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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

FOR M.F.M.
TOPICS COVERED
 RELEVENCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN
MANAGEMENT
 STEPS INVOLVED IN RESEARCH IN THE
RESEARCH PROCESS
 IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
 IDENTIFICATION OF TYPES OF VARIABLES
 RESEARCH DESIGNING
 DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY
TOPICS COVERED
 QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES
# MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
# MEASURES OF DISPERSION
# CONCEPT OF SKWNESS AND KURTOSIS
# THEORY OF ATTRIBUTES
____________________________________
# CORRELATION AND REGRESSION
# CONCEPT OF TESTING : TYPE-I AND TYPE-II
ERRORS
CONCEPT OF NULL AND ALTERNATIVE
HYPOTHESES
# CHISQUARE TEST FOR INDEPENDENCE OF
ATTRIBUTES & GOODNES OF FIT
TOPICS COVERED

 LARGE SAMPLE TESTING : SINGLE


MEAN AND PROPORTION TESTING
 T –TEST FOR SINGLE AND DOUBLE
MEANS AND PAIRED T-TEST
 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
 RESEARCH REPORT WRITING
** RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY **
 1 # INTRODUCTION[MEANING OF
RESEARCH]
 2 # Objectives of Research
 3 # Types of Research
 4 # Steps involved [ Stages ] in the
Research process
 5 # Significance of Research
 6 # Identification to Research
problems
 7 # Research design
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION :
# Research is expected to be something
original or piece of work that advances or
updates our knowledge.
# The domain of research problems must be
well specified and accurately defined.Those
research investigations whose operational
domain is not specified always remain
inconclusive.
# It is always advisable to select a smaller area
of investigation study it more intensively.
Micro- level analysis are more precisely
researchable than the macrolevel studies.
1 # Introduction[Meaning of
Research]
 Fred Kerlinger : “ Research is an organized enquiry
designed and carried out to provide information for
solving problem”
 Francis Rummel :” Research is careful inquiry or
examination to discover new information or
relationships and to expand to verify existing
knowledge”
 Robert Ross : “ Research is essentially an
investigation , a recording and analysis of evidence for
purpose of gaining knowledge”
 C.C.CrawFord : “Research is a systematic and refined
technique of thinking ,employing specialized
tools,instruments and procedures in order to obtain a
more adequate solution of the problem than would be
possible under ordinary means.It starts with a problem
, collects data or facts , analyses them critically and
researches decisions based on the actual evidence”
2 # OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
 TO VERIFY AN OLD THEORY OR TO FIND A NEW
AREA OF KNOWLEDGE.
 TO DETERMINE THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH
SOMETHING OCCURS.
 TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS OF A CAUSAL
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES.
 VALIDATING OR REVALIDATING THE
ESTABLISHED TRUTH.
 TO ORGANIZE DATA IN QUANITATIVE TERMS.
3 # TYPES[CLASSIFICATION]
OF RESEARCH
 PURE RESEARCH
 APPLIED RESEARCH
 ACTION RESEARCH
 EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
 CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH
 DESCRIPTIVE AND ANALYTICAL RESEARCH
 QUANTITATIVE & QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
BOOKS FOR REFERENCE

1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Methods & Techniques : C.R.KOTHARI
2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
in Social Science : ARVIND KUMAR
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
: D K BHATTACHARYYA
4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
: G.R.BASOTIA & K.K.SHARMA
5. RESEARCH METHODS
:RAM AHUJA
4 # STAGES IN THE RESEARCH
PROCESS
 # 1. DEFINING THE PROBLEM
 # 2. PLANNING A RESEARCH DESIGN
 # 3. PLANNING A SAMPLE
 # 4. COLLECTION OF DATA
 # 5. ANALYSING THE DATA
 # 6. REPORT WRITING
STAGES IN THE RESEARCH
PROCESS
## 1 . DEFINING THE PROBLEM
A problem well defined is a problem half solved.
Careful attention to problem definition allows the
researcher to set proper Research Objectives.
It should be noted that the initial stage is
problem discovery , rather than definition.
There are three basic techniques of discovering
insights and gaining a clear idea of the problem :
* Secondary Data
* Experience Survey
* Pilot Studies
## 2 . PLANNING THE
RESEARCH DESIGN
A research Design is a master plan specifying
the methods and procedures for
collecting and analyzing the needed
information. There are four basic design
techniques :
# Survey Technique
# Experiments
# Secondary Data
# Observation
# # 3 . PLANNING A SAMPLE

The question that must be asked is “ Who


is to be sampled ? ”. The answer to this
primary question requires the identification
of a target population, deciding the sample
size and how the sampling units are to be
selected. There are two sampling techniques :
** Probability Sampling
** Non – Probability Sampling
PROBABILITY – SAMPLING
 # Simple Random Sampling (S.R.S.) or
Probability Sampling :
This is the processing of selecting a sample
from a population in such a way that each
and every unit of the population has an equal
and independent chance of being included
in the sample.
 e.g. (i) To select a random sample of 5 bags
of rice from a ship load containing 1000 bags.
(ii) To select randomly 15 words from a
dictionary.
PROBABILITY – SAMPLING
 # Stratified sampling :
Stratified sampling is generally used when the
population is heterogeneous. In this method , the
population is first sub-divided in to several parts or
small groups called strata according to some relevant
characteristics so that each stratum is more or less
homogeneous. Each stratum is called a sub-population.
Then a small sample is selected from each stratum at
random. All the sub-samples combined together from
the stratified sample. The process of obtaining and
examining a stratified sample with a view to
estimating the characteristic of the population is
known as stratified sampling.
PROBABILITY – SAMPLING
 # Systematic sampling or Quasi Random
Sampling :
This means forming the sample in some
systematic manner usually by taking items at
regular intervals. In this case , all the units of
the population are arranged in some order.If
the population size is finite , all the units are
first serially listed and arranged in order.Then
from the first 15 units , one unit is selected at
random. This unit and every Kth unit of the
serially listed population combined together
constitute a systematic sample. This type of
sampling is known as systematic sampling.
PROBABILITY – SAMPLING
 # Multiple sampling :
In this method , the sampling procedure is carried out
in several stages. The population Is first divided in to
large groups called first stage units. These first stage
units are then divided into smaller groups called
second stage units and second stage units are divided
into third stage units and so on until we come to the
ultimate units or a sample of desired size. At first , a
sample of the first stage units is chosen by any
suitable method. Then a sample of second stage is
selected from each of the selected first stage units
and the process is repeated from stage to stage until
we reach the ultimate units.
NON – PROBABILITY
SAMPLING
 # Purposive Sampling or Judgement Sampling:
When the choice of the individual items of a sample
entirely depends on the decision i.e. individual
judgement of the investigator is called a purposive or
Judgement sampling. In this method , the members
constituting the sample are chosen not according to
some Definite scientific procedure , but according to
convenience and personal choice of the Individual who
selects the sample. Two or more such independent
purposive samples May give widely different estimates
of the same population. Purposive sampling is always
subject to some kind of bias, This method is suitable
when the sample is small.
NON – PROBABILITY
SAMPLING
 # Quota Sampling :
In this method , the investigators are
assigned definite quotas according to certain
criteria. They are instructed to obtain the
required number of interviews to fill in each
quota. The interviewers select the individuals
i.e. sample items for interviews on their
personal judgement with in the quotas.Quota
sampling is type of judgement sampling. It is
cheap and easy , but it is open to various
types of errors and bias. This method is often
used in marketing research studies
NON – PROBABILITY
SAMPLING
 # Cluster or Block sampling :
This method is useful when the population is
wisely dispersed and consists of an unequal
concentration of individual units. In this type
sampling we first form suitable Clusters or
blocks of units of higher concentration. Then
we survey all the units of some Clusters
selected by any suitable sampling method. It
is also called area sampling. This method is
not scientific as it is subject to personal bias.
Cluster sampling is used for geographical
studies of many kinds.
# # 4 . DATA COLLECTION

There are two phases in Data collection :


## Pre testing ## The main study
A pre testing phase , using a small sub-
sample , may decide whether the data
collection plan for the main study is an
appropriate procedure.
## 5. DATA PROCESSING AND
DATA ANALYSIS
Once the field work has been completed , the
data must be converted into format that will
answer the decision maker’s questions. Data
processing begins with editing and coding of
the data. Statistical analysis may range from
portraying a simple frequency distribution to
complex multivariate analysis.
## 6. CONCLUSIONS AND
REPORT PREPARATION
The research report should communicate the
research findings effectively. The written
report is not only a historical document that
will be a source of record for later usage ,
but also an aid for the Management for taking
decisions.
Management is not interested in detailed
reporting of the research design but wishes
only be good , if its findings are applied.
5 # SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH
 Research has important role in guiding social
planning.
 Knowledge is a kind of power with which one can
foresee the implications of a particular phenomena.
 Research is charged with responsibility for
effective functioning of facts.
 It is a role of the researcher to effect constant
improvement in techniques of his trade.
 Research provides the basis for nearly all
government policies in the economic system,
 Research has its special significance in solving
various operational and planning problems of
business and industry.
6 # IDENTIFICATION OF
RESEARCH PROBLEM
 1 # Identification of Research
problem
 2 # Selection of a problem
 3 # Formulation of a problem
 4 # Research Design
 5 # A Model Design
1# Identification of research
problems:
 The selection of a topic for
research is a commitment of
one’s time and efforts in a
particular direction. There
should not be any haste in
deciding on the topic, nor in
defining its scope.
Identification of research
problems:
 The selection of a suitable topic for
research is in many ways the most
difficult task. There are many pitfalls
to be avoided and there are many
persons who have failed to complete
their research, not because they were
lazy or badly organized, but because
their topic was not suitable for
research.
Identification of research
problems:
 Probably the most common
mistake is to choose a topic
that is too large at the level at
which the person is studying
working; in their enthusiasm.
Identification of
research problems:
• In specific problem – solving
research , a research is concerned
with application of research
methods to find satisfactory solution
to a pressing problem. In a business
there are numerous problems which
need solutions. As the resources are
limited, it is indispensable to
identify only the important problems.
IDENIFICATION OF
RESEARCH PROBLEM
2 # Selection of a problem
A research problem rightly and rationally
selected helps the researchers to complete
the project within the prescribed time limit
and the budgeted amount. In selecting a
problem , researcher should take into
consideration the following factors :
# Researcher’s interest
# Topic of significance
# Researcher’s resources
# Novelty of the ideas
# Availability of data
# Benefits of the research
3 # FORMULATION OF
A PROBLEM
Formulation of a research problem is
translating and transforming the selected
problem in to a scientific research question.
Proper formulation of the problem
i ) provides a sense of direction to the
research
ii) Specifies the scope of the Research
iii) Indicates the limitation of the Research
iv) Clarifies the problem
v) Establishes the major assumptions
vi) Provides Economy in Research
Steps in formulation :

Developing a little
•Developing
•Working
Working of conceptual model
•Defining
Defining the objectives
•Limiting
Limiting the scope
•Formulation
Formulation of hypothesis
Operational definition of
•Operational
concepts
Research design :

• A research design is a plan of


action. It is a plan for collecting
and analyzing , data in an
economic efficient and relevant
manner. It is blue print and its
best only tentative.
Research design :

 Miller has defined 1# Designed research as “


The planned sequence of the entire process
involved in conducting a research study ”.
 According to Selltiz and others 2 # “ Research
design is a catalogue of the various phases
and facts relating to the formulation of a
research effort. It is an arrangement of the
essential conditions for collection and
analysis of data in a form that aims to
combine relevance to research purpose with
economy in the procedure”.
Research design :

 3 # A research design designates the


logical manner in which in individuals
or other units are compared and
analysed , it is the basis of making
interpretations from the data.
 4 # Research design is the plan ,
structure and strategy of investigation
conceived so to obtain answers to
research questions and control
variable.
Components of Research
Design
 Research design consists of the
following components :
 Title of the study
 Statement of the problem
 Review or Previous Studies
 Definition of Concept or
Theoretical Principles involved if
any
 Coverage and the scope of the study
 Objective of the study
Components of Research
Design
 Formulation of hypothesis
 Methods of investigation
 Sampling design
 Constructing of Schedule or
Questionnaire
 Data collection
 Analysis of Data
 Interpretation of Results
 Reporting the Findings
Distinction between Research
Method and Methodology :
 Research Methods
 Methods are essentially the tools used to gather the
data for analysis. Often this is assumed to refer to
those techniques more associated with positivist
models such as experiment, surveys, questionnaires,
statistical analysis of existing data (unobtrusive
research). However, taking a qualitative approach, a
number of quite different research methods might be
employed. These could include, participant
observation, action research, role play, focus groups,
case studies, narrative approaches, interviews – (on a
continuum of structured to unstructured) and so on.
Distinction between Research
Method and Methodology :
 Research Methodology
 The term methodology refers to the stance
taken at the outset of research, as distinct
from the methods – tools, used to gather the
data that is to be scrutinised for the purposes
of the enquiry. There are essentially two
broad approaches to methodology,
quantitative and qualitative. Layder (1993:3)
succinctly describes the former as based on
'theory testing' and the latter as 'theory
building', helpfully highlighting the distinctive
nature of the two stances.