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Tourism with its wide range of constituent sub sectors is now world's largest industry.

The dramatic growth of tourism over the last twenty five years is one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of the period. The employment impact of tourism goes beyond employment in sectors in which tourists directly spend their money, such as hotels, restaurants and airlines. The establishments which receive tourists also buy goods and services from other sectors that generate employment in those sectors through multiplier effect. Tourism creates employment. According to the World Tourism Organisation (WTO), the tourism industry accounts for 11% of total global employment. It is said that every twelve tourists create a new job. Unfortunately, tourism is one of the most neglected sectors in Bangladesh, though there is no lack of lip service on the part of the government. In India, there has been 220.1 million domestic tourist visits in the year 2000 that increased to 234.8 million in the year 2001 and 273.3 million in 2002. In the year 2003, 2.75 million tourists visited the country. Conservative estimates of tourism related employment (base year 2002) by indian professionals reveal that tourism generates about 7.5 million full time job equivalents in India. It translates to about 11 million actual jobs. 684000 jobs were sustained by the visitors to new york state last yaer with total associated income of $27 million. 6.2% of all jobs in the state are sustained by tourism. Tourism can be considered an export industry. It is a commodity for sale at a cheaper rate to earn a great amount of foreign exchange. The initial period of growth occurred in the late 1960's and 1970's, when tourism was perceived as a key activity for generating foreign exchange and creating employment opportunities through private and government organisations. Efforts for employment generation and poverty reduction,. related to tourism sector, have been continuing in a dynamic way in developed and developing countries because of their tourism promotional campaign. Inter-cultural awareness and cross-boarder face-to-face gathering are made possible through tourism. As such, it is a powerful tool for improving international understanding, thus, contributing to peace among all the nations of the world. From an ancient period, Bengal was well known for its loveliness as well as its industrial base. Tourism in Bangladesh can also be developed as a

We can earn foreign exchange from this sector as well as create large employment opportunities. Thus job growth permits the expansion and improvement of public goods and services. scenic beauty of spots.productive industry like in many other countries. 'Tourism 2020' vision is the World Tourism Organisation's long-term forecast and assessment for the development of tourism up to the first 20 years of the new millennium. An essential outcome of this vision is quantitative forecasts covering a 25-year period. easy communication and transportation facilities. Tourism sector as a whole encompasses diverse organisations including tourism spots. help develop the economy as a whole. accelerated national gross domestic product (GDP) growth. depending on the cultural heritage. It is also related to current affairs and economic diplomacy. And an expanding job market encourages local workers to upgrade their skills in order to qualify for available higher wage jobs. a vibrant job market provides an incentive for local students to continue their education since the rewards for such are evident in better local employment opportunities. balanced development is needed. For effective development of the tourism industry. making the community a more attractive location for businesses in the future. when violence and political instability prevail. then tourism will not prosper. archaeological and historical sites. When tourism sector is developed. provision of accommodation starting from world class to those catering to poorer . overall development and conservation of nature. Tourism marketing depends on strategic planning. poverty reduction. In addition. sociopolitical and infrastructural development of a country. historical and natural scenic beauty spots and launching of effective advertising and promotional campaign. with 1995 as the base year. This will. The activities for attracting local and foreign tourists to tour different areas of Bangladesh should cover proper maintenance of the archaeological. Vision and mission to increase tourism should work together. leading to an improved local quality of life and enhanced prospects for future employment growth. Security of the tourist spots is vital for arranging tour programmes. it will have a positive impact on GDP growth performance. Tourism is an integrated sector. Bangladesh is also trying to attain 'Tourism 2020' vision. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation or BPC (2004) in its study report on this vision aimed at harnessing the potential of tourism as a contributor to overall development of the country. Sustained job growth stimulates improvements in the education and skills of the local labor force. in terms of job creation. in turn. However.

three star . Accommodation. If we consider the history of world civilisation. Due to international phenomena. Rajshahi and other district headquarters. Chittagong. The following sections highlight the facilities available in Bangladesh: BPC has already set up different types of accommodation and other facilities at different places of tourism importance. Accommodation. tour operators. Economic diplomacy can be used to explore production. economic diplomacy can help to attain fulfillment of the basic needs of a country. multiple languages etc. For holding conferences and arranging cultural functions. has been created for economic diplomacy. Rangpur. larger precision and more advertising. we find that during the times of peace and prosperity. have positive impact on world tourism. Dhaka. Syllhet. Activities for enhancement in sequence. The present supply of five star. diversified quality food items for multiple groups of people at different prices depending on the nature of the tourists. and Bogra. travel guides. tax free shops. This will help get a clear idea about the present condition of tourism in the country. TOURISM FACILITIES IN BANGLADESH The host country needs to arrange some essential facilities at the destination areas to ensure comfortable tours for the visitors. mobility of tourists from one place to another. The same thing is happening in the twenty-first century. BPC has established an air conditioned modern auditorium with 200 seating capacity at Rangamati and six conference halls of different capacities at Cox’s Bazar. transport. rises. movement of labour and foreign direct investment (FDI). Global economic issues have a vast impact on local issues and in this process. security arrangement. Tourism activities are getting a boost in the countries having political stability and also being free from terrorist activities. The current situation is directly related to world tourism. exchange of products and services from one place to another. restaurant and recreation facilities are the important ones to be ensured by the host destination country. transport. Rajshahi. covering new dimensions and strategies. It is quite pertinent to look at the tourist facilities available in Bangladesh. rescue system. A large number of standard auditoriums and theatre stages of different capacities under both private and public sector organizations are also available in Dhaka. a wide area.income groups of people. restaurant and recreation facilities are the important ones to be ensured by the host destination areas to ensure comfortable tours for the visitors.

“Research shows that job creation in tourism grows by one and a half times faster than in any other industrial sector. etc. hotel industry. It is interesting too that the tourist industry is one of the few in which more women are employed than men is most . especially in the areas where alternative economic development is not a cost-effective alternative. distribution channel members like tour operators and travel agencies add to the opening up further employment opportunities in most of the destination countries. This role of this industry in generating employment opportunities for the working people is very important for developing countries like ours. Tourism jobs and businesses are usually created in the most underdeveloped regions of a country. The overwhelming majority of tourism jobs are provided with small and medium entrepreneurs requiring small amount of capital. food service and restaurant industry. It has already become the single largest employer in the world. though the supply of the same at some destination areas is found vacant during the off-season. This sector creates job opportunities to higher level enterprises too. Besides.. Thus. there has been greater emphasis on creating employment through both the domestic and the international tourism demands. But the supply of economy and first class accommodations in the destination areas in not enough and cannot meet the demand of the visitors in the peak season. Nevertheless.” As such. the industry has unlimited potentials as an avenue to create huge employment opportunities throughout the world. far from the madding crowd. Both the domestic and the international tourism offer a protective umbrella for other sectors and help flourish transport companies. and thus paves the way of creating employment opportunities.and two star hotel rooms at Dhaka can meet the present demand of tourists. This helps equalize economic opportunities throughout the nation and provide incentives to residents to remain in their respective rural areas rather than moving to overcrowded cities. Tourism can be the life-blood of developing nation by promoting local employment. It is more labor oriented than any other industry. Moreover. further increases in the supply of 3/5-star hotels will be required at Dhaka in the medium and long-term. tourism is a labor intensive industry which can help create employment opportunities for a large number of skilled and unskilled persons in different sectors and solve unemployment problems substantially. Tourism being a vast and complex industry provides employment to a large number of people with different skills through its many and diverse components. The following table gives an account of the destination-wise break-up of the supply of BPC’s important hotel rooms and bed capacities: Tourism is mostly a service industry providing huge job opportunities.

A WTO publication has shown that two-thirds of the workforce in the developed countries of the world has been working in the service sectors and as much as 25 percent of these workers are working in tourism-related jobs. seasonal employment low job status make employment within an industry appear . this sector is helping solve the problem of unemployment worldwide at a faster rate than any other sector. 33% by the year 2005. 69% of the employees in the catering and holiday trade are women. another statistics published by the World Travel and Tourism Council shows that more than 255 million people are engaged with and earn their livelihood from this labor intensive industry. The changing behavior and Trent in global tourist movement was identity by many countries by developing their own tourism industry. In Britain.5 percent of the world’s workforce”. In Bangladesh government has taken necessary measure to encourage to private sector to play a positive role in the development and diversification of tourist facilities. On the other hand. by the year 2007. travel and tourism industry sprouted roughly 206 million jobs or one out of every five workers in the world. During 1997. it is expected that the workforce for tourism and travel sector alone will grow to 383 million people will be earning their livelihood from tourism. tourism industry has become the single largest employer in the world”. A major sector of the service economy tourism is increase recognized as contributing to social and economic development as well as a beneficially activity for host communities creating direct and indirect job.countries. Tourism today is not confined to a few countries of traditional touristinternet. “The world statistics shows that in terms of creating employment opportunities. More and more tourist are now avoiding the over crowded beaten treat and heading for new areas and destination. Again. Haque also cited with reference to the WTTC that 255 million people were engaged in this industry in 2002. Tourism is a leading industry of the 21 century. Jobs in this sector are expected to increase faster than other traditional industries. catering and tourism industry long antisocial working hours low pay. for instance. tourism generated over 262 million jobs worldwide accounting for 10. In 1994. The traditional constraints of the hotel. As per static’s issued in the world tract and tourism council more the 225 million people earn their livelihood from tourism and by the by in year 2006 no fewer than 385 million will be doing so. unstable. Haque also mentioned that this number would rise to 380 million in the next 2006. Thus. It is a singe largest industry in the world today.

07. While during 2002 and 2003. There is no specific target to achieve and no clear vision for the future. The figure presented in the above table may reflect an impressive profile of tourism in Bangladesh. But these figures are calculated by enumerating all foreigners coming to Bangladesh. Compared to them. the number of foreign tourists that arrive to a particular country is taken as the yardstick worldwide for measuring the development level of tourist.100 lacs respectively. and employment generation. Foreign currency earnings. The contribution of this industry in the global as well as individual perspective is really astounding. “Remarkable growth and development of tourism has taken place in countries with similar socio-economic and religious environment such as Malaysia and Indonesia.attractive to many. In absolute figure. “Despite enormous potentials. In Bangladesh. It should be noted that “Development of tourism industry does not mean only an increase in earning of foreign currency from this sector. But an objective analysis will reveal a somewhat different picture. A study carried out in Bangladesh found that employment in tourism destination control EMPLOYMENT GENERATION OF BANGLADESH TOURISM SECTOR Tourism’s multifaceted role is of obvious importance.246 and 2.126 lacs and 33. Bangladesh’s position is at the bottom of the list and only ahead of Bhutan.211 foreign tourists visited Bangladesh and the country earned 59 million US Dollar from this sector during the year 2000. Among the tourism exporting countries. Bangladesh should gear up its efforts to uphold the position of this sector and keep it at least at par with its neighboring countries with a view to achieving its economic and social goals. about 1. The following table shows foreign visitor arrivals and earnings from travel and tourism in Bangladesh.” Bangladesh could hardly bring any noticeable success in its tourism trade during more than the last three decades.509 respectively and the foreign exchange earnings stood at 33. the tourism industry of Bangladesh still strives to reach a satisfactory level. Therefore.99. The country has failed to attract a significant number of foreign tourist arrivals and contribute in its economy from this sector. Bangladesh could attain a very insignificant contribution in its economy in terms of GDP. The rate of growth may also sound very impressive numerically.44. the number of foreign tourists visited Bangladesh stood at 2. Rather. Judged by any standard either foreign currency earnings or tourist arrivalsBangladesh has shown a gloomy picture in this connection. Bangladesh’s position is far behind. the total number of actual tourist .

710 million in the forms of income tax. 710 million to the government exchequer against a total investment of only Tk. The total government investment of Tk. 85 cores in the development of tourism infrastructure through government loan. BPC has invested about Tk.” Others are NGO employees. A very negligible number of visitors here are actual holiday traffic. grant and loan. tourism represents only one percent of Bangladesh’s export economy. 320 million. electricity. Vat. government officials. interest. culvert. Prospects for BD: Study shows that the reasons of poor employment generation by tourism are various constraints faced by tourism industry at various tourist . fuel. diplomats. profit. The economic globalization of the world has boosted up tourism trade and created an opportunity for the developing countries to develop the sector and reap benefits out of this ever growing industry. motel. As Bangladesh has been suffering from an acute unemployment problem and no alternative cost-effective avenue of employment has been developed. a greater emphasis on creating employment opportunities through the development of both domestic and international tourism in this country is essential. In the case of employment generation in Bangladesh. etc. Bangladesh has developed infrastructure like hotel. 320 million came in the form a capital. In the case of earnings. the number would be very small and would show the precarious state of the tourism sector in Bangladesh.arrivals and the amount of foreign currency earnings are sadly very insignificant compared to our neighbouring countries. transport which is the precondition to the development of tourism industry. But only about 1 lakh people are directly and another 2 lakhs people are indirectly engaged with tourism industry in huge number of youths has virtually faded out. grants and self-finance. BPC invested another 3000 million from its own fund during the period. Only a small portion of the total visitors is real-holiday tourist. up to June 2002 to the government exchequer. BPC has contributed Tk. BPC paid back Tk. If we separate those who are not real pleasure tourists. Thus the industry in Bangladesh has great potentials as both a foreign exchange earner and an employment generator with the resultant multiplier effect on the country’s economy provided the country can exploit the sector with strategic approaches. and businessmen of the source countries. road. “Siddiqi (1977) also noted that visitors to this country are mostly businessmen and officials. Against this paltry investment. “Till now. the industry has also great potentials as a provider of jobs. “In 30 years since the birth of the BPC until the financial year 2001-2002.

Thus huge employment opportunity may be generated another important fact is that Nowadays different organisations often organise tourism fairs in Bangladesh. where domestic tourists will not be allowed. malpractices by operators. Instead of helping the country to earn foreign currency through tourism. With this sort of idea. They firmly believe that to attract foreign tourists to Bangladesh. which produce most of the outbound tourists. air connectivity and concerns related with carrying capacity and environment. with all nightlife facilities. the sellers' fairs help in depletion of the foreign exchange . In fact. To achieve that target.. manpower not being qualified resulting in poor quality of service. in which mainly outbound tour packages are sold. and they are not after the nightlife in the country. which they go to visit. our government policy makers need to know that at present the number of international eco-tourists is more than one hundred million. Major constraints are poor quality of infrastructure. Sending tourists from Bangladesh to other countries cannot be treated as the development of tourism in our country & job opportunity can not be created. our government policy makers have set their minds on setting-up an exclusive tourist zone near Cox's Bazaar. government high-ups and policy makers have hazy as well as negative ideas about tourism. proper marketing and promotion. Bangladesh may set its target to attract one million eco-tourists a year. it will have to chalk out a down-to-earth tourism marketing strategy and go for aggressive marketing in countries. One ex-finance minister of the country said in a meeting. as if these are the essence of tourism.destinations in the country. he number of eco-tourists in the world has been increasing by more than ten percent a year. Initially. "Tourist-ra kee Bangladeshe milad porte aibo?" (Will tourists come to Bangladesh to attend milad?) He was indicating the lack of western style nightlife in Bangladesh. These eco-tourists visit a country only to experience the nature. and heritage of that country. To change this mindset. absence of a diversified value bundle as a product offer to the tourists. One of our ex-state ministers for tourism said in a seminar that tourists would come to Bangladesh if the price of alcoholic beverages could be brought down. These fairs are sellers' fairs in character from the perspective of Bangladesh because the foreign exhibitors or their counterparts in Bangladesh sell outbound tour packages. culture. bars. and only a few offer domestic tour packages. the country needs to have nightlife facilities. massage parlours etc.

Just to cite an example. speak of the development of tourism in Bangladesh. There will be no need to spend money to buy media space in expensive TV channels. In this kind of situation. The plan needs following things: 1) Provide a small piece of land (less than say 2 acres or approx. 80. Unfortunately. the government has a stake in the project. b) Specialization in sea-food related cuisine. This global meltdown is expected to continue for another one or two years. a) A resort at a Cox’s bazar beach. the following can be a show-case towards this direction. as well as the organisers. it has taken a beating due to the lack of diversified brand image. the . ft). c) A by-product would be focus on Bangla cusine. Local entrepreneurships will always create more jobs. 3) In return. Internet could be a medium. but they must not say that they are organising this sort of fair for the development of tourism in the country. 5) A tie-up with a management institute for guidance. The government should focus on the potential of aqua-based products as a major driver to create a brand image. 4) Creation of an expert team which can guide the local entrepreneurs in setting up and managing the project. This would develop local entrepreneurships as opposed to looking only for big investors in terms of mega projects. Also. government does try to promote tourism in it's own efforts. which sounds odd on such an occasion. The Idea behind a beach-cum-seafood resort is that.reserve of the country. 2)Government provides a loan to a private entrepreneur (Local). big investments take a long time to fructify. it provides a chance to create a brand image which can be used to develop the brand image of Bangladesh tourism. the chief guest and special guest. Bangladesh has a wealth of tourism resources. Today. But.000 sq. who are usually from the government. Then how will job opportunities be created in tourism sector? Anybody has the legal right to organise a sellers' tourism fair. The marketing potential for such an enterprise is huge and cheap. we need to explore newer opportunities of employment generation and development. in the inaugural ceremony.

And. let us develop it in the true sense. so that it contributes valuable foreign exchange to our state coffer. four-laning of roads connecting important tourist centers and increasing availability of accommodation by adding heritage hotels to the hotel industry and encouraging paying guest accommodations. and help to develop the economy of the country. Let us be more practical about the development of tourism in the country. most of the travel Industry depends on Internet for it's marketing and revenues. has the potential to generate employment as well as build Bangladesh's brand image in the global world. Conclusion: Bangladesh tourism has vast potential for generating employment and earning large sums of foreign exchange. increasing trains and railway connectivity to important tourist destinations. . Also. Above observations coupled with timely and efficient implementation of programs and plans outlined in the tourism policies of respective States can catalyze the growth of tourism industry in the country resulting in creation of more tourism related jobs. A chain of such resorts along the coastline will act as a feather in BD's cap. by way of increasing air seat industry is looking for new and innovative ideas.

ASSIGNMNET On Impact if tourism in Employment generation: prospect for Bangladesh Submitted to: Professor Dr. Md. of Tourism & Hospitality Management University of Dhaka Prepared by: MD. Afjal Hossain Dept. ABU JAFAR ID: 070903034 3rd Batch Course : Managerial Economics .