Data Warehouse Dimensional Model Components Concept Dimensional model is equivalent of logical data design of Data Warehouse, and

much more. It is more simplistic in design and suits the purpose of a data warehouse. Dimensional Modeling Concept Dimensional Model is a logical design technique that seeks to present the data in a standard, intuitive framework that allows for high-performance access. It is inherently dimensional, and it adheres to a discipline that uses the relational model with some important restrictions. Every dimensional model is composed of one table with a multi-part key, called the fact table, and a set of smaller tables called dimension tables. Each dimension table has a single-part primary key that corresponds exactly to one of the components of the multi-part key in the fact table. (See Figure) This characteristic 'starlike' structure is often called a star join. A fact table, because it has a multi-part primary key made up of two OR more foreign keys, always expresses a many-tomany relationship. The most useful fact tables also contain one OR more numerical measures, OR 'facts,' that occur for the combination of keys that define each record. In Figure, the facts are Units_Sold, Dollars_Sold, and Avg_sales. The most useful facts in a fact table are numeric and additive. Additivity is crucial because data warehouse applications almost never retrieve a single fact table record; rather, they fetch back hundreds, thousands, OR even millions of these records at a time, and the only useful thing to do with so many records is to add them up. Dimension tables, by contrast, most often contain descriptive textual information, and the attributes (also called classification attributes), which are used for analysis. Dimension attributes are used as the source of most of the interesting constraints in data warehouse queries, and they are virtually always the source of the row headers in the SQL answer set.

Fact Table and Dimension Tables in a Dimensional Model Schema

Fact Table.Location code as well as the name of the location. . Families of FACT Tables y y y y Chains and Circles.The central linkage in Dimensional Modeling A fact table contains the value of all the measures linked to the set of dimensions linked to the FACT table. September 2005] = [2000 units. Aggregates Dimension Table. Heterogeneous products. This means that for every value of each of these 4 dimensions there will two values of coordinates. Mail. The dimension tables contain the details of the dimensions. OR a part number (especially FMCG) could be reused after few years.Star. because both could be used for different reasons by different users. Snow-Flake and Constellation Dimensional model can be organized in star-schema or snow-flaked schema. The measures are typically numeric. depending upon if CFO OR Head of sales is looking at it.Consider a business hierarchy-. $15000] In the dimensional modeling schema. Transactions and snapshots. For example: Co-ordinate [City(X). which is the lowest level granularity primary key of the dimension tables. which include the attributes of dimensions including all the higher-level hierarchies. These include: y y y y y The hierarchy attributes. This is required. For example a bill number could be reused after 5 years. which can undergo mathematical aggregation and analysis. the FACT table contains the value of coordinates against the lowest granularity of all the possible combinations of dimensions. Include all parallel hierarchies ± A product could be having different hierarchies. channel(Z). whereas an end user could be looking for more explicit header (New Jersey). Dimensional Model Schemas. This means that each hierarchy element will be an attribute. b. The primary key (Equivalent foreign key in the Fact Table). This cube has 4 dimensions and three measures.This is required for audit ability OR link to the Extraction data and source systems. It contains the measure values for the combination of lowest level of granularity of dimensions. Sales (Value)] OR [NY. Textual as well as the code attributes. This enables the done on all hierarchies as well as to city to district to state to country for location dimension. The link between the fact table and all the associated dimension tables is through a dimension key.Month] = [ Sales (Quantity). Standard Desk-top. Production Primary Key Refer Surrogate primary key link to FACT table± These keys are used because the production keys could change OR could be reused. Production OR source system key. This includes: a. A power user could be looking for location code (NY01). Product(Y). All attributes of the dimension.What does and should it contain The dimension table contains all the information on the dimension.Lets consider a Data-Warehouse cube.

branch. and a number of much smaller dimension tables (OR lookup tables).Dimensional Model Star Schema using Star Query The star schema is perhaps the simplest data warehouse schema. contain the measures quantity_sold. branch_key. The cost-based optimizer recognizes star queries and generates efficient execution plans for them. Provide highly optimized performance for typical star queries. Are widely supported by a large number of business intelligence tools. Each dimension table is joined to the fact table using a primary key to foreign key join. A star query is a join between a fact table and a number of dimension tables. amount. with points radiating from a central table. The main advantages of star schemas are that they: y y y Provide a direct and intuitive mapping between the business entities being analyzed by end users and the schema design. but the dimension tables are not joined to each other. which may anticipate OR even require that the data-warehouse schema contains dimension tables . and the keys time_key. and average. The center of the star consists of a large fact table and the points of the star are the dimension tables. A typical fact table contains keys and measures. item-key. and location_key. A star schema is characterized by one OR more very large fact tables that contain the primary information in the data warehouse. The dimension tables are time. each of which contains information about the entries for a particular attribute in the fact table. It is called a star schema because the entity-relationship diagram of this schema resembles a star. in the sample schema. sales. A star join is a primary key to foreign key join of the dimension tables to a fact table. For example. item and location. the fact table.

Snowflake schemas normalize dimensions to eliminate redundancy. and is a type of star schema. Fact Constellation Schema . For example. a location dimension table in a star schema might be normalized into a location table and city table in a snowflake schema. Figure above presents a graphical representation of a snowflake schema. It is called a snowflake schema because the diagram of the schema resembles a snowflake.Snow-Flake Schema in Dimensional Modeling The snowflake schema is a more complex data warehouse model than a star schema. While this saves space. the dimension data has been grouped into multiple tables instead of one large table. That is. The result is more complex queries and reduced query performance. it increases the number of dimension tables and requires more foreign key joins.

The logical design can be done independent of expected query patterns. How Dimensional model is different from an E-R diagram? y y y y An E-R diagram (used in OLTP or transactional system) has highly normalized model (Even at a logical level). Whereas a 'dimension' entity in dimension model has mostly the textual attributes. and the 'fact' entity has mostly numeric attributes. whereas dimensional model aggregates most of the attributes and hierarchies of a dimension into a single entity. Dimensional modeling is a better approach for Data warehouse compared to standard Data Model. the query strategies are symmetrical. belong to the entity table. whereas the Dimensional model has logical grouped set of star-schemas. A dimension model is split as per the dimensions and facts. OR where we want to split a fact table for better comprehension. and the SQL generated against the dimensional model is symmetrical. Something which is a relational model is ill-equipped to handle. The user interfaces are symmetrical. In other words.This Schema is used mainly for the aggregate fact tables. The split of fact table is done only when we want to focus on aggregation over few facts & dimensions. First advantage of the dimensional model is that there are standard type of joins and framework. Relational Modeling Dimensional modeling is different from the OLTP normalized modeling to enable analysis and querying through massive and unpredicted queries. Dimensional Modeling vs. In an E-R diagram all attributes for an entity including textual as well as numeric. The E-R diagram is split as per the entities. . The dimensional model has a number of important data warehouse advantages that the ER model lacks. An E-R diagram is a complex maze of hundreds of entities linked with each other. All dimensions can be thought of as symmetrically equal entry points into the fact table.

The individual phases for developments of Data Marts eventually merge into the enterprise wide Data Warehouse. For example. Data Warehouse modeling has two components: y y Foundation to support medium to long-term capabilities. the following foundation setting elements will work like reusable components. depending on the business environment. without the need to unsettle the structure time and again. First. This means that: y Dimensions are super-sets of all possible attributes for that dimension. No query tool OR reporting tool needs to be reprogrammed to accommodate the change. where a business such as a bank needs to: o track a number of different lines of business together within a single common set of attributes and facts. customer 'age' attribute may not be required for sales analysis. Typically. as long as they are consistent with the fundamental grain of the existing fact table. Foundation & Conformed Dimensions and Facts in Data Warehouse Dimensional Model Data Warehouse is a repository which feeds data marts. unanticipated dimensional attributes. o it needs to describe and measure the individual lines of business in highly idiosyncratic ways using incompatible measures. A project has to address both the foundation and phase elements. when creating the standard dimensions. Breaking existing dimension records down to a lower level of granularity from a certain point in time forward. It has to be designed to have global or re-usable set of dimensions and measures. Dimensional modeling provides specific techniques for handling slowly changing dimensions. respectively. and other user interfaces. but required for Credit Analysis. but at the same time. Each of these situations has a well-understood set of alternatives that can be specifically programmed in report writers. Data should not have to be reloaded. Therefore. Adding completely new dimensions. as long as there is a single value of that dimension defined for each existing fact record Adding new.. Every stage in the Data Warehouse project will address these two elements in distinct and overt manner. and other down stream systems. You can. For dimensional modeling.y y You will never find attributes in fact tables and facts in dimension tables. They will be same across the Data-Marts/Data Warehouse for current and the future phases of developments: Standard set of foundation or conformed dimensions. one make the superset of attributes. . you can assume that it is a key to a dimension table Second advantage of the dimensional model is that it is smoothly extensible to accommodate unexpected new data elements and new design decisions. all existing tables (both fact and dimension) can be changed in place by simply adding new data rows in the table. where a 'constant' dimension such as Product OR Customer actually evolves slowly and asynchronously. Heterogeneous products. If you see a non-fact field in the fact table. Third advantage of the dimensional model is that there is a body of standard approaches for handling common modeling situations in the business world. All old applications continue to run without yielding different results. These modeling situations include: y y Slowly changing dimensions. query tools. make the following graceful changes to the design after the data warehouse is up and running by: y y y y Adding new unanticipated facts (that is. new additive numeric fields in the fact table).

As a guideline. classification rules.Many a times the analysis does not need to go down to the most granular level of customer ID. This means that y y All the measures and their possible units to be listed out. because we need to track on how many customers move to new locations over what frequency. Slowly Changing Dimensions SCD in Dimensional Modeling Dimensional model has to address some complex situations liked slowly changing dimensions. For example. A key benefit for Data Warehouse is to provide historical information. product characteristics.Customer. Sales Lead etc. These standards conversion rates keep on changing with time. a highly linked business process should get combined in a single fact. Customer demographics. However. For example a source system may have only the latest customer PIN Code. as it is needed to send the marketing and billing statements. if the dimension is starting from customer group upwards examples of foundation dimensions are.A portfolio analysis of a channel may not require the branch level location. Location. PLEASE REFER Universal Dimensions for more examples. but many not be needed for portfolio analysis. Customer Measures. Slowly Changing Dimensions Entities change over time.Sales Measures. Dimensions to include not only categories. a data warehouse needs to maintain all the previous PIN Codes as well. Channel. This means that: y y A fact table will include all possible units of measures for given set of dimensions.A textual detail for a location code could be needed for distribution analysis.For example. etc. but descriptive textual attributes as well wherever needed. examples of foundation measures are. Standard set of foundation or conformed facts. . A Fact table logically groups a business instance. PLEASE REFER FACTS-Base Measures for more examples. In case. Make the dimension most granular. Standard set of foundation measures. In a transaction system. you will require the fact on final sale to the end customer for sales analysis. status of customers etc. but the agent productivity analysis could. lead to changes in the attributes of dimensions. Measures are most susceptible to having confusing definitions OR to be mis-named. which is typically over-written (and thus lost)in the transaction systems. However. Detailed formulas behind measures are must. the whole dimensional modeling could lead to issues. For example you could require distribution of a 'product' to retail outlet for distribution analysis. Refer Sales Revenue Fact-Measure as an example. customer moves from his existing customer segment. How to handle slowly changing dimensions in a Dimensional Model is a key determinant to that benefit. both units for the given measure should be included even if there is a standard conversion rate. many a times the change is overwritten and track of change is lost.y y y Dimensions include all possible levels of business hierarchy. However. For example sales by numbers could need only the number of 'Crates' in one data mart and 'Pieces' in the other.

which can change. However. Surrogate Keys as Primary keys of dimension tables . 1982 Jan8. 2004 Oct 25. Surrogate Key 1100021 Customer ID 110002 Marital Status Married Date of Birth City Jan8. In this method. 2005 Marital Status Single Married Married Date of Birth Jan8. This is obviously done. if an insurance policy status has moved from 'Lapsed' to 'Re-instated' the new status is over written on the old status. a new record is added whereby the new record is given a separate identifier as the primary key. we over-write 'unmarried' to 'Married'. Slowly Changing Dimension Method 2 (in short SCD 2) This is the true-blue technique to deliver precise historical analysis. We cannot use the production key as the primary key here as it has not changed (Customer ID has remained the same. attribute can change maximum once in the lifetime of the entity OR at least the lifetime of the data warehouse. However. the same methods will apply to fast changing dimensions as well. while the value of its attribute 'marital status' has changed). 2005 Nov 23. when there is more than one change in the attributes of an entity. This new identifier is called the surrogate key. This method has to know from the beginning on what attributes will change.There are three ways to handle the same: Slowly Changing Dimension method 1 (In short SCD 1) The way most of the source systems will handle it. This is used. Apart from adding a new record and providing a new primary (surrogate) key. the validity period for this new record is also added. but add a new field 'old attribute value'. Secondly.Overwrite the attribute value. Similarly. and we need to track the date of change of the attribute. This is because a new field/attribute has to be added in the design for every attribute.You have a dimensional table with customer_ID '110002' with marital status as 'single'. The customer dimension record will be: Surrogate Key 1100021 1100022 1100023 Customer ID 110002 110002 110002 Date Valid Sept 23. For example if a customer¶s marital status has moved from 'Unmarried' to 'Married'. customer gets married and also moved to a new location. For example. Overtime. when we are not analyzing the historical information. Here we don¶t add an additional record. 1982 City Palo Alto Palo Alto San Francisco Slowly changing dimension method 3 (SCD 3) This is a mid-way between method 1 and method 2. 1982 San Francisco Marital Status Old Single City Old Palo Alto NOTE ± The term of 'Slowly changing dimension' is used because of it being a universally acknowledged term. 1982 Jan8. this has limitations.

In case of historical tracking in source systems. that's from Source system to Data Warehouse. and large storage requirements. augmenting. fast load mechanisms. which will not face the situations as highlighted above. Data Warehouse Engines Relational databases (RDBMS) and Multi-dimensional databases (MDBMS). The situations/reasons on when a surrogate key is used: y y y 'Slowly changing dimensions' When the primary key itself is repeated. Data Mart A subset of the enterprise data resource. Refer 'Data Warehouse Design' Data Warehouse Data-Warehousing is to create a repository of Data which can provide most or all of the Data and information requirements of an enterprise. Data Warehouse doesn¶t recommend the luxury of using multiple field primary key in dimension table. but a key generated by the system. When there is a multiple field primary key. For example if an insurance policy is lapsed and after two months it becomes reinstated. Data Transformation process including standardizing. one can use the primary key as a combination of Policy number+ date/time +the status in the 'policy history table'.There is a best practice in dimensional model design to not to use the production primary key as the primary key for the dimension table. Data Warehouse has a core need for maintaining historical information and how an entity has moved and changed shape through the passage of time. Therefore it is always recommended to use surrogate keys. integrating. these systems can have the luxury of using multiple-field primary key (including the key identifier of the entity plus date stamp). uniform and well-organized manner so that you can run queries. aggregating and creating the data sets for Data Loading into the repository. Dimension model typically does not use multiple field primary key to link to the fact table. The production key is also used as an attribute within the same dimension table. Therefore. If there are. transformed and loaded into a sanitized. Data Warehouse engines require query capabilities. Typically Source Systems need for this kind of information is quite less. its is cleansed. 'data mining' for a specific business theme Data Mapping This is the process through which one is able to state on which data is lying where and how the data . However. cleansing. Data Warehouse Architecture An integrated set of products and methods that enable the Data Extraction and Data Transformation of operational data to be loaded into a database for end-user analysis and reporting. they could as well manage their needs using excel and pivot tables. it is difficult to find the organizations. It essentially means that it pulls data from all the production and other sources. This goes against conventional logic. where data from a selected set of data sources is integrated to enable Data Analysis/OLAP. Data Synchronization This is synonymous to 'Data Replication' Data Propagation When data is moved downstream. but has a reason. Data Transformation This is the process of converting the extracted data from its raw form to final state for Data Loading . Once the data is pulled onto an offline staging area. to local cubes/data modeling software. the concept 'surrogate Key' comes into play where the primary key is not the production key. reports and all kind of analysis on the data.

Fuel Gauge and Temperature Gauge will be the Dashboard. Refer Scorecard . process. Also refer to the Customer Dimension. Customer Management. Consolidation The process that takes data from different systems and entities. Consumer An individual. We haven't used the word business intelligence in the knowledgebase as it is a very wide term and has many connotations. and possibly disparate formats. Dashboard A Dashboard shares on what is happening at this point of time. One has to remember that business intelligence is not only technology capability is lot to do with human and cultural capability as well. reporting tools etc.. Cube A data cube is a multidimensional structure that contains an aggregate value at each point.e. In every day use terms they are typically the financial and the customer parameters. To take an example. These are the tools which allow the user to access the data. Reports and Querying and data mining. Refer Data Mapping & Assessment Data Loading Refer Data Loading in Data Warehouse Data Integration Data integration' is part of Data Delivery. and common codes. if you are driving your car.elements/stores are connected. the result of applying an aggregate function to an underlying relation. i. they are knows as the . Data integration is done both for offline data usage (Data Warehouse) and online data usage ('Operational Data Store' and 'Single Customer View') Data Access Tools Data access tools are used in context of OLAP. Business Intelligence Platform The set of tools and architectures which provide the business intelligence capability. Refer Data Transformation in DW Design & Architecture Communications Integrity An operational quality that ensures transmitted data has been accurately received at its destination. business unit or entity performed with respect to strategic business plan. common data standards. Business Drivers The parameters which drive the business objectives. RPM meter. and combines and aggregates that information to create a unified view. During this process the data is transformed to the common formats. Business Intelligence (BI) Business Intelligence is another word for 'Data Usage' which includes Data Analysis/OLAP. Scorecard A Scorecard being part of a broader corporate methodology or management discipline and is a performance assessment report for a given person. the combination of speedometer. Dashboard in Dashboards and Scorecards Customer Relationship Management Customer Relationship Management is super set terms for Customer Acquisition or Sales & Distribution Management. Refer Scorecard & Dashboard in Dashboards and Scorecards. 'Data Mining/Data Modeling'. For example in Data Warehouse. Typically Scorecard is produced for a period of time. The examples include user query tools. group or application that accesses data/information in a Data Warehouse. Base Tables Base tables are the tables which provide the detailed data. This can also includes on how data flows across an enterprise. Data cubes are used to implement online analytical processing (OLAP).. team.

the attribute 'sales in cartons' is a derived attribute. In Dimensional Model they are the fields in the dimension table. This data includes essentially every thing apart from production/business data. In its layman term it is called summation. All the Scorecards. Refer to Field Systems in Source Systems in Data Staging in Data Warehouse Derived attribute This is the attribute which is derived out of the base attribute. Refer Special Situations in Dimensional Model Field or front end systems These are the system which form a layer to interact with sales force or end customers. For example the value attribute 'City' of a dimension 'Location' can be all possible cities. exception highlighting. It is essentially a post graduate course before you go for fellowship in Data Mining Analytic Applications The Data Analysis/OLAP applications.' Attribute Attribute is the feature or character type of an object. Atomic Data Data elements which are the lowest level of 'Granularity' of data. most of the usage of data in today's world falls within the realm of Data Analysis/OLAP/OLAP. drilling up/down. sex etc. For example if the base attribute is sales revenue in number of units. Analysis or Analytics Data Analysis/OLAP/OLAP is most fundamental way to make sense out of your data. slicing & dicing on various dimensions. For example. Administration Data Both in Data Warehouse and production 'source systems' . any data which is used to administer the systems. the office code is greater granularity compared to city or district for the 'Location' dimension. Dashboard and other MIS generated on an OLAP/reporting tool on display is called a view. applying filters. For example Marital status. Administration data is a subset of 'Meta Data'. Changing attributes These are attributes which change with time. Whether you are doing a pivot on excel or creating advanced views in a upmarket OLAP tool. The views can be stored and can be populated adhoc or can be schedule. The Analytic applications provides Data Analysis Functions and Data Analysis Types Aggregate Data Aggregate data is the summation. For Dimensional Model it is recommended to keep the granularity of data to its atomic level. Most of the CRM applications are field systems. By definition they don't include 'Data Mining' &' Dimensional Model applications. in RDBMS they are the columns of a table. the greater is the granularity. graphs and other presentation tools. It involves looking at the data from all possible angles. In laymen terms it is a value of a field/column in a schema. Refer Dimensional Model Granularity The level of atomicity of data in Data Warehouse. doing time trending analysis. For example a customer has the attributes like age. In Data Management terms it is any function applied to present one value in lieu of multiple individual value. View These are different representations of data made out of a cube. Staging A method by which includes Extraction Design from Source Systems to a Staging Area and do Data . average etc of the individual data elements. age etc. More base level of the data.detailed data tables in 'staging area' as well as the 'loaded area. Refer Dimensional Model Attribute Value It is the value an attribute can take.

Project Requirement Stage This is the stage where the detailed business requirements are captured. sequence of testing. This is done to ensure that the detail in the Data Warehouse due to change of primary key over time. non-quantified benefits. Post the acceptance of the project proposal. plan. Star Schema . which is used to connect the dimension table with the fact table. The requirements should be detailed enough to enable the system design. risks. Project Agreement This is the final document containing all specifics related to the project scope. Business case This is the explanation of why a project makes business sense. This explanation includes cost-benefit analysis. executing and implementing a project. Refer Transformation Design in Data Warehouse Test Cycles This is the grouping of test conditions into a schedule. Project Sponsor The role which is responsible for the business case.Transformation so that it is ready for Data Loading into a Multidimensional Database in a Data Warehouse. Project Task Teams Project Task teams are the natural teams formed to complete a certain task in the project plan. Project Manager Project Manager is responsible for successfully scoping. This will include the scope of testing. and achievement of the project objectives. Project Proposal This is an in-process deliverable in the project Initiation phase. which evolves an idea/issue/need into a well planned and sponsored project. Project Initiation Stage This is the first stage in the project. Project Core Team Project Core Team is chaired by the project manager and comprises the key stakeholders and participants in a project Project Co-ordinator Project Co-ordinator is responsible for day to day co-ordination and tracking of a project. the systems to be included. A test condition could include more than one test scenario and vice versa. Refer 'Project Initiation Stage' in 'Project Management'. Project proposal document contains the details of the project approaches and recommendation. Test Scenarios This is the list of various business events where the system response needs to be tested. organization and the works. the volume and variety of test data. the detailed project planning is done. Data Pre-processing Preparation of data before it can be used for OLAP or Data Mining.. Test Approach This states the overall approach to testing phase. cost. strategic fit etc. Surrogate Key This is the key. Test Plans These are the detailed listing of all the conditions you are going to test.

Refer to 'Snowflake Schema' in ' Dimensional Model in ' Data Ware House'. Refer Dimensional Model in Data Warehouse. OLAP and mining tools. HOLAP (Hybrid OLAP) A product that can provide multidimensional analysis simultaneously of data stored in a multidimensional database and in an RDBMS. Please refer Dimensional Model.schema is a the basic schema. broken down and more integral structure. Multidimensional Database (MDBS and MDBMS) A powerful database that lets users analyze large amounts of data. This method is used typically in the production or source system mainly to maintain data integrity and avoiding redundant data. There cannot be two records in a database which have same primary key. separating the master data from transaction data.Data Warehouse/Marting. Primary key The field or combination of fields which are unique identifiers of a record. RDBMS Relational Data base management systems. and creating a single point reference for data elements. Multidimensional The representation of data which contains more than one Dimension. Hypercube An OLAP product that stores all data in a single cube which has all the application dimensions applied to it.A star. where the fact table is connected to the dimension tables. Information The useful and actionable analysis. interpretation and presentation of the raw mostly transaction level data. . Scalability Ability to support the increasing level of data or processing requirements. size and performance. Parallelism The ability to perform functions in parallel. rows and column which are linked through 'foreign keys'. The platform which is used now for most of the production systems. Query A request for data given specific conditions from data source. Refer to 'Star Schema' in Dimensional Model Source System Refer to Source Systems in Execution-MiHDelivery . Share of Wallet This is the measure on how much of the customer potential value an enterprise is able to tap. It has data stored in tables. Partitioning Splitting of target data into smaller units. This involves removing redundant attributes. Scalability essentially demands that the platform can be incremented gradually and to high levels. Companies always try to maximize the spending by the customer on their product or introduce new products to help cover the wider range of customers spending potential. Becoming a popular architecture for server OLAP. An MDBS captures and presents data as arrays that can be arranged in multiple dimensions. This is used extensively in large scale ETL. Snowflake Schema Snow-flake schema has a dimension table further split into multiple sub-tables for the purpose of design. Normalization The process of converting a higher level data/logical structure into a simpler. Refer Customer Management. Logical Data Model This is the business representation of the way data should be organized.

It includes transaction reports. its is a process of optimizing the resources across the enterprise by integrated planning and management. Fact tables contain data that describes specific events within a business. this is the parent-child relationship with in a dimension. In other words. my data is less granular compared to sales figures which are at branch level. policies. definition of display and business rule. Dashboards. Information can be generic or public use or could be domain or user specific. logging and also lesser levels of commit points. Foreign Key A foreign key is the primary key of one data structure that is placed into a related data structure to represent a relationship among those structures. ETL It represents the process of converting the raw data to a state where it can be used for analysis and data mining/modeling. It includes Data Extraction which extracts transaction data from disparate sources to a common repository--> Data Transformation which cleans and transforms the data-->Data Loading which loads the transformed data into multi-dimensional database to enable analysis & mining. Attributes and their hierarchies. Its deals with linking of sales forecast to sales planning to purchase management to manufacturing schedules to bill of materials to inventory management to financial management. This means that if I have the sale figure at city level. down and across the dimensions.Business Hierarchy In the context of Dimensional Model. Enterprise portal is one stop source for the employees to view and use information. Performance Management Please refer the section Performance Management Drill Down This is a type of analysis whereby one Moves up. ERP Enterprise Resource Planning. It is driven by the availability and security layers. business process repository etc. This is mainly done by bypassing the integrity checks. Data Extraction Refer Data Extraction in Data Warehouse in the knowledgebase. Refer 'Drill Analysis' in Data Analysis Types in Data Analysis/OLAP Dimension . Foreign keys resolve relationships. Filters Refer 'Filter' in 'analytic functions' in 'OLAP/Data Analysis/OLAP Fastload A methods that is used to load the data from the data-sets in staging area into the Data Loading area in Data Warehouse. Business Rule This is the statement which determines any change in an enterprise. company news. This subject is typically used for manufacturing domain. but its principles are used across all industry types. A more granular data means greater level of detail. Enterprise Portal Enterprise Portal is a subject with in data visualization. analytics. Fact Table A central table in a Data Warehouse schema that contains numerical Measures and keys relating facts to dimension tables. such as bank transactions or product sales. Granularity It is the state of fineness of the data. Refer to 'Facts' in Dimensional Model in Data Warehouse. All what you program in a system is either the definition of data. For example Location dimension will have the hierarchy of street-->city-->district-->state. spreadsheets. and support navigation among data structures.

It is done by revealing lower-level data than was previously displayed. Drill-down Navigation It is a method of exploring for more detailed data. which in turn sits over Data-Warehouse. such as the document name and prompt answers. For instance. defining the parameters. zone. Available levels depend on the granularity of the data in OLAP and data warehouse. you can drill down from State to City to offices. which in turn sits over Data-Warehouse. For example a OLAP client. For example you have the office level break-up of sales revenue. and you can roll it up to city. Data Warehouse Network An integrated network of data warehouses that contain sharable data propagated from a source Data Warehouse on the basis of information consumer demand. in terms of meta-data as well as the data. Roll-up Navigation A method of exploring for more widely summarized data. Typically you move up a dimension hierarchy. When the document is viewed in Web. because typically various End-user Business Intelligence tools sit on top of OLAP. Derived Data All the Data which is not 'Atomic Data' Dependent Data Mart/Stores These are those data marts/Stores and cubes which are cascaded from the parent Data Warehouse. Drill-link A URL hyperlink to a destination. These are the methods of moving horizontally with in the dimensional structure of Data-warehouse and OLAP. a user can click the link to navigate to the link's destination. The warehouses are managed to control data redundancy and to promote effective use of the sharable data. . Drill (horizontal) and Cross (horizontal) Navigation and Analysis these are the methods of moving horizontally and vertically with in the dimensional structure of Data-warehouse and OLAP. This term is more used in context with OLAP. for the drill.Refer to Dimensional Model in Data Warehouse or Universal Dimensions in Execution-MiHRepositories Desktop Applications These are the applications through which a user gets the data on this desk-top. or a data modeling tool or a query tool can be stated as desk-top application. This term is more used in context with OLAP. region and country level figures. because typically various End-user Business Intelligence tools sit on top of OLAP. It¶s an antonym to Drill Down.

For example. A single dimension analysis is. By clicking on pie of a given product (general insurance. With in the Fax Machine product in New York City. tied agents. However..) and look for split across the channels (telemarketing. for 'location' dimension (office. state. operating expenses etc. you are able to seamlessly navigate and drill across due to the cross dimensional linkages. when you get measures for a single dimension. This is one of the most important and features And is fundamental capability expected out of an OLAP tool Drill Across Measures . Here is the list of cross-dimensional analysis you can perform: Drill-across Dimensions You drill across dimensions. Most of the business reporting and analysis goes across dimensions. is an analysis across multiple dimensions. for those offices. state. now you want to have the break-up of revenue for various products (Say Fax machine. Going further.) A cross-dimension example will be to look for measures sales. If you top this kind of example with other analysis types (max-min. region.Cross-Dimensional (horizontal) analysis and Navigation Cross-dimensional analysis. In the above example you have drilled across the Dimensions of 'Location'->'Products'->'Channel'. 3rd party brokers. In the above examples. you may like to go for state-wise split for the revenue of that product. headcount of employees. mailers and direct sales. you want to find the break-up as per channels of telemarketing. city. the sales for 'washing and cleaning' product range is more than the average sales for this product range across all offices. corporate agents. you may like to click on a given state ( are seeing a pie-chart of revenue share for different product-lines. filtration). For example..the key reason why OLAP and its multidimensional structure exists. region.). sales employees. One example can be: Identifying top ten of the offices where.. for 'location' dimension (office. you come close to the real-life complexity of a business analysis query. for a given number of quarters. which are open for more than 3 years and have an average growth of 5% per quarter over last 4 quarters.) for a given set of products. Cross-dimensional analysis capability with an OLAP server is also manifested in the cross-dimensional navigation. country. For example you are looking at revenue break-up for the cities. country.when one looks for measures sales.Vehicles). exception. city. Telephone and copier) within that city (Say New York). California.. when you move from one dimension to another. gross profit etc.

Drill Across Attributes This is by all means same as 'drill-across dimensions'... Dicing means viewing the slices from different angles. to have a further understanding of the picture. you want to have the break-up for occupation (self employed. However. sales units. For example -Revenue for different products within a given state or revenue for different states for a given product. Slicing means taking out the slice of a cube. and Slicing & Dicing Analysis Slicing means taking out the slice of a cube. For example.. sales units.). Here is an example of how you can slice and dice through pivot: Step1: Starting layout.) In this example we drill across the attributes of relationship value band-->Age Band-->Occupation All belong to the customer dimension Pivoting. A pivot is a two dimensional lay-out of the summary data. employ ed. given certain set of select dimension (customer segment). you now move across measures to find out about the Sales transactions of these offices (a low revenue . You will have 10 X 4 matrix. the quarters (say four quarters) on the X-axis. and value (home furnishings.It is similar to Drill-across dimensions. A pivot creates an ability for you to create the width and depth in your view of the data.) and measures (sales revenue. Pivot is the standard and basic look and feel of the views you create on the OLAP cubes. you want to have the break-up as per the age bands (18 years to 25 Years/25 Years to 40 Years/>40 Years). Pivot is known in Excel context. For USD >50K band. and value (home furnishings.) or KPIs (Sales Productivity).. given certain set of select dimension (product). and with in >40 years.) and measures (sales value. . Slicing and Dicing leads to what you can call Pivot. For example -Revenue for different products within a given state OR revenue for different states for a given product. For example you have the data for revenue in US as per the customer relationship value bands (say USD 10K to USD 20K/USD 20K to USD 50 K/USD 50K and above. Practicing professional. Dicing means viewing the slices from different angles. You can have sales value as the measure shown in the table against intersection of a given product and a quarter..). The x and y axis are the dimensions and the intersection cells for any two dimension values contain the value of the measures. but higher sales transaction point to a certain level of activity) and number of sales staff (the low performing offices could have lesser staff) and number of months since the office is set-up (the new offices being in gestation period could be performing lower). you are doing the sales revenue analysis and have been able to find out the best and least performing offices. One form of Slicing and Dicing is called pivoting.You can have product list on y axis (say 10 products)..

Therefore now you can have different locations (say 3 locations) for each row of product. month and quarters. . You can also specify. with a 13X4 matrix. which on Y axis will have 10 rows (for 10 products) and 3 rows (for 3 locations). productions. You will not have a 30 (3 locations for each of the 10 products) X 4 (quarters) matrix. For example. you will have a matrix.Step 2: Adding depth Cross-Dimensionally-Taking a step further. Step 5: Adding Width: Referring to starting layout-You can also add dimensions in 'width' instead of 'depth'. Step 4: Pivoting on an axis: You can also pivot your view and transpose the product+ location combination on X axis and quarter + month combination on Y axis.instead of having location dimension under the product. Now you will have 30 X 12 (3 months for each quarter). you can add location dimension adjacent to the product dimension. you can have the sub-totals for locations. Step 3: Adding depth within a single dimension: You can also add another dimension like months under quarters. Therefore. For example. you can add a dimension of locations under the product to give it more depth. if you want to have subtotals for every dimension.

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