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The Decomposition

• Consider an arbitrary sequence {x[n]} with

a z-transform X(z) given by

∞

X ( z ) = ∑n = −∞ x[n]z − n

• We can rewrite X(z) as

M −1 − k

X ( z ) = ∑k =0 z X k ( z )M

where

∞ −n ∞ −n

X k ( z ) = ∑n = −∞ xk [n] z = ∑n = −∞ x[Mn + k ] z

0 ≤ k ≤ M −1

1

Polyphase Decomposition

• The subsequences {xk [n]} are called the

polyphase components of the parent

sequence {x[n]}

• The functions X k (z ), given by the

z-transforms of {xk [n]}, are called the

polyphase components of X(z)

2

Polyphase Decomposition

• The relation between the subsequences {xk [n]}

and the original sequence {x[n]} are given

by

xk [n] = x[Mn + k ], 0 ≤ k ≤ M − 1

• In matrix form we can write

X0(zM )

[

X ( z ) = 1 z −1 .... z −( M −1) ] M

X1.( z )

..

X . ( z M )

3 M −1

Polyphase Decomposition

• A multirate structural interpretation of the

polyphase decomposition is given below

4

Polyphase Decomposition

• The polyphase decomposition of an FIR

transfer function can be carried out by

inspection

• For example, consider a length-9 FIR

transfer function:

8

−n

H ( z) = ∑ h[n] z

n =0

5

Polyphase Decomposition

• Its 4-branch polyphase decomposition is

given by

−1 −2 −3

H ( z ) = E0 ( z ) + z E1( z ) + z E2 ( z ) + z E3 ( z )

4 4 4 4

where

−1 −2

E0 ( z ) = h[0] + h[4]z + h[8]z

E1( z ) = h[1] + h[5]z −1

−1

E2 ( z ) = h[2] + h[6]z

−1

E3 ( z ) = h[3] + h[7]z

6

Polyphase Decomposition

• The polyphase decomposition of an IIR

transfer function H(z) = P(z)/D(z) is not that

straight forward

• One way to arrive at an M-branch polyphase

decomposition of H(z) is to express it in the

form P '( z ) / D '( z M ) by multiplying P(z) and

D(z) with an appropriately chosen

polynomial and then apply an M-branch

polyphase decomposition to P '( z )

7

Polyphase Decomposition

• Example - Consider 1− 2 z −1

H ( z) =

1+3 z −1

• To obtain a 2-band polyphase decomposition we

rewrite H(z) as

(1− 2 z −1 )(1−3 z −1 ) 1−5 z −1 + 6 z − 2 1+ 6 z − 2 −5 z −1

H ( z) = = = +

(1+3 z −1 )(1−3 z −1 ) 1−9 z − 2 1−9 z − 2 1−9 z − 2

• Therefore,

H ( z ) = E0 ( z 2 ) + z −1E1( z 2 )

where

1+ 6 z −1 −5

E0 ( z ) = −1

, E1( z ) =

1−9 z 1−9 z −1

8

Polyphase Decomposition

• Note: The above approach increases the

overall order and complexity of H(z)

• However, when used in certain multirate

structures, the approach may result in a

more computationally efficient structure

• An alternative more attractive approach is

discussed in the following example

9

Polyphase Decomposition

• Example - Consider the transfer function of

a 5-th order Butterworth lowpass filter with

a 3-dB cutoff frequency at 0.5π:

0.0527864 (1 + z −1 )5

H ( z ) = 1 + 0.633436854 z −2 + 0.0557281z −4

as

−2 −2

1 0.105573 + z −1 0.52786 + z

H ( z ) = − +z −2

2 1+ 0.105573 z 2

1+ 0.52786 z

10

Polyphase Decomposition

• Therefore H(z) can be expressed as

−1

H ( z ) = E0 ( z ) + z E1( z )

2 2

where

−1

1 0.105573 + z

E0 ( z ) =

2 1+ 0.105573 z −1

−1

1 0.52786 + z

E1( z ) =

2 1+ 0.52786 z −1

11

Polyphase Decomposition

• Note: In the above polyphase decomposition,

branch transfer functions Ei (z ) are stable

allpass functions

• Moreover, the decomposition has not

increased the order of the overall transfer

function H(z)

12

FIR Filter Structures Based on

Polyphase Decomposition

• We shall demonstrate later that a parallel

realization of an FIR transfer function H(z)

based on the polyphase decomposition can

often result in computationally efficient

multirate structures

• Consider the M-branch Type I polyphase

decomposition of H(z):

M −1 − k

H ( z) = ∑ k =0 z Ek ( z M)

13

FIR Filter Structures Based on

Polyphase Decomposition

• A direct realization of H(z) based on the

Type I polyphase decomposition is shown

below

14

FIR Filter Structures Based on

Polyphase Decomposition

• The transpose of the Type I polyphase FIR

filter structure is indicated below

15

FIR Filter Structures Based on

Polyphase Decomposition

• An alternative representation of the

transpose structure shown on the previous

slide is obtained using the notation

Rl ( z M ) = EM −1−l ( z M ), 0 ≤ l ≤ M −1

• Substituting the above notation in the Type

I polyphase decomposition we arrive at the

Type II polyphase decomposition:

decomposition

M −1 −( M −1−l )

H ( z) = ∑ l =0 z Rl ( z M)

16

FIR Filter Structures Based on

Polyphase Decomposition

• A direct realization of H(z) based on the

Type II polyphase decomposition is shown

below

17

Computationally Efficient

Decimators

• Consider first the single-stage factor-of-M

decimator structure shown below

v[n]

x[n ] H (z) M y[n ]

Type I polyphase structure as shown on the

next slide

18

Computationally Efficient

Decimators

• Using the cascade equivalence #1 we arrive

at the computationally efficient decimator

structure shown below on the right

v[n ]

19

Computationally Efficient

Decimators

• To illustrate the computational efficiency of

the modified decimator structure, assume

H(z) to be a length-N structure and the input

sampling period to be T = 1

• Now the decimator output y[n] in the

original structure is obtained by down-

sampling the filter output v[n] by a factor of

M

20

Computationally Efficient

Decimators

• It is thus necessary to compute v[n] at

n = ...,−2 M , − M , 0, M ,2 M , ...

• Computational requirements are therefore N

multiplications and ( N − 1) additions per

output sample being computed

• However, as n increases, stored signals in

the delay registers change

21

Computationally Efficient

Decimators

• Hence, all computations need to be

completed in one sampling period, and for

the following ( M − 1) sampling periods the

arithmetic units remain idle

• The modified decimator structure also

requires N multiplications and ( N − 1)

additions per output sample being computed

22

Computationally Efficient

Decimators and Interpolators

• However, here the arithmetic units are

operative at all instants of the output

sampling period which is M times that of

the input sampling period

• Similar savings are also obtained in the case

of the interpolator structure developed using

the polyphase decomposition

23

Computationally Efficient

Interpolators

• Figures below show the computationally

efficient interpolator structures

Type I polyphase decomposition Type II polyphase decomposition

24

Computationally Efficient

Decimators and Interpolators

• More efficient interpolator and decimator

structures can be realized by exploiting the

symmetry of filter coefficients in the case of

linear-phase filters H(z)

• Consider for example the realization of a

factor-of-3 (M = 3) decimator using a

length-12 Type 1 linear-phase FIR lowpass

filter

25

Computationally Efficient

Decimators and Interpolators

• The corresponding transfer function is

H ( z ) = h[ 0] + h[1] z −1 + h[ 2] z − 2 + h[3] z −3 + h[ 4] z − 4 + h[5] z −5

+ h[5] z −6 + h[ 4] z −7 + h[3] z −8 + h[ 2] z −9 + h[1] z −10 + h[ 0] z −11

H(z) yields the following subfilters:

E0 ( z ) = h[0] + h[3] z −1 + h[5]z − 2 + h[ 2]z −3

E1 ( z ) = h[1] + h[4]z −1 + h[4]z − 2 + h[1]z −3

E2 ( z ) = h[2] + h[5]z −1 + h[3]z − 2 + h[0]z −3

26

Computationally Efficient

Decimators and Interpolators

• Note that E1 ( z ) still has a symmetric

impulse response, whereas E0 ( z ) is the

mirror image of E2 ( z )

• These relations can be made use of in

developing a computationally efficient

realization using only 6 multipliers and 11

two-input adders as shown on the next slide

27

Computationally Efficient

Decimators and Interpolators

• Factor-of-3 decimator with a linear-phase

decimation filter

28

A Useful Identity

• The cascade multirate structure shown

below appears in a number of applications

x[n] L H(z) L y[n]

obtained by expressing H(z) in its L-term

Type I polyphase form ∑kL=−10 z −k Ek ( z L )

is shown below

x[n] E0 ( z ) y[n]

29

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