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PROJECT REPORT ON HEAT EXCHANGERS
NAME- Dilip Paliwal DISCIPLINE- Mechanical E.C. No- 16241892 MENTOR- Mr. G C Patel PLANT- PBR (II)
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Project Report on Heat Exchangers
1. Heat Exchanger 2. Codes and Standards 3. Shell and Tube Type Exchanger Types of Construction 4. Tube Pass Geometry 5. Baffles 6. Tube Pattern 7. Impingement Plate 8. Tie Rods and Spacers 9. Tube-Sheet 10. Heat Exchanger Failure 11. Selection Criteria of Heat Exchanger 12. Classes of Heat Exchanger According to TEMA 13. Classification based on Construction 14. Classification Based on Service 15. Fundamentals of Heat Exchangers Heat Transfer Coefficient Pressure Drop Shell Configuration Tube Layout Pattern Tube Pitch Fixed Tube Sheet Heat Exchanger Floating Head Exchanger U-Tube Heat Exchanger
16. Baffling 17. Mean Temperature Difference 18. Temperature Profile Distortion
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Project Report on Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers in a process system allow heat transfer from one source to another. These in most cases are single line equipment and any failure will require stopping of operation of the unit. Following report is an attempt to study heat exchangers in PBR-II and PP-IV Plant under major guidelines of construction, metallurgy, assembly/disassembly, inspection and testing. Exchangers considered for the purpose are: Shell and Tube type of Heat Exchangers Shell and Tube exchangers consist of bundle of tubes enclosed in a shell with heat transfer between the fluid flowing in the tube or shell. TEMA gives detail design and fabrication requirements. Report presents Shell and Tube Exchangers in detail.
HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchanger in a process system allows heat transfer from one source to another. CLASSIFICATION 1. TEMA STYLE SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER. 2. DOUBLE PIPE OR HAIRPIN EXCHANGERS. 3. AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER. 4. COMPACT AND NON-TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGER Following report is going to discuss about exchangers present in PBR-II under following guidelines. 1. Construction 2. Metallurgy 3. Assembly/Disassembly 4. Inspection/Testing. Exchangers studied for the purpose are: SHELL AND TUBE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS
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Confined pressure vessels Section IX. Class B. fabrication tolerance. operation and maintenance.Air-cooled Heat Exchanger for refinery service. Consists of 11 sections.000 (17. Properties of fluid.Boilers of both finned tube and water tube type Section V. TEMA designation is applicable to shell and tube exchangers which do not exceed the following criteria: • Not to exceed Inside Diameters of 100 inches (2450 mm) • Product of Nominal diameter.For chemical process service API 660 . mechanical standard (class RCB). general information on materials. general fabrication information.Heat Exchanger for general refinery service API 661 .00. TEMA classes Class R. Flow Induced Vibration.For moderate requirement of commercial and general process application.Non destructive examination Section VIII. Page 4 of 32 . recommended practice.Project Report on Heat Exchangers CODES AND STANDARDS Pressure vessel code ASME . installation. Following sections are relevant to heat exchanger design. Class C. Thermal relations.nomenclature. inches (mm) and Design Pressure.TEMA class R standard specify design and fabrication of unfired shell and tube exchanger for severe requirement of petroleum and related processing application. Section 1. psi (kpa) not to exceed 1.5*106) • Not to exceed Design Pressure of 3000 psi (2068 kpa) Intent of these parameters is to limit the maximum wall thickness to approximately 3 inches (76mm) and maximum stud diameter to 4 inches (102mm).American Society of Mechanical Engineers.Welding and Brazing Qualification Standards TEMA-Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association It has 11 sections containing.
Accommodates differential expansion between shell and tubes 3. No shell side gasket Disadvantages: 1. Shell side cannot be cleaned other than by solvent. Heat transfer takes place in between the liquids flowing through the shell and that through the tubes.Project Report on Heat Exchangers SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER It consists of a bundle of tubes encased in a shell. Difficult baffle construction. Differential expansion is a problem. 3. Dirty or fouling service can be placed on tube side and can be cleaned as desired. Advantages: 1. Fixed Tube sheet heat exchanger-In this type of heat exchanger tube sheet are welded to the shell. This construction requires that shell and tube-sheet material is weldable to each other. Maximum no of tubes for given diameter. Lowest cost 2. Removable-bundle construction 2. The shell-side fluid is contained by rings of packing. PRINCIPAL TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 1. 5. 2. Floating Head Exchanger. 2. 3. 4. Features of outside packed floating head exchanger: 1. There are no limitations upon the number of tube-side passes or upon the tube-side design pressure and temperature. Outside Packed Floating-Head Exchanger. which are compressed within a stuffing box by a packing follower ring. Most commonly used type of removable bundle construction in chemical-plant service Page 5 of 32 . Used for shell-side service up to 4137 kPa gauge pressure at 31C. Fixed tube-sheet exchanger problems can be dealt by adding a front and/or rear head that can be opened. One tube sheet is fixed with respect to Shell and other tube-sheet is free to float Used for both shell and tube side dirty service.
Pull-Through Floating-Head Exchanger Construction is similar to internal-floating-head split-backing-ring exchanger except that the floating-head cover bolts directly to the floating tube sheet.Project Report on Heat Exchangers Internal Floating-Head Exchanger. and floating-head cover must be removed before the tube bundle can pass through the exchanger shell. Sealing strips or dummy tubes are often installed to reduce bypassing of the tube bundle Page 6 of 32 . Shell cover. The tube bundle can be withdrawn from the shell without removing either shell cover or floating-head cover. split backing ring. This feature reduces maintenance time during inspection and repair. This clearance is about 2 to 2. The large clearance between the tubes and the shell must provide for both the gasket and the bolting at the floating-head cover. The tube bundle is removable. The outer tube limit approaches the inside diameter of the gasket at the floating tube sheet. A split backing ring and bolting usually hold the floating-head cover at the floating tube sheet. Clearances (between shell and OTL) are 29 mm for pipe shells and 37 mm for moderate-diameter plate shells. These are located beyond the end of the shell and within the larger-diameter shell cover.5 times that required by the splitring design. and the floating tube sheet moves (or floats) to accommodate differential expansion between shell and tubes.
A floating-head type or U-tube type heat exchanger should be selected if flexibility is required to avoid overstressing.Project Report on Heat Exchangers 3. In high-pressure construction this feature becomes of considerable importance in reducing both initial and maintenance costs Disadvantages: 1. Advantages: 1. this latter option may be adopted only if required by specific process requirements.00052 m². which can remove fouling residues from both the straight and the U-bend portions of the tubes. 3. then mechanical cleaning shall be possible. 2. Floating-head heat exchangers should be used in all other services. are provided. The tube bundle can be removed from the heat-exchanger shell. Provides minimum clearance between the outer tube limit and the inside of the shell for any of the removable-tube-bundle constructions. The number of tube holes in a given shell is less than that for a fixed-tube-sheet exchanger because of limitations on bending tubes of a very short radius. -Tube-side fouling can be removed by chemical cleaning U-tubes shall not be used if the fouling resistance exceeds 0. baffles or support plates. U tubes (or hairpin tubes). which is welded to the shell. U-tube bundle heat exchangers may be used only in services where at least one of the following conditions is to be satisfied: -Tube side mechanical cleaning is not required or. The following shall apply in selecting a type of heat exchanger: 1. Fixed tube sheet heat exchangers shall be used only in services where all of the following conditions are satisfied: . The use of U-tube construction has increased significantly with the development of hydraulic tube cleaners.Stresses caused by differential expansion between the tubes and the shell shall not exceed the design stress limits. In this respect tube side mechanical cleaning is considered possible if the centre-to centre distance between the parallel legs of the U-tube is at least 150 mm. and appropriate tie rods and spacers. A tube-side header (stationary head) and a shell with integral shell cover. Key to Drawing Page 7 of 32 .Shell side fluid is non-fouling. if it is required. The tube bundle consists of a stationary tube sheet. 2. However. . Each tube is free to expand or contract without any limitation being placed upon it by the other tubes. Clearances are of the same magnitude as for fixed-tube-sheet heat exchangers. or shell side fouling can be removed by chemical cleaning. Reduced number of joints. U-Tube Heat Exchanger. 3.K/W.
Packing 26. Floating Head cover 23.Stationary tube sheet 8. Shell cover flange 15. Floating tube sheet 17.Channel cover 6.Pass partition 33.Expansion joint 16.Project Report on Heat Exchangers 1.Lantern ring 28. Stationary head –Channel 5. Packing box Flange 25. Longitudinal baffle 32. Packing gland 27. Shell cover 11.Shell 10.Stationary Head Bonnet 4.Floating Head Backing Device 20. Vent connection 34. Split shear ring 21. Tubes 9. Support saddle Page 8 of 32 . Drain connection 35. Floating Head Flange 19. Stationary head nozzle 7. Transverse baffles or support plates 31. Shell flange rear end 13. Instrument connection 2. Shell nozzle 14.Floating Head cover 18.Floating tube sheet skirt 24.Shell Flange 12. Slip on backing flange 22. Channel 3. Tie rod and spacers 30.
Project Report on Heat Exchangers TUBE PASS GEOMETRY Tube side flow can be of three types 1. Page 9 of 32 . No of passes in an exchanger is no of times one fluid passes through other fluid compartment. Quadrant Combination Pass Partition This is done to separate fluids in each pass. Ribbon 2.
Project Report on Heat Exchangers BAFFLES Baffles are used to support tubes. So there is optimum baffle spacing that will result in highest efficiency. A baffle set can consist of a baffle with rods in all the vertical lanes and another baffle with rods in all the horizontal lanes between the tubes. Rod baffles Segmental Baffles Single. Double segmental-Used if delta P must be limited and tube vibration is not a problem NTIW-Used if delta P must be limited and tube vibration is a problem Triple segmental-Provides lower delta P than single or double segmental -Has a large unsupported tube span. Maximum shell-side heat-transfer rates in forced convection are apparently obtained by cross-flow of the fluid at right angles to the tubes. As per TEMA minimum baffle spacing is generally one-fifth of the shell diameter and not less than 50. In order to maximize this type of flow some heat exchangers are built with segmental-cut baffles and with “no tubes in the window”. Segmental Baffles 2. enable a desirable velocity to be maintained and prevent flow-induced vibration. Stagnant areas do not exist. Baffle cut can vary from 15% to 45 %. Baffle spacing. Maximum baffle spacing is limited by the requirement to provide adequate support for the tubes. Types1. Both large and small baffle cut is detrimental to efficiency. Rod: Baffles Rod or bar baffles have either rods or bars extending through the lanes between rows of tubes. As baffle spacing is decreased pressure drop increases at much faster rate than does the heat transfer coefficient. Baffle cut. Selection of baffles Single segmental-Standard arrangement -Inexpensive -Used if neither delta P nor tube vibration is a problem. Page 10 of 32 . Baffles increase the heat transfer by producing cross flow and turbulence. Closer baffle spacing will result in poor bundle penetration by shell side fluid and difficulty in mechanical cleaning of outside of tubes. The shell-side flow is uniform and parallel to the tubes.8 mm (2 in). and triple segmental baffles are used. double.
Smaller pitches leads to smaller shell ID and hence lower costs Impingement plate Used to avoid damage to tubes on incoming fluids on shell sides. Tube holes can be drilled and reamed and can be machined with one or more grooves. and spacers are eliminated. When mechanical cleaning is specified. It also produces higher turbulence and therefore higher htc. Page 11 of 32 . Tie Rods and Spacers Tie rods are used to hold the baffles in place with spacers. Tubes are attached to tube sheet by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure or by roller expansion. Tube-Sheet Tube-sheet is made from round flat piece of metal with holes drilled for the tube ends in a precise location and pattern relative to one another. However it does not permit mechanical cleaning of tubes at typical tube pitch of 1. Occasionally baffles are welded to the tie rods. minimum cleaning lane of ¼”(6. which are pieces of tubing or pipe placed on the rods to locate the baffles.4mm) shall be provided.25 times the outside diameter of the tube. single phase fluid if ρ v2 >1500 lb/ft-sec2 -For all other liquids if ρ v2 >500 lb/ft-sec2 -For all gases and vapors -For all liquid and vapor mixtures. TEMA Guidelines -Impingement plate is provided based on ρ v2 on inlet nozzle when -Non corrosive. Properly located tie rods and spacers serve both to hold the bundle together and to reduce bypassing of the tubes.25 times OD.Project Report on Heat Exchangers Philips Rod Baffles-Provides very low delta P -More expensive -Only used on square pitch Holtec Nest Baffles-Very low delta P -Much more expensive -Any pitch Tube pattern There are four tube layout patterns as shown in diagram. For dirty shell side services square pattern should be used Tube pitch As per TEMA Tube shall be separated with a minimum centre-to-centre distance of 1. A triangular pattern would accommodate more tubes than a square pattern. non abrasive.
It is used where • Intermixing of shell and tube side fluid causes safety hazards. Tubes to tube sheet joint loads are calculated as per Clause 7. Seal weld is used to supplement an expanded tube joint to ensure tube joint leak tightness. section 5 of “TEMA”. • Hydrogen service with partial pressure greater than 6.Selection of tube to tube sheet joint Tube to Tube sheet joints are selected based on the effective tube longitudinal. Seal Weld.These are of three types: Expanded joint-Expanded tube joint is the tube to tube sheet joint achieved by mechanical or explosive expansion of the tube into the tube hole in the tube-sheet. • Lethal fluids are used.Project Report on Heat Exchangers Tube to Tube sheet joint.25. Purpose of tube to tube-sheet joint • To join tubes and tube-sheet and keep the tubes structurally stable and support the skeleton assembly under design conditions. mechanical and thermal axial loads in either direction from the tube to the tube sheet as well as provide tube joint leak tightness. compressive stress. Mechanical and Thermal axial loads coming on tubes.8 bar Amount of expansion 4-5% for SS 7-8% for CS 10-12% for old tubes re-used Heat Exchanger Failure Page 12 of 32 . Strength weld. Strength weld is one in which the design strength of the weld is greater than or equal to the maximum allowable axial tube strength. Compressive. . . A strength weld shall be designed to transfer all of the longitudinal. • To prevent intermixing of shell and tube sheet fluids. • To take care of Longitudinal. and loads caused by differential thermal expansion between shell and tubes.
Acoustic vibration.g. low velocity areas) Inter-granular corrosion. acoustic resonance or coupling develops when the standing waves in the shell are in phase with vortex shedding from the tubes. Flow Velocity Higher flow velocity can lead to erosion of tubes on shell side.Project Report on Heat Exchangers Vibration Tube vibration occurs when there is resonance between tube natural frequency and a forcing frequency. nature of fluid and tube material. Corrosion Corrosion leads to sudden failure of tube or shell materials. Fouling occurs due to scaling. susceptible material and corroding environment Pitting Localized attack in the form of pits Under deposit corrosion (e. 2. Grain boundary improvishment of chromium due to precipitation as carbides (Austenitic SS) Fouling Deposition of unwanted material on a heat transfer surface. Failure modes • Tube to tube-sheet joint leak • Cutting of tube wall at baffle location • Fatigue • Damage due to collision of tube-to-tube Mechanism of vibration 1. Crevice corrosion. Fouling depends upon flow velocity (higher velocity reduces all modes of fouling). biomass in fluids and particulate accumulation and deposition. Residual stress. Corrosion can occur by following means.Shell and tube heat exchangers Page 13 of 32 . Leads to loss of through put because of reduced heat transfer. It can be caused by tube whirling if the cross flow velocity is greater tan critical velocity. Tube vibration is directly affected by tube unsupported span and cross-flow velocity. When the shell-side fluid is a low-density gas. Failure depends upon energy content and amplitude. Flow induced vibration. wall temperature. Occurs within a crevice formed by contact of two material (same or different) Stress Corrosion Cracking. or vortex shedding and turbulent buffeting. erosion of inlet/outlet nozzles and baffle hole to tube interface. SELECTION CRITERIA OF HEAT EXCHANGERS . corrosion.
which is accessible. Plates welded to form cassettes are not accessible for manual cleaning so the fluid should be non-fouling. When pressure drop is critical. Tube-side and shell-side fluid allocation The criteria for fluid allocation shall be: • The most corrosive to be tube-side. • Shell-side boiling or condensation is usually preferred. • Specific pressure drop. • 1. fluid subject to fouling shall not be on the tube side. Internal floating head type There is no limitation in temperature difference between tube-side and shell-side streams. • The higher pressure fluid to be tube-side.5 bar for re-compression gas coolers.Plate heat exchangers For moderate design temperatures/pressures and liquid cooling/heating purposes PHE offer a favorable design with regard to investment cost.Project Report on Heat Exchangers Maintenance aspects Special consideration shall be given to determine if the heat exchanger shall be located in a horizontal or vertical position due to maintenance and inspection requirements. Space for tube bundle withdrawal. This design is preferred for crude heating duties. inspection requirements may also affect the choice of heat exchanger type. • Severe fouling fluids shall be allocated the side. Fixed tube sheet type shell and tube exchanger Fixed tube sheet heat exchanger. Limiting factors are shell-side fouling conditions and differential temperature between the tubes and the shell during normal operation. shell-side flow is preferred as baffle arrangement can be adjusted to fit specified pressure drop. Multiple tubeside passes shall be avoided. Shell and tube heat exchanger with internal floating head design is suitable for fouling service combined with large temperature differences. . • 25% for fouling services like crude oil cooling. Additional heat transfer area to cover fouling shall be: • 20% for cooling water services. Pressure drop For initial sizing purposes maximum allowable pressure drop shall be: • 0. Split ring (Stype) type and floating head is preferred due to less tube bundle by-pass. As a guide metal temperature difference of 50OC can usually be accommodated. Approach temperature as small as 5OC is normal. heat transfer area. U-Tube type As the U-bends internally are not accessible for mechanical cleaning.0 bar for medium to high pressure gas coolers.0 bar for liquids. space and weight requirements. access for platform crane. shut down or other conditions. • 1. TEMA BEU-type is preferred for gas cooling and heating duties with cooling or heating medium on the shell-side. start up. flexibility. Thermal design is normally performed by the vendors. is the preferred type when operating conditions allow this design. however different cooling/heating medium flow rates shall be evaluated. Tube to tube sheet joints shall be checked for expansion stresses. Page 14 of 32 .
Due to small passages they should be used in clean service only. They are of special interest for process integration purposes as several heating / cooling duties can be accommodated in one unit. CLASSES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS ACCORDING TO TEMA Page 15 of 32 . Matrix heat exchangers are suitable for high pressure gas cooling and for high pressure liquids that are not possible to process in plate and frame heat exchangers. A system for back-flush cleaning shall be considered for inclusion at the design phase. special consideration shall be given for the event that wax droplets will deposit in the heat exchanger inlet area. When one of the media to be used is hydrocarbon gas. They are capable of withstanding very high pressures and temperatures. Devices for chemical injection are recommended.Project Report on Heat Exchangers The risk of scaling should also be considered. Utility cooling like lube oil cooling is normally performed in plate heat exchangers. Welded plates should be considered for crude coolers operating at the upper pressure limit.e. Typical applications are cooling medium cooling and crude cooling with seawater coolant. and are not susceptible to vibrations or thermal stress. a single material construction. Matrix type heat exchangers (Compact heat exchangers with bonded plates) Compact heat exchangers with bonded plates have no gaskets or tightening bolts i.
Floating Head backing device and internal bolting are to have no corrosion allowance. For purposes of these standards. DESIGN TEMPERATURE: The design temperature of heat exchanger parts subjected to two different fluid temperatures shall be the maximum metal temperature of the part under operating conditions. Cast Iron pressure parts shall have a corrosion allowance of 1/8”. fabrication. then the exchanger may be given a pneumatic test. The test pressure will be 1. Non pressure parts such as tie rods. Equipment fabricated in accordance with these standards is designed for safety and durability under the rigorous service. SERVICE LIMITATIONS Cast Iron shall be used only for water service at pressures not exceeding 150 psig. and support plates are to have no allowance for corrosion. CORROSION ALLOWANCES: For all Pressure Parts of CS. fabrication. PRESSURE CLASSIFICATION OF CLASS ‘C’ DIAMETER 23” nominal PRESSURE (psig) 75 Page 16 of 32 . The design temperature is established by considering the relative heat transfer coefficients of the two fluids contacting the part and the relative heat transfer area of the parts contacted by the two fluids.Project Report on Heat Exchangers CLASS ‘R’: This class of heat exchanger specifies design. PRESSURE CLASSIFICATION OF CLASS ‘R’ DIAMETRE 23” nominal All other PRESSURE (psig) 75 150-600 For special circumstances. “Carbon Steel” shall be taken.5 times the design pressure. Whenever the fluid in contact with the joint is flammable. should have appropriate corrosion allowances. baffles. spacers.25 times the design pressure except for material like Cast Iron. are to have a corrosion allowance of 1/8” unless otherwise specified. Other parts like Internal Covers. except for the case of Cast Iron. CLASS ‘C’: This class of heat exchanger specifies design. packed joints shall not be used. Since air or gas is hazardous when used as a pressure testing medium. “Carbon Steel” shall be taken. End Flanges (inside diameter only) etc. Equipment fabricated in accordance with these standards is designed for maximum economy and overall compactness consistent with safety and service requirements. except tubes. Tube sheets. consideration may be given to intermediate pressure classes. The hydrostatic pressure at room temperature will be 1. External Covers. When liquid cannot be tolerated as a test medium. and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for the generally moderate requirements of commercial and general process applications. The test pressure shall be held for at least 30min. and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for the generally severe requirements of petroleum and related process applications. The shell side and the tube side will be tested separately for the detection of leak through any of the tube. For purposes of these standards. TESTING: The exchanger shall be hydrostatically tested with water.
“Carbon Steel” shall be taken. The test pressure will be 1. Since air or gas is hazardous when used as a pressure testing medium.Project Report on Heat Exchangers All other 150-600 For special circumstances. consideration may be given to intermediate pressure classes. TESTING: The exchanger shall be hydrostatically tested with water. fabrication.5 times the design pressure. The test pressure shall be held for at least 30min. Page 17 of 32 . packed joints shall not be used. except tubes. When liquid cannot be tolerated as a test medium. Other parts like Internal Covers. The shell side and the tube side will be tested separately for the detection of leak through any of the tube. DESIGN TEMPERATURE: The design temperature of heat exchanger parts subjected to two different fluid temperatures shall be the maximum metal temperature of the part under operating conditions. The shell side and the tube side will be tested separately for the detection of leak through any of the tube. consideration may be given to intermediate pressure classes. The design temperature is established by considering the relative heat transfer coefficients of the two fluids contacting the part and the relative heat transfer area of the parts contacted by the two fluids. End Flanges (inside diameter only). are to have a corrosion allowance of 1/16” unless otherwise specified. The hydrostatic pressure at room temperature will be 1.25 times the design pressure except for material like Cast Iron. For purposes of these standards. Equipment fabricated in accordance with these standards is designed for maximum economy and overall compactness consistent with safety and service requirements. Non pressure parts such as tie rods. The hydrostatic pressure at room temperature will be 1. etc.5 times the design pressure. PRESSURE CLASSIFICATION OF CLASS ‘B’ DIAMETER PRESSURE (psig) 23” nominal 75 All other 150-600 For special circumstances. Since air or gas is hazardous when used as a pressure testing medium. External Covers. spacers. except for the case of Cast Iron. When liquid cannot be tolerated as a test medium. and support plates are to have no allowance for corrosion Floating Head backing device and internal bolting are to have no corrosion allowance. then the exchanger may be given a pneumatic test. baffles. TESTING: The exchanger shall be hydrostatically tested with water. not for flammable fluids at any pressure. CLASS ‘B’: This class of heat exchanger specifies design. except for the case of Cast Iron. then the exchanger may be given a pneumatic test. Whenever the fluid in contact with the joint is flammable. CORROSION ALLOWANCES: For all Pressure Parts of CS. The test pressure shall be held for at least 30min. and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for chemical process service. should have appropriate corrosion allowances.25 times the design pressure except for material like Cast Iron. The test pressure will be 1. SERVICE LIMITATIONS Cast Iron shall be used only for water service at pressures not exceeding 150 psi. Tube sheet. Cast Iron pressure parts shall have a corrosion allowance of 1/16”.
and • Nozzles. etc. and support plates are to have no allowance for corrosion Floating Head backing deviceand internal bolting are to have no corrosion allowance. spacers. should have appropriate corrosion allowances. longitudinal baffle. Whenever the fluid in contact with the joint is flammable. Other parts like Internal Covers. • Tubes. Figure 1 illustrates the TEMA nomenclature for the various construction possibilities. Non pressure parts such as tie rods. CORROSION ALLOWANCES: For all Pressure Parts of CS . • channel cover. are to have a corrosion allowance of 1/16” unless otherwise specified. pass partition plates. Exchangers are described by the letter codes for the three sections — for example a BFL exchanger has a bonnet cover. An STHE is divided into three parts: The front head. and foundation. the shell. • Tube sheet. Packed joints shall not be used. Other components include tie-rods and spacer. • shell cover. External Covers. Cast Iron pressure parts shall have a corrosion allowance of 1/16”. SERVICE LIMITATIONS Cast Iron shall be used only for water service at pressures not exceeding 150 psi. supports. Components of Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchangers The principal components of an STHE are: • Shell.Project Report on Heat Exchangers DESIGN TEMPERATURE: The design temperature of heat exchanger parts subjected to two different fluid temperatures shall be the maximum metal temperature of the part under operating conditions. a two-pass shell with a longitudinal baffle. and the rear head. and a fixed-tube sheet rear head. • Baffles. • Channel. End Flanges(inside dia only). The design temperature is established by considering the relative heat transfer coefficients of the two fluids contacting the part and the relative heat transfer area of the parts contacted by the two fluids. Page 18 of 32 . sealing strips. impingement plate. baffles. except tubes. Tubesheets.
Project Report on Heat Exchangers Page 19 of 32 .
Floating head Heat Exchanger Page 20 of 32 . the outsides of the tubes cannot be cleaned mechanically. AEL). its application is limited to clean services on the shellside. if a satisfactory chemical cleaning program can be employed. There is only one tubesheet in a Utube heat exchanger. the bundle can expand or contract in response to stress differentials. the tubes of a U-tube heat exchanger (Figure 3) are bent in the shape of a U. fixed-tubesheet construction may be selected for fouling services on the shellside. making the cost of a U-tube heat exchanger comparable to that of a fixedtubesheet exchanger.Classification based on construction Fixed tube sheet Heat Exchanger A fixed-tubesheet heat exchanger (Figure 2) has straight tubes that are secured at both ends to tubesheets welded to the shell. The disadvantage of the U-tube construction is that the insides of the tubes cannot be cleaned effectively. the lower cost for the single tubesheet is offset by the additional costs incurred for the bending of the tubes and the somewhat larger shell diameter (due to the minimum U-bend radius). Other advantages are that the tubes can be cleaned mechanically after removal of the channel cover or bonnet. the outsides of the tubes can be cleaned.g. In addition. The principal advantage of the fixed tubesheet construction is its low cost because of its simple construction. the fixed tubesheet is the least expensive construction type.. thereby making it necessary to incorporate an expansion joint.Project Report on Heat Exchangers . the tubesheets will be unable to absorb the differential stress. or integral tubesheets (e.g. Thus. and that leakage of the shellside fluid is minimized since there are no flanged joints. U-tube Heat Exchanger As the name implies.g. bonnet-type channel covers (e. The construction may have removable channel covers (e...Thus. However. as long as no expansion joint is required. The advantage of a U-tube heat exchanger is that because one end is free. This takes away the advantage of low cost to a significant extent. U-tube heat exchangers shouldnot be used for services with a dirty fluid inside tubes. In the event of a large differential temperature between the tubes and the shell. since the U-bends would require flexible-end drill shafts for cleaning. as the tube bundle can be removed. However. BEM). A disadvantage of this design is that since the bundle is fixed to the shell and cannot be removed. NEN). In fact.
head construction. then the split backing ring. can be removed from the stationary end. This design is particularly suited to kettle reboilers having a dirty heating medium where U-tubes cannot be employed. since they are prone to leakage. The floating-head cover is secured against the floating tube-sheet by bolting it to an ingenious split backing ring. as well as cleaning of both the insides and outsides of the tubes. since the shell diameter is larger than the floating-head flange. There are also two types of packed floating-head construction — outside packed stuffing-box (TEMA P) and outside-packed lantern ring (TEMA W) (see Figure 1). one tube-sheet is fixed relative to the shell. In this design. However. Due to the enlarged shell. and the other is free to “float” within the shell. floating-head STHE can be used for services where both the shell side and the tube side fluids are dirty — making this the standard construction type used in dirty services. their use is limited to services with shell side fluids that are non-hazardous and nontoxic and that have moderate pressures and temperatures (40 kg/cm2 and 300°C) Page 21 of 32 . this construction has the highest cost of all exchanger types. There are various types of floating. To dismantle the heat exchanger. the shell cover is removed first. The TEMA S design (Figure 4) is the most common configuration in the chemical process industries (CPI). Thus. and then the floating-head cover. after which the tube bundle can be removed from the stationary end. thus reducing maintenance time. This permits free expansion of the tube bundle. In the TEMA T construction (Figure5). and also the costliest. the entire tube bundle. including the floating-head assembly. The floating head cover is bolted directly to the floating tube-sheet so that a split backing ring is not required. This floating-head closure is located beyond the end of the shell and contained by a shell cover of a larger diameter. such as in petroleum refineries. The advantage of this construction is that the tube bundle may be removed from the shell without removing either the shell or the floating head cover. The two most common are the pull-through with backing device (TEMA S) and pull through (TEMA T) designs.Project Report on Heat Exchangers The floating-head heat exchanger is the most versatile type of STHE.
and • Condensing/vaporizing (one side condensing and the other side vaporizing). it would lead to a certain velocity.Classification based on service Basically. SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS represents a simple case of flow through a circular conduit. this velocity is unacceptably low and therefore has to be increased. Page 22 of 32 . as this will yield the highest heattransfer coefficient. this can lead to several combinations of services. If all the tube-side fluid were to flow through all the tubes (one tube pass). • vaporizing (one side vaporizing and the other side single-phase). and the velocity will be twice what it would be if there were only one pass. Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop both vary with tube-side velocity. Since there are two sides to an STHE. the latter more strongly so. Chiller: one streams a process fluid being condensed at sub-atmospheric temperatures and the other a boiling refrigerant or process stream. Thus. Heater: one streams a process fluid and the other a hot utility. Re-boiler: one stream a bottoms stream from a distillation column and the other a hot utility (steam or hot oil) or a process stream. The following nomenclature is usually used: Heat exchanger: both sides single phase and process streams (that is. such as steam or hot oil. the fluid flows through 100 tubes at a time. Usually. six. Condenser: one streams a condensing vapor and the other cooling water or air. not a utility). Broadly. Cooler: one streams a process fluid and the other cooling water or air. a service may be single phase (such as the cooling or heating of a liquid or gas) or two-phase (such as condensing or vaporizing). services can be classified as follows: • Single-phase (both shell-side and tube-side). eight. and so on. in a heat exchanger with 200 tubes and two passes. By incorporating pass partition plates (with appropriate gasket) in the channels. four. two.Project Report on Heat Exchangers . The number of tube passes is usually one. • condensing (one side condensing and the other single-phase). A good design will make the best use of the allowable pressure drop. the tube-side fluid is made to flow several times through a fraction of the total number of tubes.
As operating pressure rises. In actual practice. the pressure drop limitation usually becomes controlling long before erosive velocities are attained. Consequently.5–3. This larger mass velocity translates into a higher heat-transfer coefficient. 1c: h 0. Tube-side pressure drop rises steeply with an increase in the number of tube passes. the heat-transfer coefficient is inversely proportional to viscosity to the 0. while the maximum is 2. cooling water (thermal conductivity of around 0. and specific heat). A high thermal conductivity promotes a high heat-transfer coefficient. the rise is somewhat less because of lower friction factors at higher Reynolds numbers.027(DG/m)0.8 (Pr)0.8 (cm/k)0. for the same pressure drop. its heat-transfer coefficient is toward the upper limit of the range for hydrocarbon liquids.33 (1a) or (hD/k) = 0. Thus.55 kcal/h•m•°C) has an extremely high heat-transfer coefficient of typically 6. The minimum recommended liquid velocity inside tubes is 1. and as a parameter of Prandtl number. it often happens that for a given number of tubes and two passes.33–0.67 power. The variation in liquid viscosity is quite considerable. the tube-side heattransfer coefficient varies to the 0. from less than 0.000 cP or more for bitumen. Thus.0 m/s.03 kcal/h•m•°C) at 50–500 kcal/h•m2•°C. Pressure drop is proportional to the square of velocity and the total length of travel. the pressure drop is much lower than the Page 23 of 32 . followed by hydrocarbon liquids (thermal conductivity between 0.Project Report on Heat Exchangers FUNDAMENTALS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS HEAT-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT The tube-side heat-transfer coefficient is a function of the Reynolds number. when the number of tube passes is increased for a given number of tubes and a given tube-side flow rate. The large variation in the heat-transfer coefficients of hydrocarbon gases is attributable to the large variation in operating pressure. These can be broken down into the following fundamental parameters: physical properties (namely viscosity. Similarly. Hydrogen is an unusual gas. whereas tube-side pressure drop varies to the square of mass velocity. a higher mass velocity can be maintained when the density is higher. Consequently. pressure drop increases more rapidly than does the heat-transfer coefficient. Pressure drop Mass velocity strongly influences the heat-transfer coefficient. Furthermore.027 (Re)0.33(k/D) (1c) Viscosity influences the heat-transfer coefficient in two opposing ways — as a parameter of the Reynolds number.000 kcal/h•m2•°C.12 kcal/h•m•°C) at 250–1. and.300 kcal/h•m2•°C. because it has an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (greater than that of hydrocarbon liquids). so the exponent should be approximately 2.027 (DG/m)0.0 m/s. Thus. The fundamental equation for turbulent heat-transfer inside tubes is: Nu = 0.8 power of tube-side mass velocity.08 and 0. These two facts lead to some interesting generalities about heat transfer.8 (2a) ( ) h ()–0. However.47 (2b) In other words. the pressure drop rises to the cube of this increase. Pressure drop is directly proportional to the square of mass velocity and inversely proportional to density. thermal conductivity. Thus. For turbulent flow. with increasing mass velocity. this physical property has the most dramatic effect on heat-transfer coefficient. Thus. so. the heat-transfer coefficient is directly proportional to thermal conductivity to the 0. the Prandtl number. The range of heat-transfer coefficients for hydrocarbon liquids is rather large due to the large variation in their viscosity. there will be an optimum mass velocity above which it will be wasteful to increase mass velocity further. and the tube diameter.8(cm/k)0.47 power.33 (1b) Rearranging: h = 0. gas density increases. very importantly. Therefore. and then hydrocarbon gases (thermal conductivity between 0.1 cP for ethylene and propylene to more than 1.8 instead of 3.02 and 0. tube diameter. mass velocity. very high velocities lead to erosion. from Eq.
though it varies with tube O. They are then combined into a single stream. J. where the cold stream leaves at a temperature higher than the outlet temperature of the hot stream. The pressure drop will be extremely low — in fact. the shell-side fluid enters the shell at one end and leaves from the other end.cross situations — that is. If in such circumstances a standard tube has to be employed.figurations combined. H. However.D. flow toward the center. too.7 kg/cm2 would be available for the other three. K.1¼ and 1 1/2 in. The use of small-diameter tubes. An H shell is basically two G shells placed side-by-side. so that the fluid can flow into the second pass. Page 24 of 32 . this configuration is employed for cooling or condensing vapors at low pressure.D. The F shell is used for temperature. is invariably employed for horizontal thermosyphon re-boilers. It is important to realize that the total pressure drop for a given stream must be met. 3/4 in. A TEMA X shell (see Figure 1) is a pure cross-flow shell where the shell-side fluid enters at the top (or bottom) of the shell. A TEMA G shell is a split-flow shell (see Figure 1). the designer may be forced to accept a rather low velocity. The following tube diameters are usually used in the CPI: 3/8. so that there are two full support plates. and X (see Figure 1). Shell configuration TEMA defines various shell patterns based on the flow of the shell-side fluid through the shell: E. G. Of these. The distribution of pressure drop in the various heat exchangers for a given stream in a particular circuit may be varied to obtain good heat transfer in all the heat exchangers. is virtually all in the nozzles. This is the most common shell type — more heat exchangers are built to this configuration than all other con. A G shell cannot be used for heat exchangers with tube lengths greater than 3 m..5 m. this becomes a true countercurrent arrangement where a large temperature cross can be achieved. Tubes smaller than 3/4 inch O. there is hardly any pressure drop in the shell. A TEMA J shell is a divided-flow shell wherein the shell-side fluid enters the shell at the center and divides into two halves.1/2. but with four passes it exceeds the allowable pressure drop. the stream may be split into two halves that enter the shell at the two ends. This construction. traverses the entire length of the exchanger through one-half the shell cross-sectional area. Alternatively.7 kg/cm2 per shell is permitted for liquid streams. one flowing to the left and the other to the right and leaving separately. A TEMA K shell (see Figure 1) is a special cross-flow shell employed for kettle re-boilers (thus the K). It has an integral vapordisengagement space embodied in an enlarged shell. In a TEMA E single-pass shell. The advantage of G and H shells is that the pressure drop is drastically less and there are no cross baffles. and exits from the opposite side of the shell. thickness. This is described as a double-split configuration. since this would exceed the limit on maximum unsupported tube length specified by TEMA — typically 1. the allowable pressure drop can be better utilized and a higher tube-side velocity realized. Full support plates can be located if needed for structural integrity. they do not interfere with the shell-side flow because they are parallel to the flow direction. Thus. If there are five such preheat exchangers. a pressure drop of 0. When a larger tube length is needed.5/8. The shell-side fluid enters at one end. particularly vacuum.3/4. turns around and flows through the second pass. too.8 kg/cm2. The flow may be introduced through multiple nozzles located strategically along the length of the shell in order to achieve a better distribution. full support plates can be employed as required. should not be used for fouling services. and leave as a single stream. as the flow is split twice and recombined twice. are the most popular. Here. If the pressure drop through two of these exchangers turns out to be only 0. such as 1 inch is warranted only for small heat exchangers with heat-transfer areas less than 20–30 m2. the balance of 2. and what pressure drop there is. There is only a central support plate and no baffles. which is identified as a J 2–1 shell. a TEMA H shell (see Figure 1) is used. If a two-pass (F) shell has only two tube passes. F. then finally leaves at the end of the second pass. Consider a hot liquid stream flowing through several preheat exchangers.1. and material.5 kg/cm2 for the circuit would be permitted. This is identified as a J 1–2 shell. a total pressure drop of 3. The longitudinal baffle stops well short of the tube-sheet. Normally. flows across the tubes. if the tube diameter and length may be varied. This construction is usually employed for horizontal thermosyphon re-boilers. A TEMA F two-pass shell has a longitudinal baffle that divides the shell into two passes. and 1 in.Project Report on Heat Exchangers allowable value.
TEMA additionally recommends a minimum cleaning lane of 4 in. tubes. fixed tube-sheet construction is usually employed for clean services on the shell-side. which results in a higher efficiency of conversion of pressure drop to heat transfer. since access lanes are not available. rotated triangular (60°). For square patterns. it does not permit mechanical cleaning of tubes. A triangular (or rotated triangular) pattern will accommodate more tubes than a square (or rotated square) pattern. a square layout is typically employed. (or 6 mm) between adjacent tubes. but 25-mm tubes should be laid on a 31. whichever is larger.D. (For clean services on both shell-side and tube-side. a triangular pattern may be used provided the shell-side stream is clean and a square (or rotated square) pattern if it is dirty. 20-mm tubes should be laid on a 26-mm (20 mm + 6 mm) square pitch. However. However. Page 25 of 32 . a triangular pattern produces high turbulence and therefore a high heat-transfer coefficient. square patterns must be used. a triangular tube pattern may be used for fixed tube-sheet exchangers and a square (or rotated square) pattern for floating-head exchangers.000). Consequently. A rotated triangular pattern seldom offers any advantages over a triangular pattern. a triangular layout is limited to clean shell-side services. For a triangular pattern. Designers prefer to employ the minimum recommended tube pitch. However. it is usually advantageous to employ a rotated square pattern because this produces much higher turbulence.D. Chemical cleaning does not require access lanes. Furthermore. a 25.25 times the tube O. the tube pitch may be increased to a higher value. Tube pitch Tube pitch is defined as the shortest distance between two adjacent tubes. when the shell-side Reynolds number is low (< 2. Thus. For dirty shell-side services. for example.25-mm (25 mm ´ 1. since this is an in-line pattern.25 times the tube O. This is particularly true in the case of a cross-flow shell. For services that require mechanical cleaning on the shell-side. so a triangular layout may be used for dirty shell-side services provided chemical cleaning is suitable and effective. it produces lower turbulence. and rotated square (45°). in exceptional circumstances. because it leads to the smallest shell diameter for a given number of tubes. the minimum tube pitch for square patterns is either 1. and its use is consequently not very popular. or the tube O. U-tube construction for clean services on the tube-side. although U-tube is preferable since it permits differential expansion between the shell and the tubes.D.25 times the tube O. as shown in Figure 6: triangular (30°). at the typical tube pitch of 1.. and floating-head construction for dirty services on both the shell-side and tube-side. As noted earlier.mm tube pitch is usually employed for 20-mm O. plus 6 mm.D. either fixed tube-sheet or U-tube construction may be used.25) square pitch. For example.) Hence. TEMA specifies a minimum tube pitch of 1. square (90°). to reduce shell-side pressure drop. Thus. Thus.D.Project Report on Heat Exchangers Tube layout patterns There are four tube layout patterns. For Utube exchangers.
000). as shown in Figure 7. There are two types of baffles: plate and rod. It is the most vital parameter in STHE design. pressure drop increases at a much faster rate than does the heat-transfer coefficient. the exponents are 0.7 power of velocity. This optimum ratio is normally between 0. double-segmental.7–2. The TEMA standards specify the minimum baffle spacing as onefifth of the shell inside diameter or 2 in.3 and 0. as baffle spacing is reduced. Furthermore.Project Report on Heat Exchangers Baffling Type of baffles..0 for pressure drop. which will make the exchanger prone to tube failure due to flow-induced vibration. Baffles are used to support tubes. and prevent failure of tubes due to flow-induced vibration. Page 26 of 32 .0 power. low baffle spacing results in a poor stream distribution. which is less efficient than cross-flow. enable a desirable velocity to be maintained for the shell-side fluid. however. Optimum baffle spacing: For turbulent flow on the shell-side (Re > 1. Baffle spacing. The maximum baffle spacing is the shell inside diameter. Closer spacing will result in poor bundle penetration by the shell-side fluid and difficulty in mechanically cleaning the outsides of the tubes. Thus. or triple-segmental. and large unsupported tube spans. whichever is greater. This means that there will be an optimum ratio of baffle spacing to shell inside diameter that will result in the highest efficiency of conversion of pressure drop to heat transfer.33 for the heat-transfer coefficient and 1. For laminar flow (Re < 100).6. Plate baffles may be single-segmental. the heat-transfer coefficient varies to the 0. pressure drop varies to the 1. Baffle spacing is the centerline-to-centerline distance between adjacent baffles. Higher baffle spacing will lead to predominantly longitudinal flow.6–0.
Equalize cross-flow and window velocities Flow across tubes is referred to as cross-flow. may be used to reduce the shell-side pressure drop. as illustrated in Figure 9. Both very small and very large baffle cuts are detrimental to efficient heat transfer on the shell-side due to large deviation from an ideal situation. double segmental baffles or a divided-flow shell. For single-phase fluids on the shell-side. Baffle cut can vary between 15% and 45% of the shell inside diameter. or even a cross-flow shell. As shown in Figure 8. Shell side stream analysis Page 27 of 32 . Although this. It is strongly recommended that only baffle cuts between 20% and 35% be employed. This is expressed as a percentage of the shell inside diameter. is an important parameter for STHE design. repeated acceleration and deceleration take place along the length of the tube bundle. However. If they differ by more than that. in the case of a two-pass shell (TEMA F). because this minimizes accumulation of deposits at the bottom of the shell and also prevents stratification. Reducing baffle cut below 20% to increase the shell-side heat-transfer coefficient or increasing the baffle cut beyond 35% to decrease the shell-side pressure drop usually lead to poor designs. For example. whereas flow through the window area (that is. a vertical cut is preferred for ease of fabrication and bundle assembly. The window velocity and the cross-flow velocity should be as close as possible — preferably within 20% of each other. Other aspects of tube bundle geometry should be changed instead to achieve those goals. its effect is less profound than that of baffle spacing. baffle cut is the height of the segment that is cut in each baffle to permit the shell-side fluid to flow across the baffle. resulting in inefficient conversion of pressure drop to heat transfer. through the baffle cut area) is referred to as window flow.Project Report on Heat Exchangers Baffle cut. too. a horizontal baffle cut (Figure 10) is recommended.
This is because all five shell-side streams are in parallel and. although at a lower efficiency than the B stream. First. in many situations. the C stream is in contact with the peripheral tubes around the bundle. Consequently. Such a situation may arise when handling a very high shellside flow rate or when the shellside fluid is a lowPage 28 of 32 . and the F stream is in contact with the tubes along the pass-partition lanes. when baffle spacing is decreased. In addition to influencing the shellside heat transfer and pressure drop performance. therefore. However. • Clearance between the tube and the baffle hole. the five streams are in parallel and flow along paths of varying hydraulic resistances. as illustrated in Figure 11. Similarly. Reducing DP by modifying baffle design Single-pass shell and single-segmental baffles. This will be discussed in detail later.pass shell. and • Location of sealing strips and sealing rods.Project Report on Heat Exchangers On the shell-side. let’s look at an example that demonstrates how to optimize baffle design when there is no significant temperature profile distortion. it encounters no heat transfer at all. since the E stream flows along the shell wall. the resistance of the main cross-flow path and thereby its pressure drop increases.D. The leakage path dimensions are fixed. there is not just one stream. • Tube layout angle and tube pitch. these streams also experience heat transfer. The net result is a rise in the pressure drop without a corresponding increase in the heat-transfer coefficient. Essentially. the stream analysis also affects the mean temperature difference (MTD) of the exchanger. since all the streams begin and end at the inlet and outlet nozzles. a tube-to-bafflehole leakage stream (A). the overall shell-side stream efficiency and thus the shell-side heat-transfer coefficient is established. Subsequently. the other streams are not as effective. These streams are the main cross-flow stream (B). have the same pressure drop. the flow fractions will be such that the pressure drop of each stream is identical. The first baffle alternative is the single-segmental baffle in a single-pass (TEMA E) shell. and a baffle-toshell leakage stream (E). but a main cross-flow stream and four leakage or bypass streams. Consequently. varying any of the following construction parameters will affect stream analysis and thereby the shell-side performance of an exchanger: • Baffle spacing and baffle cut. The A stream is fairly efficient. While the B (main cross-flow) stream is highly effective for heat transfer. a pass-partition bypass stream (F). though. even after increasing the baffle spacing and baffle cut to the highest values recommended. the shellside pressure drop is too high with single-segmental baffles in a single. • Number of lanes in the flow direction and lane width. Thus. where there are no tubes. Since the pressure drops of all five streams must be equal. a bundle bypass stream (C). The shell-side fluid viscosity also affects stream analysis profoundly. the leakage and bypass streams increase until the pressure drops of all the streams balance out. However. Using a very low baffle spacing tends to increase the leakage and bypass streams. because the shell-side fluid is in contact with the tubes. and the baffle. • Clearance between the shell I. Since the flow fractions depend strongly upon the path resistances. based upon the efficiency of each of these streams.
By changing the baffling from single-segmental to double segmental at the same spacing in an otherwise identical heat exchanger. Since pressure drop is proportional to the square of the velocity and to the length of travel. thus producing a design that is safe against tube failure due to flow-induced vibration. Cross flow shell There are some services where the pressure drop limitation is so severe that none of the above shell/baffling configurations can yield a satisfactory design. The notubes-in-window design requires a larger shell diameter for a given number of tubes. However. In sharp contrast. The advantage of a divided-flow shell over double-segmental baffles is that it offers an even larger reduction in pressure drop. the heat-transfer coefficient will reduce to about 40%. since pure cross-flow is more efficient than the combination of cross-flow and window flow in conventional designs. it will be necessary to adopt a combination of a divided-flow shell and double segmental baffles. the window velocity and therefore the window pressure drop cannot be reduced appreciably (assuming that the maximum recommended baffle cut was already tried with single-segmental baffles before switching to double segmental baffles).Project Report on Heat Exchangers pressure gas. A steam ejector condenser operating at a pressure of 50 mm Hg and having an allowable pressure drop of 5 mm Hg is an example. the unsupported tube span is twice the baffle spacing. The higher cost is offset to some extent by the higher shellside heat-transfer coefficient. If the allowable shell-side pressure drop cannot be satisfied even with double-segmental baffles at a relatively large spacing. there is an appreciable reduction in the total pressure drop. This escalates its cost. In these cases. but this is considerably less than the reduction in the pressure drop. Should it become necessary to use a very large baffle spacing to restrict the shellside pressure drop to the permitted value. If even a divided. The disadvantage is the increase in cost due to the additional piping required. Divided-flow shell and double segmental baffles. There is also a decrease in the shell-side heat-transfer coefficient. since cross-flow pressure drop is invariable much greater than window pressure drop. This greatly reduces the cross-flow pressure drop. typically by about 10%. Single-pass shell and double-segmental baffles.flow shell (TEMA J) with single-segmental baffles (Figure 1) should be investigated next. Such situations Page 29 of 32 . because the shell-side flow is divided into two parallel streams. Here. Exchangers with double-segmental baffles are less likely to experience such problems than those with single-segmental baffles. an exchanger becomes more prone to tube failure due to flow-induced vibration.flow shell with single-segmental baffles is unable to meet the allowable shell-side pressure drop limit. Nevertheless. a very large reduction in shell-side pressure drop is possible — to as low as 4% of the pressure drop in a single-pass exchanger with the same baffle spacing and baffle cut. a vibration problem may persist even with double-segmental baffles. a divided. the next alternative that should be considered is the doublesegmental baffle (Figure 7). a no-tubes-in window design (Figure 7) should be adopted.flow velocity but even window velocity can be reduced. a divided. No-tubes-in-window segmental baffles As baffle spacing is increased to reduce the shell-side pressure drop. intermediate supports may be used to increase the natural frequency of the tubes. In such cases. since not only cross.flow shell will have approximately one-eighth the pressure drop in an otherwise identical single-pass exchanger. so that the unsupported tube span is the baffle spacing. However. In exchangers with normal single-segmental baffles. With such a combination. each tube is supported by every baffle. Divided-flow shell and single-segmental baffles. the cross-flow velocity is reduced approximately to half.
there is true countercurrent flow (Figure 12). The outlet temperature of the cold stream may be higher than the outlet temperature of the hot stream. First. Since the shell-side flow is parallel to these support plates. Since the shellside fluid flows in one direction. Support plates will be needed to meet TEMA requirements and prevent any possible flow-induced tube vibration. the smaller the tube pitch.4 for laminar flow. which is a serious limitation. as shown in Figure 12. These principles apply only to single. the other is far too low — that is. it increases the shell diameter and. reducing pressure drop by modifying the baffle spacing.25–1. half the tube passes experience countercurrent flow and the other half experience cocurrent flow. However. This is because although one terminal temperature difference is very high. As far as thermal-hydraulics are concerned.35 for turbulent flow and around 1. the cost. the only limitation is that the hot stream should at all points be hotter than the cold stream. Increasing tube pitch For a given number of tubes. Second. Ft. If the hot and cold streams flow in the same direction. the LMTD for cocurrent flow is lower than that for countercurrent flow for the same terminal differences. the optimum tube-pitch to-tube-diameter ratio for conversion of pressure drop to heat transfer is typically 1. the smaller the shell diameter.Project Report on Heat Exchangers require the use of a cross-flow shell (TEMA X). What is even more serious with cocurrent flow is that the outlet temperature of the cold stream must be somewhat lower than the outlet temperature of the hot stream. which depends on the four terminal temperatures and the shell style can be determined from charts in the TEMA standards.D. a minimum cleaning lane of 4 in.pass exchangers. However. The logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) represents this weighted value. the temperature differences along the path of heat transfer are not balanced. designers generally set the tube pitch at 1.25 times the tube O. When two streams flow in opposing directions across a tube wall. flow is cocurrent (Figure 13). so there is virtually no pressure drop in the shell. shell-and-tube heat exchangers invariably have two or more tube passes. Mean temperature difference Temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer. The MTD for this situation is neither the LMTD for countercurrent flow nor that for cocurrent flow. The mean temperature difference is still represented by the LMTD. in the case of X shells. For square or rotated square pitch. thereby. shellside pressure drop is not increased. Here. pure cross-flow takes place at a very low velocity. Consequently. baffle cut. but a value between the two. The LMTD for countercurrent flow is multiplied by this factor to obtain the corrected Page 30 of 32 . countercurrent flow is always preferred to cocurrent flow. designers tend to pack in as many tubes as mechanically possible. A correction factor. it may be necessary to increase the tube pitch above the TEMA minimum to meet pressure drop limitations. Increasing the tube pitch to reduce pressure drop is generally not recommended for two reasons. or shell type will result in a cheaper design. and therefore the lower the cost. since there are no other parameters that can be modified. as noted earlier. In this situation. As noted earlier. Whatever pressure drop occurs is almost entirely in the nozzles. or 6 mm is recommended by TEMA. Since the temperature difference varies along the length of the heat exchanger. Consequently. it has to be weighted to obtain a mean value for single-point determination of heat-transfer area. However.
the simplistic overall MTD approach will be inaccurate. a very small temperature difference is possible. there are some services where this is not true. since the shell-to-baffle leakage stream does not experience any heat transfer.Project Report on Heat Exchangers MTD. but this represents an area of uncertainty and the credit is very small. It is important to realize that the LMTD and Ft factor concept assumes that there is no significant variation in the overall heat-transfer coefficient along the length of the shell. this is a pure countercurrent situation. shell-to-bundle leakage. As a result. This will be discussed in detail in the followup article scheduled to be published in the next issue. and so on. In reality. An important limitation for 1-2 shells (one shell pass and two or more tube passes) is that the outlet temperature of the cold stream cannot exceed the outlet temperature of the hot stream. if an F shell has four or more tube passes. The TEMA Ft factor chart for three shell passes really represents three shells in series. The Ft factor for a 2-4 shell is identical to that for two 1-2 shells in series or two shell passes. so it is usually ignored. it has to pick up a very large part of the total heat duty. This is because of the presence of one or more cocurrent passes. The temperature profiles of the baffle-hole-to-tube leakage. and this results in a progressive reduction in the shellside heat-transfer coefficient. However. that for four shell passes four shells in series. Assume that the cross-flow stream is 58% of the total shellside stream. so if there are two tube passes. the leakage and bypass streams are less efficient for heat transfer than the main cross-flow stream. An F shell having four or more tube passes is represented as a 24 shell. so that these four streams together will have a temperature profile steeper than that of the Page 31 of 32 . its temperature rises more rapidly than if the entire shellside stream were to pick up the entire heat duty. but that it comes in contact with 80% of the tubes. its viscosity increases. Since the main cross-flow stream encounters a very large fraction of the total heat transfer surface. An example of this is the cooling of a viscous liquid — as the liquid is cooled. the Ft correction has to be applied. the remaining four streams must pick up the entire heat duty. However. its temperature profile will be steeper than that of the total stream (the apparent temperature profile) without considering the various flow fractions (Figure 14). and pure countercurrent flow is not possible. and the exchanger must be broken into several sections and the calculations performed zone-wise. and pass-partition bypass streams will depend on their respective flow fractions and the fractional heat-transfer area encountered. However. Consider a case where the shellside stream is the cold fluid. In this case. hence. multiple shells in series must be used. it is no longer a true countercurrent situation and. Therefore. An F shell has two passes. the outlet temperature of the cold stream is higher than the outlet temperature of the hot stream). As noted earlier. When there is a temperature cross (that is. Temperature profile distortion An important issue that has not been considered so far is the temperature profile distortion.
Below this. In many situations. thereby resulting in the reduction of the MTD. The latter is because the closer the temperature approach at the shell outlet. and there is no alternative to the use of multiple shells in series. Thus. especially the shell-to-baffle leakage stream. such as when cooling a viscous liquid over a large temperature range. the ratio of shellside temperature difference to the temperature approach at the shell outlet is reduced.Project Report on Heat Exchangers apparent stream. Consequently. In many such cases. two or more shells in series must be employed.75. in many other situations. the sharper the reduction in MTD. the temperature difference between the hot and the cold streams will be lower all along the length of the heat exchanger. The temperature profile distortion factor is more pronounced when the leakage and bypass streams are high. Designers normally tend to pack baffles as close as possible to get the maximum shellside heat-transfer coefficient. By using multiple shells in series. the use of somewhat higher baffle spacing will reduce the shell-to-baffle leakage stream (the principal culprit) and hence improve the MTD correction factor appreciably. The minimum recommended temperature profile distortion factor is 0. care has to be exercised in the design of viscous liquid coolers such as a vacuum residue cooler in a crude oil refinery. improper baffle spacing unnecessarily imposes such a penalty where it is easily avoidable. However. The leakage and bypass streams tend to be high when the shellside viscosity is high and when the baffle spacing is very low. and the ratio of shellside temperature difference to the temperature approach at the shell outlet is high. Page 32 of 32 . a temperature profile distortion factor is unavoidable. This reduction in the MTD is known as the temperature profile distortion (or correction) factor. thereby producing a much better design. pressure drop permitting. The mixing of the main cross-flow stream with the bypass and leakage streams after each shell reduces the penalty due to the distortion of the temperature profile and hence increases the temperature profile distortion factor.
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