Project Report on

~STUDY OF GSM¨









Submitted by Submitted to
Anshul Sharma ProI Abhishek Sharma
E&C Engg. Department H.O.D
Stani memorial college oI Engg. E&C Department.
& Tech.


Training competed at
Escort Telecommunication Limited
1aipur. Rajasthan.















PRO1ECT REPORT ON


~STUDY OF GSM¨












Submitted by Submitted to
Vikas Sharma ProI .......
E&C Engg. Department H.O.D
Stani memorial college oI Engg. E&C Department.
& Tech.


Training competed at
Escort Telecommunication Limited
1aipur. Rajasthan.












CETIFICATE

This is to certify that, Mr. Anshul Sharma has
satisfactorily completed the industrial training for fourth semester.
He was associated with Network Services Department. His work
has been to our satisfaction. The sincerity and commitment
towards the job undertaken and overall assessment of his
performance can be rated as Excellent.

We appreciate the efforts put in by him and wish him
all success in his future endeavors.




Yours faithfully,





Guide Supervisor




Mr. Rakesh Nag (Manager) Mr. Neeraj
Kahndelwal ( AM)
Switch Dept. Jaipur. Switch Dept. Jaipur.





Escort Telecommunication Limitet (IDEA), Rajasthan




CERTIFICATE





This is to certify that, Mr. Vikas Sharma has
satisfactorily completed the industrial training for fourth semester.
He was associated with Network Services Department. His work
has been to our satisfaction. The sincerity and commitment
towards the job undertaken and overall assessment of his
performance can be rated as Excellent.

We appreciate the efforts put in by him and wish him
all success in his future endeavors.




Yours faithfully,





Guide Supervisor




Mr. Rakesh Nag (Manager) Mr. Neeraj
Kahndelwal ( AM)
Switch Dept. Jaipur. Switch Dept. Jaipur.



Escort Telecommunication Limitet (IDEA), Rajasthan





ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



'Perseverance, inspiration and motivation have always played a
key role in any venture. It is not iust the brain that matters most, but that
which guides them: The character, the heart, generous qualities and
progressive Iorces. What was conceived iust as an idea materialized
slowly into concrete Iacts. The metamorphosis took endless hours oI toil,
had its moments oI Irustration, but in the end everything seemed to have
sense.¨
At this level oI understanding it is oIten diIIicult to understand the
wide spectrum oI knowledge without proper guidance & advice. Hence, I
take this opportunity to express my heartIelt gratitude to respected Mr.
Ashish Shrivastava who had Iaith in me and allowed me to work on this
proiect.
I would like to thank Mr. Rakesh Nag Ior his immense interest,
valuable guidance, constant inspiration and kind co-operation throughout
the period oI work undertaken, which has been instrumented in the
success oI my proiect. I would also express my sincere gratitude to Mr.
Dharmesh Goyal. Mr. Neeraj Khandelwal and Mrs. Seema Sharma.
Mr. Priyawrata 1oshi Ior providing me the technical knowledge and
moral support to complete the proiect.
And I would like to pay my sincere gratitude to our respective
Head oI Department Mr. Abhishek Sharma Ior providing me
opportunity to move to such a big corporation.
I also acknowledge my proIound sense oI gratitude to my friends
and parents Ior their moral support to carve out this proiect.





(Anshul Sharma)
E&C Engg. Dept.
Stani Memorial College
Of Engg. & Tech






ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



'Perseverance, inspiration and motivation have always played a
key role in any venture. It is not iust the brain that matters most, but that
which guides them: The character, the heart, generous qualities and
progressive Iorces. What was conceived iust as an idea materialized
slowly into concrete Iacts. The metamorphosis took endless hours oI toil,
had its moments oI Irustration, but in the end everything seemed to have
sense.¨
At this level oI understanding it is oIten diIIicult to understand the
wide spectrum oI knowledge without proper guidance & advice. Hence, I
take this opportunity to express my heartIelt gratitude to respected Mr.
Ashish Shrivastava who had Iaith in me and allowed me to work on this
proiect.
I would like to thank Mr. Rakesh Nag Ior his immense interest,
valuable guidance, constant inspiration and kind co-operation throughout
the period oI work undertaken, which has been instrumented in the
success oI my proiect. I would also express my sincere gratitude to Mr.
Dharmesh Goyal. Mr. Neeraj Khandelwal and Mrs. Seema Sharma.
Mr. Priyawrata 1oshi Ior providing me the technical knowledge and
moral support to complete the proiect.
And I would like to pay my sincere gratitude to our respective
Head oI Department Mr. ......... Ior providing me
opportunity to move to such a big corporation.
I also acknowledge my proIound sense oI gratitude to my friends
and parents Ior their moral support to carve out this proiect.





(Vikas Sharma)
E&C Engg. Dept.
Gyan Vihar Universe




INDEX


1. CERTIFICATE



2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

3. INDEX

4. COMPANY`S PROFILE

5. SYNOPSIS

6. STUDY OF GSM

7. BILOGRAPHY




















COMPANY`S PROFILE

Idea Cellular`s antecedents date back to 1995, when the Aditya
Birla Group and AT&T (through Birla AT&T Communications-
Maharashtra & Guiarat circle) and the Tata Group (through Tata Cellular
Andhra Pradesh circle) set up cellular networks. Both the above
company were amongst the Iirst company into commercially start
operation in circles other than metros and achieve Iinancial closure in
Indian Telecom industry.


In the year 2000,the historic path-breaking merger oI Tata Cellular
with Birla AT & T Communications and the subsequent acquisition oI
RPG Cellular (Madhya Pradesh circle) in the year 2001 helped take
the company to aim even Iurther and led to the Iormation oI irla Tata
AT & T Limited.
In the year 2001,company won Iourth cellular license Ior Delhi
metro circle and in year 2002 company introduced common brand
'!dea¨ and changed the name to Idea Cellular Limited.
Since then , there has been no looking back Ior IDEA Cellular.
The company launch Delhi operations in year 2002 and added a record
100.000 subscriber within one month oI launch.
In 2003, the company achieved the largest Iinancial closure in
Indian Telecom Ior all its circle. In 2004, the company entered into
deIinitive agreement to acquire Escotel Mobile Communications
(existing operator in Haryana, kerala and UP(W) ) and Escorts
Telecommunications (cellular licensee holder Ior UP(E), Himachal
Pradesh and Raias than ).
Today , Idea Cellular is a part oI the Aditya irla Group. The
group is India`s Iirst truly multinational corporation. Global in vision,
rooted in Indian values, the group is driven by a perIormance ethic
pegged on value creation Ior its multiple stakeholders.
!dea cellular recognizes human resources as a backbone Ior its
long-term success. We aim to be the best employer, attracting and
retaining the best employees. Their people are their greatest resource as
they are their diIIerentiator. Idea is all about participation and
involvement - seek opportunities, give opinions and always speak your
mind. They are Iocused on conserving the best aspects oI their unique
culture and on perpetuating what attracts people to ioin, and remain, at
Idea.





IDEA PARTNERS:
IDEA welcomes all businesses and individuals interested in partnering to
enhance and strengthen the IDEA products & services portIolio.
Some oI its Technology and content partners are:
O Nokia
O Ericsson
O Schlumberger Sema
O NDTV


O Indiatimes
O RediII
O C2W


























SYNOPSIS

Today Mobile telecommunications is one oI the Iastest growing
and most demanding oI all telecommunication technologies. Mobile
telecommunications is divided into two broad categories: CDMA and
GSM. GSM means global system Ior mobile communications in which
the whole transmission oI data is a wire line processes except when signal
is transIerred Irom MS (mobile station) to BTS (Base Transceiver


Station). Whereas in the case oI CDMA that is code division multiple
access entire signaling is wireless.
GSM plays a vital role as Iar as security oI transmitted and
received data is concerned. GSM was designed to be platIorm
independent. GSM technology works at diIIerent Irequencies as
standardized by a particular PLMN (Public Line Mobile Network). As
GSM has grown worldwide it has expanded to operate at three Irequency
bands 900,1800, and 1900.In GSM technology the signal Irom mobile
station is transmitted to the Base Transceiver Station Irom where it is
passed on to MSC (Mobile Switching Service center) then to BSC (Base
station Controller). AIter reaching to BSC it searches Ior the MSC oI the
B-number where call has to be terminated.
The network behind the GSM system is large and complicated in
order to provide all oI the services, which are required. It is divided into a
number oI sections:
O The Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their
controllers).
O The Network and Switching Subsystem (the part oI the network
most similar to a Iixed network). This is sometimes also iust called
the core network.
O The GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet
based Internet connections).
O All oI the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM
services such as voice calls and SMS.
The key advantage oI GSM systems has been higher digital voice
quality and low cost alternatives to making calls such as text messaging.
The advantage for network operators has been the ability to deploy
equipment Irom diIIerent vendors because the open standard allows easy
inter-operability. Like other cellular standards GSM allows network
operators to oIIer roaming services which mean subscribers can use their
phones all over the world.



















STUDY OF GSM

















GSM(GLOAL SYSTEM FOR MOILE
COMMUNICATION)

1. INTRODUCTION



The onset oI modernity has witnessed the Human race progressing in all terms
and regards be it the growth in living standards or the growth oI Technology.


It is due to the Technological advancements, which has granted humans the
permission to even step on the 'moon¨ which was once an almost repelling
viewpoint. Today by sitting in U.S. we can Ieel the horror oI Tsunami striking
the coast oI India, Java & Sumatra, which has taken with itselI a maior toll oI
living beings. As well, can we sense the beauty oI ashmir in our very close
proximity.

The emergence oI the Mobile Telephony in the later eras oI the 20
th
century
has witnessed the truth and the depth oI the saying 'vasudheva-kutumbkum`.
Indeed the Hutch advertisement signiIying the closeness oI distant relatives as
a well-knit Iamily is an undeniable truth.
Among the maior Technologies speeding up the iob oI binding the world
into an ever-decreasing unit is the 'GSM` Architecture and it`s
implementation.
Presented here is an overview oI the GSM architecture, it`s
implementation & it`s wide scope in the Iield oI communication.
The title oI the Proiect undertaken is 'CSM IMPLEMEA1A1IOA &
PROCESSES" which covers three diIIerent areas oI GSM, namely: -

1) Mobile telephony
2) Location updating
3) Call Irom mobile
4) Level opening (Private & Public sector).

A synopsis oI each oI these diIIerent sub areas throws light on the
overview oI the maior tasks associated with, the general concept, the
maior problems Iaced & the way they have been tackled.





MOILE TELEPHONY

A witness to the History oI India would strengthen the belieI on the
conception that ages ago when mobile communication was a Iar-Ietched
idea, Saniay in Mahabharat had then used the concept oI wireless
communication to describe the scene at Kurukshetra to Maharaia
Dhritrashtra. Following those very Iootsteps has emerged today, the vast
Iield oI Mobile Telephony.
Mobile telecommunications is one oI the Iastest growing and most
demanding oI all telecommunications technologies. Currently, it
represents an increasingly high percentage oI all new telephone


subscriptions worldwide. In many cases, cellular solutions successIully
compete with traditional wire line networks and cordless telephones. In
the Iuture, cellular systems employing digital technology will become the
universal method oI telecommunication.

MOILE STANDARDS

Standards play a maior role in telecommunications by:
O Allowing products Irom diverse suppliers to be interconnected
O Facilitating innovation by creating large markets Ior common
products

The standards-making process is one oI co-operation at many levels, both
nationally and internationally and includes cooperation between:
O Industrial concerns within a country

O These industrial concerns and their governments
O National governments at an international level

The primary purpose oI a standard Ior mobile communications is to
speciIy how mobile phone calls are to be handled by a mobile network.
For example, this includes speciIication oI the Iollowing:
O The signals to be transmitted and received by the mobile phone
O The Iormat oI these signals
O The interaction oI network nodes
O The basic network services, which should be available to mobile
subscribers
O The basic network structure (i.e. cells, etc.)




GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION
(GSM)







GSM WORLDWIDE


The dark shaded areas represents the dominance oI the GSM subscribers
in the world.

Because GSM provides a common standard, cellular subscribers can use
their telephones over the entire GSM service area, which includes all the
countries around the world where the GSM system is used. In addition,
GSM provides user services such as high-speed data communication,
Iacsimile and a Short Message Service (SMS). The GSM technical
speciIications are also designed to work with other standards as it
guarantees standard interIaces. Finally, a key aspect oI GSM is that the
speciIications are open-ended and can be built upon to meet Iuture
requirements.



GSM SPECIFICATIONS

GSM was designed to be platIorm-independent. The GSM speciIications
do not speciIy the actual hardware requirements, but instead speciIy the
network Iunctions and interIaces in detail. This allows hardware
designers to be creative in how they provide the actual Iunctionality, but
at the same time makes it possible Ior operators to buy equipment Irom


diIIerent suppliers. The GSM recommendations consist oI twelve series,
which are listed, in the table below. DiIIerent working parties and a
number oI expert groups wrote these series. A permanent nucleus was
established in order to coordinate the working parties and to manage the
editing oI the recommendations. All these groups were organized by
ETSI.

Series Content
O General
O Service aspects
O Network aspects
O MS - BSS interIace and protocol
O Physical layer on the radio path
O Speech coding speciIication
O Terminal adaptor Ior MS
O BSS - MSC interIace
O Network interworking
O Service interworking
O Equipment and type approval speciIications
O Operation and maintenance

The GSM 1800 section is written as a delta part within the GSM
recommendations, describing only those diIIerences between GSM 900
and GSM 1800. GSM 1900 is based on GSM 1800 and has been adapted
to meet the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) standard.








GSM PHASES


In the late 1980s, the groups involved in developing the GSM standard
realized that within the given time Irame they could not complete the
speciIications Ior the entire range oI GSM services and Ieatures as
originally planned. Because oI this, it was decided that GSM would be
released in phases with phase 1 consisting oI a limited set oI services and


Ieatures. Each new phase builds on the services oIIered by existing
phases.



GSM PHASES

Phase 1
Phase 1 contains the most common services including:
O Voice telephony
O International roaming
O Basic Iax/data services (up to 9.6 kbits/s)
O Call Iorwarding
O Call barring
O Short Message Service (SMS)
Phase 1 also incorporated Ieatures such as ciphering and Subscriber
Identity Module (SIM) cards. Phase 1 speciIications were then closed and
cannot be modiIied.

Phase 2
Additional Ieatures were introduced in GSM phase 2 including:
O Advice oI charge
O Calling line identiIication
O Call waiting

O Call hold
O ConIerence calling
O Closed user groups
O Additional data communications capabilities

Phase 2+
The standardization groups have already begun to deIine the next phase,
2¹. The phase 2¹ program will cover multiple subscriber numbers and a


variety oI business oriented Ieatures. Some oI the enhancements oIIered
by Phase 2¹ include:
O Multiple service proIiles
O Private numbering plans
O Access to Centrex services
O Interworking with GSM 1800, GSM 1900 and the Digital
Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) standard
Priorities and time schedules Ior new Ieatures and Iunctions depend
primarily on the interest shown by operating companies and
manuIacturers and technical developments in related areas.

GSM ARCHITECTURE & NETWORK COMPONENTS
The GSM network is divided into two systems. Each oI these systems is
comprised oI a number oI Iunctional units, which are individual
components oI the mobile network. The two systems are:
O Switching System (SS)
O Base Station System (BSS)
In addition, as with all telecommunications networks, GSM networks are
operated, maintained and managed Irom computerized centers.














GSM ARCHITECTURE



The SS is responsible Ior perIorming call processing and subscriber
related Iunctions. It includes the Iollowing Iunctional units:
O Mobile services Switching Center (MSC)
O Home Location Register (HLR)
O Visitor Location Register (VLR)
O Authentication Center (AUC)
O Equipment Identity Register (EIR)



The BSS perIorms all the radio-related Iunctions. The BSS is comprised
oI the Iollowing Iunctional units:
O Base Station Controller (BSC)
O Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
The OMC perIorms all the operation and maintenance tasks Ior the
network such as monitoring network traIIic and network alarms. The
OMC has


access to both the SS and the BSS. MSs do not belong to any oI these
systems.



(a) SWITCHING SYSTEM (SS) COMPONENTS

MobiIe services Switching Center (MSC)

The MSC perIorms the telephony switching Iunctions Ior the mobile
network. It controls calls to and Irom other telephony and data systems,
such as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), Integrated
Services Digital Network (ISDN), public data networks, private networks
and other mobile networks.

Gateway FunctionaIity
Gateway Iunctionality enables an MSC to interrogate a network's HLR in
order to route a call to a Mobile Station (MS). Such an MSC is called a
Gateway MSC (GMSC). For example, iI a person connected to the PSTN
wants to make a call to a GSM mobile subscriber, then the PSTN
exchange will access the GSM network by Iirst connecting the call to a
GMSC. The same is true oI a call Irom an MS to another MS. Any MSC
in the mobile network can Iunction as a gateway by integration oI the
appropriate soItware.

Home Location Register (HLR)
The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all
mobile subscriptions belonging to a speciIic operator. It acts as a
permanent store Ior a person's subscription inIormation until that
subscription is canceled. The inIormation stored includes:
O Subscriber identity
O Subscriber supplementary services
O Subscriber location inIormation
O Subscriber authentication inIormation
The HLR can be implemented in the same network node as the MSC or
as a stand-alone database. II the number oI subscribers exceeds the
capacity oI a HLR, additional HLRs may be added.


Visitor Location Register (VLR)
The VLR database contains inIormation about all the mobile subscribers
currently located in an MSC service area. Thus, there is one VLR Ior
each MSC in a network. The VLR temporarily stores subscription
inIormation so that the MSC can service all the subscribers currently
visiting that MSC service area. The VLR can be regarded as a distributed


HLR as it holds a copy oI the HLR inIormation stored about the
subscriber.
When a subscriber roams into a new MSC service area, the VLR
connected to that MSC requests inIormation about the subscriber Irom the
subscriber's HLR. The HLR sends a copy oI the inIormation to the VLR
and updates its own location inIormation. When the subscriber makes a
call, the VLR will already have the inIormation required Ior call set-up.

Authentication Center (AUC)
The main Iunction oI the AUC is to authenticate the subscribers
attempting to use a network. In this way, it is used to protect network
operators against Iraud. The AUC is a database connected to the HLR,
which provides it with the authentication parameters, and ciphering keys
used to ensure network security.

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
The EIR is a database containing mobile equipment identity inIormation,
which helps to block calls Irom stolen, unauthorized, or deIective MSs. It
should be noted that due to subscriber-equipment separation in GSM, the
barring oI MS equipment does not result in automatic barring oI a
subscriber. It`s main work is to validate the mobile equipment. The
MSC/VLR can request the EIR to check iI MS/UE has been stolen black
listed), not typed-approved rav listed), normal registered hite listed)
or unknown.

Base Station ControIIer (BSC)

The BSC manages all the radio-related Iunctions oI a GSM network. It is
a high capacity switch that provides Iunctions such as MS handover,
radio channel assignment and the collection oI cell conIiguration data. A
number oI BSCs may be controlled by each MSC.


Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
The BTS controls the radio interIace to the MS. The BTS comprises the
radio equipment such as transceivers and antennas, which are needed to
serve each cell in the network. A group oI BTSs are controlled by a BSC.






NETWORK MONITORING CENTERS

Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)
An OMC is a computerized monitoring center, which is connected to
other network components such as MSCs, and BSCs via X.25 data
network links. In the OMC, staII is
presented with inIormation about the status oI the network and can
monitor and control a variety oI system parameters. There may be one or
several OMCs within a network depending on the network size.

Network Management Center (NMC)
Centralized control oI a network is done at a Network Management
Center (NMC). Only one NMC is required Ior a network and this controls
the subordinate OMCs. The advantage oI this hierarchical approach is
that staII at the NMC can concentrate on long term system-wide issues,
whereas local personnel at each OMC can concentrate on short term,
regional issues.
OMC and NMC Iunctionality can be combined in the same physical
network node or implemented at diIIerent locations.

MOBILE STATION (MS)

A mobile subscriber to communicate with the mobile network uses an
MS. Several types oI MSs exist, each allowing the subscriber to make and
receive calls. ManuIacturers oI MSs oIIer a variety oI designs and
Ieatures to meet the needs oI diIIerent markets. The range or coverage
area oI an MS depends on the output power oI the MS. DiIIerent types oI
MSs have diIIerent output power capabilities and consequently diIIerent
ranges. For
example, hand-held MSs have a lower output power and shorter range
than car-installed MSs with a rooI mounted antenna.










GSM MSs consist of:
O A mobile terminal
O A Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Unlike other standards, in GSM the subscriber is separated Irom the
mobile terminal. Each subscriber's inIormation is stored as a "smart card"
SIM. The SIM can be plugged into any GSM mobile terminal. This
brings the advantages oI security and portability Ior subscribers. For
example, subscriber A's mobile terminal may have been stolen. However,
subscriber A's own SIM can be used in another person's mobile terminal
and the calls will be charged to subscriber A.



GSM GEOGRAPHICAL NETWORK STRUCTURE

Every telephone network needs a speciIic structure to route incoming
calls to the correct exchange and then on to the subscriber. In a mobile
network, this

structure is very important because the subscribers are mobile. As
subscribers move through the network, these structures are used to
monitor their location.



CELL
A cell is the basic unit oI a cellular system and is deIined as the area oI
radio coverage given by one BS antenna system. Each cell is assigned a
unique number called Cell Global Identity (CGI). In a complete network
covering an entire country, the number oI cells can be quite high.


A CELL

LOCATION AREA (LA)

A Location Area (LA) is deIined as a group oI cells. Within the network,
a subscriber`s location is known by the LA, which they are in. The
identity oI the LA in which an MS is currently located is stored in the
VLR. When an MS crosses the boundary between two cells belonging to
diIIerent LA`s, it must report its new Location Area to the network (This
only occurs when the MS is idle. The location is not updated during a
call; instead the updating takes place aIter the release). II it crosses a cell
boundary within a LA, it does not report k, its new cell location to the
network. When there is a call Ior an MS, a paging message is broadcast
within all the cells belonging to the relevant LA.


MSC SERVICE AREA

An MSC service area is made up oI a number oI LAs and represents the
geographical part oI the network controlled by one MSC. In order to be
able to route a call to an MS, the subscriber's MSC service area is also
recorded and monitored.
The subscriber's MSC service area is stored in the HLR.







MSC SERVICE AREA




!LMN SERVICE AREA
A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) service area is the entire set oI
cells served by one network operator and is deIined as the area in which
an operator oIIers radio coverage and access to its network. In any one
country there may be several PLMN service areas, one Ior each mobile
operator's network.


GSM SERVICE AREA
The GSM service area is the entire geographical area in which a
subscriber can gain access to a GSM network. The GSM service area
increases as more operators sign contracts agreeing to work together.
Currently, the GSM service area spans dozens oI countries across the
world Irom Ireland to Australia and South AIrica. International roaming
is the term applied when an MS moves Irom one PLMN to another when
abroad.




RELATION ETWEEN AREAS OF GSM

The Iigures below show alternative views oI the same network:
O The Iirst Iigure shows the network nodes and their layout across
the network. For simplicity, this may be reIerred to as the hardware
view oI the network.
The second Iigure shows the geographical network conIiguration. For
simplicity, this may be reIerred to as the soItware view oI the network.
















HARDWARE VIEW OF SAMPLE NETWORK



SOFTWARE VIEW OF SAMPLE NETWORK











GSM FREQUENCY BANDS
As GSM has grown worldwide, it has expanded to operate at three
Irequency bands: 900, 1800 and 1900.


GSM FREQUENCY AND

GSM 900
The original Irequency band speciIied Ior GSM was 900 MHz. Most
GSM networks worldwide use this band. In some countries and extended
version oI GSM 900 can be used, which provides extra network capacity.
This extended version oI GSM is called E-GSM, while the primary
version is called P-GSM.

GSM 1800
In 1990, in order to increase competition between operators, the United
Kingdom requested the start oI a new version oI GSM adapted to the
1800 MHz Irequency band. Licenses have been issued in several
countries and networks are in Iull operation. By granting licenses Ior
GSM 1800 in addition to GSM 900, a country can increase the number oI
operators. In this way, due to increased competition, the service to
subscribers is improved.



GSM 1900
In 1995, the Personal Communications Services (PCS) concept was
speciIied in the United States. The basic idea is to enable "person-to-
person" communication rather than "station-to-station". PCS does not
require that such services be implemented using cellular technology, but
this has proven to be the most eIIective method. The Irequencies
available Ior PCS are around 1900 MHz. As GSM 900 could not be used
in North America due to prior allocation oI the 900 MHz Irequencies,
GSM 1900 MHz is seen as an opportunity to bridge this gap. The main
diIIerences between the American GSM 1900





standard and GSM 900 is that it supports ANSI signaling.

GSM 400
Ericsson and Nokia support the work oI ETSI on a global standard Ior
GSM on the 450 MHz Irequency band. Ericsson and Nokia are aiming to
make GSM 450 products available Ior the market during 2001. The
believe is that the introduction oI GSM in the 450 MHz Irequency band
will Iurther leverage the success oI global GSM. GSM 400 also provides
NMT system operators a logical way to introduce quality digital services
and seamless international roaming possibilities.


KEY TERMS
During the development oI mobile systems, many terms arose which are
used to describe the call cases and situations involving MSs. The primary
terms used are described below.
An MS can have one oI the Iollowing states:
O Idle: the MS is ON but a call is not in progress
O Active: the MS is ON and a call is in progress
O Detached: the MS is OFF
The Iollowing table deIines the key terms used to describe GSM mobile
traIIic cases (there are no traIIic cases in detached mode):

Mode Term Description
Idle

















Registration


Roaming


International
Roaming





Location Updating



Paging
This is the process in which an MS
inIorms a network that it is attached.

When an MS moves around a network in
idle mode, it is reIerred to as roaming.

When an MS move into a network, which
is not, its home network, it is reIerred to as
international roaming. MSs can only roam
into networks with which the home
network has a roaming agreement.

An MS roaming around the network must
inIorm the network when it enters a new
LA. This is called location updating.

This is the process whereby a network
attempts to contact a particular MS. This






Active





Handover
is achieved by broadcasting a paging
message containing the identity oI that
MS.

This is the process, where a call path is
switched Irom one physical channel to
another, while the MS moves.

Key terms



Home Location Register (HLR)
Ericsson`s HLR is also based on AXE and can be implemented in the
same node as the MSC/VLR or as a stand-alone node.



ADDITIONAL NETWORK COMPONENTS

A basic GSM network can be enhanced by the addition oI some or all oI
the Iollowing Iunctions.

AdditionaI Nodes

Message Center (MC)
A Message Center (MC) may be added to a GSM network to provide
voice/Iax mail and handling oI the Short Message Service (SMS) and
SMS Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) text messages. These services can
generate considerable revenue Ior a network operator, as they are
becoming increasingly popular. In the Ericsson GSM system the MC is
implemented by Ericsson's MXE product. Like other network nodes, the
MXE can also be controlled by OSS.










MobiIe InteIIigent Network (MIN) nodes

Mobile Intelligent Network (MIN) nodes can be added to a basic GSM
network to provide value-added services to subscribers .Ericsson`s MIN
nodes include:

Service Switching Point (SSP): an SSP acts as an interIace between the
call control Iunctions oI the mobile network and the service control
Iunctions oI a Service Control Point (SCP). Ericsson's SSP is AXE-based
and may be integrated within an MSC/VLR (recommended) or stand-
alone.

Service Control Point (SCP): an SCP contains the intelligence oI a
MIN service or services. This intelligence is realized in soItware
programs and data. Ericsson's SCP is also AXE-based and the
recommended conIiguration is as a stand-alone node, accessible by all
MSC/SSPs.

Service Data Point (SDP): an SDP manages the data which is used by an
MIN service. Ericsson`s SDP is a stand-alone node based on UNIX.

Post Processing Systems
Post processing systems are used by network operators to handle and
analyze the large amounts oI inIormation which is generated by calls in
the network.

Service Order Gateway (SOG)
A network operator requires administrative systems to analyze and
manage network inIormation such as customer subscriptions, billing
inIormation and Ior Iraud detection. An operator's administrative systems
are normally called Customer Administration Systems (CAS). They are
complex systems which are oIten inIlexible and costly to adapt to the
speciIic needs oI individual network operators. The Service Order
Gateway (SOG) is an Ericsson product which enables CASs to exchange
inIormation with network elements which contain service inIormation,
such as the HLR.






FREQUENCY CONCEPTS

The Iollowing table summarizes the Irequency-related
speciIications oI each oI the GSM systems. The terms used in
the table are explained in the remainder oI this section.


System

P-GSM
900
E-GSM
900
GSM 1800 GSM 1900
Frequencies:
O Uplink
O Downlink

Wavelength

Bandwidth

Duplex Distance

Carrier Separation

Radio Channels

Transmission Rate

890-915
MHz
935-960
MHz

~33

25 MHz

45 MHz

200 MHz

125

270 kbits/s


880-915
MHz
925-960
MHz

~33

35 MHz

45 MHz

200 MHz

175

270 kbits/s


1710-
1785MHz
1805-
1880MHz

~17

75 MHz

95 MHz

200 MHz

375

270 kbits/s


1850-1910
MHz
1930-1990
MHz

~16

60 MHz

80 MHz

200 MHz

300

270 kbits/s

FREQUENCY RELATED SPECIFICATIONS

An MS communicates with a BTS by transmitting or receiving radio
waves. Radio Irequencies are used Ior many applications in the world
today. Some common uses include:
O Television: 300 MHz approx.
O FM Radio: 100 MHz approx.
O Police radios: Country dependent
O Mobile networks: 300 - 2000 MHz approx.








The Irequencies used by mobile networks vary according to the standard
being used2. An operator applies Ior the available Irequencies or, as in
the United States, the operator bids Ior Irequency bands at an auction.
The Iollowing diagram displays the Irequencies used by the maior mobile
standards:



Most digital cellular systems use the technique of Time Division


LOCATION U!DATING


INTRODUCTION
When the MS is powered on in an MSC/VLR service area, the
MS must carry out a Location Update. II the IMSI is not

recognized in the VLR, the VLR requests subscriber
inIormation Irom the HLR where the MS`s subscription is held.
Remember, when a new subscription is taken out, the
subscription belongs to one HLR, and the MS becomes a visitor
whenever it is powered on in an MSC/VLR service area.
The VLR uses MAP signaling to communicate with the HLR to
carry out a location update. All MAP signaling uses the SCCP
and the SCCP nodes are addressed using a Global Title (GT). A
GT is similar to a dialed number and is based on the E.164
series.
The MS has only sent the IMSI up to the MSC/VLR, which is
based on the E.212 series, this is not a dialed number in the
telephony network. For the VLR to communicate with the HLR,
the IMSI must be modiIied to a Iormat allowing it to be used in
the SCCP network. This new number series is reIerred to as a
Mobile Global Title (MGT) and is based on the E.214 series,
made up oI the CC ¹ NDC ¹ MSIN. The CC identiIies the
country code and the NDC the network. The MGT is only used
Ior Location Updating.
This MGT is then used to route the MAP signal through the
SCCP network Irom a VLR to the subscribers HLR.




GSM IDENTITIES
To switch a call to a mobile subscriber, the right identiIying codes must
be used. A mobile subscriber can make, receive, or Iorward calls Irom
any location within the GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) with
a high degree oI security. GSM uses more than one addressing and
numbering plan to identiIy diIIerent networks. The identities used in a
GSM PLMN network are as Iollows.

MOILE STATION ISDN NUMER (MSISDN)
The MSISDN is a number which uniquely identiIies a mobile telephone
subscription within the Public Switched Telephony Network (PSTN)
numbering plan. In GSM 900 the MSISDN is composed oI:

MSISDN ÷ CC + NDC + SN
O CC ÷ Country Code
O NDC ÷ National Destination Code
O SN ÷ Subscriber Number




MSISDN in GSM 900











In GSM 1900 the MSISDN is composed oI:
MSISDN = CC + N!A + SN
O CC ÷ Country Code
O NPA ÷ Number Planning Area
O SN ÷ Subscriber Number



MSISDN in GSM 1900




A National Destination Code (NDC)/ Numbering Plan Area (NPA) is
allocated to each GSM 900/GSM 1900 PLMN. In some countries more
than one NDC/NPA may be required Ior each GSM 900/GSM 1900
PLMN. The length oI the MSISDN depends on the structure and
operating plan oI each operator. The maximum length is 15 digits,
preIixes not included. Each subscription is connected to one HLR.















INTERNATIONAL MOILE SUSCRIER IDENTITY
(IMSI)
The IMSI is a unique identiIying code allocated to each subscriber
allowing correct identiIication over the radio path and through the GSM
PLMN network. It is used Ior all identiIication signaling in the PLMN
and all network related subscriber inIormation is connected to it. The
IMSI is stored


in the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), as well as in the HLR and the
VLR.
It consists oI three diIIerent parts:

IMSI ÷ MCC + MNC + MSIN


O MCC ÷ Mobile Country Code
O MNC ÷ Mobile Network Code
O MSIN ÷ Mobile Subscriber IdentiIication Number

According to the GSM 900/GSM 1900 speciIications, IMSI can have a
maximum length oI 15 digits.
Examples:
A subscriber in the German Telecom GSM 900 network has the
Iollowing IMSI.
IMSI ÷ 262 02 XXXXXXXXXX
A subscriber in the American GSM 1900 network has the Iollowing
IMSI:
IMSI ÷ 310 011 XXXXXXXXX







IMSI



TEMPORARY MOILE SUSCRIER IDENTITY
(TMSI)
The TMSI can be used to keep subscriber inIormation conIidential on the
air interIace. It also increases paging capacity as the length oI the TMSI is
shorter than the length oI
the IMSI. The TMSI is relevant on the local MSC/VLR level only and is
changed at certain events or time intervals. Each local operator can deIine
his own TMSI structure. The TMSI should not consist oI more than Iour
octets when used within a Location Area (LA), Ior example, Ior paging.
When a cell within a new Location Area (LA) is entered, the Location
Area Identitiy (LAI) must be added to the Iour octets to perIorm a
location update.

MOILE STATION ROAMING NUMER (MSRN)
When a mobile terminating call is to be set up, the HLR oI the called
subscriber requests the current MSC/VLR to allocate a MSRN to the
called subscriber. This MSRN is returned via the HLR to the GMSC. The
GMSC routes the call to the MSC/VLR exchange where the called
subscriber is currently registered. The routing is done using the MSRN.
When the routing is completed, the MSRN is released. The interrogation
call routing Iunction (request Ior MSRN) is part oI the MAP. All data
exchanged between GMSC-HLR-MSC/VLR Ior the purpose oI


interrogation is sent over S7 signaling. The MSRN is built up like an
MSISDN.

In GSM 900, the MSRN is composed oI the Iollowing:
MSRN ÷ CC + NDC + SN
O CC ÷ Country Code
O NDC ÷ National Destination Code
O SN ÷ Subscriber Number

In GSM 1900 the MSRN is composed oI the Iollowing:
MSRN ÷ CC + NPA + SN
O CC ÷ Country Code
O NPA ÷ Number Planning Area
O SN ÷ Subscriber Number






MSRN









LOCATION AREA IDENTITY (LAI)
The LAI, used Ior paging, indicates to the MSC in which location area
the MS is operating. It is also used Ior location updating oI mobile
subscribers.

The LAI contains the Iollowing:
LAI ÷ MCC + MNC + LAC
O MCC ÷ Mobile Country Code

Identical to IMSI MCC
O MNC ÷ Mobile Network Code

Identical to IMSI MNC
O LAC ÷ Location Area Code

The maximum length oI LAC is 16 bits, enabling 65,536 diIIerent
location areas to be deIined in one PLMN.





LAI











ADDRESSING THE SWITCHING SYSTEM ENTITIES

GLOAL TITLE (GT)
A Global Title (GT) is an identiIying code, such as dialed digits, which
does not explicitly contain inIormation that allows routing in the
signaling network. This requires the Signaling Connection Control Part
(SCCP) translation Iunction. The GT is used Ior addressing signaling
inIormation. DiIIerent numbering plans are used to distinguish diIIerent
networks.
O E.164 is the numbering plan Ior PSTN/ISDN
O E.212 is the numbering plan Ior GSM PLMN
Each network entity is identiIied by its international PSTN/ISDN number.
That is, its own command deIined address which has the Iollowing
structure:
Example: E.164: CC ¹ NDC(or NPA) ¹ SN
The CC, NDC, and SN identiIy the node within the whole GSM, as well
as the entity. Entities include the HLR, MSC, VLR, EIR, and AUC.
During an incoming call to a mobile subscriber, the GMSC analyzes the
MSISDN to locate the appropriate HLR. The digits in the Subscriber
Number (MSISDN) are used Ior the signal routing to the HLR.

MOILE GLOAL TITLE (MGT)
When an MS is powered on in a PLMN, the VLR must communicate
with the MS`s HLR to perIorm location updating. The only data available
in the MSC/VLR Ior the SCCP addressing oI the HLR is the IMSI
number.

However, Ior signaling in the international PSTN/ISDN network, IMSI
can not be used. Thus, it is necessary to convert the IMSI number in the
MSC/VLR into a Global Title (GT), which enables routing oI the S7
signaling to the proper HLR. This converted number is called the Mobile
Global Title (MGT).

Structure of the MGT
The MGT is oI variable length and is composed oI decimal digits
arranged in two speciIic parts. These speciIic parts are E.164 and E.212.
Together they Iorm E.214.
The E.164 part is used to identiIy the home country and the home PLMN
oI the mobile subscriber. The E.212 part is used to identiIy the HLR the
mobile subscriber is registered in and is composed oI the Mobile Station
IdentiIication Number (MSIN).








Derivation of the MGT
The MGT is derived Irom the IMSI as Iollows:
1. The CC is derived directly Irom the MCC.
2. The NDC is derived either Irom the MNC or Irom the MNC
and some initial digits oI the MSIN.
3. The MSIN is mapped directly into the MGT up to its
maximum length.

This translation is perIormed during the IMSI analysis in the MSC/VLR.
It is initiated via commands.








LOCATION UPDATING
When the MS is powered on in an MSC/VLR service area, the MS must
carry out a Location Update. II the IMSI is not recognized in the VLR,
the VLR requests subscriber
inIormation Irom the HLR where the MS`s subscription is held.
Remember, when a new subscription is taken out, the subscription
belongs to one HLR, and the MS becomes a visitor whenever it is
powered on in an MSC/VLR

service area. The VLR uses MAP signaling to communicate with the
HLR to carry out a location update. All MAP signaling uses the SCCP
and the SCCP nodes are addressed using a Global Title (GT). A
GT is similar to a dialed number and is based on the E.164 series. The
MS has only sent the IMSI up to the MSC/VLR, which is based on the
E.212 series, this is not a dialed number in the telephony network. For the
VLR to communicate with the HLR, the IMSI must be modiIied to a
Iormat allowing it to be used in the SCCP network. This new number
series is reIerred to as a Mobile Global Title (MGT) and is based on the
E.214 series, 0made up oI the CC ¹ NDC ¹ MSIN. The CC identiIies the
country code and the NDC the network. The MGT is only used Ior
Location Updating. This MGT is then used to route the MAP signal
through the SCCP network Irom a VLR to the subscribers HLR.





IMSI NUMER SERIES ANALYSIS
Whenever a new roaming agreement is taken out, the inIormation on how
to convert the IMSI to a MGT must be speciIied in each MSC/VLR; this
needs to be speciIied even Ior
the PLMN`s own subscribers. The IMSI Number Series Analysis also
gives inIormation about what the MS is allowed to do within the current
PLMN. This may diIIer Irom one roaming agreement to another.




GLOBAL TITLE ANALYSIS
When the Update Location MAP signal is sent, the NP parameter in the
SCCP is set to a deIault value, NP÷7. NP÷7 means the number used is a
Mobile Global Title (MGT).
The Global Title (GT) Analysis must reIlect this; the Command C7GSI is
used in GSM 900 only; GSM 1900 uses the command S7TSI.

C7GSÌ:TT=0, NP=7 ,NA=4,NS=49,GTRC=4; !MGT GERMAN
SUBSCRÌBERS!
C7GSÌ:TT=0,NP=1,NA=4,NS=49,GTRC=4; ! HLR/VLR GERMANY
!
SCCP Data for Location Update


The GT Analysis as deIined in iure will use GTRC÷1 Ior a number
series, NS÷49, to realize a location updating (NP÷7). The command line
with NP÷1 and GTRC÷4, is used Ior the VLR to communicate with the
HLR, once Location Updating has taken place. (For more inIormation,
reIer to the chapter on the SCCP.) In GSM 900 (command C7GSI),
termination (PTERM÷YES, PSP÷OWNSP) should be deIined, iI the
VLR and the HLR are in the same node.
Note: It is very important to remember that iI a GT Analysis Ior NP÷7
does not exist, a Location Update will not be made. In practice, these two
lines, one with NP÷7 (Location Updating) and NP÷1 (Ior all other VLR
to HLR communication), are required Ior every Roaming Agreement that
exists. Furthermore, data must be added when a new HLR is installed in
your own PLMN. II the PLMN has more than one HLR, the number
series must be expanded to uniquely identiIy the individual HLR
concerned. In GSM 1900, the GT Analysis must be deIined as Iollows:





S7TSI: GTS÷gts, S7TSI: GTS÷gts,
GTRC÷gtrc, GTRC÷gtrc,
RI÷GT; RI÷SS,
LSS÷lss;



























CALL FROM MOILE SUSCRIER

GENERAL
In this chapter, the exchange data necessary to allow a mobile
originated call is described. Many oI the areas oI analysis, Ior
example, B-number analysis, access barring analysis, and routing
case analysis ought to be Iamiliar Irom previous chapters and
courses, thereIore, only new or diIIerent aspects will be
considered in Iurther detail.
iure 9-1 shows the nodes and inIormation involved in a
mobile originated call.















The Iollowing sequence oI events occurs:

1. The MS sends a DTAP message to the MSC which contains
Bearer Capability (BC), the B-number, and other inIormation
describing the B-number. The other inIormation includes the
B-Number Type (BNT) and the Numbering Plan (NP). The
Bearer Capability (BC) describes the type oI service required
Ior the call, Ior example, it may be a telephony call, a Iax
call, a data call, or even a short message call. The Number
Plan (NP) always indicates that the B-number is based on the
E.164 series, NP÷1 and the B-Number Type (BNT) usually
indicates that the B-number is oI type unknown, BNT÷2.
However, iI the '¹¨ key (the '¹¨ key is used instead oI the
international access code, in Germany 00, Sweden 009) is
used BNT indicates that the B-number is in the international
Iormat BNT÷1.

2. The whole range oI analysis takes place in the MSC/VLR, as
illustrated in iure 9-2, beIore an outgoing route is selected.

3. The call is routed to other networks according to the Bnumber
and Routing Case analysis.



LEVEL OPENING

1) The work done until the contemporary date involves opening oI the
LEVEL 1 TAXES oI all the states to our levels namely 98870 to
98874. The LEVEL 1 is basically a transient switch type, which is
responsible to Iorward all the STD, calls through it.
2) The next stage involves opening oI levels i.e. 98870 to 98874 to
the LEVEL 2 oI the BSNL PSTN network, also called as the
LDCA (Long Distance Charging Area). The work is in progress.

3) The Iuture course oI action deals with the opening oI SDCA (Short
Distance Charging Area) levels, which are approximately 2642 in
number.







The basic representation is as Iollows: -












SDCA SDCA SDCA SDCA

L2 represents LDCA.

OPENING OF 94 LEVELS

1) The PSTN network is absolutely independent network
communicating with the
GSM to exchange voice and data signals.
2) The BSNL mobile network has 4 diIIerent GMSC`s namely:
NORTH, SOUTH, EAST and WEST. Thus, the task involves
enquiring where they are located, opening oI the '94¨ levels Irom
these 4 GMSC`s and then opening up our 5 levels Irom the
diIIerent MTNL GSM (Dolphin) connections.
3) The last task involved is getting the SMS tested Irom the
corresponding MTNL GSM connections by opening up the 98870
to 98874 levels in the SMSC`s. This work is to be done in parallel
with the above iob.













Level 1 oI state
1
Level 1 oI Rai.
At Jpr.
L2

L2
L2 L2


Abbreviations:
AUC Authentication Center
SC Base Station Controller
TS Base Transceiver Station
EIR Equipment Identity Register
HLR Home Location Register
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile services Switching Center
NMC Network Management Center
OMC Operation and Maintenance Center
VLR Visitor Location Register


































ILOGRAPHY


1. www.wikipedia.org
2. www.answers.com
3. www.ideacellular.com
4. www.howstuIIworks.com
5. Student Text(GSM MSC/VLR ConIiguration) By ERICSSON













  

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