Final Exam Introduction to the Discipline of Art History Professor Mark Zucker (School of Art—LSU) What is art history

? A discipline that seeks: --to understand, in as many ways as possible, how it is that works of art look the way do --to understand the meaning and function of works of art in the historic context -The word Art had a completely different meaning 500-600 years ago… used to mean a profession( painter, architect, plumbing, baker, sculptors, carpenters) --to show how art is a multifaceted social phenomenon—both product and producer of a given culture -Art is produced by real people and they have reasons to why they do what they do. -knowing what was going on during the time the art was constructed -art reflects the society in which is was produced also helps to shape the society; producer as well as reflecter -in a given historical period: life cycle; development that echoes the course of the human life(art) -- a development or evolution of artistic styles, and determining how and why they used to look the way they did; and why they now look the way they do; and how we got from “then” and “there” to “here” and “now” There was a time in 19th century that people thought that art could be a scienceGerman thoughts What is a “work of art”? -No satisfactory definition has ever been devised, but consider this one: A work of art is manmade object to which we assign something more than (or other than) a merely utilitarian value. In other words:  a sunset or a blade of grass is not a work of art but a work of nature (or God?); a painting of a sunset or a blade of grass is a work of art  floor or a chair may be a work of art but need not be.

Segna di Bonaventura, Madonna and Child with Saints, (c. 1320) --A late medieval Italian painting --try to understand what it might have meant when it was originally produced --used to stand on an alter in a church on a table made of stone where the mass was performed. --important function; now people want to know the painters, back then people didn’t care.

Medieval vs. Renaissance -medieval: Segna di Bonaventura c. 1320: showed hierarchy of people and saints…people were very small…not natural scale -renaissance: Titian, Madonna and Child with Saints, c. 1520painted natural scale but placed on different levels to illustrate hierarchy. Two paintings have essentially the same meaning NOW Piet Mondrian, Composition 1921 Dutch painter, control, geometrical, rigorous Kandinsky, Composition 1913: was very religious but felt that in his century you couldn’t sell pictures of baby Jesus. Russian artist, spontaneous --reflect binary components of brain Marcel Dunchamp, Fountain, 1917: decided that anything could be art as long as there was an artist that decided it could be art. Idea counted more than the physical object.

Ella McDowell—Interior Designer -charged with protecting the health, safety, and welfare of individuals. -along with architecture they all provide spaces for man. -human needs are at the core of all that we do Parallels with Architecture and Interior Design -process that they follow --problem solvers: “here’s what I want, here’s what I need.” --program stage: finding the problem --refine the design --repair construction problems: cannot mess with plumbing or electricity or mess with retaining walls --speciality of interior design came about in the turn of the century. -Work mostly on a human scale; human approach; team approach In LouisianaPractice Act: in order for her to call herself an interior designer she must go to an accredited schoolgiven by CIDA must work for two years (usually with accredited designer) must take exam NCIDQ: National Counsel for Interior Design Qualification: three part exam over two days then apply with the state to become a registered interior designer

Residential Case Study: Seatle, Washington -retired couple; wanted condo to take advantage of the view—lake -food, entertainment, family, and opera were what they wanted to focus on. -maximize light, centered around kitchen and living area Office Case Study: Marketing Office in Southern California -prevesiously hotel: assigned desks and filing. Wanted people to be more creative and stay longer… if people are happier at work they will be more productive. Wanted each employee to have their own space. -created an office city Hospitality Building: London Hotel -seven story 1960’s office building and create a different look. -relate to functional and esthetic priorities The heart of what they do is to create spaces that enhance lives whether its at work, visitor to a public space, or at home. Ultimate goal is to create a space that enhances life.

missed class

Vila D’Este: people still visit there mostly b/c of the fountains Lawrence Halprin: fountain -encouraged public participation -revolutionary concept -part of a redevelopment of Portland, Oregon.: was a dreary part of town and they wanted to redesign…became a catalyst for redesign of this urban development. -urban design can affect the redevelopment design of the city Interpretive Projects: Sequence of Pedestrian Spaces -interpretation of a Natural Oregon Mountain landscape. People: the reason for design projects Halprin: RPVS cycle

Michigan, created exhibit to tell people about the Atchafalaya located in their own back yard. Landscape Architecture: new and fastest growing profession. Very broad

-take care of the earth and how the humans on it interact with it. Interpretive planning: all about telling a story to someone is coming to a place where stories are told( parks, public buildings, museums) (Americans are renown for telling stories… its part of our heritage: a country of story tellers) -original Lafayette city jail interpretation -louisiana coast -indians of Louisiana -telling stories about our culture, and landscape 1. Design: one thing that ties interior designers, landscape architects, architects, commercial contracters. 2. Good knowledge of education methods: how do you teach a child, or a senior citizen 3. Knowledge of construction: not afraid to work with your hands (photography, videos, computers) 4. Have some exposure to the places where the stories are told. (Museums: how do they get the story out to visitors that come by) Our story: -the culture, the landscape, the lifestyle. -that culture has all but disappeared in this state. Culture experienced by our great grandparents about living in the swamps -how do we tell this story in the Audubon Zoo. Important to Audubon Zoo in early 80’s: -Penn. Zoo put a man in a business suit in a cage… brought human culture into zoo environment -If anyone can demonstrate human culture…its LA -wanted help to tell creative side of history When people come to a zoo they bring their baggage.-->now they want them to leave it at the gates -get info several diff. ways: walk-way plaque words for adults, pictures for children -was brought in to tell the story of the Atchafalaya Basin…took place before 1927 before the great flood, up until 1920. Culture of the Swamp Dweller -could always find something to eat -migrated along swampways found faux occupations to occupy their time… hunting, trapping, etc. Atchafalaya People: -swamp dwellers of the highest origin -late wintercatfish; early springcrawfish; old occupations and ways of doing things that have migrated into modern times

Ended up building the swamp section of the zoo on the highest land, when in actuality its supposed to be the lowest. Interpretive Plan: minor stories -music: culture, big part of Louisiana Swamp -eat: food, come to eat the things that are actually in the exhibit. Culture: -crawfish net makers -culture springs from the landscape -turtle raisers: for scientific research; pets; food -communities that lived in the swamp: Bayou Shanelast community to leave swamp -pull boat: created in Michigan to pull cypress trees from deep within the swamp down and back to the boat -these people had their family, their God, and their swamp. They were poor, but wealthy -folklore on exhibit (Audubon): Swamp Monster -used the bayou as their road. -louisiana has “camp boats”rounded roof; not flat roof “house boat” -took stuff they got in the swamp and exchanged them at stores for ammunition, etc. -when the swamp disappears, so does the culture that goes with it.

-FDR had a monument to his name even though he said he didn’t want anything like that… maybe a rose garden Competition for FDR Memorial -1960 design competition: one architecture firm won, but had to be presented to the Fine Arts Commission and they said no. then ask in 1966 for Marcelle Drauier to revise the desing, again rejected; 1970 rose garden rejected; 1974 wrote the criteria to tell the next designer went with a landscape solution Lawrence Haliton. Approved in 1978 needed congress to approve fund, Rep were in controlFDR was Dem. Didn’t get approved. -being built in “kite plane” ; the FDR memorial would harmonize McMillian plan: harmonized with this plan; original plan for DC; FDR Memorial: -original entries were huge building designs “The FDR memorial is conceived as a 1000’ sequence of experiments” -4 room representing 4 eras of Roosevelt’s reign, telling the story of his life. -Unified with granite walls, water, and bronze sculptures. -used a burn to physically separate the memorial from the athletic field

FDR Memorial Video

Presented by the FDR memorial Commission -he shaped the character of the US -Lawrence Halprin was selected head landscape architect -John Bensen: granite carver -Water became a dominant element, the water leads you on; just as the granite does -sculpture should not only include picture of FDR but his struggles throughout his reign, although each sculptor (4noted) would ad their own taste, they were all unified by the common material of bronze. -many of the sculpture are handicap assessable; eye level, and readable in brail as well. -he left a legacy of memories; “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself”

Incentive zone: they have to give something back in return for letting them build up. -but what was given back was just a blank spots, open spaces -what makes one more successful than the other William Whyte: Sociologist was asked that question^ “The Socialite of Small Urban Spaces” VIDEO: what makes a good urban space “The Municipal Art Society of New York” People tend to sit where the sun is. Greatest problem: under-use Technique: cameras, but mostly direct observation Most Sociable: have the greatest number of individuals and the number of people in groups. Biggest activity: people watching People tend to sit where there are places to sit. How to fix: Sittable Space: Need Sitting Space: 1ft of sitting space per 30ft of space Make the most of ledges, make them two backsides deep. How many people are too many? Carrying capacity? -spacing -capacity is self leveling Street: Something very important for a space is its relationship to the street. To make a park work, it needs to be unfenced

Sun: people like the sun, it the major factor for plaza use…depending on the weather. Water: element that designers do quite well in. people like the sound. The look and feel are important. Trees: people feel protected Food: push cart vendors attract people

Landscape Preservation -now there is more of a more to restore old buildings, but that’s architectural preservation. Landscape preservation is a new idea Preservation in terms of landscape: -historic landscapes - Rosé down: lived in by the same family for over 100 years; The gardens are a major component. The lady who lived there kept a detailed diary of what she did with the garden. -agricultural complex: -sugar plantations -urban projects/suburban complex Historic landscapes are hidden beneath layers of urban landscape --a lot of towns in Rome are built on top of one another LSU was a sugar plantation before it was a University. Various layers of development. Was originally built for a couple thousand students, now its up to 30 thousand. Different Aspects of Preservation Associative Value: buildings were associated with famous people; George Washingtionmount Vernon. In the early days it was focused on the house; then later they realized the importance of the plantation. Mount Vernon: -restored gardens b/c there were no grocery stores when George Washington was there. -kitchen gardens Aesthetic Value: plantation houses were preserved just because the homes are so beautiful. Thomas Jefferson’s house; constantly working amateur architectpreserved b/c its beauty and b/c of Thomas Jefferson. Williamsburg: restored whole town, and recreated the lifestyle; dress in the period clothes. French Quarter; Business District in Baton Rouge. Historic Villages: -Charleston: 1st historic district in the US. Very carefully preserved, still lived in normally but everything is carefully approved.

-Savannah, Georgia: grid plane the squares as well as the houses are carefully preserved. -Galvaston, Texas. Middleton Plantation in South Carolina: -the house has burned down, but the gardens are so magnificent their aesthetic value keeps them preserved. LSU: -now a rule to have red tile roof on new buildings -back of greek theater was a reflective pool with a statue of DeSoto; torn down now. -Middleton Library was originally two stories; but planned on expansion Central Park: -over the years it has changed and started to deteriorate. -falling apart, looking back it was, but now it has been restored. -fixed the fountain, restored the pavilion. Adaptive Use: old factoryinstead of tearing it down, the use it for something else; best of both worlds Washington, DC: -hand dug canals in Washington into the Cumberland Mountains with series of locks, by the time they got it finished the railroad was finished. The canal was never really used, so the old warehouses were converted into restaurants, apartments, offices. Working Landscapes: sugar mills; factories and industrial buildings that retain their use. All sorts of landscapes can be preserved. -pastures, ancient cities, new suburban element of design, interstates, Landscape Preservation covers wide range with different approaches.

New York City; used to be fenced in and closed off. Now its open with hundreds of chairs and a pavilion. Drew Landrieu pointed out that tourism was a major industry in New Orleans. New Orleans is in a delta not a valley, overflows. Shipping took over the river edge; lined with docks and storage buildings which cut the river access b/c it was illegal to walk on the docks. Story of Change: Redevelopment of Tourist facilities in the French Quarter -gap in front of Jackson Square; b/c of the cut bank, river flows to fast for ships to park therefore it opened a space in front of Jackson Square for tourists to see the river. <slide show of construction and drawings of the area in front of Jackson Square>

Jackson Square: used to be narrow sidewalk surrounded by streets. Now after being repaved and expanded and leveled, it is closed off to cars and open to pedestrians.

Exploration of the French Quarter Bourbon Street: Most tourists who visit the city, that’s ground zero. Wanted to improve the quality without making it too sterile and removing the special character that it holds. -hired Urban Designer for improvements; subtle changes retaining special character Video: Bourbon Street renovations Is Bourbon Street on the Rocks? -Lindy Boggs (Member of Congress…lives on Bourbon Street) -uses changed throughout history, but buildings remained the same -fear of crime keeps people in at night: Ace Torre: Architect -repaving, new road bottoms, new trash cans, better signs, better lighting, getting back to the history of the quarter. -land use restrictions with signs 8% of height times the width of buildings

Green Laws & Community Design Louisiana Department of Agriculture & Forestry All designers follow technical guidelines and law requirements Buildings withstanding hurricanes Highways with pitch, drainage, speed, and direction even landscaping around it Green Laws: landscape laws Community search in landscape laws: how they were written, which were better Baton Rouge didn’t have one… speaker came up with one Principles of Landscape Codes From the book U.S Landscape Ordinances, a product of LSU a. Green Law Research Project b. An important part of zoning: zoning is a powerful tool in regulating communites, which gives landscape codes more strength. c. Landscape codes define site areas to be planted:geography of development site. Certain areas that must be planted under community green law d. Design Components proscriptive standards include: street yards, side buffers, rear buffers, VUAs- vehicular use area interiors, VUA screens, VUA shading—open space plantings, street walks, habitat preservation areas, street tree planting areas e. Technical Standards prescriptive standards include: sizes dimensions, specifications, areas, linear measure, quantity, performance, planting, maintenance and trees, installation, permits and removal.

f. Requires the seal of registered landscape architect g. Review, Approval, Permit and Certificate of Occupancy: procedure that allows us to build the world we live in. we can’t build anything without going through City Hall. Working with Nature in the City: -protect, preserve and rebuild Jan. 19, 1994: when BR Green Laws were established Problems that green laws solve: -Planned developments: regional and site plans -Land Clearing: land clearing is one of th e most destructive forces society places on the natural world -Hatracking & Planting: chopping up trees around power lines -Landscape codes :Regulating views from street: -Urban Heat Islands: raise temps 7degrees -Street Edge: street edges and curb cuts are the responsibility of the city -Street Yard: views of the street yard convey the image of your community; green laws require planting on the street yard -A sea of Parking: car storage consumes urban land and most parking areas contain little landscaping -Paved sites:paving from lot line to lot line leaves no room for nature! -Parking lot design -VUA Screening: vehicular use area: screening parking lots from public streets adds beauty and safety to urban land -Building Entries and Street Walls -Storm water Run off: on site storm water management -Yard Buffering: good buffers make good neighbors. -Plant Material Quality and Planting Methods -Irrigation water Conservation and LBMP’s: Nature in the city requires water, water must be carefully managed What is the Landscape Code? How to Build Better: Better site design -Codes and Regulations: zoning ordinances(regulates landscape of community), Land Use Regulations(communities establish land use regulations to preserve landscapes), Subdivision Development or Building Construction Code, & Landscape Regulations -The Landscape Code: a well written landscape code contains three main articles—context(why we need them), technical standards(guidelines, formulas, design rules), administrative procedures(how the code is administered by the community) The Geography of Development Site: -topsoil, trees, native growth; someone wants to convert natural land to developed. -Impermeable areas are determined so that you know where you are not able to plant.

Dana Nunez Brown

“Smart Growth” -more and more roads everywhere, taking up most of our ground space; no sense of placewhere its from Common Smart Growth Principles -Strengthen and direct development towards existing communities -Foster distinctive, attractive places with a strong sense of place -Encourage development that can evolve over time -Provide a variety of transportation choices -Create walkable neighborhoods -Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty and critical environmental areas Cities and towns must mold them to fit their unique qualitieis—to create a “community” Learning from Other Places: -learning about dinosaurs from bones, in the same manner we can tell what kind of character these places have from their bones. -This pattern can change, but that change is expensive and difficult and yet may not yield an authentic place -Some patterns are adaptable, These blocks and buildings are in their 3 and 4 “life” and have changed without major surgery b/c the bones are their. -Many of our growth conflicts begin with roadways and the belief that traffic problems can be solved by moving cars…but they can’t be solved. -In the ideal model, roads are widened to accommodate the 20-year forecast; but the demand usually exceeds what was planned; meaning we cannot widen our way out of traffic conjestion. -The choice is not to solve but to manage the system -more people, not cars -improve quality of travel -move less people fewer vehicles -Traffic on arterials is congested because the pattern of conventional development forces almost all trips onto arterial highways; but a connected street system can get short trips off of the arterial highway, allowing it to handle longer trips. -One way streets; retailers hate them b/c they give less visibility to the “eclipsed frontage” at each intersection. -The arithmetic of traffic capacity is not always intuitive…lane efficiency peaks with a 3-lane street. Adding concretelose capacity -Streets are our most common and most important public spaces; and such should be treated with dignity and respect. -The opportunity to showcase the environment is not always readily apparent; but we should respect the natural environment and incorporate in the community. -Use the placement and design of public spaces to organize and encourage development and redevelopment Smart Strategies: Applications -use redevelopment opportunities to spark interest in remnant neighborhoods.

-to make a great street the concentration of the redevelopment process should be on creating neighborhoods with buildings addressing the street. Reintroducing streets into the community to make the biggest impact by renovating -Having buildings front the street has many advantages over the “parking forward” conventional model -the common complaint of having to have “2 faced” building is easily overcome. -in the conventional suburban model of development, parking dominates. -public open spaces can be effective means of opening up spaces Smart Strategies: Making it happen -“the future is what we make of it” Edmund Bacon 1969 Getting Started: -change perception.. smart growth doesn’t mean no growth -define what you want -be proactive -engage all the players -get the bones right -make plans…and hold people to them -make it easier to build what you want -cooperation…we’re all in this together.

Dr. Robert S. Reich “Doc” Being a landscape Architect is like being a doctor, your aim is to make people feel better. Why do people end up in Landscape Architecture? Most come and don’t know what it is -love of outdoors: some never get to work outside -love of plants -like to design in a field where they can design: most highly paid design field is LA -interest in people: what can you do for people to make them function better; all aspects of people, where they work, play, and rest. -satisfying human needs and desires: -what people want is not always what they need. Park Board: composed primarily of people that helped in the mayor’s campaign -needed to know where to place five parks, he placed four of the five on the “wrong” side of town, where people didn’t pay taxes… board was upset, but he convinced them that having those parks there would make them better citizens Natural landscapes are great places for spiritual development; places where people can get closer to God.

Landscape Development Plans are important to control where certain things can be built. Certain areas are better for residential, or park, or commercial; not only would it have to be suited for commercial development but the areas around it would have to be considered as well. Water control is important as well, making sure it doesn’t build up to far. Age of people that you are working for is important: -young people want to have a pool and a fountain, then when they have kids, they’re worried about them falling in and drowning In every park, there will always be young people and parents with small children, older people who like to walk, the young men watching the ladies…there will always be those people b/c those people will be replaced by others, it’s a growing cyle. Our interest is primarily in people who are continually changing, through the environment we can change people. Landscape architect: change people by direct action on the environment and the people

Some landscapes are built and the city is built around them. Others the city came first. VIDEO: Levi Jeans Corporation: needed to expand their offices, so they could move into the suburbs or they could do what they did in fact choose to do. They bought a couple of warehouses on the outskirts of the city, renovated. Lawrence Halprin (Urban Designer): Redesigning an Error “Designing for Environments for Everyone” -learning as a designer through experience Levi Plaza: - Urban park: place to interact, a great “living room” - Green park: across the street, resting place Problems: -finding a trashcan -manvering around ramps -bridges without edges All designers should be familiar with disabilities ----------------------------------------------------------

VIDEO “Man Builds, Man Destroys” -Parks should occupy space -because they are necessary for the life of the city -provide refuge for increasing tensions of city life -where city people can go enjoy themselves, where green has more than just an aesthetic value -give you a sense of freedom -creates the allusion of being in the country side. -safety valve for people trapped in concrete and steel -necessary for population -London has done very well in maintaining parks, keeping tradition. -immense cosmopolitan city, constant change -600 sq miles, twice the size of greater New York, yet New York has twice as many people. -Speakers corner in High park is just one of many famous places in parks -Greenery is the lungs of London, the green makes it great -Royal Parks: for all to share, to enjoy, and are free. -many green spaces are the former hunting grounds of kings past. -the existence of parks in London have not been pushed away for the sake of growth and expansion -New York: back then was a time of elegance, a time to think big. -Frederick Law Olmsted was put in charge of designing Central Park -840 acres; once began where the city ended; and now is encircled by concrete and steel. - is now the focal of city life, revels with most of London’s city parks. -place where people from any walk of life can meet and talk -for a park to be popular they need to be located in a central area or in a cross section of heavily traveled paths. -Germany: -coal and steel have lost appeal to the young people -young people find city life dull and constraining -there is more to these cities than industry, now city officials want to pry open the fists of industrial life with green parks, now the environment is being shaped to fit the needs of those people that are staying. -Japan: -perfect example of what people can do to bring about change in their environment -Ubai: disaster after WW2, but then the petrochemical industry came about, and as a result they became the most polluted city in the world. -people of the city were disgusted, wanted change. -city attracted artists with green parks, the city went “mod” -build a park unlike any in the world: early morning system, shrubs and sculptures are more sensitive than human skin and serve as a warning for the quality of air they breath

-keeping the green means keeping the people UN: improvements of human living through parks -to design and build a park is easy, to bring and fill it with life is the hard part.

In this country, the landscape architect that designs playground equipment is liable for most injuries occurring on them. Therefore, LAs don’t design them anymore, and we end up with the same boring crap that just isn’t attractive. Play environments: -sterile: you see where kids are playing, its more fun in the street, playgrounds are boring so they play in the street; kids make up there own playgrounds. Play equipment is old. Jean Piaget: Swiss child psychologist; children explore the world when they play -wanted to know how kids play and learn: through observation -two processes in play experience: assimilation and accommodation -assimilation: practice makes perfect; mastery of new skills by repetition and practice -accommodation: complementary to assimilation; certain demands in environment requires changes in previously learned response Characteristics of a Good Playground: -small scale replica of the world; experiences for every sense (rough, smooth, wet, dry: sensory experience of the world) kids feel everything! -allow kids to master new things; and to learn ways to do things differently: challenge, an environment that only provides the same old stuff that they know how to do will not challenge them, there should be a progressive skill level of equipment so that they are always learning. (and children of all ages should be accommodated, all should be there, but it should be separated) -child should be able to choose what he does, whether he wants to play alone or in a group -should not be made to look like rockets, spaceships b/c they grow old quickly; what retains its life are things that exercise a fantasy. -make playgrounds out of simpler things, mounds of dirt, branches of trees, empty boxes

Green spaces have many things built through them…we should build green spaces into communities, especially those with kids that don’t have the things they should have. -playground criteria -sensory experiences -should be capable of rearranging, move around, or the kids should be able to move around -series of challenges for kids; separation of age groups

-choice open to the child of what to do -fantasy, pretending should be allowed to be exercised( playground equipment should be non-committaldoesn’t have to be anything in particular) -actively using things that could be used otherwise -need to be able to withstand lots of play and activity Sand and water are easy components in playgrounds; kids like them b/c they are never consistent.

Kids play: assimilation and accommodation Eric McMillian: industrial designer…also designs playgrounds -punching bag forest. -lots of his designs are recreated on a smaller scale Sand and Water are a center piece to most good park designs because they are cheap and plentiful. Europe: space is scarce The use what materials they have available including recycled wood and rope. % for art: government is required to set aside a certain percentage of money for the arts. Jean Piaget: kids will play, let them learn while playing 3rd world: India; even when the environment is unpleasant kids will play Read the article that he has posted about kids don’t need equipment they need opportunity. It is important.

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