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9/16/2010

ELA SHARMA

VEENA .S. NAMBOODIRI LOVE CHOUDHARY NIMME CYRIAC

INTRODUCTION
Cladding is an all-encompassing term for the external skin of a building which keeps out the weather and provides the building¶s aesthetic effect. In low-rise construction it may support its own weight but self-weight and wind loading are normally transferred to the structural building frame. It may form the full thickness of the vertical envelope of the building but can simply be the outer layer with additional layers providing insulation and the internal lining.

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
Apart from providing the external appearance of the building, the main function of cladding is to protect the structure from the weather particularly rain. This may be achieved in one of three ways as follows:
y

y

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Porous materials. Porous materials such as brickwork absorb water during rain and subsequently dry out. If the wall is of sufficient thickness and the permeability is reasonably low water will not penetrate during a rainstorm. In modern construction a cavity is normally introduced into the wall to provide an additional barrier to the passage of water. Sealed construction. Impermeable cladding materials will only permit the passage of water at joints. Sealing the joints with gaskets or wet applied sealants provides a continuous impermeable layer. Rainscreen. As its name suggests, the purpose of the outer rainscreen panels is to shield the wall from direct rain. The joints between the panels may allow some water to penetrate but an air gap and airtight backing wall behind the panels combine to limit this penetration. This may be achieved by the drained and ventilated method in which the air gap is continuous and well ventilated to encourage drying out. Alternatively the pressure equalised system may be used in which the gap behind the panels is compartmentalised allowing the air to be pressurised by the wind. The reduced pressure difference across the panel joints limits water penetration.

DESCRIPTION OF MAIN CLADDING TYPES
There are many types of cladding available, which are described below, grouped according to type of construction. Some of the categories are clearly defined but others cover a range of options and some variations could be considered to fall in more than one category. The distinction between curtain walling and some other cladding types is particularly bl urred.

Claddings to buildings can be considered under two classifications: 1. CLADDINGS FIXED TO A STRUCTURAL BACKING materials used in this form of cladding are generally considered to be small unit claddings and are applied for one of two reasons. possibly to break up the monotony of a large plain area composed of a single material. A covering of small unit claddings will generally raise the wall's resistance to an acceptable level. Claddings to framed structures. plastic boards and stone facings. shingles. Each tile should be twice nailed to its support batten with corrosion resistant nails of adequate length. however. 2. timber boarding. are usually secured by special mechanical fixiNG. Stone and similar facings. . Claddings fixed to a structural backing. It is necessary to appreciate the effect of such decisions on the design of both the cladding and the supporting structure. If the structural wall is unable to provide an adequate barrier to the elements.In some cases weather tightness will always be achieved using the same method but in other cases apparently small changes to the design of the cladding will change the cladding from a sealed façade to a rain screen. slates. The materials used are tiles. TILE HANGING The tiles used in tile hanging can be ordinary roofing tiles or alternatively a tile of the same dimensions. The tiles are hung and fixed to tiling battens. The general method of fixing these small units is to secure them to timber battens fixed to the structure backing. Alternatively small unit claddings can be used solely as a decorative feature. The battens should be impregnated to prevent fungi and insect attack so that their anticipated life is comparable to that of the tiles.

Plaster of paris pads are positioned in such a manner that the joints in the slabs do not move above the pads. quota and slate owing to its smooth surfaces are frequently used in exteriors as well as interiors of the buildings. Hardwoods are sometimes treated with a preservative and left to bleach naturally. the possibility of fine polishes that the surfaces take up and the possibility of cutting the stone makes it a fine cladding material. STONE CLADDING Stones like marble. The marble slabs generally 15-20 cm thick are fixed on concrete or masonry surfaces introducing a gap of 12 to 25 mm to keep the vibrating surfaces away. A gauge dimension of 112. TIMBER CLADDING Timber cladding are usually in the form of moulded or shaped boards fixed to battens as either a horizontal or vertical cladding. It should be noted that if the structural backing is of timber framing a layer of impervious felt should be placed over the framing immediately underneath the battens to prevent any moisture which is blown in between the tiles from having adverse effects upon the structure.The minimum lap recommended is 40 mm which would give a gauge of 112. The slabs are secured in position by brass cramps turned at 120 to fill into . Plastic boards are a substitute for timber and are fixed in a similar manner. Western red cedar is a very popular wood for timber claading since it has a natural immunity to insect and fungi attack under normal conditions. the preservative treatment needs to be carried out at 2 to 5 year intervals.5 mm using a standard 265 long tile. Softwoods are generally painted and and will need repainting at intervals of 3 to 5 years according to the exposure.The availability of these stones in various shades.5 mm is impracticable and therefore a gauge of 110 mm would be usual. Timber claddings will require regular maintenance to preserve their resistance to the elements. The two adjacent slabs in vertical course are joined to each other by means of copper cramps of hooks 3mm dia.

Rich mortar pads instead of plaster of paris of 1 cement. Profiled sheets of aluminium or galvanised steel may be used in various ways as follows: y The simplest form is a single uninsulated skin supported on cladding rails spanning between the main structural columns. . Brickwork movement. office. leisure and education buildings. Guidance on the use of profiled metal is given in BS 5427. cellular polyurethane.to allow for climatic changes and differential movement between the cladding and main structure. More recently with a wider range of colours and profiles becoming available its use has been extended to include retail.Multi storey buildings. Lateral restraint. BRICKWORK CLADDING Application. expanded rubber or sponge rubber with polysulphide or silicon pointing) should be located below the support angle. PROFILED METAL SYSTEMS : Profiled metal sheeting has traditionally been considered as a relatively cheap form of cladding for agricultural and industrial buildings. CLADDINGS TO FRAME STRUCTURES The methods available to clad a frame structure are extensive and include panels of masonry constructed between the columns and beams.Provided by normal wall ties between inner and outer leaf of masonry. 2 sand are used and also the air gap is filled in with mortar. plus sliding brick anchors below the support angle. a 'soft' joiint (cellular polyethylene. vertical movement joints may also be required at a maximum of 12m spacing.the groove. light infill panels of metal or timber. precast concrete panels and curtain walling which completely encloses the structure. where a traditional facade is required.

as shown y The need for sheeting rails and spacer bars can be eliminated by using liner trays which span between columns providing both the internal lining and support for the outer sheets. and autohesively bonded to them under expansion. Mineral wool can be bonded to the skins with adhesive while polyurethane (PUR) or polyisocyanurate (PIR) foams can either be bonded with adhesive or extruded between the skins. The edge joints may be formed by lap joints where the metal sheet overhangs the insulation along one edge or by tongue and groove joints as shown y . The liner trays can also be filled with insulation. Composite panels can be formed from two metal skins separated by a layer of rigid insulation. The panels are supported on sheeting rails and fixed together at the edges only. relying on composite action between the skins and the core to prevent flexing of the panel between the fixing points.y For most structures it will be necessary to incorporate insulation and this can be accommodated by using two skins of metal sheeting separated by a spacer bar and with insulation in the resulting cavity.

The depth of the corrugations ranges from 7mm to 120mm. To join and seal the sheets together. The simplest fixing technique is to use self-drilling. and overlap the . A maximum fixing spacing is suggested as being 450mm. and a length of at least 2m. A more sophisticated technique is to use a form of hidden fixing. However. the fixings can also be made through the crown of the profile. Systems typically use profiled sheets having a cover width of between 600 and 1000mm..g. stitching fixings are used along the side and end overl aps. Standing seam sheets lock into fixing brackets which are fitted along the spacers. and these may again be at the peak or trough of the profile. which also tend to have much shallower corrugations between the seams. depth of profile) and pitch (of roof cladding). and the wavelength/pitch from 30 to 350mm. self-tapping screws with integral sealing washers through the valley of the profile and into the spacer. The spacing of fixings depends upon the wind load and flexibility of the sheet (e. but fixings are typically made every 250-300mm along the spacers. Aluminium has a much higher coefficient of thermal expansion than steel and the thermal movement of aluminium sheets must either be allowed for in the end lap joint design or controlled by limiting the length of sheets. in which case an additional spacer may be used to prevent the profile from being distorted and the need for an excessively long fixing. This is common with standing seam systems.

This form of cladding may be used for new construction but is particularly suitable for upgrading existing buildings. a screw-fixed pressure plate. or the edges of the panels may be folded. Small overlapping units such as tile hanging and weatherboarding have not been included in this category. rivets.neighbouring sheet. SMALL CLADDING PANELS Cladding panels vary widely in size and materials used. and there will not be any intermediate fixings. structural adhesive. This section describes cladding panels that are too small to span between the main structural framing members and are either supported by a backing wall or secondary framing members. Various forms of cladding panel which can be supported on timber battens or metal rails are available. generally in the cavity between the cladding panel and supporting wall. Secret fix cladding systems offer greater weathertightness reliability and final appearance due to the absence of fixings that penetrate through the outer sheet. Both cellulose and glass . Most of the cladding panels described in this section may be fixed with sealed joints but may also be used as rainscreen panels. These materials are most likely to be used for commercial buildings although they may also be used for over-cladding existing structures including blocks of flats. The method of achieving weathertightness will affect the design of both the cladding and the supporting structure. punched and hung onto pins through the supporting rail. Panels may be fixed to the supporting rails using screws. A range of materials may be used for the cladding panels as follows y Fibre cement sheets are manufactured in thicknesses between 5 and 10mm and in sizes up to 1220mmx3050mm. This method requires a backing wall to support the fixing rails and it will usually be necessary to incorporate insulation in the wall. Because these systems are designed to hide the fixings. For new construction the supporting rails can be made of heavier section so that they can span between floors. the sheets will be narrower. This allows the use of a lightweight internal lining.

various types of paint and resin bonded aggregate. Panels can be used as flat sheets but can be bent to form curved panels or folded to form sharp corners if the inner layer of aluminium is first cut along the line of the fold. Alternatively a pressure plate fixing system can be used. Thick composite panels may be formed from aluminium or steel strip separated by a core of insulation. Glass fibre reinforced polyester and glass fibre reinforced cement were introduced in the 1960s and 1970s respectively but have now largely fallen out of use. Stone has traditionally been used as masonry to form an external facing material for buildings but is now being increasingly used as a non loadbearing cladding as a result of developments in stone processing which allow stone to be cut into thin panels. . Thin composite metal panels may be formed from two layers of aluminium separated by a layer of polyethylene giving an overall panel thickness of 3 to 8 mm. hard limestones. often as storey height panels. Similar panels may be manufactured using fibre reinforced calcium silicate. may be manufactured from reinforced concrete or as pre-assembled curtain wall. marbles. slates. Sheets are normally supplied to site ready cut to size and with predrilled fixing holes. quartzites. limestones and sandstones that offer a range of colours and surface textures with good durability. which can then be hidden by gaskets.y y y fibres may be used and a wide range of finishes is available including untreated. Stone types used for cladding are granites. The edges of the panels may incorporate grooves to facilitate fixings. Panels may be made from both aluminium and steel sheet and may be given increased stiffness by folding the edges or adding stiffeners either within or at the back of the panel. Some composite metal panel systems may be used to span horizontally between columns and strictly fall into the group but in other respects are as described above. The composite action of the layers gives a stronger panel than the aluminium alone. resin laminate and glass reinforced polyester. Stone is covered in detail in LARGE CLADDING PANELS Cladding panels with sufficient strength to span between discrete fixing points on the main building frame. These panels differ from those produced from profiled metal in that they are manufactured as rectangular panels and may have flat faces.

They can also be made from carefully selected materials to give the appearance of stone. FULLY SUPPORTED METAL SHEETING Copper and lead sheeting may be used for cladding but are expensive and hence only used to a limited extent where required for appearance on prestige buildings. Horizontal restraint and adjustment is provided by angle brackets and adjustable bolts. usually by plywood boards. storey-height panels with cast (µpunched¶) window openings.Concrete panels/units can be produced with a variety of smooth and coarse finishes or faced with factory-set natural stone. Panel-to-panel joints are either weather sealed with single or double wetapplied seals or left open (but baffled to prevent direct water ingress). Full bay-width.Precast concrete can be used to produce loadbearing cladding panels but they are normally non-load bearing. often to form a window opening within each bay. Guidance on their use is given in BS 8297. Due to its weight and low strength lead must be fully supported. clay brick or tiling systems. CURTAIN WALLING Curtain walling is a form of vertical building enclosure which supports no load other than its own weight that of ancillary components and the environmental forces which act upon it. copper is used in thin sheets that also need continuous support. Precast concrete cladding systems come in three forms: y y y Small units supported on brackets and used to fill gaps between conventional glazing systems. Panels are of a sufficient size and stiffness to be able to span horizontally or vertically between structural frame members without requiring any intermediate support. Larger mullion and spandrel units which µcloak¶ the structural frame members. with packing shims providing vertical adjustment. the above definition embraces many different construction methods and materials including non-loadbearing precast concrete. Due to its cost. Although the term is sometimes restricted to metal framed curtain walls. Units are normally supported on bearing pads on the concrete floor slab. .

glass or stone facings). which are fixed in-between mullions.Description of curtain walling types The classification of types of curtain walling varies but the following terms are commonly used: y y y y y y Stick Unitised Panellised Spandrel panel ribbon glazing Structural sealant glazing Structural glazing Stick system curtain walling The general arrangement of a stick system curtain wall is shown as Horizontal and vertical framing members (µsticks¶) are normally extruded aluminium protected by anodising or powder coating.8m centres. Into the framework are fitted infill units. These units are typically sealed with gaskets and retained with a . which are fixed to the floor slab. are erected first followed by horizontal transoms. Members are cut to length and machined in the factory prior to assembly on site as a kit of parts: vertical mullions. which may comprise a mixture of fixed and opening glazing and insulated panels (which may have metal. Mullions are typically spaced between 1.0 and 1. but may be cold-rolled steel (for greater fire resistance) or aluminium clad with PVC-U.

method 1. or using standard details for some parts of the frame and simply altering some small aspect to give the appropriate structural properties or appearance. The pressure plate is generally hidden with a snap-on cosmetic cover cap or overlapping gaskets.pressure plate. The screw fixings can be exposed by removing the cover. Stick curtain walling is very common and versatile and can be used for anything from µglass towers¶ tens of storeys high to single storey shop fronts. Insulated panels. Some companies produce project-specific bespoke systems either designing frame profiles from scratch for each job. which is typically produced in six metre lengths for vertical framing elements.e. µoffthe-shelf¶) or bespoke curtain wall is used. Stick system curtain walling may be erected in one of three sequences: y Stick system wall. . although hammer-in structural gaskets are used for some stick systems. to glass or expensive stone composites. Many manufacturers (systems suppliers) produce standard stick systems. complexity and budget of the project will normally determine whether a standard (i. The type.g. weather tightness) is dependent on knowledgeable installers who are familiar with the assembly and sealing procedures for the particular system. usually designed for the project. Some pre-assembly of stick curtain wall frames is possible by the use of µladder frames¶. may be faced with anything from aluminium or steel sheet. screw-fixed every 150-300 mm. It is also suitable for irregular shaped buildings. Fixings must be secured to the correct torque to retain the glazing/infill panels and to ensure proper compression of the gaskets for weather sealing. Because of the number of joints in stick curtain walling it is generally very good at accommodating variability¶s and movement in the building frame. Assembly is slow compared with preassembled systems and performance (e.

Unitised curtain walling . method 2. y Stick system wall. method 3.y Stick system wall.

align and fix units onto pre-positioned brackets attached to the concrete floor slab or the structural frame. The smaller number of site-sealed joints in unitised curtain walling simplifies and hastens enclosure of the building. have higher direct costs and are less common than stick systems. storey-height units of steel or aluminium framework. glazing and panels pre-assembled under controlled. Panellised curtain walling Panellised curtain walling comprises large prefabricated panels of bay width and storey height.Unitised systems comprise narrow. factory conditions. Unitised systems are more complex in terms of framing system. If construction joints interlock consideration must be given to how damaged units could be removed and replaced. The reduced number of site-made joints compared with stick systems. Mechanical handling is required to position. which connect back to the primary structural columns or to the floor slabs close to the primary structure Fixing the panels close to the . generally leads to a reduction in air and water leakage resulting from poor installation. requires fewer site staff and can make such systems cost effective.

which affect stick and unitised systems. Spandrel panel ribbon glazing Spandrel panel ribbon glazing is a long or continuous run of vision units fixed between spandrel panels supported by vertical columns or the floor slabs. storage. gaskets between separate extrusions or wet applied sealant.Some authors do not differentiate between unitised and panellised systems. However to be cost effective a large number of identical panels is required. . which allows better control of quality and rapid installation with the minimum number of site-sealed joints. stone.Joints may comprise gasketted interlocki ng extrusions. The advantages of using panellised systems stem from the high utilisation of factory prefabrication. The wall construction is then completed by a plasterboard lining and external cladding. which can be used to support most cladding materials (e.g. Aluminium or galvanised steel skins are generally fixed to the frame with insulation in the cavity.Panels may be of precast concrete or comprise a structural steel framework. metal and masonry). but panellised construction may have significant internal steel structure to support the extra weight.columns reduces problems due to deflection of the slab at mid span. Glazed areas may comprise: . handling. Structural steel panellised walls are known as µtruss walls¶ in North America. or may consist of precast concrete panels with openings for windows. transport and erection. The size and weight of panels is limited by the practicalities of manufacture.Panellised systems are less common and more expensive than unitised construction.

Pre-glazed.e. These walls are attractive to architects as they offer a smooth or semi-smooth facade. that is. . horizontally spanning prefabricated or precast concrete units.. Care needs to be taken when detailing interfaces with adjacent elements. a pressure plate or structural gasket). Ribbon glazing is often used in conjunction with spandrel panels. External joints are weathersealed with a wet-applied sealant or a gasket. particularly ribbon glazing. the glass infill panels are attached with a factory-applied structural sealant (usually silicone) to metal carrier units which are then bolted into the framing grid on site. Instead of mechanical means (i.y y y Several standard windows fixed together on site by joining mullions. bay width. However it can also be used in unitised and panellised systems. factory-assembled frames. Ribbon glazing/spandrel panel construction generally results in buildings having a horizontal banded or strip appearance. or Individual framing sections and glass infill panels which are site assembled. It may also be used with spandrels comprising upstand walls faced with rainscreen panels. Structural sealant glazing Structural sealant glazing is a form of glazing that can be applied to stick curtain wall systems and windows.

the glass is mechanically supported to reduce the size of the sealant bead. but the framing system will be visible at night when backlit. Structural sealant glazing systems can have sealant on two opposite sides or on all four-sides with or without the weight of glass supported mechanically. Structural sealant glazing can be used to create a building exterior that is free from protrusions. this is no longer acceptable due to difficulties of application and replacement and all structural silicone joints are now made in a factory. Glass replacement/resealing must be undertaken in a controlled environment using the correct materials. Structural glazing . or on a project-by-project customised basis.bolted assembly Sheets of toughened glass are assembled with special bolts and brackets and supported by a secondary structure.Structural sealant glazing has been used in the USA for around 30 years where it was initially site applied direct to the framing. Structural sealant glazing is more widely used on µprestige¶ buildings and may be produced as a standard system. to create a near transparent facade or roof with a flush external surface. However.Any of the previous types of curtain walling and ribbon glazing could incorporate structural silicone gl azed elements. Generally. All elements used in the construction must be compatible with the silicone sealant. The framing members are often more widely spaced than for traditional stick systems. .

g. while the weight of the glass is transferred through the corner plates and suspension system Curtain walling applications Stick curtain walls are used on larger office developments but may also be used on some low-cost office or industrial units. rigging or a series of mullions) which support the glazing through special brackets. In some designs a light truss stabilises the wall and transfers wind loading. The highest-cost bespoke curtain walling systems will generally only be used on prestige buildings. rectangular. Glass fins may be used to brace the assembly. The joints between adjacent panes/glass units are weathersealed on site with wet-applied sealant. Structural glazing . . such as an entrance. typically for one small part.A multitude of discreet or prominent secondary structures can be designed (e. but also for prestige atria on otherwise simple buildings. space frame. They are only economic where a large number of similar units or panels is required. patch plates and the whole assembly is then either suspended from the top or stacked from the ground and wet-sealed on site. Suspended glazing systems utilise the minimum amount of framing for a given glass area and are used as glazing features on prestige buildings. large or small. Unitised or panellised curtain walling systems are generally adopted where the additional expense of factory assembly is compensated by faster installation.suspended assembly Here the glass is fixed together with corner.

Dominant factors are: y y y y Cost Appearance Timescale Access limitations The lowest cost is often achieved with a standard aluminium-framed stick system. a standard stick system for the front of the building. but the units must not be manufactured or delivered too soon or storage costs will be incurred. or contrast with. However.Choice of curtain wall type is never straightforward. far greater attention to the manufacturing and erection tolerances of both structure and cladding is required. whilst in a structural sealant glazing system this might require a specialist contractor. This may increase the cost of these systems. Other factors that are important include the ease of maintenance. Time-scale is important because there may be contractual limitations on the time available for assembling the facade. The architect may select several different types of curtain wall for a building for example ribbon glazing at the back of the building. the surrounding built environment. Note that whilst the smaller number of site-made joints in pre-assembled systems simplifies installation and weatherproofing. Generally. but it may then proceed more slowly than with factory-assembled units. Increasing the number of non-standard items will increase cost. systems requiring factory pre-assembly must be carefully planned so that units are available when construction of the facade is planned to start. The importance of appearance will depend upon the desired image that the building is to project. Replacement of a glazing unit in a ribbon glazing system might be undertaken by a local glazier. and a prestige suspended glazing for the . A site-assembled stick system has the advantage that installation can start quickly. A building situated in a highly visible or prestigious location may demand the use of more expensive materials. perhaps stonefaced insulated panels or a structural sealant or bolted glazing system with no external protrusions to interrupt the facade. although factory assembly also increases costs. Systems such as structural glazing must be designed so that breakage of a glass unit does not cause progressive failure of the facade. costs increase with complexity. not only due to the additional µmaterial¶ cost but also due to additional design work required to integrate the component(s) within the system and possibly because of the need for project testing. maybe the original contractor. A building facade may be designed to compliment.

particularly in the lateral direction to ensure alignment and adequate bearing of each panel of masonry. The load bearing structure may be a steel. The wide range of materials available means that it can be suitable for both low-cost industrial buildings and prestige structures. cement. concrete or timber frame or an inner leaf of load bearing masonry. Efforts should be concentrated on the construction interfaces during the design development and testing phases to reduce the risk of subsequent build ability and performance problems. Bricks may be manufactured from clay.The inner leaf of a cavity wall may consist of concrete blocks. In modern construction the external leaf is normally a non load bearing cladding 100mm thick and the units are chosen primarily for their appearance. In load bearing masonry and non-load bearing low rise construction the masonry will support its own weight but the external leaf needs to be tied to the inner leaf and structural frame to give it lateral stability. concrete or an insulated panel typically consisting of a timber frame with plywood or plasterboard sheathing. In the past this was often achieved by supporting the wall directly on the floor with brick slips on the edge of the floor.atrium. and lime or plasticizer). adequate strength and low cost. durability and cost. Masonry is a composite construction of individual brick or block units built up in horizontal. An inner leaf is typically 100mm thick but this may be increased to improve insulation or strength. multi-storey applications the weight of the masonry should be transferred to the frame at each storey level. . These should be adjustable. In non-structural. Cavity wall construction is used almost without exception for external walls because it provides an increased degree of thermal insulation and protection against water penetration compared with a solid wall of the same overall thickness. overlapping layers (courses) and bonded and sealed with mortar (sand. Current practice is generally to support the wall on metal angles. MASONRY Masonry is the predominant form of wall construction for low rise housing and is widely used in all types of building although on large structures it is often used for small areas with less labour intensive cladding materials being used for large areas of façade. calcium silicate or concrete and blocks are normally concrete or stone. Where masonry is used for the inner leaf the requirements for the unit are normally low density (for insulation). Thermal insulation (typically mineral fibre quilt) is often required within the cavity to comply with Part L of the Building Regulations.

a recent example being the use of titanium and terracotta.OTHER TYPES OF CLADDING Weatherboarding and tile hanging are traditional forms of cladding which are generally confined to housing. or slates of natural stone or fibre cement. Tile hanging may use traditional clay or concrete tiles. PVC and fibre cement panels are now available as alternatives to timber for weatherboarding. This form of cladding is not widely used and is generally restricted to housing. New systems or developments of existing systems using new materials are continually being produced. Traditionally this would be wooden lath but this has now been replaced by metal mesh that may either be expanded metal or a lightweight welded mesh. Rendering may be used as a decorative or weatherproofing finish on masonry walls but may also be used on a lightweight background. The cladding types described in this Section are established methods. .

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