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2010-2011

CONTENTS

I. II. III. IV. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Straight-bladed Darrieus Type VAWT 1.2. Advantages and limitations CHAPTER 2. TERMINOLOGY 2.1. Tip Speed Ratio 2.2. Betz Limit 2.3. Power Coefficient 2.4. Torque Coefficient 2.5. Solidity (σ) CHAPTER 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 3.1.Performance Analysis of a Darrieus Rotor 3.2. Aerodynamic Analysis Of Darrieus Rotors 3.3. Effect of Wind Turbulence and Atmospheric Stability on Wind turbine Output 3.4. Wind Turbine Airfoil Flow Simulations 12 12 13 14 15 10 10 11 11 11 11 7 7 9 LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS ABSTRACT PROJECT OBJECTIVES 3 4 5 6

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CHAPTER 4. VAWT AERODYNAMICS 4.1. The Actuator Cylinder 4.2. Momentum Theory 4.3. Blade Element Theory CHAPTER 5. DARRIEUS TURBINE PARAMETERS AFFECTED BY THERMAL CONDITIONS 5.1. Tower Height 5.2. Material Selection 5.2.1. Factors affecting material selection CHAPTER 6. COMPUTATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND SOLUTIONS OF ANALYSIS 6.1. VAWT Model . 24 24 26 28 30 30 33 33 38 39 40 41 42 21 21 22 22 16 16 17 19

6.2. Mesh Generation in Gambit 6.3. Solution of flow problem in FLUENT 6.3.1 FLUENT Solver Input and Solution Control Parameters 6.3.2. Results 6.4. Thermal Stress Analysis in ANSYS 6.4.1. Procedure CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C

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I.

Figure 1.1. Figure 2.1.

LIST OF FIGURES

Page No. H-Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Forces, velocities and incident angles for various blade positions during the rotation of Darrieus wind turbine. Variation of power coefficient with respect to blade angle at V=9 m/s [1] Geometry of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Plan view of actuator cylinder Lift and drag forces acting on a blade on a blade of a VAWT Nomenclature used to represent the geometry of the variable pitch blade for the VAWT blade (upper right quadrant) 9 10

Figure 3.1.

13

Figure 4.1. Figure 4.2. Figure 4.3. Figure 4.4.

16 17 19 19

Figure 6.1. Figure 6.2. Figure 6.3. Figure 6.4. Figure 6.5. Figure 6.6. Figure 6.7. Figure 6.8. Figure 6.9. Figure 6.10. Figure 6.11. Figure 6.12.

Overall dimensions of the H-Darrieus rotor. Pro/E model of the H-Darrieus rotor Boundary conditions and computational domain of the rotor. Unstructured mesh for the flow domain in GAMBIT Unstructured mesh for the flow domain in GAMBIT showing the concentrated meshing around the airfoil. Variation of absolute pressure along the airfoil surface of Foil1 Variation of absolute pressure in the flow domain. Variation of velocity magnitude near the airfoil blades. Elemental nodes on the hollow, twisted airfoil blade as imported from GAMBIT Contour plot of thermal gradient near the trailing edge of the airfoil. Contour plot of von Mises mechanical stress over the airfoil solid. Contour plot of von Mises mechanical stress over the airfoil solid showing the stress concentration at the inner wall of blade. Contour plot of total von Mises mechanical and thermal stress over the airfoil solid showing the stress concentration at the inner wall of blade.

24 25 26 27 28 31 31 32 34 35 36 37

Figure 6.13.

37

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II.

AD a C CD CL

LIST OF SYMBOLS

: area of actuator disc : interference factor : airfoil cord length : drag coefficient : lift coefficient : normal force coefficient : tangential force coefficient

Fi N r U U∞

: force component on each element of blade : number of blades : radius of blade- distance from rotor : effective flow passing through rotor : upstream wind velocity : wind speed on actuator disk : downstream wind velocity

a Vθ W α ω αi αL χ δ θ ζ ψi

: axial flow induction factor : blade speed : apparent wind speed : attack angle : angular velocity : induced attack angle : attack angle (infinite wing theory) : tip speed ratio : induced drag coefficient : the angle location of blade : solidity : polar parameter of blade element i

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III. ABSTRACT

For efficient utilization of the available wind energy, it is imperative to study the behavior and performance of the wind turbines subjected to aerodynamic and ambient conditions to understand the possible behavior of the system such that the modifications in design, if any, can be incorporated so that the extraction of energy from the wind is maximized. For this purpose, the CFD analysis in FLUENT and structural analysis in ANSYS of a twisted three bladed H-Darrieus rotor has been undertaken. Due to limitations on experimentation, the computational approach has been used to get the wind loads on the blades. On further application of these loads, in addition with temperature conditions, the structural behavior of the aforementioned blade is obtained for a predetermined set of operating conditions. The results from the analysis are compared with pre-existing ones for the purpose of validation and are found to be confirming within acceptable error limits. This holistic approach, thus, gives an insight to the behavior of similar systems subjected to identical conditions.

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**IV. PROJECT OBJECTIVES
**

(i) To implement a CAD model depicting the true blade profile for a given configuration possible for the Darrieus type wind turbine.

(ii) Acquisition and implementation of the exact working constraints and parameters to address the current state of wind turbine development

(iii) To identify and apply the exact data obtained on the turbine in an analysis software (basically FLUENT or ANSYS) to achieve the goal of thermal simulation under loaded conditions.

(iv) Post-processing of the results to identify the optimum blade design and configurations that will be able to handle the thermal conditions ambient to the turbine.

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Aerodynamics is an active and influential science, contributing to major aspects of wind turbine design. The art of manipulating and adapting a moving fluid to optimize energy extraction is of prime importance. Wind turbines have been studied since the earliest known ancient humans attempted to harness wind energy through diversified means. One of the manners to achieve this goal was through Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT).

Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest regarding sources of renewable energy, with numerous universities, companies and research institutions carrying out extensive research activities. These activities have led to a plethora of designs of wind turbines based mostly on computational aerodynamic models. Still largely restricted to an experimental subject, vertical-axis wind turbines are appearing more frequently in the civilian and military market as research into their cost-effectiveness and simplicity progresses.

At present, there are two primary categories of modern wind turbines, namely horizontal-axis (HAWTs) and vertical-axis (VAWTs). The main advantages of the VAWT are its single moving part (rotor) where no yaw mechanisms are required, its low-wind speed operation and the elimination of the need for extensive supporting tower structures, thus significantly simplifying the design and installation. Blades of straight-bladed VAWTs can be of uniform airfoil section and untwisted, making them relatively easy to fabricate or extrude, unlike the blades of HAWTs, which are commonly twisted and tapered airfoils for optimum performance.

**1.1. Straight-bladed Darrieus Type VAWT
**

Currently there are two main categories of modern wind turbines, namely the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and the Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (or VAWT). These are used mainly for electricity generation and water pumping. For the HAWT machines, the axis of rotation of blades is horizontal and for the VAWT, the axis of rotation is vertical. Unlike HAWT, VAWTs are insensitive to direction of wind and thus they do not need any

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complicated yawing mechanisms. There have been many designs of vertical axis windmills over the years. Currently the vertical axis machines can be broadly divided into three basic types – 1) Savonius type, 2) Darrieus type, and 3) H-Rotor type. The Darrieus type VAWT was invented by French engineer George Jeans Mary Darrieus in 1925 and it was patented in the USA in 1931 [8]. It comes in two configurations, namely eggbeater (or curved-bladed) and straight-bladed.

**1.2. Advantages and limitations
**

Though HAWTs work well in rural settings with steady uni-directional winds, VAWTs have numerous advantages over them.

They do not require additional components (like yaw mechanics, pitch control mechanism, wind-direction sensing device). VAWTs are insensitive to winddirection. Almost all of the components requiring maintenance are located at the ground level, facilitating the maintenance work appreciably. They also eliminate the costs (both initial and recurring maintenance) of the auxiliary components (like diesel gensets) and risks associated with the failure or malfunction of these components. All these factors make them ideal candidate for rooftop (rural and urban) and certain mechanical applications. VAWTs have the simplest blade geometry, and thus are easier to manufacture. Unlike HAWTs, fixed-pitch straight-bladed VAWTs are mechanically much simpler and aesthetically more attractive. Can be mounted to roofs without special provisions & support PVs & other renewables without vibrations/noise concerns.

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Nevertheless, it is commonly believed that small-capacity straight-bladed VAWTs are inherently unable to self-start properly. This notion is true for older designs which were constructed by using old NACA airfoils and commonly available materials like aluminium or wood. According to some researchers, the problem of self-starting can be alleviated by

i) using high-lift low-drag special-purpose airfoil; and ii) by incorporating a Savonius rotor or torque tube.

Several prototypes and commercial models have been designed and deployed in the field which have a self-starting feature. These prototypes and models have benefited from advances in aerodynamic tools and lightweight composite materials.

Figure 1.1. H-Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

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**CHAPTER 2. VAWT TERMINOLOGY
**

2.1. Tip Speed Ratio

Tip-speed ratio is the ratio of the speed of the rotating blade tip to the speed of the free stream wind. (2.1) Where, ω = rotational speed (in radians /sec) R = rotor radius (in m) U = wind “free stream” velocity (in m/sec)

Figure 2.1. Forces, velocities and incident angles for various blade positions during the rotation of Darrieus wind turbine.

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2.2. Betz Limit

All wind power cannot be captured by rotor or air would be completely still behind rotor and not allow more wind to pass through. Theoretical limit of rotor efficiency is 59%. Most modern wind turbines are in the 35 – 45% range

2.3. Power Coefficient

The power coefficient is defined as, (2.2) where, P = rotor power

2.4. Torque Coefficient

The torque coefficient is defined as, (2.3) where, T = rotor torque

The relation between the two coefficients is, (2.4)

2.5. Solidity (σ)

The solidity of a wind turbine is the ratio between blade area to swept area in a full rotation. (2.5)

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**CHAPTER 3. LITERATURE REVIEW
**

The current wind turbine research is primarily driven towards proposing performance optimizations of horizontal-axis wind turbines, however substantial progress has also been observed towards vertical-axis wind turbine applications concerning aerodynamic efficiency and performance regarding energy production by assessing operational characteristics in subscale testing. There remains no extensive availability of literature concerning specific Darrieus model applications, but rather there is literature concerning the general study of the concept of the Darrieus rotor with very few authors analyzing in-depth the aerodynamic phenomena that these models create as observed with thermal effects. A representative selection therefore, relevant to supporting the theoretical and numerical results and thermal effects involved in the project are reviewed and summaries provided of how the literature is incorporated into the study.

**3.1.Performance Analysis of a Darrieus Rotor
**

Debnath et al. [1] have predicted the performance characteristics of three-bladed Darrieus rotor for various overlap conditions. The aerodynamic coefficients, such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, and lift-to-drag coefficient, were evaluated with respect to angle of attack. Subsequent validation by using experimental values for the twisted three-bladed H-Darrieus rotor was also presented. The study is used for identifying the design aspects that influences the economics of the rotor such as evaluation of aerodynamic coefficients, like lift, drag, and lift-to-drag coefficients for the blades.

Fig. 3.1 shows that power coefficients are positive at the blade azimuthal positions where positive thrust coefficients are obtained. Moreover, Fig. 3.1 also confirms that blade twist of 30° results in higher average power coefficient for the rotor.

With the superiority of the lift-driven devices established as well as the fact that maximum power is obtained when the device is moving perpendicular to the wind, the concept of placing lifting surfaces on a rotating machine is seen to be an obvious method of deployment.

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Figure 3.1. Variation of power coefficient with respect to blade angle at V=9 m/s [1]

**3.2. Aerodynamic Analysis Of Darrieus Rotors
**

The differences between cross-wind rotors and the wind-axis type is that there is a continuously varying local wind as a blade rotates from "upwind" to "downwind". A quasisteady condition is usually assumed and the effects of the upwind blade on the blade in downwind position is neglected, as shown by Wilson, R [2].

Two group of mathematical model for analysing and predicting Darrieus rotor performance are the simple momentum (streamtube) model and the complex vortex models.

The simple momentum model is simple and straightforward and results in good agreement with the available test data. It treats the flow as a single streamtube with the induced velocity constant across the rotor, which allows a closed solution, but which limits its use to lightly loaded blades and circumstances in which there is no significant variation of wind velocity across the flow area. The analysis includes aerodynamic drag of the blades and it shows that performance is sensitive to drag, particularly at high values of TSR.

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Another method is the multiple-streamtube concept, for which an iteration procedure is required, as the ratio of wind speed u at the rotor to the freestream velocity V∞. is not constant and must be obtained by matching of momentum and blade-element relationships.

Among the two, the momentum models are known to be unable to describe flow field around the turbine correctly. Strangely it seems to be the most widely used tool mostly because of the acceptable accuracy of the result, widely available literature, and code simplicity.

To date, very little work has been done on establishing the influence that fundamental thermal parameters such as temperature gradients, heat transfer etc. have on the aerodynamic performance and structural integrity of a VAWT. This type of study can only be carried out if a suitably comprehensive prediction scheme is available.

To account for the temporal variation in angle of attack on the wind turbine blades Coton et al. [3] suggested fully unsteady three-dimensional analysis scheme which has been validated against existing machines to provide the required level of aerodynamic detail over the full range of tip-speed ratio.

**3.3. Effect of Wind Turbulence and Atmospheric Stability on Wind turbine Output
**

Rohatgi et al. [4] studied the impact of wind turbulence on wind turbine operation. Wind profile variations may cause random, fluctuating loads and stresses over the whole structure, resulting into power instabilities and fatigue life of the wind turbine.

Information regarding the atmospheric stability is also important considering the fatigue life and the power generation from a wind turbine. The vertical wind profile models are governed by the vertical temperature distribution resulting from radiative heating or cooling of the earth’s surface and the subsequent convective mixing of the air adjacent to the surface.

The conclusive inferences regarding the thermal aspects of turbine operational parameters are incorporated in the subsequent analysis that will result from this project.

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**3.4. Wind Turbine Airfoil Flow Simulations
**

Implementation of design improvements for the wind turbines is hampered by the lack of practical prediction tools having the appropriate level of complexity. The fact that the flow is incompressible, three-dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, and very often separated to a large extent, means that its numerical analysis is very complex and costly.

Bermúdez et al [6] proposed a viscous–inviscid interaction method that allows for the efficient computation of unsteady airfoil flow. The numerical robustness as offered by the algorithm will aid in more generalised calculations when incorporated into the simulation program.

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**CHAPTER 4. VAWT AERODYNAMICS
**

A single blade of a vertical axis wind turbine, viewed from above, is illustrated in Fig.4.1. In the figure the blade is shown rotating in the counter-clockwise direction, and the wind is seen impinging on the rotor from left to right. As is typical in vertical axis wind turbines, the airfoil is symmetric. The blade is oriented so that the chord line is perpendicular to the radius of the circle of rotation. The radius defining the angular position of the blade (normally meeting the chord line at the quarter chord) makes an angle of φ with the wind direction, as shown in the figure.

Figure 4.1. Geometry of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

**4.1. The Actuator Cylinder
**

Vertical axis blade configurations are many but, for the purpose of this exercise, we shall assume that the blades are straight and vertical. Such a machine sweeps out a cylinder, instead of a disk as is the case with HAWT, and so intersects any given streamtube twice. As shown in the Fig.4.2, this means that there are effectively, two elemental actuator disks in tandem, each set at an angle to the flow and each extracting some of the flow’s energy. Various theories have been put forward to deal with the presence of the two actuator disks. The simplest theories lump the two disks together and assume that all the energy is being extracted at the mid-vertical plane of the cylinder. Such an approach can be treated in either a single or multiple streamtube manner. However, an analysis which takes account of the

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double intersection is able to provide much greater detail about the aerodynamic response, such as the variation of the torque and blade normal loading and it is an approach which will be described in this text.

Figure 4.2. Plan view of actuator cylinder

4.2. Momentum Theory

The air which passes through the disc undergoes an overall change in velocity, U – Uw and a rate of change of momentum equal to the overall change of velocity times the mass flow rate. Rate of change of momentum = (4.1)

The force causing this change of momentum comes entirely from the pressure difference across the actuator disk, because the streamtube is otherwise surrounded by air at atmospheric pressure, which gives zero net force. Therefore (4.2) To obtain the pressure difference , Bernoulli’s equation is applied separately to

the upstream and downstream sections of the streamtube; separate equations are necessary because the total energy is different upstream and downstream.

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For a VAWT, the momentum theory has to be applied to each intersection of the air stream with the actuator cylinder. However, conditions vary greatly around the cylinder and so it is common to consider a multiplicity of streamtubes which pack together to fill the cylinder volume. The two intersections are treated as two actuator disks in tandem. The disk areas are different because of the expansion of the streamtubes and, although the disks are not normal to the flow direction, these areas are taken to be normal cross-section. It is assumed that at a point somewhere between the disks, the static pressure the static pressure rises through the atmospheric level , and at this point the streamtube velocity is

Ua. By momentum theory therefore, at the actuator disk, (4.3) and, (4.4) The rate of change of momentum for the upstream part of the streamtube is then, (4.5) The speed U now becomes the upstream velocity (instead of U) or the downstream disk and hence (4.6) and, (4.7)

So the rate of change of momentum is (4.8)

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**4.3. Blade Element Theory
**

Blade element theory relies on two key assumptions: 1. There are no aerodynamic interactions between different blade elements. 2. The forces on the blade elements are solely determined by the lift and drag coefficients. Each blade has an airfoil cross-section and produces lift which has a component in the tangential direction, thus providing a torque which is not constant but varies with blade position and, when the blades are few in numbers, this means that the shaft torque fluctuates. Figure shows the blade element forces and velocities at points in each quadrant of a revolution.

Figure 4.3. Lift and drag forces acting on a blade on a blade of a VAWT

Figure 4.4. Nomenclature used to represent the geometry of the variable pitch blade for the VAWT blade (upper right quadrant)

As can be seen, the lift always has a component in the forward direction but the blade surface facing the wind changes between the upstream and downstream passes. This means that the angle of incidence changes sign and so it would seem that the airfoil should be symmetrical. A cambered airfoil would give an increased torque on one pass but a decreased torque on the other, and experiment has shown that the latter predominates whichever way the blade is cambered. Pitching the blades nose-in or nose-out should, in principle, give similar results, but a small advantage can be obtained with a little nose-out pitch, especially at very low tip speed ratios. This is useful because vertical axis machines generally have low starting

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torques. For simplicity, however, we shall assume zero set pitch, that is, the chord line is a tangent to the circle of rotation and moreover, touches the circle at the mid-point chord. Fig.4.3 and Fig.4.4 show the forces on a blade element in the first quadrant, measuring the azimuth angle β clockwise (direction of rotation), from the downstream direction. The angle θ is not the blade azimuth but the angle between the radius vector and the local streamline. This streamline is assumed to be straight as it crosses the turbine and so the angle θ is the same at both actuator disks/blade elements. The forces resolved into the local streamline sense, give

(4.9)

The terms in brackets are normal (N) and chordwise (T) components of the resultant force on the airfoil and it is usual to use these rather than L and D. (4.10) (4.11) As CL and CD are known functions of , then CN and CT can be calculated and used instead. (4.12)

(4.13) Note that N, T, L and D are forces per unit of length of blade Therefore, (4.14)

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**CHAPTER 5. DARRIEUS TURBINE PARAMETERS AFFECTED BY THERMAL CONDITIONS
**

5.1. Tower Height

Tower Height is governed by the “wind profile power law”. It is a relationship between the wind speeds at one height, and those at another.

The power law is often used in wind power assessments where wind speeds at the height of a turbine (>~ 50 meters) must be estimated from near surface wind observations (~10 meters), or where wind speed data at various heights must be adjusted to a standard height prior to use. Wind profiles are generated and used in a number of atmospheric pollution dispersion models.

The wind profile of the atmospheric boundary layer (surface to around 2000 meters) is generally logarithmic in nature and is best approximated using the log wind profile equation that accounts for surface roughness and atmospheric stability. The wind profile power law relationship is often used as a substitute for the log wind profile when surface roughness or stability information is not available.

**The wind profile power law relationship is:
**

(5.1)

where u is the wind speed (in meters per second) at height z (in meters), and u r is the known wind speed at a reference height zr. The exponent (α) is an empirically derived coefficient that varies dependent upon the stability of the atmosphere. For neutral stability conditions, α is approximately 1/7, or 0.143.

**In order to estimate the wind speed at a certain height x, the relationship would be rearranged to:
**

(5.2)

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The value of 1/7 for α is commonly assumed to be constant in wind resource assessments, because the differences between the two levels are not usually so great as to introduce substantial errors into the estimates (usually < 50 m).

Doubling the altitude of a turbine, then, increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%.

At night time, or when the atmosphere becomes stable, wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase. As a result the wind speed is higher and a turbine will produce more power than expected from the 1/7th power law: doubling the altitude may increase wind speed by 20% to 60%.

5.2. Material Selection

The typical operating temperature of a wind turbine may vary from -200C to 400C. Taking this range into consideration, a suitable material must be selected that can provide maximum blade life under fluctuating temperature conditions. The continuous dimensional changes experienced by the rotor during a low-to-high temperature cycle, such as those prevalent in desert areas, may induce cracking in the blades. By suitable material selection and subsequent treatments, the material may be made adaptable to such temperature fluctuations so that the wind turbine operates with desired efficiency throughout its predicted life.

5.2.1. Factors affecting material selection Many factors are considered while selecting material for wind turbine blades. These include physical properties such as, low density, performance requirements, safety, environmental conditions, economic factors, etc. The principal properties pursued from a technical point of view are: 1. High material stiffness to maintain optimal performance. 2. A long fatigue life to reduce material degradation.

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3. High thermal conductivity. 4. Moderate density. 5. High specific heat. 6. Low coefficient of thermal expansion. On comparison of various materials, epoxy-fibre reinforced plastic was found to satisfy most of these properties adequately. As such, we have used this material in our analysis. Table 5.1. Material Properties of epoxy-fibre reinforced plastic (EFRP) PROPERTIES (a) PHYSICAL Density Water Absorption Mass fraction Volume fraction (b) MECHANICAL Tensile Strength Flexural Strength Flexural Strength after keeping at 150°C for one hour and tested at 150°C Shear Strength Compressive strength Impact Strength Charpy (Type Test) 10mm (c) THERMAL Thermal conductivity Coefficient of linear expansion Specific heat W/m-K m/m 0C kJ/kgK 3.46 1.2 x 10-5 1.170 IS 1998 IS 1998 IS 1998 IS 1998 IS 1998 IS 10192 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 kJ/mm2 250 350 175 120 400 75 IS 10192 IS 10192 kg/m3 % fibre % fibre 1850 Max. 0.13 61 52 TEST METHOD UNIT VALUES

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**CHAPTER 6. COMPUTATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND SOLUTIONS OF ANALYSIS
**

6.1. VAWT Model

To exhaustively depict the use splines for reproducing the twisted blade profile, the model of H-Darrieus rotor was drawn using Pro/E software.

Figure 6.1. Overall dimensions of the H-Darrieus rotor.

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Figure 6.2. Pro/E model of the H-Darrieus rotor

The main parts of the model are:

(a) the twisted blades (b) the shaft (c) the retaining discs

The chord length of the blades was 10 cm and height of the blades was 40 cm. The actual shape of the airfoil blade of unit size is shown in Fig. 6.1. An angular twist of 30° was provided at the trailing ends of the blades, such that the twist on each blade was symmetrical. The blades were mounted in such a fashion that the concave face of the twist end is facing the upstream flow. The profile of the airfoil resembles to NACA 0012 having twist at the trailing end. Although such cambered section at negative incidence (which happens in the downwind pass) develops a little lift, such blades are better off than symmetrical NACA airfoil blades where upwind and downwind phenomena are more or less even, especially at low Reynolds number flows.

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The H-Darrieus rotor used for the analysis is modelled in Pro/E and the data-points were then transferred to Gambit for further development of mesh on it.

**6.2. Mesh Generation in Gambit
**

The Computational Fluid Dynamic package used was FLUENT while the mesh was generated in GAMBIT of the FLUENT 6.3.26 software. Fig.6.3 shows the computational domain, which has three bladed rotor along with surrounding four edges resembling the test section of the wind tunnel. Velocity inlet and pressure outlet conditions were taken on the left and right boundaries, respectively. The top and bottom boundaries, which signify the sidewalls of the wind tunnel, had symmetry conditions on them. The blades and shaft were set to standard wall conditions. Two-dimensional unstructured (triangular-mesh)

computational domain was developed. The vertical axis wind rotor blades rotate in the same plane as the approaching wind.

Figure 6.3. Boundary conditions and computational domain of the rotor.

For an H-Darrieus rotor, the general geometric properties of the blade cross-section are usually constant with varying span section, unlike original Darrieus rotor as invented and patented by Darrieus in 1931, for which these geometric properties vary with the local radius.

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The density of mesh was high at the blade ends and also on the blade peripheries to capture the flow physics near the wall boundaries. On the blades of the rotor, near wall boundary layers were built in gambit such that the distance of the first row of grid points in direction normal to the boundary was 0.001 cm. Wind velocity of 9 m/s were taken for simulating the wind flow. The tip speed ratio corresponding to this wind velocity is 4.26.

Table 6.1. Mesh Entities Total mesh faces Total mesh edges Total mesh nodes 300562 2150 150873

Figure 6.4. Unstructured mesh for the flow domain in GAMBIT

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Figure 6.5.Unstructured mesh for the flow domain in GAMBIT showing the concentrated meshing around the airfoil.

**6.3. Solution of flow problem in FLUENT
**

Any computational formulation of a physical process is based on mathematical modelling. In the CFD formulation as well, the conservative forms of continuity and Navier–Stokes’ equations in integral form for incompressible flow of constant viscosity were solved by the built-in functions of the FLUENT 6.2 CFD software. The simplest and most widely used twoequation turbulence model is the standard k-ɛ model that solves one transport equation to allow the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate to be independently determined. The standard k-ɛ model is particularly suitable for flows though sharp corners, straight and curved edges like the rotor blades, as the model uses wall functions based on the law of the wall. The standard k-ɛ equation can be represented as:

For turbulent kinetic energy (k):

(6.1)

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For dissipation (Є):

(6.2)

Turbulent viscosity (µT) is modelled as: (6.3)

Model constants:

In the present study, steady-state, incompressible two-dimensional flow was assumed. The numerical simulations were carried out by solving the conservation equations for mass and momentum by using an unstructured-grid finite volume methodology.

The sequential algorithm, semi-implicit method for pressure linked equation (SIMPLE), was used in solving all the scalar variables. For the convective terms of the continuity and momentum equations, and also for the turbulence equations, the second order upwind interpolating scheme was applied in order to achieve more accurate results. The computational conditions are given in Section 6.3.1.

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**6.3.1 FLUENT Solver Input and Solution Control Parameters
**

(a) Material: air (fluid) Property Density Cp (Specific Heat) Thermal Conductivity Viscosity Value(s) 1.225 kg/m3 1006.43 J/kg-K 0.0242 W/m-K 1.7894E-05 kg/m-s

(b) Boundary Conditions: Wind velocity Pressure Rotational speed 9 m/s 1.013 bar 146 rad/sec

(c) Solver Settings (1)Relaxation Variable Pressure Density Body Forces Momentum Turbulent Kinetic Energy Turbulent Dissipation Rate Turbulent Viscosity (2)Method Pressure-Velocity Coupling Turbulence Model Near Wall Treatment (3)Discretization Scheme Pressure Momentum Turbulent Kinetic Energy Turbulent Dissipation Rate

Relaxation 0.3 1 1 0.7 0.8 0.8 1 SIMPLE Standard k-ɛ Enhanced Standard Second Order Upwind Second Order Upwind First Order Upwind

6.3.2. Results

The absolute pressure results are obtained from the analysis is Fig. 6.6. The important parameter is the absolute pressure values along the curved length of Foil1 which will suffice for mechanical pressure loading in the thermal stress analysis.

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Figure 6.6. Variation of absolute pressure along the airfoil surface of Foil1

Figure 6.7. Variation of absolute pressure in the flow domain.

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Figure 6.8. Variation of velocity magnitude near the airfoil blades.

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**6.4. Thermal Stress Analysis in ANSYS
**

Structural analysis comprises the set of physical laws and mathematics required to study and predicts the behaviour of structures. The subjects of structural analysis are engineering artifacts whose integrity is judged largely based upon their ability to withstand loads. From a theoretical perspective the primary goal of structural analysis is the computation of deformations, internal forces, and stresses. In practice, structural analysis can be viewed more abstractly as a method to drive the engineering design process or prove the soundness of a design without a dependence on directly testing it.

In a typical thermal stresses analysis, temperatures are calculated and then applied as load conditions for the stress analysis. While it is possible to solve for the temperature using a conjugate heat transfer capability of a CFD code, it can consume significant computational resources. A reduced order model, assuming constant wall temperature on the inside of the blade is used to estimate the thermal gradients in the solid domain of the blades.

6.4.1. Procedure

1. The blade profile data points are imported from Gambit into ANSYS software package for stress analysis (Fig. 6.9). The bottom-up approach was then used to model the hollow section of the airfoil. As the flow pattern is assumed identical across the length of the blade, a 2-D planar analysis will suffice.

2. The relevant material properties for epoxy-fibre reinforced plastic were input from table 5.1 using the Material Library.

3. For the purpose of establishing the thermal gradients across the solid section of the blade profile, the area was meshed using PLANE55 elements (Appendix A). The inside wall is maintained at a constant wall temperature of 30 0C and the outside surface is provided with convective boundary condition, convective film coefficient ha = 22 W/m2-0C. This completes the thermal evaluation of the problem, Fig. 6.10.

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Figure 6.9. Elemental nodes on the hollow, twisted airfoil blade as imported from GAMBIT

4. The thermal gradient values generated in the above analysis are used subsequently in the thermal stress analysis of the blade.

5. For this purpose, the modelled area is meshed using the PLANE13 (Appendix B) element types. The free area mesh was used. The mesh was further refined at the foil surfaces.

6. The displacement degree of freedom (DOF) for the inner wall is set to zero.

7. Further, to incorporate the absolute pressure values, as obtained from the FLUENT, the Table entries were made for 240 nodal points on the airfoil. For this, x,y nodal coordinates and the corresponding absolute pressure values on the Foil1 airfoil surface are imported from FLUENT analysis as the input. This completes the surface loading of the blade.

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Figure 6.10. Contour plot of thermal gradient near the trailing edge of the airfoil.

8. For thermal loading, the temperature gradients are incorporated as Table values at the corresponding nodes.

9. The solution was then obtained in terms of total (thermal and mechanical) von Mises stress and strain values.

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Figure 6.11. Contour plot of von Mises mechanical stress over the airfoil solid.

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Figure 6.12. Contour plot of von Mises mechanical stress over the airfoil solid showing the stress concentration at the inner wall of blade.

Figure 6.13. Contour plot of total von Mises mechanical and thermal stress over the airfoil solid showing the stress concentration at the inner wall of blade.

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CONCLUSION:

The von Mises stress values obtained from the structural analysis shows that the location of maximum value of stress corresponds to the position of maximum thermal gradient. Thus, by evaluating the thermal profile of a wind turbine blade, under similar conditions, a rough estimation of the location of the maximum stress concentration can be known.

FUTURE SCOPE:

The future scope of the project is to, possibly, develop a mathematical model governing the performance parameters of a VAWT operation (such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient and power) with respect to the temperature conditions imposed on to the turbine.

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REFERENCES:

[1] Debnath B. K.; Biswas A. & Gupta R., Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a combined

three-bucket Savonius and three-bladed Darrieus rotor at various overlap conditions, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 2009, 033110, 1-13 [2] [3] Wilson, R. Wind-turbine Aerodynamics Journal of lndustrial Aerodynamics, 1980, 5, 357-372 Coton F. N.; Galbraith R. A. M. & Jiang D., The influence of detailed blade design on the

aerodynamic performance of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines, Proc Instn Mech Engrs, 1996, 210, 65-74 [4] Rohatgi J. & Barbezier G., Wind Turbulence and Atmospheric Stability - Their Effect on

Wind Turbine Output, Renewable Energy, 1999, 16, 908-911 [5] Ferreira C. S.; van Kuik G.; van Bussel G. & Scarano F., Visualization by PIV of dynamic

stall on a vertical axis wind turbine, Exp Fluids, 2009, 46, 97–108 [6] Bermudez L.; Velazquez A. & Matesanz A., Viscous–inviscid method for the simulation of

turbulent unsteady wind turbine airfoil flow, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 2002, 90, 643-661 [7] Barakos, G. and Mitsoulis, E., Numerical simulation of viscoelastic flow around a cylinder

using an integral constitutive equation, J. Rheol., 1995, 39, 1279 [8] Darrieus, G.J.M., Turbine having its rotating shaft transverse to the flow of the current. US

Patent No. 1835081,1931. [9] Kuan-Chen Fu and Awad Harb, Thermal Stresses of a Wind Turbine Blade made of

Orthotropic Material, Computers & Structures, 1987, Vol. 27. No. 2. pp, 225-235. [10] Freris L.L., Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Prentice Hall, 1990

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APPENDIX A

PLANE55 Element Description PLANE55 can be used as a plane element or as an axisymmetric ring element with a 2-D thermal conduction capability. The element has four nodes with a single degree of freedom, temperature, at each node. The element is applicable to a 2-D, steady-state or transient thermal analysis. The element can also compensate for mass transport heat flow from a constant velocity field. If the model containing the temperature element is also to be analyzed structurally, the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as PLANE42).

Figure A.1. PLANE55 Geometry

PLANE55 Input Data The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Fig.A.1. The element is defined by four nodes and the orthotropic material properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. Convection or heat flux (but not both) and radiation may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on Fig. A.1. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input, and all others are unspecified, they default to HG(I).

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APPENDIX B

PLANE13 Element Description PLANE13 has a 2-D magnetic, thermal, electrical, piezoelectric, and structural field capability with limited coupling between the fields. PLANE13 is defined by four nodes with up to four degrees of freedom per node. PLANE13 has large deflection and stress stiffening capabilities. When used in purely structural analyses, PLANE13 also has large strain capabilities.

Figure B.1. PLANE13 Geometry

PLANE13 Input Data The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Fig. B.1. The element input data includes four nodes and magnetic, thermal, electrical, and structural material properties. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads. Pressure, convection or heat flux (but not both), radiation, and Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Fig. B.1 Geometry using the SF and SFE commands. Positive pressures act into the element. Body loads - temperature, heat generation rate, and magnetic virtual displacement - may be input at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF, BFE]. When the temperature degree of freedom is active (KEYOPT(1) = 2 or 4), applied body force temperatures [BF, BFE] are ignored. In general, unspecified nodal temperatures and heat generation rates default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF command. Heat generation from Joule heating is applied in Solution as thermal loading for static and transient analyses.

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APPENDIX C

Stress and Strain Stress solutions allow you to predict safety factors, stresses, strains, and displacements given the model and material of a part or an entire assembly and for a particular structural loading environment. A general three-dimensional stress state is calculated in terms of three normal and three shear stress components aligned to the part or assembly world coordinate system. The principal stresses and the maximum shear stress are called invariants; that is, their value does not depend on the orientation of the part or assembly with respect to its world coordinate system. The principal stresses and maximum shear stress are available as individual results. The principal strains ε1, ε2, and ε3 and the maximum shear strain γmax are also available. The principal strains are always ordered such that ε1> ε2> ε3. As with principal stresses and the maximum shear stress, the principal strains and maximum shear strain are invariants.

Equivalent stress is related to the principal stresses by the equation:

Equivalent stress (also called von Mises stress) is often used in design work because it allows any arbitrary three-dimensional stress state to be represented as a single positive stress value. Equivalent stress is part of the maximum equivalent stress failure theory used to predict yielding in a ductile material. The von Mises or equivalent strain εe is computed as:

where: ν' = effective Poisson's ratio, which is defined as follows:

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Material Poisson's ratio for elastic and thermal strains computed at the reference temperature of the body. 0.5 for plastic strains.

Thermal Strain Thermal strain is computed when coefficient of thermal expansion is specified and a temperature load is applied in a structural analysis. Each of the components of thermal strain are computed as:

Where: - thermal strain in one of the directions x, y, or z. - Secant coefficient of thermal expansion defined as a material property in Engineering Data - reference temperature or the "stress-free" temperature. This can be specified globally for the model using the Reference Temperature field of Static Structural or Transient Structural (ANSYS) analysis types. Optionally the reference temperature can be specified \as a material property for cases such as the analysis for cooling of a weld or solder joint where each material has a different stress-free temperature.

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