct quantity. Accurate inventory records also support
blanket ordering and quantity discounts.
4. EDI and Internet connections reduce costs for both purchaser
and supplier as well as reducing communication delay.
*These case studies appear on our companion web site,
www.prenhall.com/heizer.
SOUTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY: F
Key Points: This case lets the student look at a simple inventory
problem that can be discussed at several levels. By using a stan-
dard EOQ formula, the student gets a fast, easy solution that is
close. However, the case lends itself to further discussion that can
make the limitations of EOQ readily apparent.
1. Because this is a one-year demand, demand violates the EOQ
assumption of constant demand. Therefore, the number of orders
should not be prorated (as does the standard EOQ computation) nor
are all orders at the EOQ optimum of 60,000. The total cost and
total profit will not be accurate if the theoretical solution is used.
Theoretical Solution: Maddux should order 60,000 per or-
der from First Printing. The simple theoretical EOQ solution is
1
3
3 orders of 60,000 each for a setup cost of $1,000, and the total
is $310,600. The instructor can accept this as less than precise, but
adequate. The solution is close because the total EOQ line is so
flat (robust) around the optimum. Alternatively, the instructor can
expand the discussion to the real application.
Excel OM software output (theoretical solution) is shown
below.
Data
Demand rate, D 200,000
Setup cost, S 300
Holding cost %, I 0.5
Range 1 Range 2 Range 3 Range 4
Minimum quantity 10,000 30,000 60,000 250,000
Unit Price, P 1.62 1.53 1.44 1.26
Results
Range 1 Range 2 Range 3 Range 4
Q* (Square root form) 12,171.61 12,524.48 12,909.94 13,801.31
Order quantity 12,171.61 30,000.00 60,000.00 250,000.00
Holding cost $4,929.50 $11,475.00 $21,600.00 $78,750.00
Setup cost $4,929.50 $2,000.00 $1,000.00 $240.00
Unit costs $324,000.00 $306,000.00 $288,000.00 $252,000.00
Total cost $333,859.01 $319,475.00 $310,600.00 $330,990.00
CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT 197
3
Actual Solution. The demand is not constant. Maddux needs
200,000 programs this year. The programs will be different next
year when he will also have a new forecasted demand, depending
on how the team does this year. Maddux’s real solution will be
more like this one: Maddux should order programs from First
Printing. He places 3 orders for 60,000 and 1 for 20,000 at an
actual total cost of $308,800.
Theoretical unit cost ($1.44 u 200,000) $288,000
Actual unit cost ($1.44 u 3 u 60,000) ($1.53
u 20,000) $259,200 $30,600
$289,600
Theoretical ordering cost (
1
3
3 u $300) $1,000
Actual ordering cost but in fact 4 orders must be placed;
3 at 60,000 and 1 at 20,000. Four set-
ups cost $1,200 (4 u $300)
Theoretical holding cost 50% of $1.44 u (60,000/2) $21,600
Actual holding cost last order is for only 20,000 units, so
his average order (and maximum inventory) is only 50,000
(200,000/4 orders or [(3 u 60,000) 20,000]/4 50,000, so a case
can be made that his holding cost is 50% of 1.44 u (50,000/2)
$18,000.
Total program cost (Unit cost) (Ordering cost)
(Holding cost)
$289,600 $1,200 $18,000
$308,800
2. The insert ordering includes another set of issues. Although
some students might use a standard Quantity Discount Model and
suggest that the order quantity should be 60,000 units, purchased
from First Printing, as shown in the Excel OM printout below, the
real problem is somewhat different.
Data
Demand rate, D 200,000
Setup cost, S 300
Holding cost %, I 0.05
Range 1 Range 2 Range 3 Range 4
Minimum quantity 10,000 30,000 60,000 250,000
Unit price, P 0.81 0.765 0.72 0.63
Maddux needs 40,000 inserts for each game and must order them
on a per game basis. Inserts for each game are unique, as statistics
and lineup for each team changes as the season progresses. If
60,000 people are going to attend the game, then 40,000 inserts
are required (2 of 3 people or 2/3 of 60,000). Therefore, the quan-
tity discount issue, although it should be evaluated, takes second
place to the necessity of ordering 40,000 inserts for each game.
Therefore, Maddux should order 40,000 inserts from First
Printing for each game at a cost of $32,430 per game, and 5 u 32,430
(5 games) $162,150 per season.
Unit cost $0.765 u 40,000 $30,600
Ordering cost 5 orders must be placed @ 40,000 inserts;
5 setups cost $1,500 @ $300 each.
Holding cost 5% of $0.765 u (40,000/2) $1,530 (assume
average inventory is 20,000).
Per game insert cost ($0.765 40, 000) ($300)
(5% of $0.765 40, 000 2)
$30,600 $300 $1,530 $32, 430
u
u

Per season insert cost $32,430 u 5 games $162,150
3. Total cost for the season is: Programs $308,800
Inserts $198,750
Total cost for season $507,550
4. Maddux might do several things to improve his supply chain.
„Ask the potential vendors if there is an additional discount
if he buys programs and inserts from the same vendor.
„Ask if he can have the same discount schedule if he places
a blanket order for all 200,000, but ask for releases on a per
game basis.
„He may also be able to save money if he can reduce his
trips to Ft. Worth by combining pickups of programs and
inserts.
„He might also prevail upon the vendors to hold the pro-
grams and inserts at the printing plant until just before the
game, reducing his holding cost.
PROFESSIONAL VIDEO MANAGEMENT
1. To determine the reorder points for the two suppliers, daily
demand for the videotape systems must be determined. Each
video system requires two videotape systems that are connected to
it, thus the demand for the videotape units is equal to two times
the number of complete systems.
The demand for the complete video system appears to be
relatively constant and stable. The monthly demand for the past
few months can be averaged, and this value can be used for the
Results
Range 1 Range 2 Range 3 Range 4
Q* (Square root form) 54,433.1 56,011.2 57,735.0 61,721.3
Order quantity 54,433.1 56,011.2 60,000 250,000
Holding cost $1,102.27 $1,071.21 $1,080.00 $3,937.50
Setup cost $1,102.27 $1,071.21 $1,000.00 $300.00
Unit costs $162,000.00 $153,000.00 $144,000.00 $126,000.00
Total cost $164,204.54 $155,142.43 $146,080.00 $130,237.50
198 CHAPTER 12 I NVENTORY MANAGEMENT
4
5
average monthly demand. The average monthly sales is equal to
(7,970 + 8,070 + 7,950 + 8,010)/4 = 8,000. Therefore, the average
monthly demand of the videotape systems is 16,000 units, because
two tape units are required for every complete system. Annual
demand is 192,000 units (192,000 = 12 × 16,000).
We will assume that there are 20 working days per month
(5 working days per week). Making this assumption, we can de-
termine the average daily sales to be equal to the average monthly
sales divided by 20. In other words, the daily sales are equal to
800 units per day (800 = 16,000/20).
To determine the reorder point for Toshiki, we must know the
lead time. For Toshiki, it takes 3 months between the time an order
is placed and when the order is actually received. In other words,
the lead time is 3 months. Again, assuming 20 working days per
month, the lead time for Toshiki is 60 days (60 = 20 × 3). In order
to determine the reorder point, we multiply the demand, expressed
as units per day, times the lead time in days. For Toshiki, the
reorder point is equal to 48,000 units (48,000 = 800 × 60). The
reorder point will be greater than the EOQ (see question 2 for EOQ
calculations), thus the lead time will likely be more important for
ordering more inventory.
For Kony, the reorder point can be computed in the same
manner. Assuming again that there are 5 working days per week,
we can compute the lead time in days. For Kony, it takes 2 weeks
between the time an order is placed and when it is received. There-
fore, the lead time in days is equal to 10 days (10 = 2 × 5). With
the lead time expressed in days, we can compute the reorder point
for Kony. This is done by multiplying the lead time in days times
the daily demand. Therefore, the reorder point for Kony is 8,000
(8,000 = 800 × 10).
2. To make a decision concerning which supplier to use, total
inventory cost must be considered for both Toshiki and Kony. Both
companies have quantity discounts. Because there are two suppli-
ers, we had to make two separate quantity discount computer runs.
The first run was for Toshiki. The second run was for Kony.
Toshiki had the lowest total cost of $40,950,895. The EOQ for the
minimum cost inventory policy was 20,001. Kony had a cost of
$42,406,569.
3. Each alternative that Steve is considering would have a direct
impact on the quantity discount model and the results. The first
strategy is to sell the components separately. If this is done, the
demand for videotape systems could change drastically. In addi-
tion to selling the videotape units along with the complete system,
additional tape units could be demanded. An increase in demand
could change the outcome of the quantity discount model. The
second strategy would also have an impact on the results of the
analysis. If other videotape systems can be used as well, there will
be fewer videotape systems ordered when obtaining the complete
system. At this time, exactly two videotape systems are sold with
every complete system. Implementing the second strategy would
cause this ratio to drop below two. Again, this will change the
annual demand figures.
WESTERN RANCHMAN OUTFITTERS (WRO)
The EOQ for a yearly demand of 2,000, order cost of $10.00, and
holding cost of 0.12(10.05) = $1.206 is
2(10)(2, 000)
182.12
1.206
EOQ = =
The solution recommends 2,000/182 = 11 orders to be submitted per
year; WRO orders monthly. The EOQ is about 182 pairs, as com-
pared to 167 ordered monthly. The annual cost difference is minimal.
There is one remaining problem that the model doesn’t solve,
but which Mr. Randell has. That is the problem of the unreliability
of the supplier. By ordering one extra time (12 orders per year
instead of 11) and by ordering extra quantities judiciously, Mr.
Randell has managed to keep WRO almost totally supplied with
the requisite number of Levis 501. Further, because the actual
solution is so close to the model solution, and because we have
seen that the EOQ is a robust model, Mr. Veta can feel that he is
keeping his inventory goals close to the minimum while still
meeting his goal of avoiding stockouts.
The conclusion is that the model has been shown to be
practically valid with minor adjustments that compensate for the
unreliability of the manufacturer.
This case differs from most in that the EOQ is just a starting
point for discussion. Students must then develop their own ap-
proach and reasoning for why the current policy is acceptable or
unacceptable.
LAPLACE POWER AND LIGHT CO.
The optimal order quantity is given by:
2(499.5) 50
*
41.4
2DS
Q
H
×
= =
Q* = 34.74 thousand feet
The reorder point is given by:
ROP Daily demand Lead time
499.5
(60)
260
ROP = 115.27 thousand feet
=
=
×
| |
|
\ .
Currently, the company is committed to take 1/12th of its annual
need every month. Therefore, each month the storeroom issues
a purchase requisition for 41,625 feet of cable.
499.5 41.625
Present TC (50) (41.4) (499.5)(414)
41.625 2
= 600 + 861.62 + 206,793
= $208,254.62
499.5 34.74
Optimum TC (50) (41.4) (499.5)(414)
34.74 2
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
= 718.91 + 719.12 + 206,793
= $208,231.03
Savings Present TC Optimum TC $23.59 = ÷ =
Ordering costs are assumed to be a linear function because no
matter how large an order is or how many orders are sent in, the
cost to order any material is $50 per order.
The student should recognize that it is doubtful the firm will or
should alter any current ordering policy for a savings of only $23.

) You therefore rate items F3 and G2 as A items. How does this compare to the corresponding EOQ model? The run size is larger than the corresponding EOQ.92 The item that needs strict control is 33CP so it is an “A” item.50 or 2. The “B” items will be XX1 and B66.56 70% of total cost $70.000 12. The total cost is not very sensitive to mistakes in forecasting demand or placing orders. B66. What happens to the EOQ and total cost when demand is doubled? When carrying cost is doubled? The EOQ rises by 82 units (41%) and the total cost rises by $41 (41%) in EITHER case.000 1. . I5. What is the minimal cost? $70. The EOQ decreases. what can you conclude about the relationship between the lowest total cost and the costs of ordering and carrying inventory? The lowest total cost occurs where the ordering and inventory costs are the same.500 20 10 5 Demand Cost Classification B C B B C A A C C C 150.500 6. 3.000 48.2: Production Order Quantity Model 1. With so few items. Annual Demand 3. Comment on the sensitivity of the EOQ model to errors in demand or cost estimates. Another major disaster means a certain shortage. What is the annual cost of CARRYING inventory at the EOQ and the annual cost of ORDERING inventory at the EOQ of 200 units.000 67. and J8) represent 19% of the value and become C items. Items that should not be strictly controlled are XX1.500 12. but it makes for good discussion. yet any higher level may be hard to cost justify. From the graph. but in larger samples the value would probably approach 70% to 80%. The basic issue is how to put a price tag on lifesaving medicines. (In this example. The next 30% of the items are A2.500 Item A2 B8 C7 D1 E9 F3 G2 H2 I5 J8 Cost ($) 50 12 45 10 20 500 1.994 $ 1. 6. the top 20% constitutes only 58% of the total inventory value. C7.750 2.17% 5. 12. Ordering LESS increases costs by $4.292. they represent 23% of the value and are categorized as B items. How much does the total cost increase if the store manager orders 50 MORE hypodermics than the EOQ? 50 LESS hypodermics? Ordering more increases costs by $2.000 20. What is the optimal production run size for hubcaps? 283 2.003.998.516. 7.2 You decide that the top 20% of the 10 items.000 500 300 600 1.1 Code XX1 B66 3CP0 33CP R2D2 RMS Total Cost Unit Cost Demand $ 7. should be A items. E9. C categories is flexible. and RMS. Total cost $100.52 $ 82.220 $ 1. The remaining 50% of the items (items B8. B. END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS 12. 3CP0.5%.500 60.16 $ 2. What happens to the EOQ? The curves seem to drop and move to the left.000 1. an exact breakdown into the general A. based on a criterion of demand times cost per unit.1: Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model 1. and D1.71 4. R2D2.000 250.000 17. Many hospitals do develop joint or regional groups to share supplies. H2. Scroll through lower setup cost values and describe the changes to the graph. How does this compare to the corresponding EOQ model? The total cost is less than the cost for the equivalent EOQ model.500 ACTIVE MODEL 12. 4. This is not an easy question to answer.347.CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 185 judgment call on the part of the hospital administrator. What is the EOQ and what is the lowest total cost? EOQ 200 units with a cost of $100 2.000 4.88 ACTIVE MODEL EXERCISES ACTIVE MODEL 12.008 $ 5.000 450.17 or 4. $50 for carrying and also $50 for ordering 3.

Class A items only account for 71% of the total.400 19.186 CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 12.000 75 300 units H 25 (b) Annual holding costs (Q/2) H (300/2) 25 $3. 60 . Nonetheless. (d) ROP = d 12.850 700 2450 3850 20 60 120 35 40. particularly close control is needed for items 3. 12.750 (c) Annual ordering costs (D/Q) S (15. or.000)45 2 600 units 74. then the firm’s order policy is ordering too little at a time.50 Annual holding cost 2 . and 15. then the EOQ would be 60.55 700 2.450 3. For example.50 $1. 60 60 2 240 S . so solving for S results in S = $30.000 25 0.10 0. 7. if S were $30.900 44. S holding cost 12. This is 24% of the total.5 (a) EOQ 2(19.64 Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number. 12.” For the items sampled.800 57.000/300](5) Q 2 DS H 2 4.000 33.000 15.500)(25) 493. S (a) EOQ 2 DS 2 15.000.900 1.000 Number of business days 300 Lead time 5 days ROP [Demand/Day](Lead time) 166.13 (a) Q $5 per year): Q where: D cost 2 DS H 2 400 5 40 80 units holding annual demand. 4 120 S . or.71 494 units 4 (b) Annual holdings costs [Q/2]H [494/2](4) $988 (c) Annual ordering costs [D/Q]S [19500/494](25) $987 Q= EOQ 2(8.1 or 149 valves setup or order cost. Then they are partitioned off into classes. 13.10 90 149.83 32 35 A items per day 41 B items per day 32 C items per day 108 items 12.800 4.000 units 300 days $3.000 25 149 0. H $25/unit/year.7 This problem reverses the unknown of a standard EOQ problem.9 D setup or order cost. the important finding is that ABC analysis did find the “significant few.000 7.100.750 8 days 400 units C: These ten items (50% of 20) have a combined dollar usage of $13.200 8.4 10 480 S .50 250 brackets per order Q 250 (b) Average inventory 125 units 2 2 Q H 125(1.12 (a) Economic Order Quantity: [10.500 10.000.10 Reorder point L demand during lead time 100 units/day 21 days 2.100 6.341.67 167 units. DS QH 4.8 (a) Economic Order Quantity (Holding cost demand during lead time 16 units/day 5 days 80 valves 12.000/300) 75 15. rather than 80%.75 H 1. This is 5% of the total.6 (e) Total annual inventory cost Order cost holding cost 12. If the true ordering cost turns out to be much greater than $30.000 7. the optimal number of business days between orders is given by: Optimal number of days 250 27 9 1 days 4 12. (f) Reorder point That is. S H holding cost (b) Average inventory 12.8 or 27 orders (d) Assuming 250 business days per year. 12. (b) Economic Order Quantity (Holding cost $6 per year): Q 2 DS H 2 400 6 40 73 units where: D annual demand.1 90 Q 2 149 2 671.11 D 10.35 0.500. This is 71% of the total.100 900 700 700 600 400 300 100 Class A: These four items (20% of 20) have a combined dollar usage of $206. H 2 DS 2(2500)18.3 First we rank the items from top to bottom on the basis of their dollar usage.4 7.50) $187. H $75 15. S setup or order cost. where: D annual demand.000 0.800 3.400 9.5 valves Demand 4. B: These six items (30% of 20) have a combined dollar usage of $69. Item 13 15 7 3 19 20 12 1 4 14 18 16 5 8 17 10 6 2 11 9 Usage ($) 70.14 670.000 (c) Number of orders per year EOQ 149 26.100 units The dollar usage percentages do not exactly match the predictions of ABC analysis.

000) $134. S setup or order cost.217 units where: D annual demand.16 12.200 24 25 H S P p d Q 40 / day 2(12. so the optimal order quantity is (c) Average setup cost / year D S Q $134.50 187.5 orders per year.000 50 4.000 40 50 0.095 .220 60 2 1.000/yr. 1217. It averages 2.000)50 . (b) Economic Order Quantity: 2 DS H 2 1. (b) Average holding cost /year 4. noninstantaneous delivery: Q 2 DS H 1 d p 2 10.200 25 60 24 For Q 60: $1.472 1 2 40 100 (.75) $187.10/light-yr.200 25 25 24 For Q 25: $1.CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 187 (c) Number of orders Annual order cost D 2500 10 orders /year Q 250 D S 10(18.16 $12.17 Production order quantity. H cost. noninstantaneous delivery.500 100 2 As expected. (c) Average inventory Q/2 100/2 50 units (d) Given an annual demand of 250. d daily demand rate.230 40 2 1.50 $375/ year Q S = 2 DS H 2 H Q 2D (d) TC Q H 2 D S Q (e) Time between orders working days (D/Q) 250 25 days 10 (150)2 (1) 2(250) 22. 300 days/yr.000 1.5 orders per year. Patterson Electronics must determine what the ordering cost would have to be for the order policy of 150 units to be optimal.15 (a) The EOQ assumptions are met.4 or 2.500 = $45 500 12. d daily demand rate.200 25 40 24 For Q 40: $1. $. $50/setup $1. and an order quantity of 150.200 50 2 1. we must solve the traditional economic order quantity equation for the ordering cost.309 units (f) ROP dL 10(2) 20 units (where 10 daily demand) 2500 d 10 250 12.472 EOQ 2 DS H 2(250)20 1 100 units (d) Total cost (including cost of goods) PD $134.00/light 100/day 12.16 $134.2 or 1.200 25 50 24 For Q 50: $1. 1. a carrying cost of $1.14 (a) Total cost order cost + holding cost DS Q QH 2 where: D annual demand.16 Production Order Quantity.60 1 500 (b) Number of orders per year D/Q 250/100 2. To find the answer to this problem.18 (a) Production Order Quantity. small variations in order quantity will not have a significant effect on total costs.268.00 1 200 50 200 2309. an ordering cost of $45 is needed for the order quantity of 150 units to be optimal. H holding cost.500 25 2 1. As you can see in the calculations that follow.16 ($1 12. 2 DS H 1 d p holding 12.832 200 d p H $134.10 1 40 100 4.50 Q 187.472 lights per run 50 units setup or order cost. S setup or order cost.16 $134. noninstantaneous delivery: Q 2 DS H 1 d p 2 10.200 25 100 24 For Q 100: $1. Note that this would mean in one year the company places 3 orders and in the next it would only need 2 orders since some inventory would be carried over from the previous year.16 Q where: D annual demand.000/yr.10) Q 1 2 $26. p daily production rate (a) D 12. p daily production rate (b) I max Q 1 d p 1.32/year 12. S H holding cost 12.

05 18.6 units 12.400) + 300 300($380)(0. Total cost (with discount) = material cost + ordering cost + carrying cost 1.517 The optimal strategy is to order 300 units at a total cost of $543.350 Ordering cost D/Q S 36.19 or 31 units .22 D S Q 328.000 40 0.400 $543.000/2. S cost. S cost. price/unit 2 45 10 0.00 1212.6($400)(0.500 $29.50 Economic Order Quantity.000 0. 75 units or more.00 500.50 328.2) 2 $560.6 29.520 Total cost $1.80 $657.000 50 0.183 $562.19 At the Economic Order Quantity. DS QH PD 2 Q 45 10 30 0. standard price: Q 30 units holding cost purchase cost Total cost order cost Therefore.520 $31.366 The next step is to compute the total cost for the discount: EOQ (with discount) = 2(1.000 25 $150 Purchase cost D P 36. H holding where: D annual demand.400)(25) 0.000 units.500 $49.05 20 30 2 15 15 900 $930 (45 20) Quantity Discount. discount over 75 units: Q 2 45 10 0.000 $117 $11. The next step is to compute total cost.50 31.000/6.000 $51.000 25 $450 Purchase cost D P 36.000 . The total costs at this quantity are: Holding cost Q/2 H 1.400(25) = $380(1. such as available space.00 50.45 $450 Ordering cost D/Q S 36.97 200.000 40 200 0.188 CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT (c) D Q 10. P price/unit Total cost order cost setup or order cost.2($380) = 30.45 $1. 12.400)(25) 0.00 per unit.020 The quantity discount will save $480 on this item.21 The solution to any quantity discount model involves determining the total cost of each alternative after quantities have been computed and adjusted for the original problem and every discount.50 48. 12. H purchase cost holding cost DS QH PD 2 Q 1.05 20 Under the quantity discount price reduction of 3%: Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 1.000 0.82 $29. Economic Order Quantity: Total cost (no discount) = material cost + ordering cost + carrying cost 1.517.400) 29.183 $1.85 $30.45 2.000 Q 50) 2 DS H setup or order cost.000 1.25 50 0.000 represents one sixth of the year’s needs.000 25) / 0.2) 2 $532.20 Under present price of $50.912.000 40 80 0.2(400) (d) TC = 29.3 units EOQ (adjusted) = 300 units Because this last economic order quantity is below the discounted price. as 6. and the risk of deterioration of the storage medium over time.600 Total cost $900 $30.500 At the quantity discount.600 $31. 12. The company should also consider some qualitative aspects of the decision.000 80 2 500.25 50 (1.22 Economic Order Quantity: Q Q 2 DS H 2 1. we have: Holding cost Q/2 H 3.25 50 80 units holding where: D annual demand.000 $1. the pumps should be ordered in batches of 200 units and the quantity discount taken.217 I max H 2 8. we must adjust the order quantity to 300 units.400(25) $400(1. we have: EOQ (2 36.97 200 2 1. the risk of obsolescence of disks.000 .30 We start the analysis with no discount: EOQ (no discount) = 2(1. Economic Order Quantity.

It should be noted. S 50 Q 2 45 10 0.5 39.10) $133.63.10 $15.60 $15.200 + $1. TC 410 (5) 2 800 (5) 2 8.000 PD HQ/2 SD/Q = $17 20.400 per year .05 15.00 $15. Economic Order Quantity. for a total cost of $752. we must calculate the total cost using a 75unit order quantity: Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 45 10 75 0.75) 100 2 4.000 + $1.c) Vendor: Allen at 410. Calculate total cost using 100 as order quantity: Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 45 10 100 0.2 $18 667)/2 ($40 20.00 EOQ 34 and a discount is given only on orders of 100 or more.400 (50) 800 8.920 BEST Vendor: Baker at 410.000)/667 = $360. $18/tire if between 500 and 999 are ordered.75 33.38 708. obsolescence may become a problem.290 12.000.400 (50) 410 8.CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 189 Because EOQ 31 and a discount is given only on orders of 75 or more. however.000 (.10 (a) Q 2 DS H 2(8.50) 75 2 6 34.69 832. discount over 100 units: TC1.400 (50) 500 8.05 15.000 = 686 (not valid) 40) /(.449.000/yr. H Allen 5.000 + $1.400)50 5 409. TC at 800.000 (. that an order quantity of 100 implies that an order will be placed roughly every two years.2 17) We compare the cost of ordering 667 with the cost of ordering 1.400 (5) (50) 2 1.5 (not valid) Q18 2 DS/H = (2 20.60) 8.000.400(15.000 $128. $16.000 tires each time.400(15. 12.24 D 700 12. TC 410 (5) 2 500 (5) 2 8. I 20 percent of purchase price per year in holding costs.88 410 (b. TC667 PD HQ/2 SD/Q = $18 20.39 $129.700 + $800 = $342.2 20) = 632. thus we must calculate the total cost using a 100unit order quantity.2 18) Q17 2 DS/H = (2 20.2 $17 1.000 or more are ordered 1.000 = 666.7 (valid) 40) /(.23 D 20.365 Q20 2 DS/H = (2 20.50 (45 18.089.19 Quantity Discount.400(15) $136. 100 units or more. When orders are placed that infrequently.400 (50) 410 8.75 $752.000)/2 ($40 20.05 18. and $17/tire if 1.50 $873.000) /1.200 = $362.000 = $340. TC at 1.50 $15.75 (45 15.81 or 34 units 1–499 500–999 1000 Baker 1–399 400–799 800 $16.400(15.500 per year Rocky Mountain should order 1.63 Based purely upon cost.000 40) /(.36 $132. where H IP S $40/order P $20/tire if fewer than 500 are ordered.400(16) 8.000 8.5) 8. TC at 500. the decision should be made to order in quantities of 100.

00 $120.50 $199.00 $163.093.640.10 $34.88 (b) Safety stock (c) ROP 50 Z 9.4 1.190 CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 12.00 $16.005.00 $73.00 $666.50 $33.000.88(5) 59.4 drives 9.160.00 $31.840.400.00 $81.10 $16.60 $30.428.00 $200.50 $17.50 $832.85 $16.000. H 3.00 $75.00 Purchase $163.0921 feasible not feasible not feasible feasible not feasible not feasible Costs Qty 336 500 1000 335 400 800 1200 Price $17. D 2.00 $120.0831 337.85 $16.432.056.15 $30.366.00 $48. H EOQ 336.129.25 Holding $1.00 Total $166.999.760.28 8.00 $82.00 $75.00 $32. 12.875.5659 341.00 $158.200.00 $60.275.60 $16. 1.00 $1.33. 7 Z(at 0.13 $1.280.00 $80.00 $60.50 $832.339.00 $74.80 $31.90) Safety stock for 90% service level 7 1.00 $480.50 $31.653.800.10 $16. D 9.200.50 $81.00 Ordering $1.200.645.640.600 Vendor A (a) Price $17.25 S 10.96 9 (b) ROP 12.50 $199.55 $32.00 $81.419.0672 338.00 $159.57 $163.080.00 $80.00 $74.00 $161.80 $78.75 $75.520.00 $199.00 $400.00 Vendor A 12.00 $2.75 $76.00 $200.00 $161.75 $34.200.00 Ordering $200.75 $4.125.00 $3.75 $16.00 $156.35 $31.024.50 $74.84 $1.50 $17.00 $16.200.80 $249.00 $160.00 $77.80 $78.75 $499.1211 335.800.75 $16.680.25 $33.399.80 $249.919.00 $74.00 $4.50 $81.00 $600.80 $79.00 $164.80 $333.75 $32.4 drives .000.57 $960.126.00 $75.00 $78. (c) Vendor B BEST (d) Other considerations include the perishability of the chemical and whether or not there is adequate space in the controlled environment to handle 1.00 $79.00 $1.00 $167.760.428.453.00 Vendor A Vendor B BEST Vendor C Vendor D EOQ 120 with slight rounding $50.320.400 Costs Qty 120 150 300 500 120 150 300 500 120 200 400 120 200 400 Price $33.75 $163.26 Calculation for EOQ: S 50%.599.400.00 Purchase $80.00 Holding $199.600.00 $48.00 $73.00 $160.685.00 $82.00 $160.720.853.80 $79.75 $499.27 (a) 60.360.00 $78.80 $333.200 pounds of the chemical at one time.00 $200.28 (a) Z 60 9 69 BX-5 bandages.50 $74.00 Total $80.049.5598 340.432.60 B (b).00 $666.97 $164.

500 73.000 (b) Safety stock 2.150 50 7(10 0. 12.0 Incremental Costs Safety Stock 0 50 100 Carrying Cost 0 50 10 500 100 10 1.05)( d) 90 units.05(100) 2 290 2.2 20 0.718 cigars lead time 12.300 (6 252 ) (2002 22 ) Note: Items of New Product Development.35 Fixed-period model.1 1. 300 units.500 500 800 30.28 dLT where dLT Holding Cost $2. (6 625) 163.500 pages 12. The reorder point then becomes 100 sets 50 sets or. 12.34 Both lead time and demand are variables. advertising. 150 sets.30 Demand during Reorder Period 0 50 100 150 200 Probability 0.200 2.400 0 Total Cost 4.1 50 7 350 0 Total Cost 3. 2.1 50) 250 0 Total Cost 1000 750 1000 The safety stock that minimizes total incremental cost is 50 sets.000 70 Stockout Cost (100 0.500 4) (1.750 160.530 Ordering Cost 1.500 3.200 (1. ROP (200 6) 1.450 450 150 The BB-1 set should therefore have a safety stock of 30 units.2 50 7 30 0.400 10 0.1 50 7 3.28)(405) 1.000 600 750 280 12.500)(1) 50.2) 70 4.900 3.32 Only demand is variable in this problem so Equation (12-15) applies (a) ROP (average daily demand lead time in days) Z dLT (1. 12. ROP 12.150 1.200 1.1) 1.000 500 1.2 0.36 290 towels Target – onhand – orders not received 40 – 5 – 18 17 poles.000 23. The reorder point then becomes 200 units 100 units or.88 for 97% service level ROP (daily demand average lead time in days) daily demand LT ROP (12.31 Safety Stock 0 10 20 30 Additional Carrying Cost 0 10 5 50 20 5 100 30 5 150 10 0.750 So ROP Q (40.000 2. so Equation (12-17) applies.000 $34. 1.4 0.000 50 (0.000 1.800 800 300 $17.33 Only lead time is variable in this problem.2 50 7 20 Stockout Cost 0.2 200 0.2 100 0. so Equation (12-16) is used. 1. in weeks.000 50 (50 Stockout Cost 0.88)(12.28 for 90% service.000 405 4) 3.1) 1.2) (100 0. .200 518 1.290 towels 12.1 0.2 0.CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 191 12.000 2) (2. and research are not part of holding or ordering cost.29 Incremental Costs Safety Stock 0 100 200 Carrying Cost 100 200 15 15 0 1.000 The safety stock that minimizes total incremental cost is 100 units.

000 Daily production rate.99 where ROP (d)(LT) SS 69. EOQ $34.000 $171.00 8. we need. Q 400 30. d D/250 8.250.500 20.400 $10.000/400 (b) number of days in production run Obviously.37 Annual demand.600 3.250 (a) daily demand.000 1.192 CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Cost per order Holding cost per unit Therefore.500 units /day 6 days 300 30 units 12.000 720. D 8.530 10.50 2(8.000/250 Q/p 32 400/200 2 20 8.5)(16) = $600 Q 12.43 (a) Economic Order Quantity: Q 2 DS H 2 1.00 7.50 0. with so few items.000 Classification C A C C C C C B C B 27% (c) number of production runs per year D/Q annual set-up cost 20($120) $2.00 2.37 (f) Annual holding cost (g) 2% stock out level Z = 2. H 50 Production quantity.800 213.40 Item Annual Demand Demand Cost ($) Cost 800 1.500 6.000 units . (d) Reorder point: Reorder point = demand during lead time 1.600 1. B.200 9.99 from part (d) $209.S. S H holding cost QH 100 45 (b) Holding cost 2 2 DS 1500 150 (c) Order cost Q 100 ROP (e) SS 369.34 units. 12.42 EOQ 300 H $10.300 200 $17. 12.39 SKU A B C D E Annual Demand 100 75 50 200 150 Cost ($) 300 100 50 100 75 Demand Cost Classification A B C A B (2)(1000)(171.5) 1.000 1.000 500 units 90. $2.44 Reorder point demand during lead time 500 units/day 14 days 7.00 8.490 4.500 150 45 100 units setup or order cost.00 3.820 4.200 700 1.600 2.490 $8. INTERNET HOMEWORK PROBLEMS Problems 12.500 2. the breakdowns into A.000)45 H 720.400 (d) maximum inventory level average inventory (e) total holding cost Q(1 – d/p) 400(1 – 32/200) maximum/2 336/2 total set-up cost 336 168 (168)50 20(120) $8.200 800 1.33 ROP Lead time demand where SS dLT ( )( dLT) and lead time demand (d)(LT) LT (15) 4 (15) 30 where: D annual demand.50 $1.00 1.000 $8 90./year S $16/order Q 15.41 12.00 3. the less S.753 12.51 are found on our companion web site at www.prenhall.500 4.81 (f) Q 2 DS H 1 d p 2(8000)120 50 1 32 200 E102 D23 D27 R02 R19 S107 S123 U11 U23 V75 16% 33% 17% total holding cost Savings total set-up cost $1.000 200 500 1.400 $2.800 – $8.39–12.61 The lower we make our target service level.054 SS (Z)( dLT) 61.38 (a) d 75 lbs/day 200 days per year D H $3/lb.000 7.000 11.00 (d) LT 4 days with 15 Stockout risk SS 1% 2.00 $2.00 4.200 5.com/heizer.000 H 12.753 442.980 2(1000)62.00 6.500 1. and C cannot follow the guidelines exactly.000 lbs/year 400 lbs of beans Q (b) Total annual holding cost = H = (200)($3) = $600 2 D (c) Total annual order cost = S = (37.250.100 2. p 200 Set-up cost.980 12.00 1. S 120 Holding cost.

where: D annual demand.651.000 $42.4 or 1.46 or 78 units Q 2 DS H 1 d p 2 8.000 1 2. 12.000 units 10 days 200 units 250 days This is not to say that we reorder when there are 200 units on hand (as there never are).950 $3.05 250.923.000 20 478 0. H holding cost 78 (b) Average inventory 39 units 2 Demand 5. the optimal number of business days between orders is given by: 250 Optimal number of days 3.46 (a) Total cost Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 2. H holding where: D annual demand.000 10 200 1 (2. If an EOQ of 77.872. D cost.48 Economic Order Quantity: Q holding 2 DS H setup or order cost. p price/unit Total cost $1. H cost. H holding 2 DS H 2 600 60 20 60 units setup or order cost.651 units where: D annual demand.47 Economic Order Quantity.00 . d daily demand rate. p daily production rate 12.15 7 478.502.75) 10 1.80 1 40 150 1.873.91 days 64 (e) Total cost order cost holding cost DS QH 5. (f) Reorder point: Reorder point = demand during lead time 5.220 Q Q (b) Economic Order Quantity: Q 2 DS H 2 6.15 7 (7 6.500 $2.510 order cost holding cost DS Q QH 2 Note: No. S cost. noninstantaneous delivery: 2 DS H 2 5.49 Under present price of $7. S setup or order cost.200 is better. Economic Order Quantity: For Q 50: 600 60 50 20 50 2 720 500 $1.00 per unit.45 (a) Economic Order Quantity: Q 12.000 10 2.08 where: D annual demand. p price/unit 2 2. S H holding cost For Q 60: 60 2 20 600 600 600 60 60 where: D annual demand.000 30 78 50 Q 2 78 2 1.02 1.000 1) 200 2 100 100 2.000 (c) Number of orders per year EOQ 78 64.936.200 (c) Reorder point: Reorder point demand during lead time 600 units 10 days 24 units 250 days order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 6.000) 478 2 251.CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 193 12.1 or 64 orders (d) Assuming 250 business days per year.98.95 42.200 order cost holding cost purchase cost (b) Quantity Discount: DS QH PD Q 2 2. the order and carrying costs calculate to $1. The ROP indicates that orders are placed several cycles prior to their actual demand.000 0.000 100 0.000 $2.000 10 1 (a) Economic Order Quantity. S setup or order cost.000 2 (2. 12. standard price: Q 200 units Total cost Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number.000 20 0.49 for a total cost of $3.000 1. EOQ with 200 units and a total cost of $2.1 or 478 units setup or order cost.000 50 30 77.46 is used.

900 $41. including the calculations of total costs.50 Economic Order Quantity: Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 100 45 51 0. the new policy. The fluctuation in demand is dealt with by the safety stock based on the variation of demand over the planning horizon. Jan Feb Mar April May June 8 15 31 59 97 60 July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total 39 24 16 15 28 47 439 (b) Order quantity 10 to 50 sheets: unit price Q 2 100 45 0.25 39. The forecasted demand is summarized in the following table.20 17.000 0. H holding $18. It ignores the seasonal nature of the demand.496.25.25 51. Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number.00 1. See note at end of problem regarding price.65) 3.436. etc. 12.15 6. S cost. Thus. The standard deviation of the monthly demand 25. is preferable.50 51 2 (17.25 51 2 (17.000 20 3.67 bicycles.750. Important Note: Students will likely complete all three sets of calculations.000 6.20 17.901.725.50 50.20 17.24 87. The inventory plan is based on the following costs and values.22 Q where: D annual demand. Q 2 439 65 12.98 1.980 (see note at end of problem regarding actual price) 1 ZHOU BICYCLE COMPANY 1.20 17. Inventory plan for Zhou Bicycle Company.00 Therefore.25 100) 88.24 per year per bicycle 95%.20 18 (18 100) 50 2 90 90 1. yearly.927.). 12.25 Therefore.65 (6. order 51 units. Order cost Cost per bicycle Holding cost Service level Lead time Total demand/year $65/order $102. (c) Order quantity more than 50 sheets: unit price $17.645 1 month (4 weeks) 439 units of bicycles Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 100 45 51 0.25 1.00 ($102.65 per unit: Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD Q 2 6.00) (1%) 12 per year per bicycle $12.51 Z 1.000 2 40. They should be prompted to realize that calculations of total cost under (a) and (b) are actually inappropriate because the original assumptions as to lot size would not be satisfied by the calculated EOQs.28)(15) 19.23 89.25 Q 2 100 45 0.00 1.50 Average demand per month 439/12 36. Economic order quantity (Q*) is given by: Q 2 (Total demand) (Ordering cost) Holding cost where the total demand and the holding cost are calculated on the same time unit (monthly.1 units or 51 units The solution below uses the simple EOQ model with reorder point and safety stock.2 or 19 Reorder point 36 19 55 TVs (a) Order quantity 9 sheets or less.50 100) 88. P price/unit 2 100 45 0. with corresponding Z value of 1.58 bicycles.00 $1.24 68 units of bicycles .436.48 Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding the EOQ to a whole number.7 units or 51 units $17. Under the quantity discount price of $6. with a total cost of $41.20 18 2DS H setup or order cost.800 $1. unit price Q 50 units CASE STUDIES holding cost purchase cost Total cost order cost DS QH PD Q 2 100 45 50 0.28 for 90% service level Safety stock (1.194 CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number.

645(25. therefore.000. First. storage. the number of orders decreases (assuming a constant requirement level). but 70–80% of the total cost.000 Order cost $20/order 13 orders 260 . filmed specifically for this text. 2.00 Cost under EOQ policy: 301. A plot of the nature of the demand clearly shows that it is not a level demand over the planning horizon. A large order may require more processing time (in inspection. updating inventory records.000/13 384. They represent some 15% of the total inventory items. regardless of the size of the order. procurement costs typically decrease with an increase in lot size.CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 195 2.000 20 183 6 5. and ensure that issues require engineering change notices 2 STURDIVANT SOUND SYSTEMS 1. Wheeled Coach implements ABC analysis by identifying the annual use of those high dollar items and classifying them as A. Compute the cost savings that the company will realize if it implements the optimal inventory procurement decision.645 (25. Inventory cost is calculated as follows: Total annual inventory cost Annual holding cost Annual ordering cost where: D annual demand. (ROP) Carrying cost 384. 100 3.6 units/order $6 / unit 1154 2 Total cost = $301. An EOQ for the entire year.58 1. if any.45 Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number. These costs are usually fixed. writing purchase orders.16 $514. Consequently. 2. S setup or order cost.63 $1. quarterly inventory planning). but about 55% of the total items.g. Next. Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 5.00 300. which represents 5% of the annual dollar volume. A 2 minute edited version of the video also appears on the student CD in the text. inspecting goods. receiving merchandise. The cost savings under the EOQ ordering policy would then be: Cost under present policy: $301.095.87 (rounded to integer values) This case can be made more interesting by asking the students to trace the inventory behavior with the above plan (assuming that the forecast figures are accurate and ignoring the forecast errors) and to see the amount of total stockout.095. Determine the appropriate reorder point (in units).000 60 183 2 546. The students then can calculate the lost profit due to stockout and add it to the total cost. VIDEO CASE STUDY INVENTORY CONTROL AT WHEELED COACH The 7 minute video. He would also implement a cycle counting system. is available from Prentice Hall and designed to supplement this case. Again. The inventory control manager at Wheeled Coach would want to not only have ABC analysis but implement tight physical control of the stockroom. The low dollar items are class C items. As lot size increases.67) 42 Safety stock (ss) is given by ss z bicycles.08 $419.349.67) 79 bicycles. The typical costs associated with procurement of materials include costs of preparing requisitions. The reorder point is calculated by the following relation: Reorder point (ROP) average demand during the lead time ( ) z (standard deviation of the demand during the lead time ( )) Therefore. develop an Economic Order Quantity.5 or 183 units 1. a plot of the inventory behavior may be of help to the students.414. may not be appropriate. 1. B items are those items that are of medium value that represent 30% of the items and 15–25% of the value. and so forth.55 which is a very small savings. but the increase in procurement costs is typically minimal.6 or 385 units Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost Purchase cost 5000 units 60/unit 300.000 6 20 182. for example). Reorder point demand during lead time 20 5 1 = Q * (Holding cost) ss(Holding cost) 2 Total Demand + (Ordering cost) Q* $416. The challenge is then to manage the transition from one planning period to the next. 4. 3.45 549.45 $ 318. The students should try to segment the planning horizon in a way so that the demand is more evenly distributed and come up with an inventory plan for each of these segments (e. H holding cost.00 $301. and determine the total costs: Q 2 DS H 2 5. determine the cost under the present policy: Number of orders/year 52 weeks 4 weeks 13 orders Average order size 5..414 36. Compute the optimal order quantity.

demand violates the EOQ assumption of constant demand.31 250.00 $78. on our companion web site. S Holding cost %.00 $2.00 $319.600.000. 3. The instructor can accept this as less than precise. 2 SOUTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY: F INTERNET CASE STUDIES* 1 MAYO MEDICAL CENTER 1. These benefits include ease (low cost) of collecting inventory data and accuracy of inventory records.000 1.000 1.61 $4. the student gets a fast.475.000 1.01 Results Range 2 12.26 Range 1 Q* (Square root form) Order quantity Holding cost Setup cost Unit costs Total cost 12.000 per order from First Printing.53 Range 3 60.600. D Setup cost. 3. 4. reduced pilferage. and locked stockrooms. but adequate.00 $1. easy solution that is close.000.909.00 $21.475. the number of orders should not be prorated (as does the standard EOQ computation) nor are all orders at the EOQ optimum of 60. 1.000 1. Theoretical Solution: Maddux should order 60.50 $4. Alternatively.000. Therefore.524.990. Management would have to exhibit the proper leadership and support of the entire system.000.44 Range 4 250.00 $240.00 $252.600. Excel OM software output (theoretical solution) is shown below. I Minimum quantity Unit Price.5 Range 1 10. 2.000 each for a setup cost of $1.000.00 $306.50 $324.00 $11.000.00 *These case studies appear www.48 30. tight inventory control. and improved care through reduction of shortages.000.171.com/heizer. The inventory control manager would implement these changes through effective leadership.750.00 $333. stockrooms would be consolidated. and effective training and education of all staff. The simple theoretical EOQ solution is 3 1 orders of 60. We would also want to be assured that all concerned employees understand the importance of accurate inventory records.00 $288.000. . The solution is close because the total EOQ line is so flat (robust) around the optimum. the case lends itself to further discussion that can make the limitations of EOQ readily apparent. the instructor can expand the discussion to the real application.00 Range 3 12. rapid issuing of ECN’s.94 60. The benefits of bar codes in hospitals are much the same as in any inventory application. etc.929. To the extent feasible.000. P 200. However. EDI and Internet connections reduce costs for both purchaser and supplier as well as reducing communication delay.801.000. By using a standard EOQ formula.prenhall. hiring and training of cycle counters. Such systems in turn contribute to systems with low inventory investment.61 12. training budgets. Key Points: This case lets the student look at a simple inventory problem that can be discussed at several levels.171. so that each understands the entire system and the importance of maintaining accurate inventory.00 Range 4 13. from engineering through cycle counters. including accurate bills of material. and the total 3 is $310.00 $330. Data Demand rate. A natural extension in the supply chain suggests more accurate inventory.000. but that have materials when they are needed.859.000 300 0.00 $310. Accurate inventory records also support blanket ordering and quantity discounts.196 CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT for those items not initially included on the bill of material. A natural extension with the hospital suggests accurate charges to patient bills.62 Range 2 30.929. Because this is a one-year demand. which means orders placed at the correct time for the correct quantity. The total cost and total profit will not be accurate if the theoretical solution is used.

000 300 0. He places 3 orders for 60.000.000 $3.204.000.000 3 but in fact 4 orders must be placed. . the quantity discount issue.735.433.430 5 games $162. Inserts for each game are unique.237.000]/4 50. so his average order (and maximum inventory) is only 50.800 Inserts $198.102.765 Range 3 60.800.000 inserts from First Printing for each game at a cost of $32. To determine the reorder points for the two suppliers. depending on how the team does this year.430 per game.550 4.600 $289.765 40. Maddux might do several things to improve his supply chain.530 $32.000 and 1 at 20.200 (4 $300) Therefore.000 $30. although it should be evaluated.27 $162.00 Range 4 61.000/2) $21.44 (60.000 0.000) $259. He may also be able to save money if he can reduce his trips to Ft.000 at an actual total cost of $308. as shown in the Excel OM printout below.080.000.00 $130.21 $153.000.000 people are going to attend the game. Although some students might use a standard Quantity Discount Model and suggest that the order quantity should be 60.430 Per season insert cost $32. The demand is not constant.000. Data Demand rate. The monthly demand for the past few months can be averaged.000/2) $18. Total cost for the season is: Programs $308. Therefore.0 60.750 Total cost for season $507. Maddux needs 200.000 programs this year.000) $288. reducing his holding cost.000 $1. The insert ordering includes another set of issues.27 $1.721.150 per season.765 (40.000/4 orders or [(3 60. so a case can be made that his holding cost is 50% of 1.50 $300.00 $144.63 Results 1. Unit cost Ordering cost $0. He might also prevail upon the vendors to hold the programs and inserts at the printing plant until just before the game. Theoretical holding cost 50% of $1.00 $155.2 $1.72 Range 4 250. D Setup cost.44 3 60. The demand for the complete video system appears to be relatively constant and stable. If 60. and 5 32.000 inserts for each game.430 (5 games) $162. Maddux’s real solution will be more like this one: Maddux should order programs from First Printing.000 inserts are required (2 of 3 people or 2/3 of 60.000.433.21 $1.00 $126.000).200 $30.43 Range 3 57.600 $300 $1.000.00 $164.000 $308.000 0.000) 20.071. but ask for releases on a per game basis.000 0.3 250. Four setups cost $1.000 ($1. Maddux should order 40.1 $1.CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 197 Actual Solution.000).600 5 orders must be placed @ 40.011.000 inserts. daily demand for the videotape systems must be determined.2 56. Total program cost (Unit cost) (Ordering cost) (Holding cost) $289.765 40. Ask if he can have the same discount schedule if he places a blanket order for all 200. S Holding cost %. takes second place to the necessity of ordering 40.54 Range 2 56. and this value can be used for the Range 1 Q* (Square root form) Order quantity Holding cost Setup cost Unit costs Total cost 54.765 40.142. Each video system requires two videotape systems that are connected to it.53 20.800 2.50 Maddux needs 40.000. the real problem is somewhat different.000 inserts for each game and must order them on a per game basis. 5 setups cost $1.000) ($1. The programs will be different next year when he will also have a new forecasted demand.000.600 ( 3 1 $300) $1.81 Ask the potential vendors if there is an additional discount if he buys programs and inserts from the same vendor.000 0.000 units.00 $1.150 3.000) ($300) (5% of $0.530 (assume average inventory is 20. Theoretical ordering cost Actual ordering cost Per game insert cost ($0. as statistics and lineup for each team changes as the season progresses.1 54.44 200. thus the demand for the videotape units is equal to two times the number of complete systems. Holding cost 5% of $0.000 units. 3 PROFESSIONAL VIDEO MANAGEMENT Range 2 30.600 $1.500 @ $300 each.200 $18. P 200. then 40.600 Actual holding cost last order is for only 20.102. 3 at 60.080. purchased from First Printing.44 (50. Theoretical unit cost Actual unit cost ($1. Worth by combining pickups of programs and inserts.937.00 $146.000/2) $1.000 2) $30.05 Range 1 10.000 and 1 for 20. I Minimum quantity Unit price.000 (200.011.071.

000/20). Therefore.001. the cost to order any material is $50 per order.625 feet of cable. we can compute the lead time in days.000. we must know the lead time. The student should recognize that it is doubtful the firm will or should alter any current ordering policy for a savings of only $23.198 CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT average monthly demand.406.5) 50 41. For Kony. because the actual solution is so close to the model solution.254. we had to make two separate quantity discount computer runs.03 Savings Present TC Optimum TC $23.000 units (192. To determine the reorder point for Toshiki. In other words. The second strategy would also have an impact on the results of the analysis. An increase in demand could change the outcome of the quantity discount model.91 + 719.000 units (48.000 12 16. the reorder point can be computed in the same manner. At this time.206 is EOQ 2(10)(2.000 800 10). That is the problem of the unreliability of the supplier. The reorder point will be greater than the EOQ (see question 2 for EOQ calculations).625 41. Further. and holding cost of 0.793 = $208. For Kony.5 (50) 41. The EOQ for the minimum cost inventory policy was 20.000 (8.4 34. 5 LAPLACE POWER AND LIGHT CO. If other videotape systems can be used as well. order cost of $10. The optimal order quantity is given by: Q* Q* 2DS H 2(499.4) 2 (499. If this is done. Each alternative that Steve is considering would have a direct impact on the quantity discount model and the results. By ordering one extra time (12 orders per year instead of 11) and by ordering extra quantities judiciously. we can determine the average daily sales to be equal to the average monthly sales divided by 20. In addition to selling the videotape units along with the complete system. additional tape units could be demanded. To make a decision concerning which supplier to use.12 . Assuming again that there are 5 working days per week. this will change the annual demand figures. 4 The solution recommends 2.793 = $208. it takes 2 weeks between the time an order is placed and when it is received. The annual cost difference is minimal. We will assume that there are 20 working days per month (5 working days per week). times the lead time in days. Students must then develop their own approach and reasoning for why the current policy is acceptable or unacceptable.625 (41.970 8. The first strategy is to sell the components separately. The average monthly sales is equal to (7. For Toshiki. the reorder point is equal to 48. Again.950 8. The first run was for Toshiki. Both companies have quantity discounts.74 34. This case differs from most in that the EOQ is just a starting point for discussion.000 units. Therefore. WESTERN RANCHMAN OUTFITTERS (WRO) The EOQ for a yearly demand of 2. Toshiki had the lowest total cost of $40.000).206 182. and because we have seen that the EOQ is a robust model. as compared to 167 ordered monthly. Randell has managed to keep WRO almost totally supplied with the requisite number of Levis 501. The second run was for Kony. the lead time in days is equal to 10 days (10 2 5). Kony had a cost of $42. Veta can feel that he is keeping his inventory goals close to the minimum while still meeting his goal of avoiding stockouts.5)(414) = 600 + 861. the company is committed to take 1/12th of its annual need every month. the daily sales are equal to 800 units per day (800 16. the reorder point for Kony is 8. Present TC 499. This is done by multiplying the lead time in days times the daily demand. 2. In order to determine the reorder point. exactly two videotape systems are sold with every complete system.12 + 206.59 Ordering costs are assumed to be a linear function because no matter how large an order is or how many orders are sent in. WRO orders monthly.5)(414) = 718. The EOQ is about 182 pairs. 3. we can compute the reorder point for Kony. each month the storeroom issues a purchase requisition for 41.000 800 60). we multiply the demand. With the lead time expressed in days. Therefore.895. assuming 20 working days per month. Annual demand is 192. the lead time for Toshiki is 60 days (60 20 3).000/182 11 orders to be submitted per year. Making this assumption.05) $1.000. the demand for videotape systems could change drastically. the average monthly demand of the videotape systems is 16. Implementing the second strategy would cause this ratio to drop below two. there will be fewer videotape systems ordered when obtaining the complete system. Mr. but which Mr. the lead time is 3 months.12(10.010)/4 8.000) 1. expressed as units per day.569.27 thousand feet Currently.00. The conclusion is that the model has been shown to be practically valid with minor adjustments that compensate for the unreliability of the manufacturer. Again.950. In other words.74 thousand feet The reorder point is given by: ROP = Daily demand Lead time = 499.5 (50) 34.62 + 206.62 Optimum TC 499. For Toshiki. Mr. it takes 3 months between the time an order is placed and when the order is actually received. Therefore. because two tape units are required for every complete system. Because there are two suppliers.070 7.4) 2 (499.231.74 (41. There is one remaining problem that the model doesn’t solve. Randell has. thus the lead time will likely be more important for ordering more inventory.5 (60) 260 ROP = 115. total inventory cost must be considered for both Toshiki and Kony.

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