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CHAPTER 14: The Nation Divided

[The Antebellum (Before the war) Period]


Main Topic:
NORTH & SOUTH DISAGREE ABOUT

SLAVERY
BECAUSE OF SLAVERY:
• The U.S. Compromises About New States
• Politics & The Election of 1860 Divides the Country
• Violence Begins to Happen
Slavery and the
Mexican-American War
• United States in 1848:
• 15 slave states
• 15 free states,
• The Mexican-American
war threatened to
throw off the balance.
• What to do about new
land from Texas?
• Missouri Compromise
did not cover this issue.
The Wilmot Proviso
• Proposed by David Wilmot
(1846)
– Pennsylvania Congressman
• Proposed Law:
Congress bans slavery in all
territories that might become
part of the US from Mexico.
• It never passed.
• Southerners believed this was a
direct attack on their way of life.
• Very controversial!
• Wilmot Proviso debate led to a new political party.
• Free Soil Party (1848)
– GOAL: Wanted land gained in the Mexican-American war to be
“free soil” where slavery was banned.
– They chose Martin Van Buren to run for President.
• Lost Badly
– Made up of Antislavery Whigs and Democrats.
Election of 1848
• Democrats wanted
popular sovereignty.
– Popular Sovereignty:
people in the territory or
state would vote directly
on issues, rather than
having their elected
representatives decide.
• Presidential Nominees:
– Free Soil: Martin Van Buren
– Whig: Zachary Taylor
(WINNER!)
– Democrats: Lewis Cass
THE CALIFORNIA DEBATE:

PROBLEMS!
• This would upset balance of free and slave states .
• Missouri Compromise would split the state in half.
• Southern leaders threaten to secede IF California
becomes a free state.
THE CALIFORNIA DEBATE: OPINIONS
NORTH SOUTH
• Wants to end • Protection of States’
sectionalism Right to Choose
• Preserve the UNION (Popular Sovereignty)
OR
“I wish to speak today, not as a
• SECESSION
Massachusetts man, nor as a Northern
man, but as an American…I speak “If something is not done to arrest it, the
today…for the restorations to the South will be forced to choose between
country of that quiet and that harmony abolition and secession…If you are
which makes the blessings of this Union unwilling we should part in peace, tell us
so rich, and so dear to us all.” so; and we shall know what to do when
you reduce the question to submission or
-Daniel Webster, March 7, 1850 resistance.”

-John C. Calhoun, March 4, 1850


• Henry Clay’s Proposal
• For the North:
– California admitted to the Union as a free state .
– Banned slave trade in Washington DC.
• For the South:
– Popular Sovereignty in the Mexican succession
area.
– Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (South)
• Legal to arrest any person accused of being a runaway slave.
• Northerners must assist Southerners
• Northerners were ANGRY & thought it was unfair.
FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT IN ACTION
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
• Stephen Douglas tries to compromise
between North & South
• Formed 2 New Territories:
– Kansas
– Nebraska
• Southerners objected:
– States would enter as free states
(Because of Missouri Compromise)
– Popular Sovereignty would determine
slavery in the state
(BLEW UP Missouri Compromise)
• Passed by both houses, signed into law.
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
Rush to Kansas (1854)
• Northerners & Southerners go to Kansas
within weeks of the law being passed. Why?
• Missourians illegally voted in Kansas to
select territorial legislature:
– Kansas=3000 voters
– Actual votes cast=8000
• 39 legislators elected, 36 supported slavery
• Anti-slavery settlers held a second election.
• 2 governments in Kansas.
Bleeding Kansas
• Violence in Kansas over the
elections.
• Pro-Slavery Sherriff shot and
returns with 800 men
• John Brown (Antislavery):
– Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas:
Murdered 5 pro-slavery men
and boys
• Violence in Senate
– Sumner (SC Senator) denounced
slavery in Kansas & Senator
Butler
– Butler’s nephew, Preston Brooks
beat Sumner with a cane in the
Senate
End of the Whigs & Rise of the Republicans
• Whig Party Split:
– Whig: Pro-Slavery
• Weakened by the deaths of Henry Clay & Webster
– Republican Party: Anti-Slavery
• Goal: To stop the spread of slavery into the western
territories
• Attracted: Northern Democrats & Free-Soil Republicans
• Becomes powerful force: 105 of 245 candidates in House
REMEMBER: Whig Party (1836-1852)
ORIGINS: National Republicans split into 2 political parties:
• National Republicans (Pro-Andrew Jackson)
• Whigs (Anti Andrew Jackson)
POWERFUL: 4 Presidents: Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, Filmore
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• By: Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852)
• She wanted to write:
“something that will make the whole
nation feel what an accursed thing
slavery is.”
• A novel about Uncle Tom, a kind
man who is enslaved and abused
by his cruel master, Simon Legree.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin: The Reaction
• NORTH:
– Bestseller in the North
– Shocked people and readers began to
view slavery as a moral problem and
not just a political conflict.

• SOUTH:
– Outraged by the book.
– Claimed that the book was propaganda
• Propaganda: false or misleading
information that is spread to further a
cause.
– Believed the novel was not accurate.
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS:
• Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. (MO)

Dred Scott
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS:
• Scott and his owner moved to Wisconsin for four years.

Dred Scott
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS:
• Scott’s owner died after returning to Missouri.

Dred Scott
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS:
* Scott sued for his freedom. He claimed that he should be a
free man since he lived in a free territory (WI) for four years.

Dred Scott
SUPREME COURT
DECISIONS:
Q: Was Scott a U.S.
citizen with the right to
sue?
A: NO
Q: Did living in a free
territory make Scott a
free man?
A: NO
Q: Did Congress have
the right to outlaw
slavery in any territory?
A: NO
RESULTS:
• Dred Scott was not given his freedom.
• The Missouri Compromise was found to be unconstitutional.
Open to
slavery
Open to
through
slavery
popular
through
sovereignty
popular
(Compromise
sovereignty
of 1850)
(KS-NE
Act)

Missouri Compromise line is declared


unconstitutional (Dred Scott Decision)
LINCOLN vs. DOUGLAS
Stephen A. Douglas the “Little Rock Star”
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
• Abe Lincoln v Stephen Douglas for
the United States Senate from
Illinois
• Lincoln accepts as a Republican
and gives a stirring speech in favor
of the Union known as “The House
Divided Speech.”
• Lincoln never stated he wanted to
ban slavery, but most Southerners
thought that he would.
• Neither believed in racial equality.
Lincoln thought slavery was
morally wrong and Douglas
tolerated slavery as a right of
whites to choose their lifestyle.
House Divided
“A House divided against itself cannot stand. I do not
believe this government can endure, permanently, half
slave and half free. I do not expect the house to fall—but
I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all
one thing or all the other.”
– Abraham Lincoln, June 16, 1858

Question for you:


WHAT DOES THIS STATEMENT MEAN?
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)

• Lincoln and Douglas went


across IL and debated against
each other
• Douglas supported popular
sovereignty
• Lincoln was against the
expansion of slavery-he
believed slavery would die
out on its own eventually
• Douglas won the Senate
seat, but in two years they
would battle again for the
Presidency
John Brown’s Raid (1859)
• John Brown went from
Kansas back to New
England
• Hatched a plot to raise
an army and free slaves.
• He and his followers
gained control of
Harpers Ferry where the
US Army stored guns
• Federal troops overtook
him though and killed
ten of his followers.
• Brown was found guilty
of murder and treason
and was sentenced to
death by hanging
• The North mourned/The
South was angry
Comparison of John Brown
Northern Depiction Southern Depiction
• Democratic Party (Divided):
– Northern Democrats: Senator Stephen A. Douglas
• Popular Sovereignty
– Southern Democrats : John C. Breckinridge
• For slavery in the new territories Electoral Vote Count:
• Constitutional Union Party Lincoln: 180
– John Bell Breckinridge: 72
Bell: 39
• Protect the Institution of Slavery Douglas: 12
• Newly Formed Republican Party
– Abraham Lincoln, an Illinois lawyer
• Wanted to keep slavery from spreading
• Southern states:
– Did not even allow Lincoln’s name to appear on their ballots
– Threatened to secede (leave) the United States if Lincoln became
president
• November 1860 – Abraham Lincoln wins the election
Abraham Lincoln won the election without winning a
single electoral vote from a southern state.
Lincoln’s Inaugural Address
“In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen,
and not in mine, is the momentous issue of ..war. The
government will not assail (attack) you…We are not
enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies.
Though passion may have strained, it must not break
our bonds of affection.”
– Abraham Lincoln, Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861.

Question for you:


WHAT DO THESE WORDS
TELL YOU ABOUT
LINCOLN’S INTENTIONS
WITH THE SOUTH?
Southern Secession!
• December 20, 1860: South
Carolina secedes from the
United States
• Why? Southerners
Believed:
– That they would no longer have
a voice in government.
– A president with no Southern
votes should not be allowed in
office
– The Republican Party would SECEDE:
ruin the southern way of life.
Withdraw formally from
• Secessionists argued that: membership in a federal union,
States had voluntarily joined an alliance, or a political or
the Union they could also religious organization.
voluntarily leave it.
Confederate States of America
• After South Carolina 6 more states followed (11 total)
• February 1861:
– These states formed the Confederate States of America
– Elected Jefferson Davis their president
Northern Perspectives After Secession
When President Lincoln takes office in 1861
many northerners are divided over how the
union should respond:
– Should they appease southern wishes?
– Should the let the southern states succeed?
– Should they attempt to force the Confederacy to
return?
Lincoln’s Perspective After Secession
• President Lincoln:
– Believes that succession is wrong.
– Commits to stopping the spread
of slavery, but not ending it.
– Ignores the role that slavery
played in starting the war.
– Emphasizes his duty to enforce
the laws of the United States.
– Believes his job is to preserve the
Union not solve the slavery issue.
The First Shots: Fort Sumter
• After seceding states took over all federal property in
the South.
• Fort Sumter: Fort in the harbor of Charleston, South
Carolina
– March 1861: Unions were still stationed in many Southern
ports
– Confederate guns were trained on the fort which was in need
of supplies; President Lincoln decided to send the necessary
supplies to the fort, but no soldiers.
– April 12, 1861: Confederates, under command of General
Pierre Beauregard, began to bombard Fort Sumter and the
fort surrendered the next day
WHAT IS THE NORTH GONNA DO?