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# SAP2000®

Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures

STEEL DESIGN MANUAL

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 7.4 Revision May 2000

COPYRIGHT

The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Tel: (510) 845-2177 Fax: (510) 845-4096 E-mail: info@csiberkeley.com Web: www.csiberkeley.com

© Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978–2000. The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. SAP2000 is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF SAP2000. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/ CHECK OF STEEL STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF STEEL DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

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. . . . 13 CHAPTER III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Design Loading Combinations . . 10 Choice of Input Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel sections . Calculation of Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 18 18 22 23 23 23 23 25 30 30 33 34 35 36 36 i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural-Torsional Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Element Unsupported Lengths . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Effects . . . . . . . . . . 6 Design and Check Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHAPTER II Design Algorithms 5 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes Pipe Sections . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Round Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural Buckling . T-sections and Double angles . . . . 3 Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents CHAPTER I Introduction 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Effective Length Factor (K) . . . . . . . . . .

75 78 79 79 82 83 84 84 90 91 92 92 CHAPTER VI Check/Design for CISC94 93 Design Loading Combinations . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . Compression Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 37 39 39 40 41 43 CHAPTER IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Nominal Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 48 48 52 54 54 54 58 58 60 61 61 61 65 69 72 73 73 74 CHAPTER V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nominal Strength in Bending. . . . . . . . Calculation of Nominal Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexure Capacity . . . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . Yielding . . . . . . . . . Flexural-Torsional Buckling . . . . . . . . . Web Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . 97 ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Rectangular and Square Bars Single-Angle Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Sections . . Flange Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Classification of Sections . . . . . . . Lateral-Torsional Buckling . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . Classification of Sections . . . . Flexural Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Stress Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Sections . . . . . . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . Compression Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table of Contents

Calculation of Factored Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Calculation of Factored Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Compression Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Tension Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Bending Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 I-shapes and Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Rectangular Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Pipes and Circular Rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Channel Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 T-shapes and double angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Single Angle and General Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Shear Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

**CHAPTER VII Check/Design for BS 5950
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Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces. . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Section Capacities . . . . . . . . . Compression Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic and Compact Sections . . . . . . Semi-compact Sections . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-Torsional Buckling Moment Capacity Shear Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . Local Capacity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under Axial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . Under Axial Compression . . . . . . . . Overall Buckling Check . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Capacity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111

114 115 117 117 119 119 121 121 121 122 122 125 125 127 127 127 127 128

**CHAPTER VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3
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Design Loading Combinations . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces. . . Calculation of Section Resistances. Tension Capacity . . . . . . . Compression Resistance. . . . Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

132 133 137 138 139 139 141

iii

**SAP2000 Steel Design Manual
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Moment Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-torsional Buckling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Compression, and Low Shear . . . . . . Bending, Axial Compression, and High Shear . . . . . . Bending, Compression, and Flexural Buckling . . . . . . Bending, Compression, and Lateral-Torsional Buckling . Bending, Axial Tension, and Low Shear . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Tension, and High Shear . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Tension, and Lateral-Torsional Buckling Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 143 145 145 146 146 147 148 148 149 149

**CHAPTER IX Design Output
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Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical Display of Design Output Tabular Display of Design Output . . Member Specific Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

151

151 152 153 154

References Index

157 159

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Chapter I

Introduction

Overview

SAP2000 features powerful and completely integrated modules for design of both steel and reinforced concrete structures. The program provides the user with options to create, modify, analyze and design structural models, all from within the same user interface. The program is capable of performing initial member sizing and optimization from within the same interface. The program provides an interactive environment in which the user can study the stress conditions, make appropriate changes, such as revising member properties, and re-examine the results without the need to re-run the analysis. A single mouse click on an element brings up detailed design information. Members can be grouped together for design purposes. The output in both graphical and tabulated formats can be readily printed. The program is structured to support a wide variety of the latest national and international design codes for the automated design and check of concrete and steel frame members. The program currently supports the following steel design codes: • U.S. AISC/ASD (1989), • U.S. AISC/LRFD (1994), • U.S. AASHTO LRFD (1997), Overview

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The information is in a form that allows the designer to take appropriate remedial measures if there is member overstress. the program provides a set of default load combinations for each design code supported in SAP2000. If the default load combinations are acceptable. Tedious calculations associated with evaluating effective length factors for columns in moment frame type structures are automated in the algorithms. no definition of additional load combination is required. In the check process the program produces demand/capacity ratios for axial load and biaxial moment interactions and shear. All allowable stress values or design capacity values for axial. In the design process the program picks the least weight section required for strength for each element to be designed. Special requirements for seismic design are not implemented in the current version of SAP2000. from a set of user specified sections. bending and shear actions are calculated by the program.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Canadian CAN/CSA-S16. and on factored loads (actions) and factored capacities (resistances) for limit state design. and • Eurocode 3 (ENV 1993-1-1). Backup design information produced by the program is also provided for convenient verification of the results. Maximum demand/capacity ratios are then reported and/or used for design optimization. Also several elements can be grouped to be designed to have the same section.1-94 (1994). The demand/capacity ratios are based on element stress and allowable stress for allowable stress design. However. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used to define the model geometry and to specify design parameters. Different sets of available sections can be specified for different groups of elements. 2 Overview . • British BS 5950 (1990). The design is based upon a set of user-specified loading combinations. The checks are made for each user specified (or program defaulted) load combination and at several user controlled stations along the length of the element. The presentation of the output is clear and concise.

• Chapter VIII gives a detailed description of the Eurocode 3 (CEN 1992) as implemented in SAP2000. and other special considerations required by the code. Each of six subsequent chapters gives a detailed description of a specific code of practice as interpreted by and implemented in SAP2000. • Chapter IV gives a detailed description of the AISC LRFD code (AISC 1994) as implemented in SAP2000. Organization 3 . calculations of demand/capacity ratios.Chapter I Introduction Organization This manual is organized in the following way: Chapter II outlines various aspects of the steel design procedures of the SAP2000 program. compression. • Chapter V gives a detailed description of the AASHTO LRFD steel code (AASHTO 1997) as implemented in SAP2000. Finally the user should read “Design Output” in Chapter IX for understanding and interpreting SAP2000 output related to steel design. Recommended Reading It is recommended that the user read Chapter II “Design Algorithms” and one of six subsequent chapters corresponding to the code of interest to the user. • Chapter VII gives a detailed description of the British code BS 5950 (BSI 1990) as implemented in SAP2000. This chapter describes the common terminology of steel design as implemented in SAP2000. • Chapter III gives a detailed description of the AISC ASD code (AISC 1989) as implemented in SAP2000. • Chapter VI gives a detailed description of the Canadian code (CISC 1994) as implemented in SAP2000. A steel design tutorial is presented in the chapter “Steel Design Tutorial” in the SAP2000 Quick Tutorial manual. It is recommended that first time users follow through the steps of this tutorial before reading this manual. and shear. bending. allowable stress or capacity calculations for tension. Each chapter describes the design loading combinations to be considered. Chapter IX outlines various aspects of the tabular and graphical output from SAP2000 related to steel design.

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1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings”. • Canadian Institute of Steel Construction’s “Limit States Design of Steel Structures”. • British Standards Institution’s “Structural Use of Steelwork in Building”. • American Institute of Steel Construction’s “Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. ENV 1993-1-1 (CEN 1992). • American Institute of Steel Construction’s “Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. The steel design and check may be performed according to one of the following codes of practice. • European Committee for Standardization’s “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures Part 1.C h a p t e r II Design Algorithms This chapter outlines various aspects of the steel check and design procedures that are used by the SAP2000 program.1-94 (CISC 1995). AASHTO-LRFD (AASHTO 1997). 5 . AISC-ASD (AISC 1989). • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ “AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications”. BS 5950 (BSI 1990). CAN/CSA-S16. AISC-LRFD (AISC 1994).

this chapter provides a background which is common to all the design codes. the program automatically produces multiple sub combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities. Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described permutations generate the required sub combinations. For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code. For example. For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum. a unique prefix is assigned for each code. time history. further options are available. moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping. – References to the AISC-ASD89 code carry the prefix of “ASD” – References to the AISC-LRFD93 code carry the prefix of “LRFD” – References to the Canadian code carry the prefix of “CISC” – References to the British code carry the prefix of “BS” – References to the Eurocode carry the prefix of “EC3” Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are used for determining the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. square-root of the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between interacting quantities is lost.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Details of the algorithms associated with each of these codes as implemented and interpreted in SAP2000 are described in subsequent chapters. Also an option is available to request that moving load combina- 6 Design Load Combinations . The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. Similarly. The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the associated load cases and the results are then summed to obtain the factored design forces and moments for the load combination. When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time history or moving load. all references to the AASHTO-LRFD code carry the prefix of “AASHTO”. However. The program has an option to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each time step of the time history. It is assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural steel design and familiarity with at least one of the above mentioned design codes.

snow load. The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more segments. The number of segments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is made. wind load. time history. and/or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load. For normal loading conditions involving static dead load. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. For other loading conditions involving moving load. each element is designed or checked at a number of locations along the length of the element.Chapter II Design Algorithms tions produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quantities. Similarly. The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be included or if no other user defined combination is available for concrete design. If any default combination is included in design. the user must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design loading combinations. then all default combinations will automatically be updated by the program any time the user changes to a different design code or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified. However. is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral load combinations. These are based on the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding chapters. Design and Check Stations For each load combination. etc. live load. separate consideration of roof live load.. each static load case declared as wind or earthquake. The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested to be recovered in the analysis for some or all the frame members. The locations are based on equally spaced segments along the clear length of the element. the user must provide the appropriate design combinations. The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load to be additive. pattern live loads. the program has built-in default loading combinations for each design code. and earthquake load. all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. or response spectrum cases. then the effects of these loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them. If these conditions are not correct. Design and Check Stations 7 .

The actual member stress components and corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. Forces in other types of elements do not contribute to this effect. For the individual member stability effects. the stress ratios are evaluated according to the code.is limited to “individual member stability”.analysis is required for the AISC-ASD code.effects due to axial loads in frame members only. For unbraced components. If significant forces are present in other types of elements. A stress ratio greater than 1. For lateral drift effects of unbraced or sway frames. “lateral drift effects” should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect. and European codes.Effects The SAP2000 design algorithms require that the analysis results include the P. The controlling compression and/or tension stress ratio is then obtained. and code-equation.analysis ON and set the maximum number of iterations for the analysis. No P.effects are considered differently for “braced” or “nonsway” and “unbraced” or “sway” components of moments in frames.will be inaccurate.effects.0 indicates an overstress or exceeding a limit state. The default number of iterations for P. load combination. No moment magnification is applied to the AISC-ASD code. In SAP2000.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The axial-flexure interaction ratios as well as shear stress ratios are calculated for each station along the length of the member for each load combination. along with the corresponding identification of the station. P.effects are considered for all but AISC-ASD code. SAP2000 assumes that the amplification is already included in the results because P. large axial loads in shear walls modeled as shell elements. Whereas.analysis is 1. the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors as in the AISC-LRFD and AASHTO-LRFD codes or are considered directly in the design equations as in the Canadian.effect. then the additional forces computed for P. the user is referred to SAP2000 Analysis Reference Manual (CSI 1997). 8 P. for example. British. “unbraced” or “sway” moments are contributed from all other types of loads. The P. The user is also cautioned that SAP2000 currently considers P. the effect of P. For further reference.Effects . The user should turn the P. it is assumed that “braced” or “nonsway” moments are contributed from the “dead” or “live” loads. For the braced moments in frames. Then. The users of SAP2000 should be aware that the default analysis option in SAP2000 is turned OFF for P.

the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element. The length l 22 is also used for lateral-torsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i. and l 22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). Figure II-1 Major and Minor Axes of Bending Element Unsupported Lengths 9 . See Figure II-1. This can be done differently for major and minor bending. See Figure II-1. however.e. i. extraneous joints.e. about the 3-3 axis). as shown in Figure II-3. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. that affect the unsupported length of an element are automatically taken into consideration. Therefore. The two unsupported lengths are l 33 and l 22 . The length l 33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis).. allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single member for design. the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. The program. Normally.Chapter II Design Algorithms Element Unsupported Lengths To account for column slenderness effects. See Figure II-2 for correspondence between the SAP2000 axes and the axes in the design codes. the column unsupported lengths are required..

and the behavior is basically that of a moment-resisting nature for which the K-factor calculation is relatively complex. beams and braces. where the columns are vertical and the beams are horizontal.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual In determining the values for l 22 and l 33 of the elements. All elements parallel to the Z-axis are classified as columns. 10 Effective Length Factor (K) . The rest are braces. The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an element-by-element basis. such as member connectivity. the unsupported length of a column may actually be evaluated as being greater than the corresponding element length. All elements parallel to the X-Y plane are classified as beams. the beam is assumed to give lateral support only in that direction. For the purpose of calculating K-factors. Therefore. diaphragm constraints and support points. the elements are identified as columns. Figure II-2 Correspondence between SAP2000 Axes and Code Axes Effective Length Factor (K) The column K-factor algorithm has been developed for building-type structures. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported element length. If the beam frames into only one direction of the column.

Then for each column. the program first makes the following four stiffness summations for each joint in the structural model: S cx = S cy = Ec I c Lc Ec I c Lc S bx = x Eb I b Lb Eb I b Lb x S by = y y where the x and y subscripts correspond to the global X and Y directions and the c and b subscripts refer to column and beam. the joint summations at END-I and the END-J of the member are transformed back to the column local 1-2-3 coordinate system and the G-values for END-I and the END-J of the member are calculated about the 2-2 and 3-3 directions as follows: Effective Length Factor (K) 11 . The local 2-2 and 3-3 terms EI 22 l 22 and EI 33 l 33 are rotated to give components along the global X and Y directions to form the ( EI / l ) x and ( EI / l ) y values. In the calculation of the K-factors for a column element.Chapter II Design Algorithms Figure II-3 Unsupported Lengths are Affected by Intermediate Nodal Points The beams and braces are assigned K-factors of unity.

transmission towers. • If there are no beams framing into a particular direction of a column element.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual S I c 22 S I b 22 S I c 33 = I S b 33 S J c 22 S J b 22 S J c 33 = J S b 33 G I 22 = G I 33 G J 22 = G J 33 If a rotational release exists at a particular end (and direction) of an element. Finally. such as cantilevers. the G-values for all members connecting to that joint will be set to 1. specifically under circumstances involving skewed beams. • The automated K-factor calculation procedure can occasionally generate artificially high K-factors. the K-factors for all members are usually unity and should be set so by the user. the associated G-value will be infinity. trusses. For other structures. beam elements that have no column member at the far end from the joint under consideration. The following are some important aspects associated with the column K-factor algorithm: • An element that has a pin at the joint under consideration will not enter the stiffness summations calculated above. Also. will not enter the stiffness summation. This relationship is the mathematical formulation for the evaluation of K factors for moment-resisting frames assuming sidesway to be uninhibited. etc.. the column K-factor for the corresponding direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for α: 2 G G G I I J G J from which K . 12 Effective Length Factor (K) . the corresponding value is set to 10. and under other conditions where the program may have difficulty recognizing that the members are laterally supported and K-factors of unity are to be used.0. If the G-value at any one end of a column for a particular direction is infinity. An element that has a pin at the far end from the joint under consideration will contribute only 50% of the calculated EI value. If all degrees of freedom for a particular joint are deleted. the K-factor corresponding to that direction is set equal to unity. fixed support conditions. • If rotational releases exist at both ends of an element for a particular direction. space frames. such as braced frame structures.0 for the end of the member connecting to that joint. if G I and G J are known for a particular direction. the corresponding K-factor is set to unity.

Choice of Input Units 13 . All equations and descriptions presented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless otherwise noted.Chapter II Design Algorithms • All K-factors produced by the program can be overwritten by the user. However. any system of units can be used to define and design the structure in SAP2000. But the codes are based on a specific system of units. These values should be reviewed and any unacceptable values should be replaced. AISC-ASD code is published in kip-inch-second units. Choice of Input Units English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For example. all equations and descriptions presented in the chapter “Check/Design for AISC-ASD89” correspond to kip-inch-second units. By default.

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The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. A capacity ratio greater than 1. 15 . Similarly. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. a unique prefix “ASD” is assigned. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member.C h a p t e r III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AISC-ASD89 design code (AISC 1989). all references to the “Specifications for Allowable Stress Design of Single-Angle Members” carry the prefix of “ASD SAM”. However. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this chapter. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original ASD code. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table III-1.0 indicates overstress.

in3 Table III-1 AISC-ASD Notations 16 . in Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections. M 22 M ob P Pe Q Qa Qs S S 33 . kip-in Lateral-torsional moment for angle sections. ksi Yield stress of material. ksi Allowable axial stress. in Bending Coefficient Moment Coefficient Warping constant. ksi Allowable major and minor bending stresses. in2 2 Major and minor shear areas. ksi Allowable bending stress. kips Euler buckling load. S 22 ¢ ¢ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. Fb 22 Fcr Fe33 Fe22 Fv Fy K K 33 . Av 3 Aw Cb Cm Cw D E Fa Fb Fb 33 . in2 Area of flange . K 22 M 33 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ae Af Ag Av 2 . in2 Gross cross-sectional area. = Qa Qs Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus. ksi Critical compressive stress. in3 Major and minor section moduli. in 2 Web shear area. kip-in Axial force in member. in6 Outside diameter of pipes. ksi Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Major and minor bending moments in member. kips Reduction factor for slender section. ksi 12 2 E 23 K 33 l33 r33 12 2 2 2 E 2 23 K 22 l22 r22 Allowable shear stress. in Modulus of elasticity. dt w .

in Flange thickness. ksi Normal stress in bending. l22 lc r r33 . in Special section property for angles. b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled box sections. in Axial stress either in compression or in tension.) 17 . in Critical length. in Overall depth of member. ksi Shear stress.22 Sc V2 . in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions. in Effective distance between flanges less fillets. S eff . etc. in3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section. channel. if h t w 70 . in Flange width. ksi Normal stress in major and minor direction bending. kips Nominal dimension of plate in a section. in Radius of gyration. h tw 1 if h t w 70 .33 . in 0. box. in Minimum Radius of gyration for angles. fv 3 h he k kc = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = l33 .V3 b be bf d fa fb f b 33 . in Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet .46 Table III-1 AISC-ASD Notations (cont. ksi Clear distance between flanges for I shaped sections ( d 2t f ). ksi Shear stress in major and minor direction bending. in Thickness of a plate in I. r22 rz t tf tw w = = = = = = = = = Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections. in Web thickness. in Parameter used for classification of sections. and T sections.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 S eff . angle. f b 22 fv fv 2 . in3 Shear forces in major and minor directions. Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. Effective width of flange. in longer leg of angle sections.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Slender. Classification of Sections The allowable stresses for axial compression and flexure are dependent upon the classification of sections as either Compact. SAP2000 classifies the individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table III-2 (ASD B5. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.1) (ASD A4. For the AISC-ASD89 code. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. or if pattern live loads are to be considered. or Too Slender. if other types of loads are present. wind load (WL). A-B5-2). and earthquake induced load (EL).1) (ASD A4. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units.1) (ASD A4.2).1) (ASD A4.1. 18 Design Loading Combinations .1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AISC-ASD89 code is used. F5. F3. live load (LL). Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. Noncompact. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL). Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. then the following load combinations may have to be defined (ASD A4): DL DL + LL DL WL DL + LL DL EL DL + LL WL EL (ASD A4. allowable stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5.1. For simplicity. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. G1.1) (ASD A4. The definition of the section properties required in this table is given in Figure III-1 and Table III-1.

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Figure III-1 AISC-ASD Definition of Geometric Properties Classification of Sections 19 .

Table III-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based on AISC-ASD 20 Classification of Sections . 253 Fy h tw No limit otherwise 760 b d BOX h tf tw tw tw 190 Fy 238 No limit As for I-shapes bf None As for I-shapes No limit As for I-shapes Fb Fy No limit No limit As for I-shapes None No limit No limit As for I-shapes If welded bf dw t f tw If rolled bf dw t f tw Fy Fy As for I-shapes No limit t f 2 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Description Ratio Checked bf 2t f ( rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For fa Compact Section 65 Fy Noncompact Section 95 Fy Slender Section No limit 65 Fy 640 (1 Fy Fy Fy / k c No limit I-SHAPE d tw fa ). dw As for I-shapes As for I-shapes No limit Other b d h CHANNEL tf tw tw . Other No limit No limit . Fy No limit No limit For fa / Fy 257/ Fy . If compression only.

) If the section dimensions satisfy the limits shown in the table.300 Fy ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact Table III-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based on AISC-ASD (Cont. or Slender. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact and Noncompact sections but satisfies Classification of Sections 21 . the section is classified as either Compact. Noncompact. then the section is classified as Compact section. Other No limit No limit . If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact sections but satisfies the criteria for Noncompact sections.300 Fy 3.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Section Description Ratio Checked Compact Section Noncompact Section Slender Section bf d T-SHAPE 2t f tw 65 Fy 95 127 Fy Fy No limit No limit If welded bf dw t f tw If rolled bf dw t f tw No limit No limit Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure Not applicable . DOUBLE ANGLES ANGLE b b t t Not applicable Not applicable 76 76 Fy Fy PIPE D t 3. the section is classified as Noncompact section. If the section satisfies the criteria for Compact sections.

2d) (ASD A-B5. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes. based on the gross cross-sectional properties. For general sections it is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. For Single-angle sections. 22 Calculation of Stresses . like slender web in I.2d) The flexural stresses are calculated based on the properties about the principal axes. Channel. For I. In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes.: f a = P/A f b 33 = M 33 /S 33 f b 22 = M 22 /S 22 f v 2 = V 2 /Av 2 f v 3 = V 3 /Av 3 If the section is slender with slender stiffened elements. and Channel sections. the section is classified as Too Slender. Channel. Box. effective section moduli based on reduced web and reduced flange dimensions are used in calculating stresses. The member stresses for non-slender sections that are calculated for each load combination are. the design considers the principal properties. it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners (ASD F5. Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated. f a = P/A f b 33 = M 33 /S eff . in general. Double-angle. G1). 33 f b 22 = M 22 /S eff . Box. T. For Single-angle sections. the principal axes coincide with the geometric axes. If the limits for Slender sections are not met. 22 f v 2 = V 2 /Av 2 f v 3 = V 3 /Av 3 (ASD A-B5.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual the criteria for Slender sections. Pipe.2d) (ASD A-B5. For all other sections the shear stresses are calculated along the geometric and principle axes. and Box sections or slender flanges in Box.2d) (ASD A-B5.2d) (ASD A-B5. the section is classified as Slender section. Circular and Rectangular sections. Calculation of Stresses The stresses are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of SAP2000.

For members in compression. Allowable Stress in Compression The allowable axial compressive stress is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. Box. If the user specifies nonzero allowable stresses for one or more elements in the SAP2000 “Redefine Element Design Data” form. For single angles. The specified allowable stresses should be based on the principal axes of bending. Flexural Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress value. tension.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses The allowable stresses in compression. For the I. (ASD D1. Circular. The allowable flexural stresses for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. Double-angle and Rectangular sections. the minimum radius of gyration. Fa . For members in tension. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural stresses are based on that. depends on the slenderness ratio Kl r based on gross section properties and a corresponding critical value. ASD SAM 4). Pipe. Allowable Stress in Tension The allowable axial tensile stress value Fa is assumed to be Fa = Fy Fy . Noncompact. T. ASD SAM 2). the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. bending. For single angles. these values will override the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. a message to that effect is printed (ASD B7. if Kl r is greater than 200. and Slender sections according to the following subsections. C c . where Calculation of Allowable Stresses 23 . r z . a warning message is printed (ASD B7. the minimum radius of gyration. Channel. if l r is greater than 300. and shear are computed for Compact. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing l r . r z . ASD SAM 2) It should be noted that net section checks are not made. For the Angle sections. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . The allowable compressive stresses are determined according to the following subsections.

2c. ASD SAM 4) For single angles. and 2 c E Fy . C c¢ 12 2 E . SAM 4-2) 2 2E . if Kl r C c¢ . (ASD E2. if Kl r Cc. 23 ( Kl r ) 2 If Kl r is greater than 200. SAM 4-1) Fa = where. then the calculated value of Fa is taken not to exceed the value of Fa calculated by using the equation ASD E2-2 for Compact and Noncompact sections (ASD E1. Q Fy (ASD A-B5. For Slender sections. (ASD A-B5-11. except slender Pipe sections. SAM 4-2) 3 Fa = . For Compact or Noncompact sections Fa is evaluated as follows: ( Kl/r ) 2 Fy 2C c2 5 + 3 Fa = 3 Kl/r 8 Cc Kl/r 8 C c3 if Kl r Cc. Fa is evaluated as follows: ( Kl/r ) 2 Fa = Q 2C c¢ 3 Kl/r 5 + 3 8 C c¢ 2 Fy Kl/r 8 C c¢ 3 3 . r z . 23 ( Kl r ) 2 if Kl r C c¢ . (ASD E2-1. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . SAM 4-1) 12 2 E . r33 r22 2 max .(ASD A-B5-12. ASD SAM 4) 24 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . B7).SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Kl r K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . (ASD E2-2. the minimum radius of gyration.

2a. For webs in I. and b e for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table III-4 (ASD A-B5.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 For slender sections.2. for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1. E1).2b). (ASD A-B5. Qa Ae Ag (ASD A-B5-10) The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae Ag b be t b e for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b.a) Q a = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. Q is computed as follows: Q Q s Q a . ASD SAM 4). where (ASD A-B5. Flexural-Torsional Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress value. and Channel sections. then the calculated value of Fa is taken not to exceed its value calculated by using the equation ASD A-B5-12 (ASD B7. and (ASD A-B5. h e is used as b e and h is used as b in the above equation.2. determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling is determined as follows (ASD E3.c. For slender sections. SAM 4) Q s = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements. C-E3): Kl/r Fa = Q 2C c¢ 3 Kl/r 5 + 3 8 C c¢ e 2 2 e Fy Kl/r 8C c 3 e .c) The Q s factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table III-3 (ASD A-B5. if Kl r is greater than 200. A-B5-11) ¢3 Calculation of Allowable Stresses 25 . For slender Pipe sections Fa is evaluated as follows: Fa = D t Fy (ASD A-B5-9) The reduction factor. box.2. Q. (E2-1. Fa . if Kl/r e C c¢ . The Q a factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area.

ASD A-B5-2. if T-SHAPE d tw Fy d tw d tw b t Fy b t b t Fy . Fy . Fy k c . ASD A-B5-1. if if d t w Fy . For web see below.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Type Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Q s ) if b f 2t f Fy k c b f 2t f b f 2t f Fy k c . Qs kc b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 Equation Reference I-SHAPE Fy k c Fy if if ASD A-B5-3. Fy .2c ASD A-B5-3. Fy . as for flanges in I-shapes.2c Table III-3 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements. Qs d tw 2 Fy . For flanges. SAM 4-3 ASD A-B5. Fy .2c PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qs Qs Qs Qs 1 1 1 1 ASD A-B5. ASD A-B5-4. ASD A-B5-2. if DOUBLEANGLE Qs b t 2 Fy . ASD A-B5-6 As for I-shapes with bf 2t f replaced by bf t f . ASD A-B5-4 ASD A-B5-3. Q s 26 Calculation of Allowable Stresses .2c ASD A-B5. Fy . Fy .2c ASD A-B5. ASD A-B5-1. Fy . if if b t Fy . SAM 4-3 if b t Fy b t b t ANGLE Qs b t 2 Fy . Fy . ASD A-B5-4 BOX CHANNEL Qs 1 ASD A-B5. if if b t Fy . ASD A-B5-5. Fy k c .

f . if tw 1 . f . f . if tw 1 . if if f f .2c b b ASD A-B5. he f h tw h tw h tw h tw b tf b t h tw h tw f f .2c ASD A-B5.2c 1.) Not applicable be b Not applicable Note: A reduction factor of 3/4 is applied on f for axial-compression-only cases and if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD A-B5.2b). P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f if tw 1 .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Section Type Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Equation Reference h. be f tf 1 . f . (compression only.. if CHANNEL he f f f . if f f . Fy ) ASD A-B5-7 (h t f ) f h. if I-SHAPE he f h. Table III-4 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Calculation of Allowable Stresses 27 . special expression for allowable axial stress is given. (compr. (However. P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE ANGLE PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qa be be be b ASD A-B5. (compression only.2c ASD A-B5-9 ASD A-B5. P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f BOX b. flexure. (compression only.

(E2-2. SAM 4-4) ASD Commentary (ASD C-E3) refers to the 1986 version of the AISC-LRFD code for the calculation of Fe . if Kl/r 23 Kl/r e C c¢ . Box.2c. (ASD C-E2-2. C c¢ E 2 e . Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (ASD SAM C-C4-2. LRFD A-E3-7): 28 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . and Pipe sections: 2 Fe EC w 2 GJ 1 I 22 I 33 (LRFD A-E3-5) K z lz • For T-sections and Double-angles: Fe = Fe 22 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 22 Fez H Fe 22 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Channels: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angle sections with equal legs: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (ASD SAM C-C4-1) • For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. Fe is calculated in SAP2000 as follows: • For Rectangular.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 12 2 Fa = where. A-B5. and Q Fy 2 (ASD E2. A-B5-12) 2 2E . I. SAM 4) Kl/r E e Fe . The 1993 version of the AISC-LRFD code is the same as the 1986 version in this respect.

and it is taken equal to l 22 . l z is the effective length for torsional buckling. K 33 l 33 ). K 33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions. r0 2 x0 2 y0 I 22 Ag 2 y0 I 33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear center. r02 Fe2 ( Fe Fe 33 ) r02 0. l 33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions. K z is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. the maximum value of Kl. Calculation of Allowable Stresses 29 . l 22 . Ar02 (LRFD A-E3-12) K 22 . Also. and it is taken equal to K 22 in SAP2000.e. (LRFD A-E3-9) Fe 33 E 2 . (LRFD A-E3-10) K 33 l 33 r33 2 Fe 22 E 2 .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 2 x0 2 y0 ( Fe Fe 33 )( Fe Fe 22 )( Fe Fez ) Fe2 ( Fe Fe 22 ) where. is used in place of K 22 l 22 or K 33 l 33 in calculating Fe 22 and Fe 33 in this case. the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe (ASD SAM 4). x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis of symmetry). i. For angle sections. x 0 . (LRFD A-E3-11) K 22 l 22 r22 2 Fez EC w 2 GJ K z lz 1 . max( K 22 l 22 . y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. H 1 2 x0 r02 2 .

d Fy Fy . For Compact sections: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy if f y if f y . then for both Compact and Noncompact I-sections the allowable bending stress depends on the l 22 rT ratio. the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Noncompact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or rolled and whether f y is greater than 65 ksi or not. The critical length is defined as lc min 76 b f 20. (ASDF1-4) (ASD F1-5) If the unbraced length l 22 is greater than l c . (ASD F1-3) Fb 33 = Fb 33 = F y .. . the compactness of the section. .000 A f . Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c . if welded and f y if f y . if rolled and f y .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Allowable Stress in Bending The allowable bending stress depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. l c . and a length parameter. 30 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . l 22 . which is compared to a critical length. the axis of bending. where (ASD F1-2) A f is the area of compression flange. (ASD F1-1) (ASD F1-5) For Noncompact sections: Fb 33 = bf 2t f bf 2t f Fy Fy Fy kc F y . I-sections For I-sections the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length.

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 l 22 rT Fb 33 102,000 C b , Fy Fy , (ASD F1-6)

For

for

102,000 C b Fy Fb 33 l 22 rT Fb 33 2 3

l 22 rT

510,000 C b , Fy Fy F y , and (ASD F1-6)

F y ( l 22 / rT ) 2 1530,000 C b

for

510,000 C b , Fy 170,000 C b ( l 22 / rT ) 2 0 Fy , (ASD F1-7)

and Fb 33 is taken not to be less than that given by the following formula: Fb 33 where, rT is the radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange and 1 3 the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web, Cb = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb

2

12,000 C b l 22 d / A f

Fy

(ASD F1-8)

, where

(ASD F1.3)

M a and M b are the end moments of any unbraced segment of the member and M a is numerically less than M b ; M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. Also, if any moment within the segment is greater than M b , C b is taken as 1.0. Also, C b is taken as 1.0 for cantilevers and frames braced against joint translation (ASD F1.3). SAP2000 defaults C b to 1.0 if the unbraced length, l 22 , of the member is redefined by the user (i.e. it is not equal to the length of the member). The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member by specifying it. Calculation of Allowable Stresses

31

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. Then the following additional considerations are taken into account. If the web is slender, then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R PG R PG R e Fb 33 , where Aw h Af t 3 Re

3

(ASD G2-1) 760 Fb 33 , (ASD G2)

Aw Af

Aw Af ,

, (hybrid girders)

(ASD G2)

Re

(non-hybrid girders)

(ASD G2)

Aw = Area of web, in 2 , A f = Area of compression flange, in 2 , Fy Fb 33 (ASD G2)

Fb 33 = Allowable bending stress assuming the section is non-compact, and Fb¢33 = Allowable bending stress after considering web slenderness. In the above expressions, R e is taken as 1, because currently SAP2000 deals with only non-hybrid girders. If the flange is slender, then the previously computed allowable bending stress is taken to be limited as follows. Fb¢33 Qs F y , where (ASD A-B5.2a, A-B5.2d)

Q s is defined earlier.

32

Calculation of Allowable Stresses

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Minor Axis of Bending The minor direction allowable bending stress Fb 22 is taken as follows: For Compact sections: Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy Fy if f y if f y , , (ASD F2-1) (ASD F2-2)

For Noncompact and Slender sections: Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy bf 2t f Fy Fy , if f y if f y , .. (ASD F2-3) (ASD F2-2)

Channel sections

For Channel sections the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length, l 22 , which is compared to a critical length, l c . The critical length is defined as lc min 76 b f 20,000 A f , d Fy Fy , where (ASD F1-2)

A f is the area of compression flange, Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c , the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Noncompact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or rolled and whether f y is greater than 65 ksi or not. For Compact sections: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy if f y if f y , , (ASD F1-1) (ASD F1-5)

For Noncompact sections: Fb 33 = bf tf Fy F y , if rolled and f y , (ASD F1-3)

Calculation of Allowable Stresses

33

R PG . if welded and f y if f y .(ASD F1-4) (ASD F1-5) If the unbraced length l 22 is greater than l c . 34 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . Minor Axis of Bending The minor direction allowable bending stress Fb 22 is taken as follows: Fb 22 = Fy (ASD F2-2) T-sections and Double angles For T sections and Double angles.. C b . the previously computed allowable bending stress is taken to be limited as follows: Fb¢33 Qs Fy (ASD A-B5. then for both Compact and Noncompact Channel sections the allowable bending stress is taken as follows: Fb 33 12. and Fb¢33 are given earlier.000 C b l 22 d / A f Fy (ASD F1-8) The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes bending is taken as. . Fb = Fy . Aw .2a. A-B5. Q s . R e .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual bf tf Fy Fy kc Fb 33 = Fb 33 = F y .2d) The definition for rT . Then the following additional considerations are taken into account. A f . then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R e R PG Fb 33 (ASD G2-1) If the flange is slender. If the web is slender. Fb 33 .

measured compared to a critical length. l 22 . However. then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R e R PG Fb 33 (ASD G2-1) The definition for R e . C b . Minor Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c . If l 22 is specified by the user. The critical length is defined as lc max (1950 1200 M a /M b ) b 1200 b . If the flange is slender. the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bending is taken as: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy (for Compact sections) (for Noncompact sections) (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) If l 22 exceeds l c . R PG . If the web is slender. l c . no additional consideration is needed in computing allowable bending stress. the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length. Fb 33 . Fy Fy (ASD F3-2) where M a and M b have the same definition as noted earlier in the formula for 1200 b in SAP2000. effective section dimensions are calculated and the section modulus is modified according to its slenderness. and Fb¢33 are given earlier. the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bending is taken as: Calculation of Allowable Stresses 35 . Then the following additional consideration is taken into account. the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bending for both Compact and Noncompact sections is taken as: Fb 33 = Fy (ASD F3-3) The major direction allowable bending stress for Slender sections is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes For all Box sections and Rectangular tubes. l c is taken as Fy Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c .

the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bending is taken. Fb = Fy . as: Fb 22 = Fy (ASD F3-3) Pipe Sections For Pipe sections. Fb = Fy . (ASD F2-1) For solid rectangular bars bent about their major axes. (ASD F2-1) 36 Calculation of Allowable Stresses .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy Fy (for Compact sections) (for Noncompact and Slender sections) (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) If l 22 exceeds l c . Fb = Fy . the allowable stress is given by Fb = F y . (ASD F2-1) Rectangular and Square Bars The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of solid square bars is taken as. and (for Noncompact and Slender sections). the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes of bending is taken as Fb = Fb = Fy Fy (for Compact sections). irrespective of compactness. And the allowable stress for minor axis bending of rectangular bars is taken as. (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) Round Bars The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of round bars is taken as.

max S major = major section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg. major = F y .3): Fb . Fy Fy Fob Fy if Fob F y (ASD SAM 5-3a) Fb .3). = major principal moment of inertia. The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of lateraltorsional buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5. Major Axis of Bending The allowable stress for major axis bending is the minimum considering the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling and local buckling (ASD SAM 5. Fob is the elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress as calculated below. t f . (ASD SAM 5-6) min t w . max l 22 . Calculation of Allowable Stresses 37 . if Fob F y (ASD SAM 5-3b) where. l 33 . t l I I min Cb I min S major l 2 2 w ( lt r min )2 w . for equal-leg angles is taken as Fob Cb l t . r min = radius of gyration for minor principal axis.1. Fob . The elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. major = Fob Fob .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Single-Angle Sections The allowable flexural stresses for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending (ASD SAM 5. (ASD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles Fob is calculated as Fob where.1). = minor principal moment of inertia.

Fy . Fy . b = length of the leg under consideration.3.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 1 w I A max z( w 2 z 2 )dA 2z 0 . However. In the above expressions C b is calculated in the same way as is done for I sections with the exception that the upper limit of C b is taken here as 1. if Fy if Fb . w = coordinate along the minor principal axis. and Q = slenderness reduction factor for local buckling.2) z = coordinate along the major principal axis. (ASD SAM 5.2. if b t b t b t .2). Fy . negative for long leg in compression.5 instead of 2. and zero for equal-leg angles (ASD SAM 5. It is positive for short leg in compression.3. (ASD A-B5-2. w is a special section property for angles. Cb = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb 2 (ASD F1.2) The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of local buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5. Fy (ASD SAM 5-1c) (ASD SAM 5-1b) (ASD SAM 5-1a) Fb . and z 0 = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid. for conservative design in SAP2000. it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles. major = Fy . SAM 5. the allowable stresses are calculated considering the fact that either of 38 Calculation of Allowable Stresses .3.3. t = thickness of the leg under consideration. SAM 4) In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of local buckling.1): Fb .1. major = Fy . major = Q where.

minor = Q Fy .minor = Fy .1.3. Double angle. principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axes. The minimum allowable stress is considered. SAM 3-1) Calculation of Allowable Stresses 39 . For I.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 the two tips can be under compression. The minimum allowable stress is considered.1b. Major Axis of Bending The allowable shear stress for all sections except I. if Fy if (ASD SAM 5-1b) F b. Channel.3. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. (ASD SAM 5-1c) In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles it is assumed that the sign of the moment is such that both the tips are under compression. Pipe. T. 5. Fy . Fb = Fy .minor = Fy . Box and Channel sections is taken in SAP2000 as: Fv Fy (ASD F4-1. Fy . Minor Axis of Bending The allowable minor bending stress for Single-angles is given as follows (ASD SAM 5. Circular and Rectangular sections. Box. 5. if b t b t b t . Fy (ASD SAM 5-1a) F b.1. General Sections For General sections the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes bending is taken as.2b): F b. Allowable Stress in Shear The shear stress is calculated along the geometric axes for all sections. For Single-angle sections.

Fy kv . Currently it is taken conservatively as the length. h (ASD F4) tw = a h = = Thickness of the web. (ASD F4-2) . Fy . if h tw 380 Fy h tw .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The allowable shear stress for major direction shears in I-shapes. (ASD F4) kv ah ah 2 if if 2 a 1. kv . Clear distance between flanges at the section. for each station along the length of the member. boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: Fv Cv Fy . first. of the member in SAP2000. SAM 3-1) Calculation of Stress Ratios In the calculation of the axial and bending stress capacity ratios. l 22 . in. in. if if h tw h tw a h 1. Then. Fy Fy . the actual stresses are calculated for each load combination. Then the corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. Clear distance between transverse stiffeners. Minor Axis of Bending The allowable shear stress for minor direction shears is taken as: Fv Fy (ASD F4-1. and (ASD F4-1) Fv where. Fy kv . the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios . if Fy 45. .000 k v Cv Fy h tw h tw 2 .

along with the associated station and load combination. C m 33 and C m 22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. where M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the Calculation of Stress Ratios 41 . During the design.1) f b 22 . A capacity ratio greater than 1. and for nonsway frame with transstrained compression member C m verse load and end unrestrained compression member C m (ASD H1). SAM 6. f b 22 . and Fb 22 are defined earlier in this chapter. Axial and Bending Stresses With the computed allowable axial and bending stress values and the factored axial and bending member stresses at each station. and (ASD H1-1.0 indicates an overstress. Also. where Fb 22 (ASD H1-2.1) f a . for nonsway frame without transverse load Cm M a M b . SAM 6): • If f a is compressive and f a Fa the larger of fa + Fa C m 33 f b 33 1 fa Fy fa F' e 33 Fb 33 f b 33 Fb 33 + 1 . Cm M a . SAM 6. Fb 33 . the combined stress ratio is given by C m 22 f b 22 fa F' e 22 Fb 22 . f b 33 . the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. for nonsway frame with transverse load and end re.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 each of the design load combinations. H2. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. the joints are not designed. Fa . M b (ASD H1) For sway frame C m . an interaction stress ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows (ASD H1.

i..0. • If f a is compressive and f a Fa used for the combined stress ratio. When M b is zero. Box.5). T. f b 33 .0 if the unbraced length factor. instead of the simple addition implied by the above formulae. Fb 33 . For Single-angle sections. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (ASD SAM 5. Double-angle.1) • If f a is tensile or zero. f f fa + b 33 + b 22 Fb 22 Fb 33 Fa . C m 22 and C m 33 . associated with the major and minor directions. Fa . Pipe. C m is taken as 1. Circular and Rectangular sections. C m assumes two values. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. SAM 6. ASD A5. 6. The second equation considers flexural buckling without any beneficial effect from axial compression.1. For Single-angle sections. either Fb 33 or Fb 22 need not be less than F y in the first equation (ASD H2-1). (ASD H1) A factor of 4/3 is applied on Fe¢ and F y if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD H1. and Fb 22 are defined earlier in this chapter.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual member. Fe¢ is given by Fe¢ 12 2 E 23 ( Kl / r ) 2 . However. an SRSS combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component. For I. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. of the member is redefined by either the user or the program. principal axes are determined in 42 Calculation of Stress Ratios . M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. and Fb 22 (ASD H2-1.e. the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of fa Fa f b 33 Fb 33 f b 33 Fb 33 f b 22 . For circular and pipe sections. Channel.2) f b 22 . f b 22 . where Fb 22 f a . l.2). a relatively simplified formula is (ASD H1-3. The program defaults C m to 1. SAM 6.3. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member.

allowable stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5. For general sections no effort is made to determine the principal directions. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. shear stress ratios for major and minor directions are computed for each of the load combinations as follows: f v2 . Shear Stresses From the allowable shear stress values and the factored shear stress values at each station. and Calculation of Stress Ratios 43 . the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. Fv For Single-angle sections. allowable shear stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5.2). For all other sections the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes which coincide with the geometric axes. Fv f v3 .2).Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 SAP2000.

.

C h a p t e r IV

**Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93
**

This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 design code (AISC 1994). Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table IV-1. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original LRFD code, a unique prefix “LRFD” is assigned. However, all references to the “Specifications for Load and Resistance Factored Design of Single-Angle Members” carry the prefix of “LRFD SAM”. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member, first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this chapter. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Similarly, a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately.

45

**SAP2000 Steel Design Manual
**

A Ae Ag Av 2 , Av 3 Aw B1 B2 Cb Cm Cw D E Fcr Fr Fy G I 22 I 33 J K K 33 , K 22 Lb Lp Lr M cr M lt M nt M n33 , M n22 M ob M r 33 , M r 22 Mu M u 33 , M u 22 Pe Pn Pu Py Q = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area, in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in2 Gross cross-sectional area, in2 2 Major and minor shear areas, in Shear area, equal dt w per web, in2 Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant, in6 Outside diameter of pipes, in Modulus of elasticity, ksi Critical compressive stress, ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10.0 for rolled sections and 16.5 for welded sections, ksi Yield stress of material, ksi Shear modulus, ksi Minor moment of inertia, in4 Major moment of inertia, in4 4 Torsional constant for the section, in Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, in Elastic buckling moment, kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway, kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway, kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions, kip-in Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections, kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments, kip-in Factored moment in member, kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member, kip-in Euler buckling load, kips Nominal axial load strength, kip Factored axial force in member, kips A g F y , kips Reduction factor for slender section, = Qa Qs

46

Table IV-1 AISC-LRFD Notations

**Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93
**

Qa Qs S S 33 , S 22 S eff ,33 , S eff ,22 Sc Vn2 ,Vn3 Vu 2 ,Vu 3 Z Z 33 , Z 22 b be bf d de hc k kc l33 , l22 r r33 , r22 t tf tw

w

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus, in3 3 Major and minor section moduli, in Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections, in3 3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in Nominal major and minor shear strengths, kips Factored major and minor shear loads, kips 3 Plastic modulus, in 3 Major and minor plastic moduli, in Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in longer leg of angle sections, b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled box sections, etc. Effective width of flange, in Flange width, in Overall depth of member, in Effective depth of web, in Clear distance between flanges less fillets, in assumed d 2k for rolled sections, and d 2t f for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, in Parameter used for section classification, 4 h tw , kc Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths, in Radius of gyration, in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in Thickness, in Flange thickness, in Thickness of web, in Special section property for angles, in Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameters Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element Resistance factor for bending, 0.9 Resistance factor for compression, 0.85 Resistance factor for tension, 0.9 Resistance factor for shear, 0.9

c p r s

,

e

slender b c t v

Table IV-1 AISC-LRFD Notations (cont.)

47

0 EL 1.1): 1.5 LL (White and Hajjar 1991).2 DL 1. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units.5 LL 0.2 DL 1.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity.9 DL 1. live load (LL).9 DL 1.4 DL 1. Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact. When using the AISC-LRFD93 code. Noncompact. For the AISC-LRFD93 code. if other types of loads are present. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. wind load (WL). 48 Design Loading Combinations .6 LL 0. then the following load combinations may have to be defined (LRFD A4.3 WL 1. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. or if pattern live loads are to be considered. It is recommended that the P.2 DL + 0.2 DL + 0. SAP2000 design assumes that a P. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted. Slender or Too Slender.3 WL 1.5 LL (LRFD A4-1) (LRFD A4-2) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) 1.2 DL + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).3 WL 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated. For simplicity.0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AISC-LRFD93 code is used. and earthquake induced load (EL).0 EL 1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.2 DL plus 0.

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Figure IV-1 AISC-LRFD Definition of Geometric Properties Classification of Sections 49 .

0 Fy kc 65 P 162 No limit b y 1P I-SHAPE b y - Pu bP y 970 Fy Pu b P y Fy Fy As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes 127 Fy 76 76 Fy Fy CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL D t Fy Fy Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact Table IV-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections in Flexure based on AISC-LRFD 50 Classification of Sections .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Check bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 640 Fy hc tw For Pu 191 Fy 253 Fy BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t 190 Fy 238 Fy No limit Fy No limit As for I-shapes No limit No limit No limit No limit Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure COMPACT ( p) 65 Fy Fy .10. Pu bP y NONCOMPACT r SLENDER ( slender ) No limit 141 Fy .

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Description of Section WidthThickness Ratio bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 520 Fy For Pu 191 Fy COMPACT (SEISMIC ZONE) ( 52 52 b y s ) Fy Fy . Pu bP y NONCOMPACT (Uniform Compression) (M 22 M 33 0) ( r) 95 95 Fy Fy P I-SHAPE hc tw 1b y P 253 Pu bP y 253 Fy Fy - BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b D tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t t Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact 238 253 Fy Fy CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLE-ANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes 127 Fy 76 76 3300 Fy Fy Fy Table IV-3 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections (Special Cases) based on AISC-LRFD Classification of Sections 51 .

Table A-F1. Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu . M u 22 . the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force. respectively. The moment magnification factor B1 for moments not causing sidesway is given by B1 = 1 Cm Pu Pe . and Channel sections. the major moment. Kl r ). it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners. the factored moment M u (M u 33 and M u 22 in the corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of SAP2000. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. SAM 6) Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments. The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions. Moreover. M u 33 . where B1 = B2 = M nt = M lt = (LRFD C1-1. the minor moment. Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments. Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated. V u 2 and V u 3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load. In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes. special considerations are required regarding the limits of width-thickness ratios for Compact sections in Seismic zones and Noncompact sections with compressive force as given in Table IV-3. The definition of the section properties required in these tables is given in Figure IV-1 and Table IV-1. If the limits for Slender sections are not met. Box. and 52 Calculation of Factored Forces . where Ag F y 2 (LRFD C1-2.1. and Factored moments causing sidesway. the section is classified as Too Slender. A-G1. For loading combinations that cause compression in the member. Factored moments not causing sidesway. The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: M u = B1 M nt + B 2 M lt .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual SAP2000 classifies individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table IV-2 and Table IV-3 (LRFD B5. SAM 6-2) Fy E Pe is the Euler buckling load (Pe .1).

For compression members with transverse load on the member.. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. Cm Ma .e. C m 22 and C m 33 . l. It is suggested that the P.2 DL plus 0. When M b is zero. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. of the member is redefined by either the user or the program. C m is taken as 1. where the principal axes of bending are not coincident with the geometric axes (2-2 and 3-3).0.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 C m 33 and C m 22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. SAP2000 design assumes the analysis includes P. C m assumes two values. Therefore Pu must be less than Pe . Mb (LRFD C1-3) M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member. Calculation of Factored Forces 53 . See also White and Hajjar (1991).0. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to Pe .2). i. For tension members C m is assumed as 1.effects.85 for members with two unrestrained ends. The program defaults C m to 1.5 LL (LRFD C2. The magnification factor B1 . the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of B1 and B 2 for any member. must be a positive number.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. a failure condition is declared. For single angles.0 for members with any unrestrained end and as 0. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member.0 if the unbraced length factor. C m is assumed as 1. therefore B 2 is taken as unity for bending in both directions. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. the program conservatively uses the maximum of K 22 l 22 and K 33 l 33 for determining the major and minor direction Euler buckling capacity. associated with the major and minor directions.

The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. A-F1. For Single-angle sections.9 (LRFD F2.90 (LRFD SAM 4. these values will override the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. the minimum radius of gyration. and Double-angle sections. torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. SAM 4).3): t c c b v = Resistance factor for tension. For all other sections the shear stresses are calculated along their geometric and principle axes. SAM 3) If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data” form.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Calculation of Nominal Strengths The nominal strengths in compression. bending. 0. Compression Capacity The nominal compression strength is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling. A-G2. 0. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . SAM 5) = Resistance factor for shear. 0. SAM 2. Pn . The strength reduction factor. r z . 0. and its critical value. Pipe. Box. T. and Slender sections according to the following subsections. A-G3. and shear are computed for Compact. . is taken as follows (LRFD A5. c . For members in compression.9 (LRFD F1. if Kl r is greater than 200. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes. The specified nominal strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending. tension. Flexural Buckling The nominal axial compressive strength. H1. a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Kl r. Noncompact. 0. 6) = Resistance factor for bending. Channel. A-F2. For single angles.85 (LRFD E2. 6) = Resistance factor for compression. For the Rectangular. For the Angle sections. the principal axes are determined and all computations except shear are based on that. The strengths are determined according to the following subsections. Circular.9 (LRFD D1. depends on the slenderness ratio. I. H1. E3. where 54 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . H1) = Resistance factor for compression in angles.

3c). for for Q Q . where (LRFD A-B5-17. (LRFD A-B5-16. (LRFD A-B5. The Q a factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area (LRFD A-B5. r33 r22 Fy E . Q is computed as follows: Q Q s Q a . For slender sections. Fy . where Fcr = Q Fcr = 2 c Q (LRFD A-B3d. for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1. Qa Ae Ag (LRFD A-B5-14) Calculation of Nominal Strengths 55 . Pn for Compact or Noncompact sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . SAM 4-1) .3a). Q. r z . SAM 4) For single angles. max . and c Kl r (LRFD E2-4.3c) The Q s factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table IV-4 (LRFD A-B5. c The reduction factor.3a) Q a = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. . and (LRFD A-B5. (LRFD E2-2) (LRFD E2-3) c Pn for Slender sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . SAM 4-2) Fy . is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . and . SAM 4) c l2 c F y . SAM 4) Q s = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements. where Fcr = Fcr = 2 c (LRFD E2-1) for for c l2 c Fy . and (LRFD A-B5-15. the minimum radius of gyration.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Kl r K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 .

LRFD A-B5-8 BOX Qs 1 LRFD A-B5. Fy E . LRFDA-B5-10 LRFD A-B5-3.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Type Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Q s ) if Qs b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 Equation Reference b f 2t f Fy b f 2t f b f 2t f Fy . as for flanges in I-shapes. LRFD A-B5-7. if LRFD SAM4-3 Fy E PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qs Qs Qs Qs 1 1 1 1 LRFD A-B5. LRFD A-B5-8. LRFD A-B5-5. Q s 56 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . Fy k c .3d LRFD A-B5. ANGLE Qs bt b t 2 Fy E . DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) Qs b t 2 Fy .3d LRFD A-B5-5. Fy . Fy k c .3d LRFD A-B5. LRFD A-B5-6. LRFD A-B5-4 CHANNEL As for I-shapes with bf 2t f replaced by bf t f . Fy E .3d LRFD A-B5. Fy . Fy . Fy E . if . LRFD A-B5-6 I-SHAPE Qs kc b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 (rolled) if Fy k c Fy if if (welded) Fy k c b f 2t f bf 2t f b f 2t f Fy k c .3d Table IV-4 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements. T-SHAPE if Qs d tw 2 d tw Fy d tw d tw b t Fy b t b t b t Fy E b t b t Fy . LRFD A-B5-7. Fy . if if if b t Fy . For web see below. LRFD A-B5-8 LRFD A-B5-5. LRFD A-B5-6. Fy . LRFD A-B5-7. Fy . Fy . if if if d t w Fy . Fy . LRFD A-B5-9. if if Fy . For flanges. Fy .

f . f . or flexure. LRFD A-B5-13 ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Not applicable be b LRFD A-B5. (compression only. f .3b LRFD A-B5. f . tf 1 .3b Not applicable Table IV-5 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Calculation of Nominal Strengths 57 .3b PIPE Qa D t Fy (compression only) . if if f f .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Section Type h. be f h. if . if D t D t Fy Fy be be be . (compression only. b b b LRFD A-B5. P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f if tw 1 . P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) ANGLE 1. Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Equation Reference if tw 1 . if CHANNEL he f f f . (compr. if f f . Fy ) LRFD A-B5-11 (b t f ) f if tw 1 . (compression only. P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f BOX b. he f h tw h tw h tw h tw b tf b tf h tw h tw f f .3b LRFD A-B5. if I-SHAPE he f h.

Pn .3b). r0 = Polar radius of gyration about the shear center. h e is used as b e and h is used as b in the above equation. x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis of symmetry). For webs in I. y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. x 0 . Ar02 2 x0 2 y0 (LRFD E3-1) 1 1 4 Fcr 2 Fcrz H Fcr 2 Fcrz 2 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae Ag b be t b e for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b. where (LRFD E3-1) H 1 r02 . and Channel sections. and b e for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table IV-5 (LRFD A-B5. determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling is determined as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . box. Fcr 2 is determined according to the equation LRFD E2-1 for flexural Kl F y . where (LRFD A-E3-1) 58 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . Flexural-Torsional Buckling Pn for flexural-torsional buckling of Double-angle and T-shaped compression members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than r is given by Pn = Ag Fcrft . buckling about the minor axis of symmetry for c r22 E Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling The strength of a compression member. where Fcrft = Fcrz Fcr 2 Fcrz 2H GJ .

Calculation of Nominal Strengths 59 . I. Box. e In the above equations.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fcr = Q Fcr = 2 e Q l2 e F y . 2 x0 r02 Fe2 ( Fe Fe 33 ) 2 y0 r02 0. and Pipe sections: 2 Fe EC w 2 GJ 1 I 22 I 33 (LRFD A-E3-5) K z lz • For T-sections and Double-angles: Fe = Fe 22 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 22 Fez H Fe 22 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Channels: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angles sections with equal legs: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. the slenderness parameter Fy e e Fe . and . where Fe is calculated as follows: • For Rectangular. Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (LRFD A-E3-7): ( Fe Fe 33 )( Fe Fe 22 )( Fe Fez ) Fe2 ( Fe Fe 22 ) where. (LRFD A-E3-2) (LRFD A-E3-3) is calculated as (LRFD A-E3-4) Fy . for for e Q Q .

(LRFD A-E3-11) K 22 l 22 r22 2 Fez EC w 2 GJ K z lz 1 . (LRFD A-E3-9) Fe 33 E 2 . Also. the maximum value of Kl. For members in tension.e. l 22 . K 33 l 33 ). a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7. y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. if l r is greater than 300. For angle sections. Pn Ag F y (LRFD D1-1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made. and it is taken equal to l 22 . For 60 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . and it is taken equal to K 22 in SAP2000. i. Tension Capacity The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross cross-sectional area and the yield stress. Ar02 (LRFD A-E3-12) K 22 . H 1 2 x0 r02 2 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual x 0 . K 33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions. l 33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions. the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe . l z is the effective length for torsional buckling. x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis of symmetry). r0 2 x0 2 y0 I 22 Ag 2 y0 I 33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear center. is used in place of K 22 l 22 or K 33 l 33 in calculating Fe 22 and Fe 33 in this case. K z is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. SAM 2). max( K 22 l 22 . (LRFD A-E3-10) K 33 l 33 r33 2 Fe 22 E 2 .

the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . r z . Box. F1-2. and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling. if Lb Lr . The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained according to the limit states of yielding. (LRFD F1. Circular. Box. Channel. the compactness of the section.1) Calculation of Nominal Strengths 61 . M cr 33 M p 33 . the axis of bending. I.M r 33 M p 33 . and web local buckling. Lb . Nominal Strength in Bending The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. and Rectangular shaped members bent about the major axis.L p if Lb Lp . determined by the limit state of yielding is: Mp Z Fy S Fy (LRFD F1-1) Lateral-Torsional Buckling Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels For I. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural strengths are based on that. lateral-torsional buckling. as follows: Yielding The flexural design strength of beams. Channel. M n 33 M p 33 = = Nominal major bending strength. flange local buckling. the minimum radius of gyration. M n 33 = C b M p 33 .M p 33 . The nominal strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. and Double-angle sections.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 single angles. if Lp Lb Lr .L p Lr . Major plastic moment. the moment capacity is given by the following equation (LRFD F1): M p 33 . F1-12) where. T. Z 33 F y S 33 F y . (LRFD F1-1. Pipe. For the Single Angle sections. For the Rectangular.

r22 X 1 1 + X 2 F y . (LRFD F1-5) Lr = Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. The program also defaults C b to 1. 1/4 point. in the member. max max M . 2 S 33 GJ 2 (LRFD F1-6) (LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) (LRFD F1-9) . Cb Lb EI 22 GJ + E Lb 2 (LRFD F1-7) (LRFD F1-11) M cr 33 = I 22 C w (LRFD F1-13) (LRFD F1-14) for I-shapes and channels. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. l 22 . and 57 000 r22 JA for boxes and rectangular bars.Fr F y Fr 2 for I-shapes and channels. M B .0 if the minor unbraced length. 33 for rectangular bars and boxes.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 = Major limiting buckling moment. Critical elastic moment. M A . l 22 . The user should overwrite C b for cantilevers. and (LRFD F1-4) Fy 3 750 r22 M p 33 JA for boxes and rectangular bars. ( F y Fr )S 33 for I-shapes and channels. Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. and F y S eff . center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively. However. C b should be taken as 1.and M C are absolute values of maximum moment. 300 r22 for I-shapes and channels.0 for cantilevers. M r 33 X1 X2 Cb = = = S 33 C 4 w I 22 M EGJA . of the member is remax 62 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . and + 3 M A + 4 M B + 3 MC (LRFD F1-3) M . Lb r22 Lb Lp = = Laterally unbraced length. and 57 000 C b JA for boxes and rectangular bars.

The nominal major bending strength for Single-angles for the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling is given as follows (LRFD SAM 5. for positive moment. M n 33 = M n 33 M n 33 B EI 22 GJ Lb B + 1 + B 2 .3): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 63 .2c) F y S 33 . M n 22 = S 22 F y .2c) I 22 . stem in tension F y S 33 . the moment capacity is given by the following equation: M n 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y S 22 F y (LRFD F1) For pipes and circular bars bent about any axis. Box. Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 defined by the user (i. Channel. M n = M p = Z Fy S Fy . The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member.e. d Lb for negative moment. For T-shapes and double angles the nominal minor bending strength is assumed as. stem in compression (LRFD F1. and Rectangular shaped members bent about the minor axis. For I. J (LRFD F1-16) The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). (LRFD F1) T-sections and Double Angles For T-shapes and Double-angles the nominal major bending strength is given as.1. where (LRFD F1-15) (LRFD F1. it is not equal to the length of the member).

= major principal axis moment of inertia. M y . major M ob M n . t l I I r min EC b I min l2 2 w ( lt r min )2 w . considering the possibility of yielding at the heel and both of the leg tips. if M ob M y . elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment as calculated below. yield moment about the major principal axis of bending. 1 w max min I A max z( w 2 z 2 )dA 2z 0 . w = coordinate along the minor principal axis. M ob = The elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment. major . M y . major = M n . (LRFD SAM 5-6) min t w .2) z = coordinate along the major principal axis. major . major . M ob . = radius of gyration for minor principal axis.3. l (LRFD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles the M ob is calculated as M ob where. major = M ob M y . major = where. major . if M ob M y . t f . major M y .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M ob M y . l 33 . (LRFD SAM 5. = minor principal axis moment of inertia. max l 22 . major M y . and z 0 = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid. 64 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . for equal-leg angles is taken as M ob Cb E b2t2 .

it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles.2).Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 is a special section property for angles. M n 22 = M p 22 M p 22 M r 22 . M p 33 . Calculation of Nominal Strengths 65 . (A-F1-3) M cr 33 M p 33 . if p r . Major plastic moment. negative for long leg in compression. M p 22 . Nominal minor bending strength. p r p if p . Nominal major bending strength. Minor plastic moment. p r p if p . M n = S Fy . M n . if p r . Z 22 F y S 22 F y . if r . of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Flange Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1): For major direction bending. w General Sections For General sections the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as. Z 33 F y S 33 F y .3. However. if r . and zero for equal-leg angles (LRFD SAM 5. and for minor direction bending. M n 33 M n 22 M p 33 M p 22 = = = = M p 22 . Flange Local Buckling The flexural design strength. M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 M r 33 . It is positive for short leg in compression. (A-F1-3) M cr 22 where. for conservative design in SAP2000.

Largest value of for which M n M p .1) p .1) F y S 22 . The parameters . (LRFD Table A-F1. and M cr 22 for flange local buckling for different types of shapes are given below: I Shapes. Controlling slenderness parameter. Table A-F1. Minor buckling moment.1) . Major buckling moment.1. 66 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . and Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic. Fy . p . 2 S 33 . M r 22 . M cr 33 . kc 2 (LRFD Table A-F1. Table A-F1.1.1. Fy Fr kc (LRFD B5. Fy Fr . (for Channel sections) (LRFD B5.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 p r = = = = = = = Major limiting buckling moment. M cr 22 2 S 22 .1) S 22 .1) r (LRFD Table A-F1. Table A-F1. r . kc 2 M cr 33 (LRFD Table A-F1.1) M r 33 M r 22 (Fy Fr )S 33 . Minor limiting buckling moment. Channels bf 2t f bf tf . (for I sections) (LRFD B5.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1) S 33 . M r 33 .

Fy . Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending.1) (LRFD Table A-F1. 33 S eff .1. 33 . the user is expected to analyze this separately. 33 S 33 . and S eff .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fr (LRFD A-F1) Boxes bf tf bf tf p 3 tw 2 tw .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. F y S eff . Table A-F1. If special consideration is required. 22 .1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1.1.1.1) (LRFD A-F1) M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 Fr F y S eff . Fy (Fy (Fy Fr )S eff . 33 = effective major section modulus considering slenderness. 22 = effective minor section modulus considering slenderness.1) (LRFD Table A-F1. Table A-F1. T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T sections and Double angles in SAP2000.1) .1) . (LRFD B5. S eff . 22 . Fr )S eff . r (LRFD B5. The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling are given as follows (LRFD SAM 5. (LRFD B5. Table A-F1.1): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 67 .

In calculating the bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling. the capacities are calculated for both the principal axes considering the fact that either of the two tips can be under compression. Pipe Sections t p . t = thickness of the leg under consideration. (LRFD Table A-F1. if Fy b t b t Fy . where. b = length of the leg under consideration.1) M r 33 = M r 22 = M cr 33 = M cr 22 = D t S. if Fy . S c = section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg.1) 68 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . M n= F y S c Fy Fy S c . 1 . and Q = strength reduction factor due to local buckling. (LRFD Table A-F1. (LRFD Table A-F1. Fy .1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1) r Fy D t + Fy S .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual b t Fy S c .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. if Fy . The minimum capacities are considered.

Web Local Buckling The flexural design strengths are considered in SAP2000 for only the major axis bending (LRFD Table A-F1. and General Sections No consideration of local buckling is required for solid circular shapes. Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic. and Boxes The flexural design strength for the major axis bending. Largest value of for which M n M p . where. A-F1-3.(LRFD TableA-F1.1).R e S 33 F y . Channels. Hybrid girder factor. rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1. Major limiting buckling moment. M n 33 M p 33 M r 33 p r if r . and general shapes. Z 33 F y (LRFD F1. No local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Circular. Major plastic moment. R PG Re Fcr = = = = = = = = = Nominal major bending strength. and Critical compression flange stress. The web slenderness parameters are computed as follows. where the value of Pu is taken as positive for compression and zero for tension: hc . the user is expected to analyze this separately. rectangular. A-G2-2): M p 33 . Rectangular. I Shapes. If special consideration is required. M n .1). tw Calculation of Nominal Strengths 69 . p r p if p . ksi.1) Web slenderness parameter. Plate girder bending strength reduction factor. if p r .1) S 33 F y .A-G1) S 33 R PG R e Fcr . of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Web Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1-1.(A-F1. M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 M r 33 .

R e is taken as 1. for slender web sections is calculated for limit states of lateral-torsional buckling and flange local buckling for the corresponding slenderness parameter in SAP2000 as follows: 70 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . and Fcr for slender web sections are calculated in SAP2000 as follows: R PG ar ar ar m m3 ar . because currently SAP2000 deals with only non-hybrid girders. Fcr (LRFD A-G2-3) Re Re ar (for non-hybrid section). P b y Fy 1Fy Pu P b y Pu . R e .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pu . and Fy (LRFD A-G2) m min( Fcr . The critical compression flange stress. Pu P b y Pu P b y 1Fy p r The parameters R PG . P b y 253 Fy . taken as 1. (for hybrid sections). (LRFD A-G2) hc tw .0. (LRFD A-G2) In the above expressions. Fcr . F y ) . where (LRFD A-G2) .

Channel and Box sections are given below: Lb . 1 2 p r p if p . r . and C PG for lateral-torsional buckling for slender web I. rT p (LRFD A-G2-7) . r . Fy . t p (LRFD A-G2-11) . Calculation of Nominal Strengths 71 . p . and it is taken as b f 12 in SAP2000. C b = a factor which depends on span moment. if r . (LRFD A-G2-8) Fy . and C PG for flange local buckling for slender web I. Channel and Box sections are given below: b . It is calculated using the equation given in page 62. (LRFD A-G2-4. Fy kc k c . and (LRFD A-G2-14) (LRFD A-G2-15) (LRFD A-G2-13) (LRFD A-G2-12) r C PG Cb 1. 5. The parameters . p . The parameters . Fcr = C b Fy 1 C PG 2 F y . 6) .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fy . if p r . and (LRFD A-G2-10) (LRFD A-G2-9) r C PG rT = radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one-third of the compression portion of the web. Fy C b .

1).1). If special consideration is required. Circular and Rectangular sections. If special consideration is required. T. Pipe. boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: For h tw V n2 = for Fy < . Double angle. principal axes do not coincide with their geometric axes. For I. the user is expected to analyze this separately.1. Fy (LRFD F2-1) 72 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . h tw . rectangular. For Single-angle sections.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in SAP2000. Channel. Shear Capacities The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric axes for all sections. Single Angles The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD SAM 5. No web local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular. for major direction shears in I-shapes. Pipe Sections The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Pipe sections for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD Table A-F1. and General Sections No web local buckling is required for solid circular shapes and rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1.1). Major Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength. V n 2 . Fy F y Aw . Circular. Rectangular. No additional check is considered in SAP2000. the user is expected to analyze them separately. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. and general shapes. Box. No additional check is considered in SAP2000.

the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. In addition. first. Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: V n3 = F y Av 3 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio Calculation of Capacity Ratios 73 . the joints are not designed. and if Pu is compressive. b . Then the corresponding capacities are calculated.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 V n2 = F y Aw h tw h . along with the associated station and load combination. (LRFD F2-3 and A-F2-3) The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: V n2 = F y Av 2 . If Pu is tensile. During the design. Pn is t the nominal axial compressive strength and . and tw (LRFD F2-2) Fy . The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1. for each station along the length of the member. Axial and Bending Stresses Pu . Also. Pn is the Pn nominal axial tensile strength and . the resistance factor for bendc ing.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Then. Aw for Fy V n2 = < h tw 2 . except for angle secc tions (LRFD SAM 6).

Circular and Rectangular sections.3. vV n 3 where v . For Single-angle sections. For Single-angle sections. SAM 6-1a) . For Single-angle sections. For I. principal axes are determined in SAP2000. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (LRFD SAM 5. For all other sections the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes which coincide with the geometric axes. 74 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as follows: V u2 . SAM 6-1a) For circular sections an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. Box. T. 6). M n 22 b (LRFD H1-1a. For general sections it is assumed that the section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 b M u 22 . Double angle. Shear Stresses Similarly to the normal stresses. Pipe. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 b M u 22 . M n 22 b (LRFD H1-1b. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pu Pn Pu 8 + 9 Pn For Pu < Pn Pu + 2 Pn For . and vV n 2 V u3 . Channel.

Composite.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. hybrid and stiffened sections should be investigated by the users independently of SAP2000. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. 75 . The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The design and check are limited to noncomposite. nonhybrid and unstiffened sections. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. A capacity ratio greater than 1. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. Similarly. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table V-1.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AASHTO design code (AASHTO 1997). But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most structures.

in Elastic buckling moment. in4 Major moment of inertia. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. in Shear area. in4 4 Torsional constant for the section. ksi Minor moment of inertia. M r 22 Mu M u 33 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . in Modulus of elasticity. kips Table V-1 AASHTO-LRFD Notations 76 . in2 Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant. in6 Outside diameter of pipes. kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway. ksi Yield stress of material. M u 22 Pe Pn Pu = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member. kip-in Factored moment in member. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10. ksi Critical compressive stress. kip Factored axial force in member.0 for rolled sections and 16. in Depth of web in compression. M p 22 M r 33 . kip-in Euler buckling load. in2 2 Major and minor shear areas. M n22 M p 33 . ksi Shear modulus. kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments. in2 Gross cross-sectional area. equal dt w per web. K 22 Lb Lp Lr M cr Mb Ms M n33 .5 for welded sections. kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions. in Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member. kip-in Major and minor plastic moments. kips Nominal axial load strength. Av 3 Aw Cb Cm Cw D Dc Dcp E Fcr Fr Fy G I 22 I 33 J K K 33 . kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway. in Depth of web in compression under plastic moment.

in assumed d 2k for rolled sections and d 2t f for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet. in Overall depth of member. l22 r r33 . 4 .Vn3 Vu 2 . kips 3 Plastic modulus. 0.85 Resistance factor for tension. in3 3 Major and minor section moduli. in Thickness of web. kc h tw Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. r22 rz t tf tw b s c p r f c y v = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Table V-1 AASHTO-LRFD Notations (continued) 77 . 0. in b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled BOX (TS) sections Flange width.9 l33 . S 22 Vn2 . in Nominal dimension of longer leg of angles. in Flange thickness. in Parameter used for section classification. kips Factored major and minor shear loads. in Clear distance between flanges less fillets. 0. in Radius of gyration.9 Resistance factor for shear. 0.9 Resistance factor for compression. Z 22 b bf d hc k kc = = = = = = = = = = = = Section modulus. in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions. in Minimum Radius of gyration for angles. in 3 Major and minor plastic moduli. in Thickness. in Nominal major and minor shear strengths.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 S S 33 . in Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameter Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Resistance factor Resistance factor for bending.Vu 3 Z Z 33 .

1).SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. There are six types of live loads: vehicular live load (LL).5 LL (Strength-IV) (Strength-I) (Strength-III) (Strength-III) (Strength-V) (Extreme-I) (Extreme-I) 0.0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AASHTO LRFD 1997 code is used.4.4 WL 1. However.75 LL 0. pedestrian live load (PL). horizontal earth pressure load (EH).90 DL 1. and live load surcharge (LS). 1. vehicular dynamic load allowance (IM). vertical earth pressure load (EV). vehicular centrifugal force (CE). the user has full control of the definition of loads and load combinations. live load (LL). Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. Each type of dead load case requires a separate load factor (AASHTO 3. vehicular braking force (BR).90 DL 1. wind load (WL). There are more different types of loads specified in the code than are considered in the current implementation of the default load combinations. The user is expected to define the other load combinations as necessary. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units.4.50 DL 1.35 LL 0.4 WL 1. For simplicity. downdrag (DD). the following default load combinations have been considered for Strength and Extreme Event limit states (AASHTO 3.25 DL + 1.1). If the structure is subjected to structural dead load (DL).4.0 EL 1. All these live load cases require the same factor and do not need to be treated separately (AASHTO 3. earth surcharge load (ES).25 DL + 0.25 DL 1. There are six types of dead loads: dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments (DC).40 WL 1.1).25 DL + 1. dead load of wearing surface and utilities (DW). and earthquake loads (EL). 78 Design Loading Combinations .

SAP2000 classifies individual members according to the width/thickness ratio quantities given in Table V-2 (AASHTO 6). SAP2000 design assumes that a P.5. M u 33 . the section is classified as Slender.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. the factored moment M u (M u 33 and M u 22 in the corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects. Classification of Sections 79 . where (AASHTO 4.2. Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu .analysis be done at the factored load level (AASHTO C4. For loading combinations that cause compression in the member. the minor moment.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. M u 22 .3. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Slender sections. Factored moments not causing sidesway. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations.25 DL plus 1.2.2b) Moment magnification factor for moments in braced mode. and Factored moments causing sidesway. The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: Mu = = s = Mb = Ms = b b Mb + s M s .3. Noncompact. or Slender. When using the AASHTO code. If the limits for non-compact criteria are not met. Moment magnification factor for moments in sidesway mode.V u 2 andV u 3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load. It is recommended that the P. the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force. respectively.5. Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact. the major moment.1) of 1. The definitions of the section properties required in these tables are given in Figure V-1.35 LL (See White and Hajjar 1991).

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Check Compact ( p) E Fy Noncompact r bf 2t f E 2Dc Fy tw E Fy r22 E Fy rt E Fy I-SHAPE 2Dcp tw E Fy Mu Mp Lb BOX bf tf For Pu 640 Fy For Pu 191 Fy bf 2t f M Assumed noncompact 65 f Fy .) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL As for Channels Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E Fy Assumed compact Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact As for Channels 127 Fy 76 76 Fy Fy E Fy b b D t t t Table V-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratio for Flexure Classification of Sections According to AASHTO 80 Calculation of Factored Forces . Pu Py 141 Fy - Py f f 1Py Pu fP y CHANNEL hc tw - 253 Fy 970 Fy T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Sep.

Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Figure V-1 AASHTO Definition of Geometric Properties Calculation of Factored Forces 81 .

a failure condition is declared. is taken as follows (AASHTO 6.e. The magnification factor b .25 DL plus 1. ( Kl u ) 2 Ma Mb . The moment magnification factor b for moments not causing sidesway is given by b = Cm Pu 1 c Pe . l. The program defaults C m to 1.5. Calculation of Nominal Strengths The nominal strengths in compression.2. When M b is zero.3.3. of the member is redefined by the user (i. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member.2. C m is taken as 1. bending.2.5. tension. where (AASHTO 4.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of b and s for any member.1).5. .0.5.2b) Cm (AASHTO 4.3. Pe EI .effects.0. therefore s is taken as unity for bending in both directions.5. It is suggested that the P. See also White and Hajjar (1991). must be a positive number.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions. and shear are computed for Compact and Non-compact sections according to the following subsections. SAP2000 design assumes the analysis includes P.2): 82 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .3.2b) M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger nonsway moments at the ends of the member.2b) Pe is the Euler buckling load.35 LL (AASHTO C4.4. it is not equal to the length of the member).2. Therefore Pu must be less than c Pe . where 2 (AASHTO 4. For compression members with transverse load on the member. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to c Pe . C m is assumed as 1. M a M b being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.0 if the unbraced length. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. The strength reduction factor.

2) f v y c For Slender sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring consideration of local buckling.4.2) (AASHTO 6.4.9. these values will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. the sections are assumed to satisfy the slenderness requirements given below: Calculation of Nominal Strengths 83 . r In computing the column compression capacity.9 (AASHTO 6. If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”. and its critical value. (AASHTO 6. K 33 l 33 K l Kl and 22 22 . for for c . 6. Pn .1) (AASHTO 6. depends on the slenderness ratio. 6.5. and is the larger of r33 r22 r (AASHTO 6. reduced nominal strengths may be applicable.4.2) (AASHTO 6.2.5.5.0 = Resistance factor for shear. 0. F y Ag .9. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used.10.4. or web buckling.3). 6.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 = Resistance factor for bending. The AASHTO design in SAP2000 is limited to noncomposite.1) c For single angles r z is used in place of r22 and r33 . Pn is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Pn = c lc F y Ag . Compression Capacity The nominal axial compressive strength.2) (AASHTO 6. Kl r 2 c Kl . flexural-torsional and torsional buckling.1) Fy E c . The user must separately investigate this reduction if such sections are used.2. and .2. 6.95 = Resistance factor for compression.5.0 = Resistance factor for tension.9.9. if Kl is greater than 120.10.4. nonhybrid and unstiffened sections. For members in compression.2. 0. r .8.9. 1.4.4. 1. a message to that effect is printed (AASHTO 6.

and web local buckling. General Section General Sections are considered to be noncompact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given by Mn S Fy . flange local buckling.56 and 1. Pn Ag F y (AASHTO 6. However.1). the compactness of the section.8.9. For members in tension. The users are specifically expected to consult AISCLRFD for this situation. Flexure Capacity The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. it is suggested that AISC-LRFD (1986) code should be used (AASHTO C6. and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling. M n 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y .2-1).4. The nominal moment capacity about the minor axis is always taken to be the plastic moment capacity about the minor axis unless as specified below.4. The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained from yielding. Tension Capacity The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross cross-sectional area and the yield stress. the moment capacity about the major axis is determined depending on the shapes as follows. if l r is greater than 140.86 depending on the supports of the outstanding elements of the sections (AASHTO Table 6.4). lateral-torsional buckling. a message to that effect is printed (AASHTO 6.4. the axis of bending.9. 84 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .2.8.2) where the constant k ranges between 0. If this slenderness criteria is not satisfied.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual b t E .9.1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made. Fy k (AASHTO 6. because the current version of SAP2000 does not consider this slenderness criteria.

5. Fy E .76 rt E / F y (AASHTO 6.4.5. 1.2a) b where ar 2D c t w .2a.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 I-Section For compact I sections the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Z Fy (AASHTO 6. 6.5.1a) R b is the load shedding factor.10.10.10. and bf tf .10.5.2.3) For noncompact I sections the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Rh Rb S Fy .5.5. and (AASHTO 6.3.10.1) where R h is the hybrid factor.10.10. and for nonhybrid sections.5.10.3.6. Fy (6.3c).2a) b For slender unstiffened I sections.3.6. 2D c tw b E .6.3. the moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows (AASHTO 6. Lb .2b. 6.1.3a.3d). exceeds the criteria for noncompactness Lb 1. when the unbraced length of the compression flange.10. Rb 1 2D c ar 1200 300 a r t w b 2D c tw E fc .1.3. for nonhybrid sections.10.10.4. and the web slenderness and the compression flange slenderness criteria for noncompact sections are satisfied (AASHTO 6. 6.5.10.4.2a) (AASHTO 6.0 . 6.2.5. Rh .4.4.5.1): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 85 . (AASHTO 6. (AASHTO 6.10.10. 6.5.3.

4.10.5.6.1) b f t3 f 3 E .10.6. and (6.4.0. S 33 F y . then 2 C b Rb Rh Lr Lb Rb Rh M y .1) if b and L p C b R b R h M y 1.6. The program also defaults C b to 1. then Fy I 22 Lb Lb J I 22 Lr .10.5 E Fy R b R h M y . M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moments at the ends of the member.1) Lr I yd E .10.4.6.4.1) .10. (AASHTO 6.6.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 2D c tw E .6.2) b Cb C b is the moment gradient correction factor.76 rt (AASHTO 6.5. M a M b being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. (6. Fy . (AASHTO 6.0 if the unbraced 86 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . and (Ma Mb) ( M a M b )2 (AASHTO 6. J 3 d tw 3 EC b R h E Fy R h M y . When M b is zero.4.0 0. C b is taken as 1.1) (AASHTO 6.6.10.1) Lp 1.4. then Lb Lr Lp Lp d Lb 2 If b Mn 2D c tw Mn 2D c tw Mn where.10.1) if b and Lb My 2 Lr .10. (AASHTO 6.4.

2): Mn where. 6. The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member. Fy Calculation of Nominal Strengths 87 .6. (6.6.064 F y S l 22 AE 2 d w tw I 22 bf tf SF y Mp (6.e.5.5. e.10.5.10.2.10.10.2) 2D cp tw E .3c).6.10.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 length.10.12.10. Fy (AASHTO 6.5.2) . but b f 2t f E E f c 2D c t w . For slender unstiffened I sections. rt is the minimum radius of gyration taken about the vertical axis of the compression flange plus one-third of the web in compression (AASHTO 6. when the compression flange exceeds the criteria for nonc ompa ctne s s . (AAS HT O and the compression flange f c 2D cp t w bracing and the web slenderness requirements are satisfied for noncompact sections (AASHTO 6.2) 2 Qp Mp My Qp Q fl Mp Mp .2b).2) (AASHTO 6.3d).382 E .5 2D cp tw Q fl 4. it is not equal to the length of the member).5.0 .3. the moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows (AASHTO 6.45 bf 2t f Box Section Noncomposite Box Sections are considered to be noncompact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows: Mn 1 0. i .2.10.3.3. of the member is redefined by the user (i. bf 2t f 0.3.382 E . Qp 3.5. b f 2t f 6. Fy bf 2t f 0.5.3d. and 30. l.5.6.

2. Major limiting buckling moment.12.2.2.2.12. They are considered to be compact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given by Mn Z Fy .3) E F y ) the moment capacity For noncompact Pipe sections (2 E F y about the major axis is given as: Mn S Fy (AASHTO 6. M n 33 = M cr 33 where M n 33 M p 33 M r 33 = = = C b M r 33 M p 33 . (LRFD F1-7) 88 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . Z 33 F y S 33 F y .L p Lr . Rectangular and Channel Sections The nominal moment capacity of Rectangular and Channel Sections about the major axis is computed according to AISC-LRFD 1986 based on yielding and Lateral-Torsional-Buckling limit states as follows (AASHTO 6. (LRFD F1-12) Nominal major bending strength.2. ( F y Fr )S 33 for channels.M p 33 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pipe Section For compact Pipe sections (D t 2 E F y ) the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Z Fy D t (AASHTO 6. (LRFD F1-3) Lp M n 33 = C b M p 33 .2. if Lb M n 33 = M p 33 .12. if L p Lb Lr Lb .M r 33 and if Lb > Lr .3) Circular Bar Solid Circular Bars are not subjected to lateral-torsional buckling.4a): For channels and rectangular bars bent about the major axis. Major plastic moment.L p M p 33 .

(LRFD F1-5) Lr = Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. and (LRFD F1-4) Fy 3 750 r22 M p 33 JA for rectangular bars. l 22 . (LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) (LRFD F1-9) ( M a M b )2 . r22 X 1 for channels. Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. Critical elastic moment. (Ma Mb) For non-compact channels.10.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 and F y S 33 for rectangular bars. 300 r22 for channels. and (LRFD F1-13) Lb Lp = = 57 000 C b JA for rectangular bars. (AASHTO 6.5. the nominal bending strengths are not taken greater than that given by the formulas below for the various local buckling modes possible for these sections.M r 33 r p p . (LRFD F1-6) 1 + X 2 F y . The nominal flexural strength M n for the limit state of flange and web local buckling is: For major direction bending M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 .5. Cb Lb EI 22 GJ + E Lb 2 (LRFD F1-11) M cr 33 = I 22 C w for channels.Fr F y Fr 2 57 000 r22 JA M r 33 X1 X2 Cb = = S 33 C 4 w I 22 EGJA . (LRFD F1) Lb r22 Laterally unbraced length. 2 S 33 GJ 2 for rectangular sections.2) . ( LRFD A-F1-3) and for minor direction bending Calculation of Nominal Strengths 89 .

Shear Capacities Major Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength. and Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic. where (LRFD F1-15) B (LRFD F1-16) The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). V n 2 .1) F y S 22 or flange buckling of channels. (LRFD A-F1-3) = = = = p r Major limiting buckling moment.M r 22 r p p . (LRFD Table A-F1.1) ( F y Fr )S 33 for flange buckling of channels. Controlling slenderness parameter. boxes and channels is evaluated assuming unstiffened girders as follows (AASHTO 6. (LRFD Table A-F1. J B + 1+ B2 F y S 33 . Minor limiting buckling moment. and F y S 33 for web buckling of channels. Single Angles For single angles the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M n 22 = M p 22 where. M n 33 = C b EI 22 GJ Lb d Lb I 22 . M r 33 M r 22 = M p 22 . Largest value of for which M n M p .7): 90 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .10. for major direction shears in I-shapes. T-Sections and Double Angles For T-shapes and double angles the nominal major bending strength is given as. M n = S Fy .

2) E .10. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. Then. first. for each station along the length of the member. Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: V n3 = F y Av 3 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios.0 indicates exceeding a limit state.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 d tw V n2 = for V n2 = for d tw V n2 = E .7.2) The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: V n2 = F y Av 2 . and For (AASHTO 6.7. Fy F y Aw .10. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 91 .7. d (AASHTO 6. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. the joints are not designed.10. the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. During the design. Fy (AASHTO 6. along with the associated station and load combination. Also. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. Fy 3 tw E . A capacity ratio greater than 1.2) E . E d < Fy tw 2 t w EF y .

6. the resisc For Pu < Pn Pu + 2 Pn . the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 f M u 22 .2.2. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: V u2 .2. Shear Stresses Similarly to the normal stresses. In addition. M n 22 f (AASHTO 6.8.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Axial and Bending Stresses The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio nominal axial tensile strength and t the nominal axial compressive strength and tance factor for bending. vV n 3 92 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .2. Pn is . 6. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 f M u 22 .3. and vV n 2 V u3 . f .9. If Pu is tensile. and if Pu is compressive. Pu .8.2) For Pu Pn Pu 8 + 9 Pn .9.3.2) For circular sections an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. M n 22 f (AASHTO 6. Pn is the Pn .

0 indicates exceeding a limit state. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. Similarly. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VI-1. A capacity ratio greater than 1. 93 .C h a p t e r VI Check/Design for CISC94 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the CAN/CSA-S16. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.1-94 design code (CISC 1995). The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. For simplicity. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member.

N Outside diameter of pipes.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . K 22 L M f 33 . M y 22 S 33 . M r 22 Mu M y 33 . M p 22 M r 33 . MPa Shear modulus. S 22 Tf Tr U1 U2 V f 2 . MPa 4 Major and minor moment of inertia. N Factored major and minor shear strengths.0 unless overwritten by user) Laterally unbraced length of member.V f 3 Vr 2 . mm3 Table VI-1 CISC 94 Notations 94 . mm Factored major and minor bending loads. N-mm Critical elastic moment. mm 2 Shear area. N Major and minor plastic moduli. Z 22 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. N Factored compressive axial strength. N-mm Major and minor yield moments.Vr 3 Z 33 . mm 4 Torsional constant for the section. N Factored compressive axial load. mm2 Gross cross-sectional area. N-mm Major and minor plastic moments. N Factored tensile axial strength. N Warping constant. mm Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions (assumed as 1. A g F y . N-mm Major and minor section moduli. N-mm Factored major and minor bending strengths. mm Modulus of elasticity. mm Euler buckling strength. N Moment magnification factor to account for deformation of member between ends Moment magnification factor ( on sidesway moments) to account for PFactored major and minor shear loads. mm3 Factored tensile axial load. Av 3 Aw Ce Cf Cr Cw Cy D E Fy G I 33 . MPa Specified minimum yield stress. mm6 Compressive axial load at yield stress. M f 22 M p 33 . mm2 2 Major and minor shear areas. I 22 J K K 33 .

mm Clear distance between flanges . mm Minimum Radius of gyration for angles.34 (no stiffeners) Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet . r22 rz t tf tw = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Nominal dimension of longer leg of angles ( b f 2t w ) for welded ( b f 3t f ) for rolled box sections. mm Unbraced length of member. 12 = = Table VI-1 CISC 94 Notations (cont. taken as ( d 2t f ). mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. mm Overall depth of member.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 b = bf d h k k l l33 . mm Slenderness parameter Resistance factor.) 95 . mm Flange width. taken as 0. mm Web plate buckling coefficient.9 Moment Coefficient Major and minor direction moment coefficients Bending coefficient 1 13 2 . l22 r r33 . mm Radius of gyration. mm Flange thickness. mm Thickness. mm Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions. assumed as 5. mm Web thickness.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual

**Design Loading Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the CAN/CSA-S16.1-94 code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live load (LL), wind load (WL), and earthquake induced load (EL), and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, then the following load combinations may have to be defined (CISC 7.2): 1.25 DL 1.25 DL + 1.50 LL 1.25 DL 1.50 WL 0.85 DL 1.50 WL 1.25 DL + 0.7 (1.50 LL 1.00 DL 1.00 EL 1.00 DL + 0.50 LL (CISC 7.2.2)

1.50 WL)

(CISC 7.2.2) (CISC 7.2.6)

1.00 EL

These are also the default design load combinations whenever the CISC Code is used. In generating the above default loading combinations, the importance factor is taken as 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated, other types of loads are present, or if pattern live loads are to be considered. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. When using the CISC code, SAP2000 design assumes that a P- analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.25 DL plus 1.05 LL. See also White and Hajjar (1991). For the gravity load case only, the code (CISC 8.6.2) requires that notional lateral loads be applied at each story, equal to 0.005 times the factored gravity loads acting at each story. If extra load cases are used for such analysis, they should be included in the loading combinations with due consideration to the fact that the notional lateral forces can be positive or negative.

96

Design Loading Combinations

Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94

Classification of Sections

For the determination of the nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure, the sections are classified as either Class 1 (Plastic), Class 2 (Compact), Class 3 (Noncompact), or Class 4 (Slender). The program classifies the individual sections according to Table VI-2 (CISC 11.2). According to this table, a section is classified as either Class 1, Class 2, or Class 3 as applicable. If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 sections, the section is classified as Class 4. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Class 4 sections.

**Calculation of Factored Forces
**

The factored member forces for each load combination are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. These member forces are T f or C f , M f 33 , M f 22 ,V f 2 and V f 3 corresponding to factored values of the tensile or compressive axial load, the major moment, the minor moment, the major direction shear, and the minor direction shear, respectively. Because SAP2000 design assumes that the analysis includes P- effects, any magnification of sidesway moments due to the second order effects are already included, therefore U 2 for both directions of bending is taken as unity. It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.25 DL plus 1.05 LL. See also White and Hajjar (1991). However, the user can overwrite the values of U 2 for both major and minor direction bending. In this case M f in a particular direction is taken as: M

f

M = = =

fg

U 2 M ft , where

(CISC 8.6.1)

U2 M fg M ft

Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments, Factored moments not causing translation, and Factored moments causing sidesway.

Classification of Sections

97

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual

Description of Section

Ratio Checked

bf 2t f

Class 1 (Plastic)

145 Fy

Class 2 (Compact)

170 Fy

Class 3 (Noncompact)

200 Fy

I-SHAPE h tw

Cf 1100 1 - 0.39 Cy Fy 420 525 Fy (rolled) Fy (welded)

Cf 1700 1 - 0.61 Cy Fy

Cf 1900 1 - 0.65 Cy Fy

b BOX h bf h

tf

525

Fy

670

Fy

tw tf tw

As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable

As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable

As for I-shapes 200 Fy

CHANNEL

As for I-shapes 200 340 Fy Fy

T-SHAPE

bf d

2t f tw

Not applicable Not applicable

Not applicable Not applicable

DOUBLE ANGLE ANGLE PIPE (Flexure) PIPE (Axial) ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL

b

t

Not applicable

Not applicable

200

Fy

b

t

Not applicable

Not applicable

200

Fy

D

t

13000

Fy

18000

Fy

66000

Fy

D

t

Assumed Class 2

23000

Fy

Assumed Class 2

Assumed Class 3

Table VI-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on CISC 94

98

Calculation of Factored Forces

Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 Figure VI-1 CISC 94 Definition of Geometric Properties Calculation of Factored Forces 99 .

For single angles rZ is used in place of r33 and r22 . Manual Page 4-12.9 (CISC 13. which is the larger of K 33 l 33 r33 and K 22 l 22 r22 .3. bending.3.3). Then the factored axial strength is evaluated as follows (CISC 13.3. 2.1). SAP2000 assumes the value of n as follows: 100 Calculation of Factored Strengths .3.3. these values will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. reduced nominal strengths may be applicable. . For heavy sections. C r . or 3 sections depends on a factor. if Kl r is greater than 200. and cold-formed non-stress relieved (Class C) hollow structural sections (HSS) (CISC 13.3.1.34 which is assigned to W-shapes rolled in Canada. tension. for Class 1. Kl r. a smaller value of n (n ) is considered appropriate (CISC C13. a message is printed (CISC 10. where (CISC 13. 2. is taken as 0.1): Cr AF y 1 2n - 1 n .2. and is defined as = Kl r Fy E . flexural-torsional and torsional buckling. and 3 sections in SAP2000.1. For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring consideration of local buckling. If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data". which eventually depends on the slenderness ratio.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Calculation of Factored Strengths The factored strengths in compression.1). and shear are computed for Class 1. Manual Table 6-2). fabricated boxes and I shapes. Compression Strength The factored axial compressive strength value.1) n is an exponent and it takes three possible values to match the strengths related to three SSRC curves. Manual Page 4-12). CISC C13. CISC C13. The WWF sections produced in Canada from plate with flame-cut edges and hot-formed or cold-relieved (Class H) HSS are assigned to a favorable value of n (CISC 13. The strength reduction factor. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used. . The default n is 1. or web buckling. For members in compression.

L. The bending strengths are evaluated according to CISC as follows (CISC 13.6): For laterally supported members. Tension Strength The factored axial tensile strength value. n The HSS sections in the current Canadian Section Database of SAP2000 are prefixed as HS instead of HSS. and SF y . and 2L sections and normal HS and HSS sections.2). for other sections with thickness larger than or equal to 25. Tr Ag F y (CISC 13.2) Bending Strengths The factored bending strength in the major and minor directions is based on the geometric shape of the section.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 for WWF.2. it is expected that the user would put a suffix to the HS or HSS section names. for W. HS (Class H) and HSS (Class H) sections. for other sections with thickness less than 25.(a). the moment capacities are considered to be as follows: For Class 1 and 2. to consider any HSS section as Class H.5 and 13.4 mm. The procedure for the determination of moment capacities for laterally unsupported members (CISC 13.2.5) (CISC 13. they are used in the interaction ratio calculation when strengths are required for actual unbraced lengths.4 mm. and the unbraced length of the member. if l r is greater than 300. (CISC 13. a message is printed accordingly (CISC 10. For members in tension. None of these overwritten capacities are used for strengths in laterally supported case. For Class 3. the section classification for compactness. Also.5) Special considerations are required for laterally unsupported members. Calculation of Factored Strengths 101 . Mr Mr ZF y .6) is described in the following subsections. is taken as Ag F y (CISC 13. Tr .(i)). If the capacities (M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user.

e. is taken as 1.0 if the unbraced length. Z 33 F y . However. M u . If any moment within the segment is greater than M b . the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever.6) M a and M b are end moments of the unbraced segment and M a is less than Ma being positive for double curvature bending and negative for sinM b. 2 should be taken as 1. Mb gle curvature bending.0. l 22 . (CISC 13. Warping constant assumed as 0. when M u > M r3 = when M u M r 33 = M r 33 M p 33 Mu = = = M p 33 . rectangular and circular bars. and (CISC 13. channels. For Class 3 sections of I-shapes.6) L Cw = = 2 = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb 2 . where Factored major bending strength.0 for cantilevers. 102 Calculation of Factored Strengths . boxes bent about the major axis. it is not equal to the length of the member). and 2 M p 33 Mu M p 33 . pipes.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual I-shapes and Boxes Major Axis of Bending For Class 1 and 2 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about the major axis.6) 2 EI 22 GJ + (CISC 13.6) (CISC 13.0 for boxes. M p 33 1M p 33 . l of the 2 member is overwritten by the user (i. The program defaults 2 to 1. Critical elastic moment. The user can overwrite the value of 2 for any member by specifying it. E I 22 C w . when M u M y 33 . L L Laterally unbraced length. Major plastic moment.

Rectangular Bar Major Axis of Bending For Class 2 rectangular bars bent about their major axis. when M u > M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu .6) M p 33 Mu M p 33 . M r 22 = M y 22 = S 22 F y . and (CISC 13. Minor Axis of Bending For Class 1 and 2 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about their minor axis.6) (CISC 13. M u . M r 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y . and (CISC 13. where M y 33 . For Class 3 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about their minor axis.6) M r 33 and M u are as defined earlier for Class 1 and 2 sections and M y 33 is the major yield moment. Pipes and Circular Rods For pipes and circular rods bent about any axis Calculation of Factored Strengths 103 . M p 33 . (CISC 13.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 M y 33 Mu M r 33 = when M u M r 33 M y 33 1 M y 33 . M r 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y .6) Minor Axis of Bending For Class 2 sections of rectangular bars bent about their minor axis. M p 33 1M p 33 . S 33 F y .

6) Minor Axis of Bending For Class 3 channel sections bent about their minor axis. and (CISC 13. F y S 33 . (CISC 13. M y 33 Mu M y 33 . M y 33 1 M y 33 . T-shapes and double angles Major Axis of Bending For Class 3 sections of T-shapes and double angles the factored major bending strength is assumed to be (CISC 13.6d). where d L I 22 104 Calculation of Factored Strengths . when M u M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu . M r 22 = M y 22 = S 22 F y . and (CISC 13.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual When M u > M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu .6) M p 33 Mu M p 33 . M r 33 = B= 2 EI 22 GJ L B + 1+ B2 J .6) Channel Sections Major Axis of Bending For Class 3 channel sections bent about their major axis. M p 33 1M p 33 . M y 33 . M p 33 .

4. for major direction shears in I-shapes.1. Shear Strengths The factored shear strength. Single Angle and General Sections For Class 3 single angles and for General sections.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). Fy (CISC 13. M r 33 = M r 22 = F y S 33 .4. Minor Axis of Bending For Class 3 sections of T-shapes and double angles the factored minor bending strength is assumed as. the factored major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as.1. M r 22 = F y S 22 .1) Ft .1. V r 2 .1): • For h tw Aw kv .4.1.1) Vr 2 = • For kv h < Fy tw Aw 290 kv Fy h tw Vr 2 = .1) (CISC 13. Fy Fy . boxes and channels is evaluated as follows (CISC 13. and F y S 22 . • For 502 Vr 2 = kv h < Fy tw Aw Fcri 621 kv . Fy (CISC 13. where Calculation of Factored Strengths 105 .4. 502 kv .

where . boxes and channels is assumed as Vr 2 F y Av 3 .34. (CISC 13.1) Vr 2 = Fcre = 180000 k v ( h/t w ) 2 In the above equations. • For k h > 621 v .4. the value of k v is taken as 5. Assuming no stiffener is used.4.2) The factored shear strength for major and minor direction shears for all other sections is assumed as (CISC 13.4.4. The factored shear strength for minor direction shears in I-shapes.4. Assuming no stiffener is used. and F y Av 3 . (CISC 13. ( a / h) 2 a/h 1 and the aspect ratio a h is the ratio of the distance between the stiffeners to web depth. and Ft = Fy Fcri 1 1 a/h 2 .1. tw Fy Aw Fcre Ft .2) 106 Calculation of Factored Strengths . and it is defined as: kv kv 4 ( a / h) 2 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual kv Fy h tw Fcri = 290 .2): Vr 2 Vr 3 F y Av 2 . the value of Ft is taken as zero.2) (CISC 13. a/h 1 4 . (CISC 13. k v is the shear buckling coefficient.

Also. certain strengths can not be overwritten. Then. If the axial. for all but Class 1 I-shaped sections (13. During the design. for each station along the length of the member. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. Axial and Bending Stresses From the factored axial loads and bending moments at each station and the factored strengths for axial tension and compression and major and minor bending. the actual member force/moment components are calculated. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. they are used in the interaction ratio calculation when strengths are required for actual unbraced lengths.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. for Class 1 I-shaped sections (13. More specific information is given in the following subsections as needed.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. the joints are not designed. None of these overwritten capacities are used for strengths in laterally supported case. However.8.8. for each load combination. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. the capacity ratio is given by: Cf Cr Cf Cr + U 13 M f 33 M r 33 U 13 M + U 12 M f 22 M r 22 + . A capacity ratio greater than 1. and shear strengths of a section are overwritten by the user. an interaction capacity ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows: Compressive Axial Load If the axial load is compressive. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. flexural. the overwritten values are used in calculating the stress ratios. along with the associated station and load combination. If the axial and bending capacities are overwritten by the user.2) The above ratios are calculated for each of the following conditions and the largest ratio is reported: Calculation of Capacity Ratios 107 .1) + f 33 U 12 M f 22 M r 33 M r 22 . first.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Cross-sectional Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on Cr A Fy 0. (CISC 13.1) – The M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated assuming that the member is laterally fully supported ( l 22 0 and l 33 0) irrespective of its actual lateral bracing length (CISC 13. (CISC 13. and – U 12 and U 13 are taken as 1. and – U 12 and U 13 are calculated using the expression given below forU 1 .1).6). the only overwritten capacity used in this case is C r . and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. 13. they are assumed not to apply to this case and are ignored.1. If the capacities (C r .3. • Overall Member Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on both major and minor direction K l K l buckling using both 22 22 and 33 33 as described in an earlier section r22 r33 (CISC 13. U 13 U 12 .5). In this equation specific values for major and minor directions are to be used to calculate values of U 12 and U 13 (CISC 13. on r22 – M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated based on actual unbraced length (CISC 13.8.8.3.1) .3. and 108 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .2) If the capacities (C r .8. • Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on weak-axis buckling only based K 22 l 22 (CISC 13.3). – M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated assuming that the member is laterally fully supported ( l 22 0 and l 33 0) irrespective of its actual lateral bracing length (CISC 13. M r 22 .5).

0 for beams with transverse load and when M b is zero.3). In this equation specific values for major and minor directions are to be used to calculate values of U 12 and U 13 (CISC 13.3) Ce EI .Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 – U 12 and U 13 are calculated using the expression given below forU 1 . M r 22 . The program defaults to 1. In addition.0 if the unbraced length. The user can overwrite for any member by specifying it.4 . all these overwritten capacities are used in this case.3. The factor U 1 must be a positive the value of number. For Class 1 I-shapes. Moreover.8.8. (CISC 13. of the member is redefined by the user (i. and 1 - M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member.e.C f /C e 2 . L2 Ma Mb 0. and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. U1 = 1 1 . 1 1 Tensile Axial Load If the axial load is tensile the capacity ratio is given by the larger of two ratios. Therefore C f must be less than C e . In the first case. 1 is assumed as 1. the ratio is calculated as Calculation of Capacity Ratios 109 .8. it is not equal to the length of the member). the following ratio is also checked: M f 33 M f 22 M r 33 M r 22 . (CISC 13.1. l. all three overwritten capacities are used in this case. 13.2) If the capacities (M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. U 13 1 is enforced. In the above expressions. (CISC 13. a failure condition is declared. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending.2) If the capacities (C r . If this is not true.8.

9) M r 33 + M r 22 (for Class 3). for each of the load combinations. M r 22 and M r 33 overwrites are assumed not to apply to this case and are ignored. and 110 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . both of these overwritten capacities are used in this case.9) If the capacities (M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Tf Tr M M + f 33 M r 33 + f 22 M r 22 . For circular sections an SRSS combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above interaction formulas. Shear Stresses From the factored shear force values and the factored shear strength values at each station. (CISC 13. In the second case the ratio is calculated as M f 33 M r 33 M f 33 + M f 22 T f Z 33 M r 33 A T f S 33 M r 33 A M r 22 M f 22 (for Class 1 and 2). M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: Vf2 Vr 2 Vf3 Vr 3 . the only overwritten capacity used in this case is Tr . or (CISC 13.9) assuming M r 33 M r 22 are calculated based on fully supported member ( l 22 0 and l 33 0). (CISC 13. If the capacities (Tr .

But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. 111 . Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VII-1.C h a p t e r VII Check/Design for BS 5950 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the BS 5950 design code (BSI 1990). The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. For simplicity. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. A capacity ratio greater than 1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Similarly. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units.

N-mm Minor maximum bending moment. Av 3 B D E Fc Ft Fv 2 . mm2 Gross cross-sectional area. mm 4 Major moment of inertia. mm Effective length factor Major and minor effective length factors Applied moment. mm Depth of section. N Axial tension. mm4 4 Torsional constant for the section. N-mm Applied moment about major axis. N-mm Moment capacity. N Major and minor shear capacities. mm or outside diameter of pipes. K 22 M M 33 M 22 M a 33 M a 22 Mb Mc M c33 M c22 ME Pc Pc 33 . N Major and minor compression resistance. N-mm Elastic critical moment.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . mm Minor moment of inertia. S 22 T Ys Z 33 . N-mm Compression resistance. N-mm Minor moment capacity. N Shear modulus. MPa Major and minor elastic section moduli. mm2 2 Major and minor shear areas. N Tension capacity. MPa 6 Warping constant. MPa Axial compression. Z 22 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. N Major and minor plastic section moduli. Pv 3 S 33 . Pc 22 Pt Pv 2 . N Major and minor shear loads. N-mm Major maximum bending moment. N-mm Applied moment about minor axis. mm Specified yield strength. N-mm Major moment capacity. Fv 3 G H I 33 I 22 J K K 33 . N-mm Buckling resistance moment. mm Breadth. mm Modulus of elasticity. mm3 Table VII-1 BS 5950 Notations 112 . mm3 Thickness of flange or leg.

mm Thickness. r22 rz t tf tw u v = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Robertson constant Outstand width. MPa Monosymmetry index Table VII-1 BS 5950 Notations (cont. mm Minimum radius of gyration for angles. K 22 l22 ) Equivalent uniform moment factor Slenderness correction factor Elastic critical shear strength of web panel. mm Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet . mm Story height. le 22 m n qe q cr r33 . mm Depth of web.) 113 . MPa Major and minor radii of gyration. mm ( K 33 l33 . l22 le 33 . mm Unbraced length of member.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 a b d h k l l33 . mm Flange thickness. mm Buckling parameter Slenderness factor Ratio of smaller to larger end moments 1 Constant 275 y 2 o LT Lo LT c E y Slenderness parameter Limiting slenderness Equivalent slenderness Limiting equivalent slenderness Perry factor Perry coefficient Compressive strength. MPa Critical shear strength of web panel. MPa Yield strength. mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. mm Major and minor effective lengths. MPa Euler strength. mm Thickness of web.

1.4 WL 1.1. They should not be combined with any other horizontal load cases (BS 5.2.01 times the factored dead load and 0. The notional load should be equal to the maximum of 0. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.2 LL (BS 2. then the following load combinations may have to be considered (BS 2.4 DL 1.0 DL 1.4.4 WL 1.6 LL 1. It is recommended that the user should define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000 and define the appropriate design combinations.4 DL 1. When using the BS 5950 code.4 DL + 1.4 EL 1.0 DL 1.2 LL 1. or if pattern live loads are to be considered.4 EL 1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. In addition to the above load combinations. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.3). SAP2000 design assumes that a P.1.1) 1. and earthquake load (EL).2 DL + 1.2 DL + 1.1) (BS 2.2 WL 1.4 DL 1.2.005 times the factored dead plus live loads (BS 2.4): 1. so that moment magnification factors for the moments causing side-sway can be taken as unity. other types of loads are present.2 EL These are also the default design load combinations whenever BS 5950 Code is used.3). live load (LL).analysis has already been performed. The notional forces should be assumed to act in any one direction at a time and should be taken as acting simultaneously with the factored dead plus vertical imposed live loads. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).4. the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level.4. wind load (WL). According to the BS 5950 code. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. It is suggested that the P.analysis be 114 Design Loading Combinations .

If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 (Semi-compact) sections. for I and Channel section .2). For . or Class 3 (Semi-compact) as applicable. This implies that for a section in pure bending R is zero. or Slender. the section is treated as having compression throughout. where is the distance from the plastic neutral axis to the edge of the web connected to the compression flange. The parameters R. Semi-compact.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 done at the factored load level corresponding to 1. Compact. In calculating R. Classification of Sections 115 . See also White and Hajjar (1991). Class 2 (Compact).2 dead load plus 1. for Box and Double Channel section c P y In calculating tive. the section is classified as Class 4 (Slender). c • R is the ratio of mean longitudinal stress in the web to y in a section. R is calculated as follows: R • P Ag y is given as d.5. • . c c c d2 D 2 D 2 c T T P 2 4 y t t . compression is taken as negative and tension is taken as posi- is defined as follows: 1/ 2 275 y The section is classified as either Class 1 (Plastic).2 live load. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Slender sections. and along with the slenderness ratios are the major factors in classification of section. Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Plastic. SAP2000 checks the sections according to Table VII-2 (BS 3. compression is taken as positive and tension is taken as negative.

and and (welded) (rolled) d t webs ( I-SHAPE ) 1+ R For R 0 : For R 0: 1+ R .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Ratio Checked b T (Rolled) b T (welded) Class 1 (Plastic) Class 2 (Compact) Class 3 (Semi-compact) For R 0: R and and 41 R 41 R . d t webs ( ) (rolled) d t webs ( ) (welded) b T (Rolled) BOX b T (welded) d t As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes CHANNEL b T d t b T d t d t T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLE (separated) (b + d ) t Table VII-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on BS 5950 116 Classification of Sections .

and Factored moments causing sidesway. the minor moment. the major moment. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. M 22 . The moment magnification for non-sidesway moments is included in the overall buckling interaction equations. Fv 2 . M 33 .) Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on BS 5950 Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Ft or Fc .max 1 (BS 5.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 Description of Section Ratio Checked b t Class 1 (Plastic) Class 2 (Compact) Class 3 (Semi-compact) ANGLE (b + d ) t PIPE SOLID CIRCLE SOLID RECTANGLE GENERAL D t Assumed Compact Assumed Compact Assumed Semi-compact Table VII-2 (cont.3) s.max Mg Ms Maximum story-drift divided by the story-height. where s. the major direction shear load. Factored moments not causing translation. respectively.6. M = Mg + = = = 1 200 M s . and the minor direction shear load. and Fv 3 corresponding to factored values of the tensile or compressive axial load. 117 .

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Figure VII-1 BS 5950 Definition of Geometric Properties 118 Calculation of Factored Forces .

1.1.4) is the compressive strength given by E 2 y 1 2 .1).analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. the user should ensure that the thickness and the ultimate strength limitations given in the code are satisfied (BS 3. these values will override all above the mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections.1) Calculation of Section Capacities 119 . s . Calculation of Section Capacities The nominal strengths in compression. If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”. where (BS C. and shear are computed for Class 1.0 times the minimum yield strength of steel.1) For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring special treatment.1) E y y E .analysis has been done and. tension. It is suggested that the P. (BS 4. By default. to be 1.2 LL. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used. max for both major and minor direction bending is taken as 0.2 DL plus 1. 2. or web buckling. In inputting values of the yield strength. or semi-compact sections is evaluated as follows: Pc = Ag where c c c .Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 The moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity if a P. compact. and 3 sections according to the following subsections. y . such as the consideration of local buckling. SAP2000 design assumes a P. reduced section capacities may be applicable. SAP2000 takes the design strength. therefore. Y s . flexuraltorsional and torsional buckling. bending. See also White and Hajjar (1991). as specified by the user. Compression Resistance The compression resistance for plastic. (BS C.analysis is carried out. y Ys (BS 3.7.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section I-SHAPE (rolled) H-SHAPE (rolled) I-SHAPE (welded) BOX or Pipe (Rolled) BOX (welded) CHANNEL.5 5. ANGLE RECTANGULAR or CIRCLE GENERAL Axis of Bending Thickness (mm) Major any 40 40 40 40 any 40 40 any 40 40 any 2. 2 (BS C.5 5.7.2) (BS C2.0 2.5 3. The larger of the two values is used in the above equations to calculate Pc . Robertson constant from Table VII-3. E y .5 5.5 5.5 3.5 5.2) = Limiting slenderness.5 8.3.1).0 3. T-SHAPE. and = the slenderness ratio in either the major.5 5.5 3.5 5. BS Table 25) (BS C. or in the minor.5 2.5 8.0 5. 2 E 2 .5 Table VII-3 Robertson Constant in BS 5950 = = = 0 E Euler strength. l e 22 r22 direction (BS 4.0 3. 33 22 120 Calculation of Section Capacities .5 3. l e 33 r33 .0 3.5 Minor 3. 0 a Perry factor.5 5.5 5.5 5. a ) 0.

should not be greater than 250 (BS 4.1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made. Moment Capacity The moment capacities in the major and minor directions.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 For single angles r z is used instead of r33 and r22 .3. Box. If is greater than 250. For members in compression. (BS 4. a message is displayed accordingly.7. and the shear capacity.7. M c 33 and M c 22 are based on the design strength and the section modulus.5) (BS 4. the moment capacities about the major and the minor axes of bending depend on the shear force. the slenderness.2. Pv . For main members in tension. Channel. Local buckling is avoided by applying a limitation to the width/thickness ratios of elements of the cross-section. (BS 4.6. for example angle sections. The user may have to separately investigate the members which are connected eccentrically to the axis of the member. a message to that effect is printed (BS 4.3.2).2). Elastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis. and Double-Channel sections bending about the 3-3 axis the moment capacities considering the effects of shear force are computed as Mc = Mc = where S Z = = Plastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis.2. Pv . Fv . y S (S Sv y Z.6) y 1 Calculation of Section Capacities 121 . . the co-existent shear and the possibility of local buckling of the cross-section. Tension Capacity The tension capacity of a member is given by Pt = Ag y . For I. ) y Fv Z. Fv Pv . The moment capacities are calculated as follows: Plastic and Compact Sections For plastic and compact sections. if is greater than 180.

the user may have to investigate this independently. Fv Pv . In rare cases. The user should investigate the reduced moment capacity separately. M b .5) Semi-compact Sections Reduction of moment capacity due to coexistent shear does not apply for semicompact sections.2. For I.5) Lateral-Torsional Buckling Moment Capacity The lateral torsional buckling resistance moment. overwrite values of the section moduli. Channel. however. plastic modulus of shear area. Furthermore members are assumed to be symmetrical about at least one axis.e. The program assumes the members to be uniform (of constant properties) throughout their lengths. of a member is calculated from the following equations. For example.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Sv = Plastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis less the plastic modulus of that part of the section remaining after deduction of shear area i. Pv = 1 The shear capacity described later in this chapter. (BS 4. and Double-Channel sections M b is obtained from Mb = B B y 2 S 33 M E y S 33 M E )1 / 2 . For all other cases.2. T. where (BS B2. The moment capacity for these cases is computed in SAP2000 as Mc = y S y Z. and if necessary.1) 122 Calculation of Section Capacities . Box. for rolled I-shapes S v 2 is taken to be tD 2 4 and for welded I-shapes it is taken as td 2 4 . Mc y Z (BS 4. the reduction of moment capacities for the presence of shear force is not considered. = The combined effect of shear and axial forces is not being considered because practical situations do not warrant this.

for rolled and welded sections is taken as follows: L0 . LT E 2 . and (BS B2. Double-Channel.(BS B2. L 0 and LT are the limiting equivalent slenderness and the equivalent slenderness. and for cantilevers without intermediate lateral restraints.3) = The Perry coefficient.5) is defined as .5) and for Box sections LT 2.4) For I.2) In the above definition of LT . and b is a constant. where (BS B2. Channel. For members with equal flanges loaded between adjacent lateral restraints.3) for welded sections LT 2 b L0 . The Perry coefficient. n 1 Cb Calculation of Section Capacities 1. • n is the slenderness correction factor. and T sections LT LT nuv . S 33 LT 2 ME= LT The elastic critical moment. This. where 123 . however. can be overwritten by the user for any member by specifying it (BS Table 13). and (BS B2.0 .3). b is taken as 0. respectively.25 n 1 2 b • is the slenderness and is equivalent to l e 22 r22 . not loaded between adjacent lateral restraints. with b ( LT L0 ) LT 2 b ( LT L0 ).0. L 0 is defined as follows: 2 L0 y E . n is taken as 1. the value of n is conservatively taken as given by the following formula. For flanged members symmetrical about at least one axis and uniform throughout their length. LT (BS B2. For rolled sections LT b LT .Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 S 33 ME y B LT . For flanged members in general. is defined as (BS B2.007 (BS 2.

for I. and -1.5 .5b) • v is the slenderness factor.Channel sections.7.0 if the unbraced length.0 for cantilevers.0 .0 (BS 4. I 33 . 0. Channel. (BS B2. it is not equal to the length of the member).0 . u is taken as 1. Channel. for T sections with flange in compression. However.5b) (BS B2.5b) u A2 H 1 I 22 . 1. where (BS B2. It is conservatively taken as 0. (BS B2. where (BS B2. Channel.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M . Channel. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. l. v 4 N ( N 1) + 1 20 x 2 2 . M B . and + 3 M A + 4 M B + 3 MC max Cb = M max M . 0. u 2 4S 33 1 4 A2 (D T )2 2 I 22 S 33 1 4 .3. For I. and T sections. and Double-Channel sections.8 . in the member.5d) N 0. C b should be taken as 1.5).0 . For any other section. and Double-Channel. max • u is the buckling parameter. Double . for I. for T sections with flange in tension. 1/4 point. Double-Channel. for I. The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member. for T sections with flange in compression. Double .9 for rolled I-shapes and channels. for T section. for T sections with flange in tension. center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively.5d) 124 Calculation of Section Capacities . and 0.Channel sections. of the member is redefined by the user (i.e. it is given by the following formula. M A . and M C are absolute values of maximum moment.5d) (BS B2.0 . The program also defaults C b to 1. For I. Channel.

along with the associated station and load combination. 2. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 125 . The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. (BS 4. Then. boxes or channels are evaluated as follows: Pv 2 = Pv 3 = y Av 2 .3) (BS 4.6.0 indicates exceeding a limit state.2. the actual member force/moment components are calculated.2. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations.1). where J . Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. Shear Capacities The shear capacities for both the major and minor direction shears in I-shapes.6 I 33 (BS B2. Also. for each load combination. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered.1) For all other sections.1) (BS B2.6.5).Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 • is the buckling index for box section factor. and Av 3 . the shear capacity computed above is valid only if d t 63 . The user should investigate moment capacity considering lateral-torsional buckling separately. During the design.3) y The shear areas Av 3 and Av 2 are given in Table VII-4. It is given by the following formula. For d t 63 . the joints are not designed. the shear buckling of the thin members should be checked independently by the user in accordance with the code (BS 4. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated.4. b 2 S 33 b 1 2 A2 J 1 I 22 I 33 1 . for each station along the length of the member. lateral torsional buckling is not considered. Moreover.6. A capacity ratio greater than 1. strictly speaking. first. (BS B2.

9 2bT B D B A I-SHAPE CHANNEL DOUBLE CHANNEL BOX T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLE ANGLE RECTANGULAR CIRCLE PIPE GENERAL td t d T 2td td 0.9 A 0.9 A 0.0 * 0.9 A 0.9 2bT 2bt bt 0.9 A Table VII-4 Shear Area in BS 5950 126 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .0 td D D B A Minor 0.9 2bT 2.0 * 0.9 2bT 0.9 A 0.9 4bT 0.0 tD 2.9 4bT 0.6 A 0.9 2bT 0.6 A 0.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Axis of Bending Condition Major Rolled Welded Rolled Welded Rolled Welded Rolled Welded tD td tD td 2.9 A 0.9 2bT 2.

of the member is overwritten by the user (i.3. The program defaults m to 1. local capacity ratios are calculated as follows: Under Axial Tension A simplified approach allowed by the code is used to check the local capacity for plastic and compact sections. l. if it is not equal to the length of the member). Calculation of Capacity Ratios 127 . (BS Table 18) For other members. the value of m is taken as 1.2) Under Axial Compression Similarly.0. is defined as m= + 2 .e. a compression member with bending moments is also checked for overall buckling in accordance with the following interaction ratio: Fc Ag c m M m33 M 33 + 22 22 Mb y Z 22 (BS 4.3. Ft Ag + y M 22 M 33 + M c 22 M c 33 (BS 4.2) Overall Buckling Check In addition to local capacity checks. The user can overwrite the value of m for any member by specifying it.8. which are carried out at section level.8.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 Local Capacity Check For members under axial load and moments.0 if the unbraced length.8. m. not loaded between adjacent lateral restraints. is the ratio of the smaller end moment to the larger end moment on a span equal to the unrestrained length. being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.3. Fc Ag + y M 22 M 33 + M c 22 M c 33 (BS 4. for members of uniform section and with flanges. the same simplified approach is used for axial compression.1) The equivalent uniform moment factor.

Pv 3 128 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced for each of the load combinations as follows: Fv 2 . and Pv 2 Fv 3 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Shear Capacity Check From the factored shear force values and the shear capacity values at each station.

a shear capacity ratio is calculated separately. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. A capacity ratio greater than 1. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. Similarly. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. 129 . In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program investigates the limiting states of strength and stability but does not address the serviceability limit states. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. For simplicity. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units.0 indicates exceeding a limit state.C h a p t e r VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the Eurocode 3 design code (CEN 1992). all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VIII-1.

Rd V2. span. N Design value of shear force in the minor direction. N Table VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Notations 130 . N Design buckling resistance of a compression member about the minor axis. Rd N t. N-mm Design value of moment about the minor axis. mm4 Minor moment of inertia. Sd M V. N Design shear resistance in the major direction. Sd N t. Sd M 33. N Design value of shear force in the major direction. MPa Torsion constant.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Av 2 . mm4 Warping constant.and 3-directions. mm Bending coefficient Modulus of elasticity. N-mm Design moment resistance about the minor axis. Sd M 22. Rd N b. Rd M 22. Rd = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Gross cross-sectional area. Rd N b 33. N Design buckling resistance of a compression member about the major axis. mm4 Effective length factor Length. Sd M 33. N Design tension resistance. Rd N b 22. Sd V3. Sd N c. Av 3 C1 E G It Iw I 33 I 22 K L K 33 . N-mm Design moment resistance after considering shear. mm6 Major moment of inertia. Rd M cr M g. N Design compression resistance. Sd V2. MPa Shear modulus. N-mm Design value of moment about the major axis. N-mm Design moments not causing sidesway . K 22 M b. N Design value of tensile force. N-mm Design buckling resistance of a compression member. N-mm Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. N-mm Design moment resistance about the major axis. Rd N pl. N Design value of compressive force. Rd N c. N Design plastic shear resistance. mm2 2 Areas for shear in the 2. mm Major and minor effective length factors Design buckling resistance moment. Sd M s. N-mm Design moments causing sidesway.

Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 V3. N Major and minor elastic section moduli. 22 b c d fy h l33 . MPa Reduction factors for buckling about the 3-3 and 2-2 axes Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling Ratio of smaller to larger end moment of unbraced segment Amplification factor for sway moments Table VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Notations (cont. mm Web thickness. mm Flange thickness. mm Distance. mm Nominal yield strength of steel. Wel. 33 .) 131 . i 22 iz k 33 . mm Factors applied to the major and minor design moments in the interaction equations Factor applied to the major design moments in the interaction equation checking for failure due to lateral-torsional buckling Thickness. MPa Overall depth. 22 Wpl. mm Ratio used in classification of sections Material partial safety factors 1 235 fy 2 ( f y in MPa) ba 33. M1 Design shear resistance in the minor direction. mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. 33 . l22 i 33 . LT 22 s Reduction factor Post-critical shear strength. mm Minimum radius of gyration for angles. mm3 Width. mm Depth of web. mm3 Major and minor plastic section moduli. mm Major and minor radii of gyration. Rd Wel. k 22 k LT t tf tw M0 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = . Wpl.

3.0 EL (EC3 2. live. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.3) (EC3 2.2. in addition to the dead load and live load.00 DL 1. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.3. these are the default load combinations which can be used or overwritten by the user to produce other critical design conditions. Additional load combinations are also needed for these load cases. and 4 and section 4 of United Kingdom National Application Document (NAD).3 LL 1. If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only. and earthquake loads for ultimate limit states.5*0.35 DL 1. the design will need only one loading combination.4. In addition to the loads described earlier. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are subject to reversals. or if pattern live loads are to be considered.3. other types of loads are present.50 WL 1. However.00 DL + 1.00 DL 1.3.35 WL 1.35 DL 1. See also section 9.2) by combining forces due to dead.35 LL 1.50 WL 1.3) (EC3 2.4 of Eurocode 1 (CEN 1994) and Table 1. wind.2.3.5 LL. and depends on the number of stories and number of columns in any floor (EC3 5. This equivalent load is similar to the notional load of the British code.3): 1. equivalent lateral load cases for geometric imperfection should be considered by the user.00 EL 1. the following load combinations may have to be considered (EC3 2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Design Loading Combinations The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the load cases for which the structure is to be checked. 132 Design Loading Combinations . if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) or earthquake induced forces (EL).3). These default loading combinations are produced for persistent and transient design situations (EC3 2. The default load combinations will usually suffice for most building design.35 DL + 1.50 LL 1. namely 1.3) In fact. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads with appropriate partial factors of safety.35 DL + 1.35 DL + 1.3.

pure bending. the classification of sections depends on the classification of flange and web elements. Classification of Sections 133 . Double-Channel. The section dimensions used in the tables are given in Figure VIII-1. Class 2.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. and T sections. or Class 3 as applicable. If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 sections. Table VIII-2 is used when the section is under the influence of axial compression force only or combined axial compression force and bending. Classification of Sections The design strength of a cross-section subject to compression due to moment and/or axial load depends on its classification as Class 1 (Plastic). the section is classified as Class 4. According to Eurocode 3. 235 fy (EC3 5.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 When using Eurocode 3. two other factors are defined as follows: . Class 2 (Compact). This parameter is used to reflect the influence of yield stress on the section classification. The classification also depends on whether the compression elements are in pure compression. If the section dimensions satisfy the limits shown in the tables. or Class 4 (Slender). SAP2000 conservatively classifies the compression elements according to Table VIII-2 and Table VIII-3. Table VIII-3 is used when the section is in pure bending or under the influence of combined axial tensile force and bending. the section is classified as Class 1.3. Box.analysis should be done at the factored load level corresponding to 1. See also White and Hajjar (1991). One of the major factors in determining the limiting width-thickness ratio is . Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Class 4 sections. or under the influence of combined axial force and bending (EC3 5. SAP2000 design assumes that a P. A cross-section is classified by reporting the highest (least favorable) class of its compression elements.3.2) In classifying I.2). It is suggested that the P.35 dead load plus 1. Channel. Class 3 (Semi-compact).35 live load.

b) Not applicable Not applicable 15ε 11.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Element Ratio Checked If web I-SHAPE d tw Class 1 0. 42 .5. 13 1 0.5ε 90ε2 PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE d t None None 50ε2 70ε2 Assumed Class 1 Assumed Class 2 134 Table VIII-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on Eurocode 3 (Compression and Bending) Classification of Sections . 13 1 0. .5.5 c t f (rolled) flange c t f (welded) web BOX flange d tw (b 3t f ) t f (rolled) b t f (welded) web CHANNEL flange web T-SHAPE flange b 2t f (welded) DOUBLE ANGLES ht h) 2 max(t . 62 1 If else if 36 else if 41. .33 else if 1. 456 .5 .5. Class 3 1. 396 . If Class 2 0.67 0. b) b tf d tw b 2t f (rolled) d tw 10 9 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 10 33 10 9 11 10 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 11 38 11 10 15 14 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 15 42 15 14 15ε 11. 0.5ε (b Not applicable Not applicable ANGLE (b ht h) 2 max(t .

0 ε 11.0ε 11.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Section Element web Ratio Checked d tw c t f (rolled) Class 1 72 10 9 72 33 33 72 33 10 33 10 9 Not applicable Not applicable 50ε 2 Class 2 83 11 10 83 38 38 83 38 11 38 11 10 Not applicable Not applicable 70ε2 Assumed Class 1 Assumed Class 2 Assumed Class 3 Class 3 124 15 14 124 42 42 124 42 15 42 15 14 15. b d t None None None d tw (Minor axis) b tf d tw b 2t f (rolled) d tw (b 3t f ) t f (rolled) (b ANGLE (b PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL Table VIII-3 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on Eurocode 3 (Bending Only) Classification of Sections 135 .5ε 90ε2 I-SHAPE flange c t f (welded) web BOX flange b t f (welded) d tw (Major axis) web CHANNEL flange web T-SHAPE flange b 2t f (welded) DOUBLE ANGLES ht h) 2 max t . b ht h) 2 max t .5 ε 15.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Figure VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Definition of Geometric Properties 136 Classification of Sections .

2 2 2ht w f f 1 2 0 -3. the major moment.2): • Directly by carrying out the global frame analysis using P. 1. The code requires that the additional sway moments introduced by the horizontal deflection of the top of a story relative to the bottom must be taken into account in the elastic analysis of the frame in one of the following ways (EC3 5. Channel. V 2.0 1. Sd . M 22. These design loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations of each frame element.0 for full tension. N c . equals 0. for Box and Double . -1. and T sections. Sd .0 for full tension.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 1 1 N c . for I. 2 2 ht w f f 1 1 N c .0 for pure bending and 1.6. The design moments and forces need to be corrected for second order effects.analysis. Sd or N c. Sd is taken as positive for tension and negative for compression.2. Sd . M 33. Calculation of Factored Forces The internal design loads which are calculated for each load combination are N t . Sd .0 for full compression. Sd and V 3. Sd corresponding to design values of the tensile or compressive axial load. • Indirectly by modifying the results of a linear elastic analysis using an approximate method which makes allowance for the second order effects.Channel sections. Calculation of Factored Forces 137 . N c . There are two alternative ways to do this “amplified sway moment method” or “sway mode in-plane buckling method”.0 . Member design can be carried out using in-plane buckling lengths for nonsway mode. 0. and In the above expression. the minor moment.0 for full compression. the major direction shear and the minor direction shear respectively. Sd Af y . equals -3.0 .5 for pure bending and 1. Sd . This correction is different for the so called “sway” and “nonsway” components of the moments.

Therefore any magnification of sidesway moments due to second order effects is already accounted for. (EC3 5.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. they are also produced by vertical loads if either the load or the frame are unsymmetrical.1) (EC3 5.2. reduced section capacities may be applicable.1.6. However. and shear are computed for Class 1.0. flexuraltorsional and torsional buckling. The horizontal loads can be expected always to produce sway moments. Sd M s. SAP2000 design assumes that P. e. 2. It is suggested that the P.2). Moment magnification for non-sidesway moments is included in the overall buckling interaction equations.35 DL plus 1. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used. or web buckling. the sway moments are simply the internal moments in the frames due to the horizontal loads (EC3 5. s in the following equation is taken as 1.Sd .effects are included in the analysis. and 3 sections according to the following subsections.2) Design moments not causing translation. where (EC3 5. 138 Calculation of Section Resistances . The material partial safety factors used by the program are: M0 M1 .35 LL.6. Sd = = s M s. and Design moments causing sidesway. and .2. See also White and Hajjar (1991). In the case of a symmetrical frame with symmetrical vertical loads. tension. such as the consideration of local buckling. i.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The advantage of the direct second order elastic analysis is that this method avoids uncertainty in approximating the buckling length and also avoids splitting up moments into their “sway” and “nonsway” components. Calculation of Section Resistances The nominal strengths in compression.Sd + M g . Sway moments are produced in a frame by the action of any load which results in sway displacements. bending.1.1) For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring special treatment. the user can overwrite the values of s for both major and minor direction bending in which case M Sd in a particular direction is taken as: M Sd = M g. However.

4. Class 2. Compression Resistance The design compressive resistance of the cross-section is taken as the smaller of the design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section (N pl . The user is expected to investigate this independently. Calculation of Section Resistances 139 . where (EC3 5.Rd = A min A Afy M1 . N b.4) The plastic resistance of Class 1. N c. 2 2 .1) = 1. for Class 1.Rd = A f y M0 .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 If the user specifies nominal capabilities for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”. Rd ) (EC3 5. This factor is calculated below based on the assumption that all members are of uniform crosssection. Rd min ( N pl . Tension Capacity The design tension resistance for all classes of sections is evaluated in SAP2000 as follows: N t.5.5.4. Rd . (EC3 5.2) . Rd ). Rd ) and the design local buckling resistance of the gross cross-section (N b. in which 2 (EC3 5.4.1.3) It should be noted that the design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section at the holes for fasteners is not computed and checked.Rd = A f y M0 (EC3 5. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.4) The design buckling resistance of a compression member is taken as N b. and Class 3 sections is given by N pl. 2 or 3 cross-sections. these values are will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections.

49 0.76 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.21 0.34 0.49 0.49 0.34 0.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual α (major axis) 0.49 0.76 0.21 0.49 The Table VIII-4 factor for different sections and different axes of buckling 140 Calculation of Section Resistances .49 I-SHAPE (rolled) h b 1.2 I-SHAPE (welded) tf BOX welded CHANNEL T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLES ANGLE PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL any any any 0.21 0.49 0.34 0.21 0.49 0.49 0.76 0.49 Section tf tf tf tf tf Limits 40 mm 40 mm 100 mm 100 mm 40 mm 40 mm Rolled α (minor axis) 0.21 0.34 0.49 0.49 any any any any any 0.49 0. 2 I-SHAPE (rolled) h b 1.49 0.34 0.34 0.

3 of the code.1 and 5. The user can.1. Angle. l is the buckling length.5). The two values of i33 i22 the lesser of the two.4. See also EC3 5. i is the radius of gyration about the neutral axis. and thickness of materials are obtained from Tables 5.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 0. The user is expected to investigate this issue separately. K give 3 and 2 .4). L is the length of the column. min is l 1 .Rd = Av f y 3 M0 .2. SAP2000 does not currently considers this eccentricity.5. Values of this factor for different types of sections. K is conservatively taken as 1 in SAP2000 design (EC3 L 5. however. and is determined using the properties of the gross cross-section.5 A 1 .5.5. An accurate estimate of K can be obtained from the Annex E of the code.2(2). and is an imperfection factor and is obtained from Table VIII-4. Channel. K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . override this default option if it is deemed necessary. (EC3 5. For all types of sections.6. Shear Capacity The design shear resistance of a section is the minimum of the plastic shear capacity and the buckling shear capacity.6) Calculation of Section Resistances 141 . 1 E fy . and T-sections in compression are subjected to an additional moment due to the shift of the centroidal axis of the effective cross-section (EC3 5. axes of buckling.4. the plastic shear resistance is computed as V Rd = V pl.

4.3) Moment Resistance The moment resistance in the major and minor directions is based on the section classification.6. Rd = W pl f y M0 .6. Box.6. and (EC3 5. Rd M pl . and (EC3 5. If the shear force is greater than half of the shear capacity.5. ba ba M1 .6. (for d tw 69 ) (EC3 5. If V Sd V pl. For webs with transverse stiffeners at the supports but no intermediate transverse stiffeners. (EC3 5.Rd • For Class 1 and Class 2 Sections M c. the moment capacity is almost unaffected by the presence of shear force. for for for w .6.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual where Av is the effective shear area for the section and the appropriate axis of bending. . Moment capacity is also influenced by the presence of shear force and axial force at the cross section. If the shear force is less than half of the shear capacity. d tw kt .3) kt is the buckling factor for shear.3) (EC3 5. and Channel sections if the width-thickness ratio is large (d t w 69 ).Rd = d t w where. w (EC3 5.3) ba is the simple post-critical shear strength which is determined as follows: f yw 3 f yw w . The capacities are computed as V Rd = V ba. 3 in which w w is the web slenderness ratio.6.3) ba 3 . (EC3 5. kt .3) . w f yw ba w .2) 142 Calculation of Section Resistances . The buckling shear capacities are only computed for the I. additional factors need to be considered.

33 LT w W pl. w LT LT 2 LT 2 LT . doubly symmetric. where (EC3 5.7) 2 V Sd -1 . Rd = W pl 2 Av2 4t w fy M0 M c.5. Box.4. Rd . W el.Rd • For all other cases.2) w for Class 1 and Class 2 sections. . for welded sections. where (EC3 5. where LT .Rd = = = . and loaded through its shear center. and Channel sections bending about the 3-3 axis the moment capacities considering the effects of shear force are computed as M V . M b.4. Lateral-torsional Buckling For the determination of lateral-torsional buckling resistance. and LT Calculation of Section Resistances 143 . Rd = W el f y If V Sd > V pl. V pl. for rolled sections.33 f y M1 . W pl. The lateral-torsional buckling resistance of I.5. Box.2) • For I. The user should investigate the reduced moment capacity separately. in which 2 LT LT LT LT . Rd = M el .Rd M0 .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 • For Class 3 Sections M c. (EC3 5. it is assumed that the section is uniform. for Class 3 sections. and Double Channel sections is evaluated as. the reduction of moment capacities for the presence of shear force is not considered.33 .

33 f y M1 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual W pl. L = Laterally unbraced length for buckling about the minor axis. 144 Calculation of Section Resistances .Rd =W pl . A negative value implies double curvature. l 22 of the member is overwritten by the user (i. M b.e.1) I t = The torsion constant.5 w LT . and the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of Rectangle. C 1 is taken as 1.5 M cr = C 1 E I 22 I w L2 G I t + 2 I 22 L2 E I 22 .0. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever.0 for cantilevers. (EC3 F1. M b.Rd =W el . If LT . It is taken as l 22 . C1 = 2 . Mb varies between -1 and 1 ( 1 1). C 1 should be taken as 1. T. 33 f y M1 .0 if the unbraced length. I w = The warping constant.33 f y M cr 2 0 . single curvature bending. The lateral-torsional buckling resistance of a Channel. no special consideration for lateral torsional buckling is made in the design. Circle and Pipe sections is evaluated as. Mb = The ratio of smaller to larger end moment of unbraced segment. M a and M b are end moments of the unbraced segment and M a is less Ma being negative for double curvature bending and positive for than M b . The user can overwrite the value of C 1 for any member by specifying it. and Ma . it is not equal to the length of the member). If any moment within the segment is greater than M b . where 0 . The program defaults C 1 to 1. Angle. However. Double-Angle and General sections is evaluated as.

4. V Sd V Sd V pl . the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 .1) (EC3 5.Sd N c.8. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. Rd . + + M pl. Rd M pl. V Sd . the joints are not designed. Double Angle and General sections.8. Then. Angle.Sd N c. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 145 . Then the corresponding capacities are calculated.22 f yd W el. Rd N pl. Rd . for each station along the length of the member. V pl . and Low Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear.Rd For Class 3 sections. A capacity ratio greater than 1.22. Bending. During the design. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . V ba . Pipe.Sd M 33 . Axial Compression. where + + W el. Circle. T. and V ba . Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios.9) (EC3 5.Sd . The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained.Sd M 33 .33 f yd Af yd f yd fy M0 (EC3 5.33. first. Rd . the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Currently SAP2000 does not consider other special considerations for computing buckling resistance of Rectangle. is less than half of the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance. Rd and buckling resistance.1) .e.Sd . Also. Channel.9) the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows: For Class 1 and Class 2 sections. i.4. the actual member force/moment components are calculated.4. along with the associated station and load combination.4. (EC3 5.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. for each load combination.

5.4. 2.9) Under these conditions. 33.22 .min. the capacity ratio is given by N c.Rd N pl. M 22. V ba . the shear is considered to be high.Sd + 22 22 . and High Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear.22 . where + + M V.4) b. or V ba .Rd M c.Rd and M V.33 .Sd N c. Rd .22 .e.33 . N b.4. Rd .33 . where M c. Axial Compression. Bending. and 3 sections subject to axial compression. N c. is more than half the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance. k 22 =1 - 22 . Rd . .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Bending.Rd min N b. Rd . min. Sd .Rd N b.1) M V. M 33. major axis bending. 146 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . 22.Rd (EC3 5. N Sd . Compression. Rd . Sd .Sd . Rd or buckling resistance. and minor axis bending. (EC3 5. V pl .Rd are the design moment resistances about the major and the minor axes. and 3 sections.Sd .Sd M 33 .4. the shear is high if V Sd V Sd V pl .Sd Afy 22 (EC3 5.Sd N + k M k 33 M 33 .9) (EC3 5. respectively. Rd M0 M1 k 33 =1 - 33 . considering the effect of high shear (see page 142). the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . i.Rd M V. 2. and Flexural Buckling For all members of Class 1.Sd Afy 33 N c. V Sd .8.9): For Class 1.4. the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows (EC3 5.

and Lateral-Torsional Buckling For all members of Class 1.33 .Sd + LT 33 . (Class 1 and Class 2). and = Equivalent uniform moment factor for flexural buckling about the 2-2 (minor) axis between points braced in 3-3 direction.4) + .22 The equivalent uniform moment factors.Rd M b.4) . are determined from = + MQ M .Sd .33 M. M 33.5. (for Class 3 sections).W el.33 . N Sd .22.22 .22 . .4) Calculation of Capacity Ratios 147 .33 22 22 M. M and M. Rd N b.Sd + 22 22 .33 W el. Compression. the capacity ratio is given by k M k M N c.22 M. Rd (EC3 5.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 W pl.22 . (Class 1 and Class 2). 2. and 3 sections subject to axial compression.22 .33 W pl. 33 33 M. and M= Sum of absolute maximum and absolute minimum value of moments for moment diagram with change of sign.22 . 22 22 (2 M. where M c.4) + . and M Q = Absolute maximum moment due to lateral load only assuming simple support at the ends. (for Class 3 sections). M 22. M. varies between -1 and 1 ( 1 1). major axis bending.33 = Equivalent uniform moment factor for flexural buckling about the 3-3 (major) axis between points braced in 2-2 direction. Sd . 33 33 (2 M. Bending. M = Absolute maximum value of moment for moment diagram without change of sign.22 W el. ψ = Absolute value of the ratio of smaller to larger end moment. A negative value implies double curvature.4) .W el. Sd . and minor axis bending.

It is determined for bending about the y-y axis and between two points braced in the y-y direction.33. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 .4. Rd M pl.Sd M 33 . V pl . V pl . Compression. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 .e. Axial Tension. Rd . the shear is high if V Sd V Sd V pl . the shear is considered to be high.LT = Equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral-torsional buckling. (EC3 5.4. and V ba .9) (EC3 5. Rd . is less than half of the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance. Rd and buckling resistance.LT 1 . V ba . and LT M. k LT = 1 = LT 22 N c.9) the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows: For Class 1 and Class 2 sections. and Flexural Buckling”. Bending.33 f yd Af yd (EC3 5. Rd . or V ba .Rd For Class 3 sections.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual k 22 and are as defined in the previous subsection “Bending.1) (EC3 5.Sd Afy 22 M. where . V ba .Sd . Rd .9) (EC3 5.4.8. + + W el.Sd N t. is more than half the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance. Rd or buckling resistance. Rd N t.Sd N t. V Sd . + + M pl. i.22 f yd W el.22.1) Bending.4.e.4. and Low Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear. Rd . (EC3 5.8.4.9) 148 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . V Sd . and High Shear When the design values of the coexisting shear.Sd . V Sd V Sd V pl . Axial Tension.Sd M 33 . Rd . i.

the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows (EC3 5.Sd V 2 . Sd vec M 33.9): For Class 1.5. 2. N t .Sd + 22 22 . where A (EC3 5.Sd M 33 . the capacity ratio is taken as k M k M N t. M 33.Rd N t.4. and minor axis bending. Shear From the design values of shear force at each station. Rd (EC3 5.3) (according to the EC3 box value). Sd . the effective internal moment about the 3-3 axis is calculated as follows: M eff .4) where k LT .Rd (EC3 5. and W com.Rd and V 3 .Sd M c.22 .Sd + LT 33 .Rd M b. k 22 and are as defined in the previous subsections. for each of the load combinations and the shear resistance values.5. For all members of Class 1. and 3 sections subject to axial tension. major axis bending.4.8.Rd Calculation of Capacity Ratios 149 .Rd vec k LT N t . Sd W com.22 . and 3 sections. V 3 . 33. Axial Tension. Sd . Sd vec N t . In order to check whether the member fails under lateral-torsional buckling. + + M V. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: V 2 .Sd N t. 33 .Rd M V.1) Bending. Sd W com. 33 is the elastic section modulus for the extreme compression fiber.Rd N t.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Under these conditions.33 . and Lateral-Torsional Buckling The axial tensile force has a beneficial effect for lateral-torsional buckling. 2. Sd . the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . 33 . M 22.Sd .Sd . A M b.

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Input design information includes design section labels. The output design information includes axial and bending interaction ratios and shear stress ratios. and some intermediate results for all the load combinations at all the design sections of a specific frame member. K-factors. live load reduction factors. material properties. The member-specific detailed design information shows details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. design and allowable stresses or factored and nominal strengths.C h a p t e r IX Design Output Overview SAP2000 creates design output in three different major formats: graphical display. The tabular output includes most of the information which can be displayed. tabular output. The graphical display of steel design output includes input and output design information. Overview 151 . and other design parameters. The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. It shows the design section dimensions. and member specific detailed design information. All graphical output can be printed. This is generated for added convenience to the designer.

Input design information. • Unbraced Length Ratios. and member-specific detailed design information are described. Some of the design information is specific to the chosen steel design codes which are available in the program and is only described where required. tabular output. • Live Load Reduction Factors. the design outputs are similar. The output design information which can be displayed is • Color coded P-M interaction ratios with or without values. • K-factors for major and minor direction of buckling. and • Color coded shear stress ratios. and shear. This will pop up a dialog box called Display Design Results. Then clicking the OK button will show the interaction ratios in the active window.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual In the following sections. The AISC-ASD89 design code is described in the latter part of this chapter. The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information. Moreover.. for the AISC-ASD89 code. includes • Design section labels. For all other codes. from the Design menu. • C b -factors. • design type. • allowable stresses in axial. the color coded P-M interaction ratios with values can be displayed by selecting the Display Design Info. the active screen display can be sent directly to the printer. • C m -factors. bending. For example. The graphical displays can be accessed from the Design menu. some of the typical graphical display. -factors. Then the user should switch on the Design Output option button (default) and select P-M Ratios Colors & Values in the drop-down box. Graphical Display of Design Output The graphical output can be produced either as color screen display or in grayscaled printed form. 152 Graphical Display of Design Output . • • s b -factors..

– Load types. For switching between 3D or 2D view of graphical displays. there are several buttons on the main toolbar. For the AISC-ASD89 code. Alternatively. – C m -factors. All tables have formal headings and are self-explanatory. – K-factors for major and minor direction of buckling. Input design information includes the following: • Load Combination Multipliers – Combination name. from the View menu. – Unbraced Length Ratios. The printed form of tabular output is the same as that produced for the file output with the exception that for the printed output font size is adjusted.Chapter IX Design Output The graphics can be displayed in either 3D or 2D mode. • Steel Stress Check Element Information (code dependent) – Frame ID. The graphical display in an active window can be printed in gray scaled black and white from the SAP2000 program.. and – Load factors. The tabular design output includes input and output design information which depends on the design code of choice. the tabular output includes the following. the view can be set by choosing Set 3D View. – Design Section ID. – C b -factors. Tabular Display of Design Output 153 . To send the graphical output directly to the printer. A screen capture of the active window can also be made by following the standard procedure provided by the Windows operating system. and – Live Load Reduction Factors. Tabular Display of Design Output The tabular design output can be sent directly either to a printer or to a file.. click on the Print Graphics button in the File menu. The SAP2000 standard view transformations are available for all steel design input and output displays. so further description of these tables is not given.

– Section location. 154 Member Specific Information . – Section ID.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Steel Moment Magnification Factors (code dependent) – Frame ID. and some of the intermediate results for a member. – Axial and bending interaction ratio. It provides an access to the geometry and material data. he/she can check the Print to File box. By default. and – Shear stress ratios. The tabular output can be accessed by selecting Print Design Tables.. The default filename can be edited. This will provide a default filename. and -factors. – Tension or compression indication. If the user wants the output stream to be redirected to a file.. a file list can be obtained by clicking the File Name button to chose a file from. – Controlling load combination ID for P-M interaction. reinforcement details. Then the user can specify the design quantities for which the results are to be tabulated. – Controlling load combination ID for major and minor shear forces. Alternatively. design and allowable stresses. This will pop up a dialog box. – Framing Type. from the File menu. – – b s -factors. other input data. Then clicking the OK button will direct the tabular output to the requested stream the file or the printer. The design detail information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific station of a frame member. the output will be sent to the printer. Member Specific Information The member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. The output design information includes the following: • Steel Stress Check Output (code dependent) – Frame ID. design section dimensions.

– Station location. – C m -factors. – C b -factors. K. – Frame ID. Section. – Axial and bending interaction ratio. and • Design and allowable stresses for shear. – Load combination ID. Station. • Element Section ID • Element Framing Type • Overwriting allowable stresses Additional information that is available by clicking on the Details button is given below.Chapter IX Design Output The detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired frame member. This will pop up a dialog box called Steel Stress Check Information which includes the following tabulated information for the specific member. • Moment factors. and – Shear stress ratio along two axes. – Live Load Reduction Factors. for major and minor direction of buckling. • Frame. – Section ID. • Section geometric information and graphical representation. and -factors. and Load Combination IDs. Additional information can be accessed by clicking on the ReDesign and Details buttons in the dialog box. – – s b -factors. • Design and allowable stresses for axial force and biaxial moments. – Unbraced Length Ratios. • Material properties of steel. Additional information that is available by clicking on the ReDesign button is as follows: • Design Factors (code dependent) – Effective length factors. Member Specific Information 155 .

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American Institute of Steel Construction. Chicago. AISC. 2nd Edition. American Institute of Steel Construction. Part 1. 1997. BS 5950 : Part 1 : 1990. 1997 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications — U. UK. ENV 1993-1-1 : 1992. London. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 1990. 9th Edition. Code of Practice for Design in Simple and Continuous Construction: Hot Rolled Sections.References AASHTO. Allowable Stress Design. 1992 Design of Steel Structures. 1989 Manual of Steel Construction. Chicago. BSI. 1994. Brussels. 157 . 1989.1 : General Rules and Rules for Buildings. European Committee for Standardization. 1994 Manual of Steel Construction.S. Belgium. 1997 Interim Edition. 1992. British Standards Institution. AISC. Units. Part 1. Ill. CEN. Load & Resistance Factor Design. 1990 Structural Use of Steelwork in Building. Ill.

Berkeley. California. Ontario.1-94. Inc. 1997.. Computers and Structures.” Engineering Journal. CSI... ICBO. Computers and Structures. 28. 158 . 1991 “Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. 1998a SAP2000 Getting Started. Hajjar. 1998b SAP2000 Quick Tutorial.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual CISC. Vols. 6th Edition. No. Canada. CSI. D. F. Computers and Structures. Inc. 1998. California. 1995 Handbook of Steel Construction. Berkeley. Inc. 1997 Uniform Building Code. 1997. White and J.. Whittier. Willowdale. Berkeley. International Conference of Building Officials. 1997 SAP2000 Analysis Reference. 1991. I and II. CAN/CSA-S16. California. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. 4. Inc. 1997. American Institute of Steel Construction. Vol. 1995. 1998. California. CSI. W.

40 BS.Index Bending strength AASHTO. 153 Design stations. 79 ASD. 48 Compact section See Classification of sections Compressive strength AASHTO. 61 Braced frames. 107 Eurocode. 111. 79 BS. 154 tabular. 54 Design codes. 129. 82 ASD. 23 BS. 75. 139 LRFD. 115 CISC. 8 AASHTO. 18 BS. 142 LRFD. 91 ASD. 133 LRFD. 97 Eurocode. 15. 145 LRFD. 7 Classification of sections AASHTO. 100 Eurocode. 6 Design output. 151 graphical. 73 Check stations. 30 BS. 121 CISC. 101 Eurocode. 52 Capacity ratio. 119 CISC. 2. 137 LRFD. 10 Euler buckling load AASHTO. 97 Eurocode. 93. 84 ASD (allowable). 8 AASHTO. 45. 7 Effective length factor. 125 CISC. 23 ASD (allowable). 152 member specific. 119 CISC. 1 See Also "Supported design codes" Design load combinations. 24 159 . 83 ASD.

96 Eurocode. 52 Noncompact section See Classification of sections Nonsway. 61. 8 AASHTO. 7. 88 ASD. 114. 138 LRFD. 139 LRFD. 48.97 Eurocode. 132 Output. 23. 119 CISC. 133. 8 See Also P-Delta analysis Moment magnification AASHTO. 132 LRFD. 139 LRFD. 66. 138 LRFD. 151 tabular. 101 Eurocode. 151 P-Delta analysis. 114 CISC. 97 Eurocode. 97 Eurocode. 100 Eurocode. 8 Perry factor. 154 Member stability effect. 132 Loading combinations. 114. 122 CISC. 155 graphical. 97 Eurocode. 48 Member specific output. 18. 100 Eurocode. 96 Eurocode. 82 BS. 78 ASD. 117 CISC. 1 Lateral drift effect. 79 BS. 137 LRFD. 79 BS. 152 Interaction equations See Capacity ratio Interactive environment. 52 Notional load BS. 119 Plastic section See Classification of sections 160 . 2 details. 119 CISC. 96. 119 CISC. 114 CISC. 52 Flexural buckling AASHTO. 54 Graphical output. 137 LRFD. 8 See Also P-Delta analysis Lateral-torsional buckling AASHTO. 82 BS. 96 . 69 Live load reduction factor. 8 AASHTO. 23 BS. 79. 79. 117 CISC. 119 CISC. 52 Factored forces and moments AASHTO. 143 LRFD. 48. 2 AASHTO. 30 BS. 18 BS. 53 P-Delta effects.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual BS. 83 ASD.

23 BS. 82 BS (partial factors). 138 LRFD. 5. 60 Unbraced frames. 119 CISC. 52 Units. 121 CISC. 79 BS. 2. 155 Robertson constant. 45 Sway. 129 LRFD. 97 Eurocode. 48 Unsupported length. 111 CISC. 100 Euro (partial factors). 39 BS.Index Redesign. 119 CISC. 9 161 . 5. 93 Eurocode. 137 LRFD. 119 Second order effects See P-Delta effects Shear strength AASHTO. 105 Eurocode. 72 Slender section See Classification of sections Strength reduction factors AASHTO. 84 ASD (allowable). 5. 78 ASD. 111 CISC. 141 LRFD. 54 Supported design codes. 90 ASD (allowable). 129 LRFD. 93 Eurocode. 18 BS. 119 CISC. 79 BS. 52 Tabular output. 139 LRFD. 8 AASHTO. 125 CISC. 5. 1 AASHTO. 75 ASD. 101 Eurocode. 97 Eurocode. 5. 137 LRFD. 15 BS. 5. 13 AASHTO. 153 Tensile strength AASHTO. 8 AASHTO.