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Data Link

Layer
Facilitador:
Diego Avila P.

1
Objectives
 Identify the caracteristics of network media used in Ethernet.
 Describe the physical and data link features of Ethernet.
 Describe the function and characteristics of the media access
control method used by Ethernet protocol.
 Explain the importance of Layer 2 addressing used for data
transmission and determine how the different types of
addressing impacts network operation and performance.
 Compare and contrast the application and benefits of using
Ethernet switches in a LAN as apposed to using hubs.
 Explain the ARP process.
Characteristics of Network Media used in Ethernet
 Identify several characteristics of Ethernet in its early
years
Physical and Data Link Features of Ethernet

 Standards and Implementation


Physical and Data Link Features of Ethernet
 Describe how the Ethernet operates across two layers
of the OSI model
Physical and Data Link Features of Ethernet
 Logic Link Control – Connecting the Upper Layers
Physical and Data Link Features of Ethernet
 Media Access Control (MAC)
Function and Characteristics of the Media Access
Control Method

 MAC in Ethernet
Function and Characteristics of the Media Access
Control Method

 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection


Layer 2 Addressing and Its Impact on Network
Operation and Performance

 The Frame Encapsulating


IEEE 802 Committees
802.0 SEC
802.1 High Level Interface (HILI)
802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC)
802.3 CSMA/CD Working Group IEEE 802.3 - 10 Mbps
802.4 Token Bus
IEEE 802.3u - 100 Mbps
802.5 Token Ring
IEEE 802.3z - 1000 Mbps
802.6 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
IEEE 802.3ab - 1000 Mbps (TP)
802.7 BroadBand Technical Adv. Group (BBTAG) IEEE 802.3ae – 10Gbps (TP)
802.8 Fiber Optics Technical Adv. Group (FOTAG)
802.9 Integrated Services LAN (ISLAN)
802.10 Standard for Interoperable LAN Security (SILS)
802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) IEEE 802.11
802.12 Demand Priority
IEEE 802.11a
802.14 Cable-TV Based Broadband Communication Network
IEEE 802.11b WiFi
802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
IEEE 802.11g
802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (BBWA)
IEEE 802.11n
RPRSG Resilient Packet Ring Study Group (RPRSG)
100-Mbps Ethernet
 100-Mbps Ethernet is also known as Fast Ethernet
100BASE-TX is copper UTP
100BASE-FX is multimode optical fiber

 Frame format
100-Mbps frame format is the same as the 10-Mbps frame

 Parts of the transmission process


Two separate encoding steps are used
The first part of the encoding uses a technique called
4B/5B
The second part of the encoding is the actual line encoding
specific to copper or fiber
1000-Mbps Ethernet
 1000-Mbps Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet Transmission
Fiber and copper media

 The 1000BASE-X IEEE 802.3z


Specifies 1 Gbps full duplex over optical fiber

 1000BASE-TX, 1000BASE-SX, and 1000BASE-LX

Frame Format
Same format used for 10 and 100-Mbps Ethernet
1000-Mbps Ethernet
 1000BASE-T (IEEE 802.3ab) was developed to
provide additional bandwidth for:
Intra-building backbones
Inter-switch links
Server farms
Connections for high-end workstations
Supports both half-duplex and full-duplex

 Fiber-based Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-X)


Uses 8B/10B encoding (similar to 4B/5B)
This is followed by Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) line
encoding
1000Base-LX/SX
 NRZ signals are pulsed into the fiber
Short-wavelength (1000BASE-SX )
Long-wavelength (1000BASE-LX)
 Separate fibers
Transmitting (Tx)
Receiving (Rx)
Inherently full duplex
 Gigabit Ethernet is the dominant technology for:
Backbone installations
High-speed cross-connects
General infrastructure
10 Gigabit Ethernet
 IEEE 802.3ae, governs the 10GbE family
 Provide increased bandwidth
 Interoperable with existing infrastructure
 Implementations being considered:
10GBASE-SR
10GBASE-LX4
10GBASE-LR and 10GBASE-ER
10GBASE-SW, 10GBASE-LW, and 10GBASE-EW
10 Gigabit Ethernet
 10GBASE-SR –
Short distances, supports a range between 26 m to 82
m
 10GBASE-LX4 –
Uses wide wavelength division multiplexing (WWDM)
240 m to 300 m over multimode fiber
10 km over single-mode fiber
 10GBASE-LR and 10GBASE-ER –
Support 10 km and 40 km over single-mode fiber
 10GBASE-SW, 10GBASE-LW, and 10GBASE-EW –
Known collectively as 10GBASE-W
Works with OC-192 synchronous transport module
Future of Ethernet
 The future of networking media is three-fold:
1.Copper (up to 10000 Mbps, perhaps more)
2.Wireless (approaching 100 Mbps, perhaps more)
3.Optical fiber (currently at 10,000 Mbps and soon to be
more)

 Copper and wireless media have certain physical


and practical limitations
Dispositivos de Capa 2
NICs
 Provée el puerto para la conexión de red
Operación de la NIC
 Dispositivo de Capa 1 y Capa 2
 Primeramente Capa 2
Se comunica con las capas superiores del
computador
Logical Link Control
Trae grabada en ROM la dirección MAC
Encapsula datos en tramas
Provée acceso al medio
 También Capa 1
Crea señales y realiza interfaz con los medios
Transceptores incorporados
PUENTES (BRIDGE)
 Dispositivo de capa 2 conecta
dos segmentos de LAN
 Filtrar el tráfico de una LAN
 Verifica la dirección de cada
dispositivo de la LAN
 Crea una lista de MAC para
toma de decisiones
 Cada NIC tiene una dirección
MAC exclusiva
 El puente conecta solamente
dos segmentos a la vez
 Los routers y los switches han
desplazado al puente
SWITCH
 Dispositivo de la capa 2
 Puente multipuerto
 Toman decisiones basados
en las direcciones MAC
 LANs mucho más eficientes
 “Conmutan" datos sólo
desde el puerto de origen al
de destino
 Suministra a cada puerto el
ancho de banda total
Operación de un Switch
Operación de un Switch

 Trabaja conmutando tramas de datos


El paquete de datos es enviado al puerto que tiene
la estación receptora antes de que el paquete
entero ingrese al Switch. Tarea de guardar y
enviar
Baja latencia, alta velocidad de operación
 Mantenimiento
Construye y mantiene tablas de conmutación
Evita bucles (Spanning Tree)
Ventajas de los Switches

 Mucho más rápidos que los puentes


Basados en Hardware, no en Software

 Soporta nuevos usos


EJ. LANs virtuales (VLANs)

 Reduce los dominios de colisión


 Costo efectivo
Pueden reemplazar de manera muy simple un hub con el mismo
cableado
Interrupción mínima
Ventajas de los Switches

 Permite comunicarse a muchos usuarios en paralelo


Crea circuitos virtuales
Crea segmentos dedicados
Segmentos
Libres de colisiones
Ancho de banda máximo

 Manejo de redes flexible


Configuración basada en software

Layer 2 and layer 3 switching
(routing)

 A layer 3 switch is typically a layer 2 switch that includes a


routing process, I.e. does routing. (Oh yea, also known as
routing. Got to love those people in Marketing.)
 Layer 3 switching has many meanings and in many cases is just
a marketing term.
 Layer 3 switching is a function of the network layer.
 The Layer 3 header information is examined and the packet is
forwarded based on the IP address.

Symmetric and asymmetric switching

Two switching methods

 Store-and-forward – The entire frame is received


before any forwarding takes place.
The destination and source addresses are read and
filters are applied before the frame is forwarded.
CRC Check done
 Cut-through – The frame is forwarded through the
switch before the entire frame is received.
This mode decreases the latency of the transmission,
but also reduces error detection.

Cut-through

Cut-through
 Fast-forward – Offers the lowest level of latency.
Fast-forward switching immediately forwards a packet
after reading the destination address.
There may be times when packets are relayed with
errors.
Although this occurs infrequently and the destination
network adapter will discard the faulty packet upon
receipt.
Collision Domain
 Legacy Ethernet – Using Hubs
Colision/Broadcast Domain
 Ethernet – Using Switches
Explain the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
Process

 Mapping IP to MAC Addresses


Explain the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
Process
 ARP – Destinations Outside the Local Network
Tarea Extra-Clase:
•Realizar un cuadro comparativo de
características técnicas & estándares de 5
switches de diferentes fabricantes (Cisco,
Enterasys, 3Com, HP, D-link, ...).