1894. Sc.. President of the Board of Public Education.D. CHARLES H. Superintendent of Public Schools. NATHAN J. WILLIAM PEPPER. Permanent M. MRS. DANIEL.. President of Select Council. S.THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUMS. FRANK THOMSON. State Superintendent of Public Schools. HASTINGS.. HON. D. ROTH ROCK. EDMUNDS. THOMAS DOLAN.. Established by Ordinance of City Councils. M. SCHAEFFER. 233 South Fourth Street. C. THOMAS MEEHAX. Trustees. Philadelphia. SIMON GRATZ. JAMES It. W. CRAMP. W. Council. State Forestry Commissioner. B. WILLIAM M. CHARLES F. JOHN WANAMAKER. BOARD OF TRUSTEES. WIDENER. D. A. EDWARD BROOKS. 383151 . President of Common B. MILES. LL D. HON. WRIGHT. GEORGE F. WENCEL HARTMAN. CORNELIUS STEVENSON. SYDNEY L. DANIEL BAUGH. SAMUEL DR. i HUEY. FOULKROD.. ELKINS. Ex-Ojficio. Mayor of the City of WARWICK. H. B. P. T. Governor of Pennsylvania.

M. H. Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Information.OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. Chief of the Bureau of Information. Chief of 'Laboratories. SYDNEY WILLIAM L.D. Treasurer. ' GUSTAVE NIEDERLEIN. President.. WILLIAM HARPER. MARSHALL. Curator of Natural Products. WM. PEPPER. WM. WILLIAM P. C. A. LOUIS MATOS. Sc. WILFRED H. . WILSON. Chief of the Scientific Department. CHARLES CRAMP. M. GREEN. WRIGHT.D. B. D. LL. Secretary.. WATTS. Vice-President. Director. OFFICERS OF THE MUSEUM.. Foreign Secretary of the Bureau of Information. J. SCHOFF.

books and official documents and publications. I am especially indebted to Professor H. to Dr. Anastasio Alfaro. Juan Ullua. and of its economic and political conditions. Pittier. It is made up of observations and studies pursued in 1897 months of economic and America. Minister Resident in Washington. whose great qualifications for a scientific exploration . the Director of the National Museum. treats of the topography. it examines the agricultural development of the Republic. it recounts the most important features of its commerce.of Costa Rica cannot be overestimated. Calvo. and Mr. communities and social conditions. to Joaquin B. finance. wealth. '5) . during seven and a half scientific explorations in Central original text thought. to Mr.Introduction. geology. it displays the distribution of population according to race. in- dustry. minwealth and soils of Costa Rica. and of facts garnered with great care from authoritative manuscripts. the Minister of Fomento. the able President of the Republic of Costa Rica.shown to the work of men of originality in research and and 1898. including its live stock and forests. it describes its climate and presents the details of its flora and fauna with refereral HIS monograph ence to their economic value. Rafael Iglesias. Manuel Aragon. and. and care has been taken to adhere closely to the when either quoting or translating. the Director General of the National Statistical Department. Respect has been . finally. to Mr.


GEOLOGY AND MINERAL WEALTH. i. latitude Greenwich. between 54. in We follow here Colonel the London Geographical Journal George Earl Church's paper of July. lombia. the most northern state of South America.570 ference arising from the boundary is N.The State of Costa Rica.written grafico Nacional" abstracts of important publications of the "Institute) fisico geoand of the "Museo Nacional" of Costa Rica. is other ship-canal near the other. TOPOGRAPHY. the difline unsettled with Cosq. the southernmost Republic of Central Ameradvantageously situated within the North tropical zone. although in of Costa Rica are not a continuous Corgeneral they extend from the frontier of (7) .070 and 59. The mountains dillera. Pittier as well as well. Costa Rica. which gives in a condensed form all important results of extensive explorations by Professor H. Its longitude from 11 16' and kilometers. having also the prosof one inter-oceanic ship-canal at one extremity and anpect ica. It is between the two great oceans. Costa Rica is between 8 and 81 area 35' and 85 40' W. 1897. adjoining Colombia.

" The three masses which form the volcanic Cordillera of Irazu are separated by two depressions: first by that of 3La Palma. Irazu (11. Barba (9335 feet) and Poas (8675 feet). The basis of the two western masses seems to be formed of basaltic rocks. The three orographic groups which dominate the . while the trachytes dominate in the eastern mass. and second by that of Desengafio." It is clear that the Caribbean Sea once joined the Pacific Ocean through this valley of the river Reventazon in which the Costa Rica Railway now climbs to reach Cartago.200 feeit). lowest inter-oceanic depressions between the Arctic Ocean and the Straits of Magellan are the divide between the two oceans at Panama which is 286 feet above the sea level. Miravalles." and "Talamanca mountains" or "mountains of the southeast. between Barba and Poas. including the groups of the volcanoes Turialba (i i. Irazu and Turialba. 1500 meters above the sea. The the sea. La Vieja and Orosi. and the narrow strip of land separating Lake Nicaragua from the which has only about 150 feet elevation "volcanic mountains" or "the mountains o-f the northwest" can again be divided into two sections. which is part of the same mass. between Irazu and Barba. seem to have ejected lavas in a compact state. In data there seems to be no room for doubt weighing existing that the highlands of Costa Rica once formed part of a vast The 'archipelago extending from Panama to Tchuantepec. The height of volcanoes diminishes towards the west.8 to within a few miles of Brito. groups which can be called "volcanic mountains" or "mountains of the northwest. The second section comprises the part which extends from the Barranca River to the Lake of Nicaragua wi :'i the groups of Tilaran. The entire country properly be divided into two distinctive groups by a natural line running between the mouths of the Reventazon Colombia may and Rio Grande de Pirris. The first comprises the part situated between the Rio Reventazon and a depression which connects San Ramon with the water-shed of San Carlos. 1800 meters above Pacific. The first section may be called "Cordillera Central" or '"Cordillera del Irazu" and the second "Cordillera del Miravalles.ooo feet).

The western mountains trend first in a westerly direction to the Cerro Felon. as "well as the mountains of Chirripo. Buena Vista and Las Vueltas. Irazu. and sent its ashes as Another eruption. In its southeast trend it recedes more and more from the lake and the San Juan River. breaking down gradually on the northwest from Orosi to the Sapoa River. and also the great valleys of The San Juan and Pico of Blanco. Turialba had a famous eruption of sand and ashes which Lake Nicaragua. 1864. after The peak taking a northwesterly direction. matter fell to the west. one of the southern boundaries of .200 feet). which had eruptions in 1723. The Cordillera del Miravalles commences with the vol- cano Orosi. each one contributing to the gradual rising of Pirris the mass. 1726. 1540 meters above sea-level. The Irazu has various craters. the other. where they divide. The northern on the Irazu. summit both oceans are visible. of began on the I7th 1865.northern central plateau do not show the regular conical form which usually characterizes a volcano. occurring on was accompanied by heavy earthquakes 1866. far as Puntarenas. declivity is more precipitous. On the Irazu. 1821 and nas now an altitude of 3414 m. about sixty geographical miles long. rivers and Turialba. It is an irregular. one part descending south to the pass of Ochomogo. one spurs to the west and one to the east. the latter terminating in a crater where the Parismina River takes its origin. terminating in the plain of La Palma. for instance. situated near the southwest extremity of Lake Nicaragua. and lasted to March. The general line of the southern slopes ascends in an imperceptible manner to- wards the summit. such terraces are observable from Cartago to the sumeight mit. which is a part of the water-shed of the two oceans. formed successively. it as andesite. being over 60 of the Irazu is a point from which go various and secondary mountains in opposite directions. notwithstanding that they are composed of a succession of terrace plains. Its heaviest ejected August. and See- bach classifies February 6. broad and volcano-dotted chain. On the south various mountains follow the. and from its 1847. (i 1.

850 There are no signs :>f feet) and Buena Vista (10. lying between San Marcos and Santa Maria. and a little more than 5000 feet above the sea-level at the water parting. and. must at all times have had a marked influence on the movement of races in this part of Central America. about twenty miles broad. These mountains.820 feet). is known as the Dota ridge. the latter being especially visible in the valley of Tempisque. as well as vast deposits of boulders. the Rincon (4498 feet). western range. and the Orosi (5195 feet). an elevated plain and partly consists of hills and partly mountain ridges seldom attaining a greater elevation than 1500 feet. clay. as Colonel Church says. This lofty. but extensive sedimentary rock formations are also found upon their slopes. Vieja (6508 feet). are found to be of eruptive origin. the volcanoes Miravalles (4665 feet). Pico Blanco (9650 feet). and in a broad. Chirripo Grande (11. On the south of this depression the Chirripo Grande mountain mass sends off A part of the east and west two immense flanking ranges. basalts and trachytes predominating. Both the northern and Talamanca sections present mountains in masses instead of sierrated like many Andean chains of North Those of the Talamanca section are Rovalo America. recent volcanic activity in the Talamanca range. and to the westward the Rio Grande de Pirris. forming a part of Guanacaste. (7050 feet). transverse and precipitous mountain system almost forbids communication between the northern and southern halves of the Republic. The Talamanca mountains have narrow crests and are very precip- . to which former explorers gave great importance. Nicaragua. Between the northern volcanic section and the more regular Talamanca range is the notable "Ochomogo" Pass. as far as they have been examined. It is also composed of eruptive rocks and sedi- The peninsula mentary formations. earth and volcanic material. deeply eroded valley. runs the tumultuous Reventazon River. To the eastward through this gap.10 In this short distance are found the Cerro de la. the Montemuerto (8000 feet). the beautiful volcano Tenorio (6700 feet). for a length of about six miles. is of Nicoya.

observes that the geological structure of the entire region is very simple. Professor feet Station. like the sediment that covers them. M. having a character distinct from all the other rocks found in the country. unusual ruggedness and scarred with deep and precipitous canons. indicate the previous existence of an older sedimentary formation. a mountain of great altitude. The greatest expanse is occupied by recent sedimentary rocks raised and nearly entirely meta- morphosed by the action of volcanic masses. although the conglomerates. the syenites and granites had not yet appeared from the interior of the earth. interstratified with conglomerates or more recent manca have fossils been found the schists. The syenites are intrusive and have their culminating point and greatest development in the Pico Blanco or Kamuk. the latter appearing occasionally in layers. are broken through here and there by dikes of volcanic origin identical with the eruptive material found on a greater scale in the northern part of Costa Rica.II items on the Atlantic side. when veloped geographical horizon of the sedimentary group. in his geological sketch of Talamanca. about seven hundred Gabb saw at Las Lomas above the sea. At several points along the Atlantic coast. In regard to fossils. although same rocks are very fossiliferous near Zapote on the River Reventazon. All these dikes are of more modern formation and are porphyritic. The limestone and sandstone represent a less deirrefutable proof that. there are found masses of rocks of still later date. schists and limestones. the schists being the most abundant. The pebbles which form the conglomerates are composed of metamorphic clay. found all over the region. which. Professor Gabb terior maintains that the nucleus of the great Cordillera of the inis formed by granites and syenites. erates is The absence of crystalline rocks in the conglom- these were deposited. Gabb. The cement is also clay or sand. in the Bonilla . with evidences of extensive denudations and erosions caused by the ceaseless rain-laden Professor William trade-winds. Professor Gabb also notes a thick deposit of conglomerates and sandstones. In no place in Tala- in these sandstones.

the latter marly schists. a rock which Professor Gabb calls "antillite. etc.12 Cliffs fish. In the interior valleys a thick deposit of pebbles and clays of recent origin is observed. a sub-soil above which is found a small cap of vegetable mold. above which are found successively limestone in very deep banks and sometimes fossiliferous then argillaceous and . if they have not been metamorphosed. again. is formed of a nucleus of basaltic or syenitic rocks. Along the Talamanca coast calcareous deposits are found in horizontal layers. as well as in certain lower and denuded parts. Professor H. Pittier says. the last of the Tertiary series. tion and is the cause of sterile lands characterized by savannas and the absence of forests on the upper parts of the mountains. compact masses of sea shells. the hills and giving way very forming generally the crests of which produces its decomposieasily to atmospheric action. sandstone and conglomerates. Higher up. It belongs to the post-Pliocene formation. In the valley of Tsuku the are profoundly altered and transformed in a magnesic or semi-talcous rock. compact shark's teeth. an elevation of 2500 feet large deposits of shell limestone. In this rock fossils have been found which belong to a Miocene age. The schists are more silicified in fertile schists coming near to the limits of the syenites. while the summit itself shows a greenish-brown trachyte with black spots. as a whole. the granitic rocks extend in the direction of the Pico Blanco without interruption. The limit between the syenites of the high mountains and the metamorphosed Miocene formation is found in proximity to the Depuk River. leaf-like texture. "The southern coast Cordillera. cutting. and at The schists have a fine." and which is developed in the entire Caribbean region. is observed. . and are easily decomposed and reduced to a black mud. In the slopes of the hills the schists are usually decomposed and covered with red clay. In regard to the Pacific side of this Talamanca section. and are probably elevated coral reefs. The Pico Blanco itself Three hundred feet below the summit porphyry is of granite.

bordered by numerous and lofty hills and cut into gorges by small impetuous water courses. which fathoms. south of Cacique Point. we come. while the western is indented with large and small bays and gulfs. Frantzius. The western entrance of the extensive Gulf of gulf extends fifty miles to the northwest and is . presents no harbor as far as Cape Blanco. cious is a mile wide. The eastern is Elena. diorites Dr. enough The coast line south of Cocos Bay. speaks of and syenites. between the outlines of regular and slightly concave to the southwest. There is also a notable difference the two coasts. is margined almost -throughout by headlands and lofty hills. erosions than the Atlantic coast. Continuing south. to Port Culebra. The same scientist says further that the high plains of Caiios Gordas are formed of conglomerates of ashes ejected by the volcano o<f Chiriqui and brought there by the tradewinds which prevail in Central America The Pacific slope.13 The conglomerates as are made up is of heterogeneous elements \vhose resistance to erosion variable. The lower valley of the Pirris presents a cap of impervious red clay. by Sacate Point. The most northern of these bays is the Salinas. also of calcareous deposits of the Miocene age covered with sandstone formations containing In his opinion the mountain of Dota is formed almost entirely of dioritic rocks with some syenitic nucleus. Some disintegrate soon as they are exposed to erosion. overlooked by the volcanic peak spacious deep-water harbor. belonging It is a partly to Nicaragua and partly to Costa Rica. referring to the same region. which comes boldly to the water's edge. while others remain unaltered for a long time. with a depth of eighteen Cocos Bay. For this reason the savannas are in many places covered with stones of varied sizes. and as the waters do not readily drain off they become stagnant and make an unhealthy district. It is separated from the adjoining bay. and has fewer evidences of extensive denudations and useful lignites. capathousand ships to anchor in the roadstead. the Santa of Orosi. At the outlet of this harbor lies for a which is at the Nicoya.

and small craft go along it with ease. has a dangerous bar. The is garnered nearly the entire coffee crop coast line south is rocky and precipitous . although there are many beautiful and ferThe west side of the gulf is full of reefs.14 a magnificent sheet of water. Some twenty islands. violent currents. enters at the head of the gulf. Niooya is broken into hills and low mountains. It rises rapidly a short distance inland. from 1814 until recently. nearly all bold. The eastern shore is less beset by obstructions. the Tempisque. but once inside it may be navigated a few miles. the only port of entry of Costa Rica on the Pacific coast. on a sand spit three miles long. eddies that run from one to three and a half miles an hour. rarely cultivated. which enters the gulf south of the Barranca. All of the streams have bars at their mouths. contribute to its beauty. while many small rivaling. surrounded by green scenery. Near the mouth Ocean stead. and but few of them are navigable even for a short distance inland. not surpassing. From Puntarenas 'southward to the unnavigable Barranca River there is a broad beach lying at the foot of the vessels high escarpment of Caldera. draining the slopes of the sierras small branches irrigates much of the province of Guanacaste. flow into it and diversify the scenery. rocky and covered with vegetation. and at high tide penetrate a few of its many rivers. if Miravalles and Tilaran and the mountains o-f the peninsula of Nicoya. wild and tile valleys. and which had. and then by very The whole eastern part of the peninsula of small craft. The principal river. In the neighbor- hood of these towns of Costa Rica. and with numerous rivers. swamps. Its upper waters irrigate the tableland of San Jose. but is at times bordered by mangrove of the river Aranjuez. The Rio Grande de Tarcoles. Alajuela and Heredia. or the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. rocks. large and small. that of the Bay of Naples. stands Puntarenas. composed generally of mud and broken shells. the Bosphorus. and is subject to violent squalls coming from the northwestern sierras. anchor from one to two miles off in the roadThere is an iron pier for loading and discharging. nearly the entire foreign trade of the country.

to Burica Point. penetrates inland northwest about twentyeight miles. which marks its western entrance. Judas. and is From Point low and surrounded by reefs and rocks. where dense forests are encountered. but is occupied by only a few families. is deep and forest covered. or Judas. but Banco Point. the head waters of the former flowing through deep canyons with steep sides. at the southeastern mouth of the gulf. Formerly it was the home of a large indige- nous population. at the northeast angle of is hilly. inated From which the gulf. . The only safe and excellent anchorage in this one hundred miles is Uvita Bay.and almost uninhabited. The valley of the Rio Grande de Terraba is one of the most beautiful. cut through at intervals by short impetuous streams and a few estuaries. the country rises rapidly between Golfito and the entrance to the gulf it is lower and less broken. These give birth to a few short turbulent streams. and the Rio Grande de Terraba. the southern limit of Costa Rica. At the head of the gulf is found the little Bay of Rincon. and thence to Platanal Point and Burica Point. but a few hundred half-breeds as their sole occupants. which are almost bare of vegetation until the region of Guaitil is reached. opposite to it. There are but two rivers in the long coast line from the -Gulf of Nicoya to the Golfo Dulce. Ihe coasts of Golfo Dulce have but inland.until near Punta Mala. the country descending gradually from the northeast. the coast trends southeast in a long angular curve for about one hundred marine miles to Point Llorena. and thence to the harbor of Golfito. the coast is bold. called Punta Llorena. behind a rocky reef. having a main width of six miles. soon rising into ridges and peaks from 300 to 700 meters high (985 to 2300 feet). is low. About half way between these two points the great Golfo Dulce. It has an average depth of one hundred fathoms. From Point Llorena to Point Burica the coast is wild . surrounded by high hills. Cape Matapalo. It is dom- by lofty hills. the coast is abrupt. the Rio Grande de Pirris. low and covered with mangrove swamps. extensive and fertile of Costa Rica. the shore is here to the Esquinas River. From the precipitous headline.

are the little streams. Quijada. It pours much sedimentary matter into Lake Nicaragua. and even a small river steamer can ascend a few miles from the lake. Santa Barbara. according to the season. An ancient road many runs by near this place. Quesera. The depth of its mouth. El Cangrejo. there Turning to the hydrographic basin of the San Juan RIVT and Lake Nicaragua. Perrito and. finally. Several of its branches can be reached and navigated by cano^e. being about one hundred and sixty feet wide at its mouth and navigable. which is at El Muelle de San Rafael where there are from four to six feet of water. The Rio Frio is of considerable magniits and with many branches drains a large area of the territory lying on the slopes of the volcanoes of Miravalles and Tenorio. we cross the rivers Zavalos. Sardinia. The San Carlos River joins the San Juan sixty-five miles from Lake Nicaragua. Between Cuajiniquil. Cano Frio. The San Carlos has numerous affluents which at times have a volume of water altogether disproportionate to their lengths. and the principal rivers which cross r this tract are Negro and Rio tude. varies from eight to twenty feet. From here to San Carlos. which is obstructed by a sand-bar. Lapita.In the angle made by the River Buena Vista and Chirripo is a vast ancient cemetery. Zapote. and Tortuga. Mena. For three or four miles above the mouth of the River Frio the lands are low and swampy. Las Haciendas w hich is navigable by small boats. Papalusco. two and one-fourth miles east of Rio Sapoa. Sapotillo. principally eagles. the latter the greatest in volume. In the further distance of seventeen miles going east. Puente de Piedra. six miles further east. Genizaro and Tortuga. and has thrown an extensive mudbank across the lake entrance to the River San Juan. La Yivora. Barreal. Quijadita. Cafiitas. Guaeolito. the graves of which contain ornaments of gold. El Pizote. is roughly fixed at sixty-two . Guabo. The distance up to the first rapid of the San Carlos River. the distance is sixty-four kilometers. at the outlet of Lake Nicaragua. the northeastern slope of the Miravalles range is found to send off several small streams to the lake. Canas. Mico.

but occasionally a hill is found from fifteen to eighteen feet high. El Muelle Nuevo is the head of navigation. The next great river. the waters of the upper San Juan and the lower San Carlos would be impounded and form an arm of Lake Nicaragua. some twenty miles distant. Small steamers could reach this point. the principal ones being the Toro Amarilla and Sardinal from the west.17 miles by the course of the river. The river is navigable for large canoes Its banks as up to its confluence with the Puerto Viejo. and has numerous affluents from the sides of the volcanoes Poas. branch or bayou of the San Juan. Barba and Irazu. which would flood a large area in Costa Rica. Below the Machuca Rapids the San Juan River is broad and deep as far as the junction with its Colorado outlet. from which floating islands are formed. From the Colorado Junction to Greytown. Should the plans of Engineer Menocal for the Nicaragua Canal be realized. only from eight to nine feet of water. the banks of the latter in Costa Rica are but slightly elevated. The interval between the San Carlos and the River Frio is an extensive forest. although with difficulty on account of many The floods sometimes rise to their full height in snags. twenty-four hours The lands are exhigh up as to the River Sucio are low. trees and carry with them a great number of and much sand. tremely forty-five miles from the River San Juan and sixty-six miles a by the road across the mountains from San Jose. and on which there are volume of water into the Colorado. covering an undulating plain with occasional low hills and watered by numerous little streams. of its Here it turns about nine-tenths It is navigable for but has a dangerous bar at its river steamers at all seasons. about seventeen miles from the sea. and the River Sucio from the east. fertile. reaches the San Juan about twenty miles east of San Carlos. From the Sarapiqui River to the River Colorado. This territory is fertile and beautiful. the Sarapiqui. the San Juan averages about three hundred . mouth where the sea breaks heavily. The lands are low and swampy. It is 600 feet wide at its mouth.

but the Parismina with The its Its lower course is several branches is a child of Irazu. rivers The Palacio and Penetencia. Camaron. This river forms several lagoons which communicate with each other by canos or bayous perfectly navigable. about one thoufeet in width. The margins of the Parismina are swampy. Cano Desenredo. it turns northward to join the Parismina. The Colorado has several islands in its course. with a width for sixteen miles and 100 feet for the remaining depth at high water of from six to eight feet. The former is short. Its numerous upper streams lying south of the Colorado. the Cano de Tortuguero is reached. Sierpe and Parismina rivers flow into the sea south of Tortuguero.18 feet in four. which however has its confluence with the former a few miles from the sea. The lower district drained by the Tortuguero is raised but little above the ocean. Cano Agua Fria The Cano de Tortuguero communi- by the canos California and FranMoria Soto. and interweaves its . a short distance from the sea. eleven miles in length. and in flood time the river communicates by several canos with the Matina and with the delta of the Colorado. which are also navigable. and. The Reventazon River has carved its way to a profound depth around the south and southeastern bases of Irazu and Turialba. as the la formed from sev- and Cano de cisco Lomas. flanking the latter volcano. Novillos and the Destierro. rise in the cates with the Parismina spurs of Irazu and Turialba. navigable for boats. with a depth of from fifty to sixty feet. It has as its affluents the Guasimo. Passing from the difficult Cano de la Palma in the midst of swamps. It is sand approximately thirty-eight miles long. the principal being the Agua Dulce. 800 feet in width and from ten to forty feet in depth. but has excellent anchorage at its mouth. the entrance to which from the sea is called Cuatro Esquinas. It receives many tributaries from the northern slope of the Talamanca range. which by its affluents. as well as with the lagoon of Caiman. is gives name to the plains watered eral of these canos. sometimes considered to be a part of the River Reventazon. empty into this cano. The River Tortuguero.

Sometimes a violent gale closes one of th-e openings. but in 1651 Governor Salinas closed the northern channel. is a short stream with a large volume which enters the sea just north of Port Limon near the roadstead of Moin. but the river again forces an exit to the ocean through the obstruction. and has The Matina River but little depth of water within a mile of the shore. in latitude 10 west from Greenwich. cutting through the sand bank.19 head waters with those of the Rio Grande de Tarcolles and the Rio Grande de Pirris. enters the sea about half way between the mouth of the Reventazon and that of the Maitina. said to be navigable the whole distance by boats. It is only frequented from April until August by fishermen. It is behind a narrow coral reef. The harbor faces the south. once known as Suerre. in 1630. up to 1880. ocean craft anThe River Matina is navigable by small steamers chored. which flow into the Pacific Ocean. is forbidding and dangerors. This whole coast for sixty-five miles. heavy surf breaks during the entire year. joined the Reventazon. who find their way to the River San Juan through the intricate system of rivers and canos described. closing the port of Suerre. the Chirripo. The Pacuare River. It yearly overflows its lower valley. over the bar and by large ones above the bar to the point where it receives its principal 'affluents. The intermediate rivers pour into this narrow lagoon. which are all shallow. and. Barbilla and Zent. and is formed by a little peninsula on which Limon is situated. enter the sea. is being raised with <earth about four . which now has perhaps 3500 to 4000 population. driving their currents across it. north and longitude Port Limon. upon which a monotonous. Its waiters. is the only port of entry of 83 3' 13" Costa Rica on the Caribbean Sea. deflecting its waters and restoring the port. between which and the mainland is a lagoon. The site. is separated from the Caribbean Sea by a continuous narrow sand bank. where. from the River Colorado to the Matina. of water. The entire mainland of the coast. instead of flowing to the sea. The first house was built there in 1871. depositing an inch or two of exceedingly fertile mud highly appreciated by the banana planters.

It has several branches. Along its lower margin mud flats to a great width. Within filled are long. through a spacious. this sandbelt .20 feet. like the Uren coming from the slopes of the Pico Blanco. the Supurio and others. called Uvita. and. and its port will become one of the smoothest of the Caribbean Sea. narrow. at times intermingling with the Cordillera. Along the entire sea margin of Talamanca runs a narrow sand belt of firm land. then follows the Teliri. cover a region which surrounds also the lagoon of Sansan. The little River Banana is the first one met with going south. It is the It runs largest stream in Costa Rica south of Port Limon. in some places dry and in others swampy. accommodating two sea-going ships. flat and swampy. and extends up the rivers Zhorquin and Sicsola. At the entry of the of the Teliri and Coen rivers. partly low grounds. along the southern base of the great eastern mountains of the Talamanca range. undulating. called in its lower course the Sicsola. also a short stream. in a at times not a hundred feet wide. at the foot of which the interior plain of Talamanoa. lies east at a distance of 3660 feet from the town. except where it is broken by hills. A small island. Port Limon has a wooden pier 930 feet long. and so uniformly that the water courses run indifferently and frequently change their beds. from its mouth towards the spread northwest. and its valleys produce large quantities of timber and bananas. wooded valley of 100 to 150 square miles area. bat an iron pier is about to replace it. which will berth four large ones of deep draught. deep lagoons These with half-stagnant water from the mud flats. The Talamanca coast lying south of Limon is low. fifteen kilometers in length and eight kilometers in width. the pyramid-like high valleys mountains of Nefomin and Nenfiobete appear. Next comes the Estrella. which few miles reach an altitude of several thousand feet. which makes a turbulent way to the sea from the Talamanca mountains. like that described between the Matina and San Juan rivers. Behind the muddy zone the lands rise rapidly into hills. Southward of Sicsola is the Tilorio or Changuinola. extends from southwest to northeast.

1896. and crosses it to the headwaters of the River Calobebora. in plains interior. Costa Rica claims sovereignty on the Atlantic side southeast as far as the Island of Escudo de Veragua. governments signed a convention submitting their dispute French Republic. At Limon. Between the Sicsola and the Tilorio lies the already mentioned. latitude 5 32' 57" and Its highest point longitude 86 58' 25" W. in the event of his failure to act. about two hundred and sixty-six miles to the southwest of the Golfo Dulce.21 lagoons usually open into the rivers which descend from the mountains. of Greenwich. overflowed with not less than ten feet of water in the rainy season and only traversable in the dry. Since their independence Colombia and Costa Rica have been in dispute in regard to their boundary line. wherce the descent is gradual to a bold. which are connected by spurs with the more elevated country of the Between them. and Laguna de Sierpe. Colombia has never ceased to claim jurisdiction over the entire Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. the Lagunas de Poas The and de Barba. to the President of Mexico to the arbitration of the President of the or of the Swiss Confederation. . in the south. Laguna de Arenal. in Talamanca. between Las Cafias and San Carlos. eaich on a volcano bearing its name. then down this stream to the Escudo de Veragua. in N. in Guanacaste. Lagunas de Sansan and Samay. from one to five miles inland. extend to the ocean coast. the hills. includ- ing the ancient Ducado de Veragua. lies the Cocos Island. northwest from the Sarapiqui River. are forest-covered extending swamps. Laguna San Carlos. whose frontier follows the coast of Chiriqui Viejo to the crest of the Cordillera. crooked and deep lagoon called the Laguna de Sansan. Far away from Costa Rica. northward from the Golfo Dulce. and even over that of Nicaragua as In November. Cahuita and Puerto Viejo. principal lakes of Costa Rica are the Laguna Manati. in the plains of San Carlos. or. reaches 2250 feet. both far north as Cape Gracias a Dios. towards the east and near the Siesola River. in the Pacific Ocean. Laguna Tenoria.

and coal in certain sandstone formations In on both the Atlantic and Pacific sides of the Talamanca section. one bonanza of which produced $1. It is estimated. at 2000 feet elevation. having room ous for a dozen ships. especially . and are from two to forty feet wide. The first mine was Guapinol.000. Several other mines were worked. Other islands are interior is is The Carlo.000. cart road In the province of Alajuela. level broken into numerprobably not a square kilothe entire island. part of an old mountain range which extends far to the northwest. Most of the ore is of a high grade and of refractory character. and have yielded very lucrative bonanzas.22 steep coast. in a good climate. sometimes in porphyry. but that called the Quebrada Honda is sixteen feet wide. petroleum has been discovered near Uruchiko on the Talamanca coast. fertile valleys. Here.000 have been taken from Monte tainable. is Monte Aguacate. wide. are found auriferous veins of great richness. principally of diorite and porphyry. and not very distant from the Gulf of Nicoya. also found gold in the slopes of the Buena Vista mountain. Professor Pittier quartz. but there meter of ground in Chira. regard to the mineral wealth of Costa Rica.000. Mineral Wealth.000. in great part. San Lucas. a little to the north of the which runs from San Jose to Puentarenas. and are encased in feldspar. which has many irregularities and rocks and a surf-beaten shore. Venado. and occaof crystalline sionally in basalt. basalt and dolorite. They are of quartz mixed with decomposed feldspathic rocks. in the northwestern extension of this district consist principally of feldspar. Gold is further found in the Talamanca mountains. They consist. it is of metamorphic formation. It is probable that the whole southwestern slope of the The rocks Guatusos and Miravalles ranges of mountains is auriferous. from one of which (Los Castros) $2. that about Several of these veins are from six to seven feet Aguacate. from the best data ob1.000 were taken in a few years. porphyry. etc. Chatham Bay is its best harbor. The gold veins nearly all run northeast and southwest. In general.

Copper and silver. . and on the inferior between the Lari and Coen rivers. have been discovered in Diquis. and native copper in Puriscal. Principal Mines Registered in 1892. iron exists. Along the latter. between Paso Real and Lagarto. and near Akbeta. also on the shore of Puerto Viejo. Other mines are included in the following table: The Name of Mine. Professor Pittier says.23 in the placer hills grounds of the Duedi River.

San Roque. San Carlos.77 " There are to be mentioned for instance. Miravalles. those in Agua Caliente. of the Isqui River.01 pounds. Bagaces.20 5. about five miles from the City of Cartago and belonging to the Bella Vista Company. Fixed carbou 3. Ausoles. those near the also some mineral waters. those of Orosi and Salitral. etc.56 88.84 2002. mouth .60 per ceLt.64 Ash Total " " " " 100 Sulphur 4319 " Coke Coke per ton of coal Fuel value Fuel ratio 93.14 1:24. of Poas.24 Proximate composition Moisture Volatile matter : 2. 9. on the Talamanca coast. as. Liberia.

on the position of the sun at different times of the year. the Meteorological Conditions in San Jose During the . owing to the narrow- ness of the country and its situation between the two great oceans. it is well-tempered by the alisios (northeast trades) and other winds. I begin this chapter with the following table which gives Year J896. and on the topography. CLIMATE OF COSTA The RICA. but.II. climate of Costa Rica depends on its situation In the tropics.

and most from one to four o'clock p. the most frequent winds blow from S. none. from E. m. The prevailing wind north-northeast and east. and at three o'clock during the last four months. The heat at all times.. curs regularly during the months from October to March inclusive... The minimum occurs always in the ital The average atmospheric of the country. N. The course the characters of an insular climate. to N. E. During August. is. The coldest month is January. at nine o'clock a. the capThe maximum oc665. . S. m. without having so much is average temperature season.. 186 N. 227 E. The hottest months are May and June. humidity. and continues during the first month of the rainy season.. N. E. The climate of the uplands an eternal spring. of calms is The number in the cities is small. m.. N. Also the daily oscillation greatest in The oscillation of the March and during the dry considerable during the dry season. The wind nearly al- ways moderate. or. S. from seven to ten o'clock a. but during the dry season the dust whirled up is very disagreeable. S... the movement is retrograde. from seven o'clock ity is least The velocp. September and the heavy winds blow also from rains of that season. October an increase of is from the northeast.21 mm. during the time of observations at San Jose. : The daily variation of winds is generally as follows At seven a. W. according to the condition of the sky. m. at ten o'clock a. m. 6 S. 4 W. to N. none. I S. there were noted 13 hours of north winds. m. and during the rest of the year at eleven o'clock p. is .. E.26 pressure of Saoi Jose. E. at one o'clock and at four o'clock p. S. W... 25 S.. E. N. E. S. m. 571 N. is afternoon at four o'clock during the first eight months of the year. 58 E. as at that time the sky is clear and the soil exposed to uninterrupted insolation during the day. better. of the temperature has all moderate and agreeable. W. W. N. 3 W. 85 is W. December and February are relatively cold.. E. S. E.. to N. m.. E. while the earth's radiation of heat during the night is rapid. In 1889. 93 E. northwest winds causes the West-northwest and northwest May to August. from E. E.

March. The hour of most sunshine during the year is that between eight and nine a. even during the most rainy months. and that of the 2. months from May to October. when it 20. due to ascending atmospheric currents. the rain record for 126 days out of ten months showed a fall of loo inches. The oscillation of the temperature of the soil at a 13 C. at the western foot of the Ochomogo Pass. and from seventy to eighty inches during the year. February is the month of most sunshine and least nebulosity. six miles San Jose." Through the Desengafio and Palma Passes the northern rains penetrate a short distance every day. not one day is clear. November there are about two hours of between one and four o'clock in the afternoon.. and the northern descent of the Palma towards Carillo is probably the most to From May copious rain daily rainy district of the Republic. from ten to twelve inches a month. Although the rainfalls are abundant here from May to October. with great regularity. when is it is 20. the temperature of the soil is lowest in February and depth of one meter. per year. having an elevation of 4140 feet. measured nine inches in rainfall in one and one-half hours. with a fall of eightyfour inches. that is an average of five hours and fourteen minutes per day. is. During the hottest hours of the day the sky begins regularly to be darkened by clouds. and highest in August. m. The three while. At a depth of three meters. while at San Jose. Towards the end of June there is a short dry period called "Veranillo de San Juan. with rare exceptions they do not last more than a few hours each day. and cloudy the rest of the twenty-four hours. The mornings are generally splendid and the air very pure. least is in the afternoon. and nearly every day the sunset can be clearly observed. At Tres Rios. In the month of May Professor Pittier.. and the sky is relatively clear. In San Jose the sky is ordinarily clear between midnight and noon. .27 In 1890 the sun shone in San Jose 1911 hours. 48 C. 75 C. during the same period of ten months there were 147 rainy days. to whom east of we owe these excellent data. daily variation is almost nothing during the first of the year. averaging.

28 gwjl O> 1 1 l 1 to O\ I I mi ^ ' 3"S2I M ^ ^ 1 5M . SSI o .

the rain gauge record kept by Mason at San Jose shows a yearly average precipitation of sixtyfour and one-fourth inches. and very seldom until during the morning hours. and continues to augment rapidly from hour to hour until it reaches its maximum between four and five o'clock p. It seldom rains between three and four o'clock. although in January the heaviest rainfalls are observed between one and two o'clock p. Thunderstorms reach their tive maximum in May. The rela- humidity sidered a favored one. 1880 45 187 330 210 121 22 3 61 82193 1562 92 Average 22 5 241 44 217 208 208 222 299 266 122 35 1631 . the maxima in June.. m. in July. These lines. is noted at sunrise.. m. The maximum p. September and December. Its and three maxima. The most probable hour of rain is between four and five o'clock p. 1866 1867 1868 2. Rain begins to fall about eleven o'clock. are parallel with those indicating the distribution of rain. The minima are observed between February and March. m. The daily maximum of rain is reached about sunset. of course. the jf minimum at two o'clock with an average oscillation twenty-four per cent. It is as follows: The Rainfall in San lose from J866 to J880 in Mm. and between November and Deis of the air such that the climate can be conannual curve shows three minima cember.SO 181 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 114 142 121 1397 1436 1562 33 1905 1925 2197 1418 42 21 201543 1492 1282 79 '357 20 1580 70 1878 1879. m. or 1631 millimeters. From 1866 to 1880.29 The centuated in the daily curve of rainfall shows a minimum very acfirst half of the day. from this time on it diminishes gradually morning.

and the rivers in this section are al- most impassable. The mean rainfall at Greytown for was 267 inches yearly. The mosses which almost completely envelop the stems of the trees are constantly dropping water. The climate of Talamanca is for the same reason very unhealthy in the proximity of the coast. also near Lake Nicaragua it rains nearly continuously. The high region is extremely humid. February. March and April. States Commission estimated the average at Lake Nicaragua at eighty inches. m. The rains commence regularly in May or June and last until the end of July. Rains begin in regions have distinctly marked characters. In October there are some heavy showers. and in the basin of the San Juan River at 150 inches. The raba is climate of the great valley of the Rio Grande de TerBoth similar to that described for the terrace lands.30 There is every year a number of slight earthquakes in San Jose. which averages 120 inches. 1891. m. but it is greatly exceeded by that of Colon. In fact there are no continuously dry months. December and January. Irazu. broadening rivers for miles. and also in the lower In course of the rivers a similarly deadly climate prevails. and occurring mostly between eleven p. giving rise to fogs and rains. and the mountains of the Guatuso country and the surroundings of the volcano of Orosi are seldom without clouds. it rains more or less during the entire year. grow . The rainy season on the Caribbean slope of the country does not correspond to that of the Pacific. Barba and Poas. At times there are cloudbursts of tremendous power. and six a. The months of August and September are more or less dry. The late United 1890. and extensive rains begin which characterize the months of NoThe driest months are vember. generally undulating from west to west-northwest. Port Limon is said to have an annual rainfall of eighty-nine inches. heavier towards September. The greatest number are observed at the beginning of the rainy season. normal years there are two dry and two wet seasons. and on the northern declivities of the volcanoes of Turialba. and cease about the April. 1892.

ranging from the sea to 150 feet above it. 1894. if not clear and well-drained. sixteen medical districts were established by law. abound in malarial fevers. In general. There were no epidemic diseases in 1897. and both are characteristic of excessive heat felt on the lowlands diminishes gradwith the rising of the land towards the high mounually tains. In October 30. but as high ground. and. heavy dew and extensive this section. . and so were a number of hospitals and quarantine stations in the ports of the Republic. even up to 400 and 500 feet. the torrid lands of the counis try. while from 3000 to 5000 feet the diseases are those of the temperate zone. cooler at 500 feet elevation than it is in the Reventazon valley at 1500 feet. prevails. fogs. but at times a height of 1500 feet will be found cooler The than one of 3000 it In the Santa Clara district. and are due less to local conditions of soil and climate than to personal neglect. having an elevation of from 1500 to 3000 feet is reached. for instance.end of November. feet. During the rest of the year dry weather although sometimes heavy showers relieve this arid In the lower zone pronounced radiation causes a condition. the fevers are of light type and not dangerous.

Region of chaparrales. to a height of 550 meters. bananas. situated between 1500 to 2150 meters of altitude. stretching from the coast regions to a height of 900 meters. j. Gramineae and Agave americana. CHARACTER OF VEGETATION. Region of oaks. Fifth.III. Regions of high plains. Second. He distinguishes: Coast regions (sea shores and salt swamps). from 550 to 1 220 meters. Sixth. from 2150 to 2750 meters in height. Region of Cupuliferae and Betulaceae. (32) . Araceae. Moritz Wagner. Fourth.1 given by Dr. He a tropical forest zone and a zone of zone. from 1585 to 3050 meters. from 1220 to 1585 meters. from 2750 to 3050 meters up.. Polakowsky enumerates cultivated lands. Fifth. mostly oaks and alders. from 3050 meters up to the tops of the high mountains. Second. He fol- Regions of evergreen forest trees and palms. Carl Hoffman and published in Bonplandia tion given in 1858. with an average temperature of 23 to 18 C. Senecionodese. Another division mentions a savannas. Region of subalpine or subandine flora. lying between 900 to 1500 meters of elevation. Region of tree ferns and mountain orchids. virgin foropen forests and savannas. Region of Rosacese. ests. First. Region of upper tropical forests. Third. Seventh. Regions of tropical forests and savannas. This chapter I begin with a phyto-geographical classificaby Dr. with an average temperature of 26 t9 24 C. Third.itera. is also distinguishes on the volcano of Chiriqui the successive regions: lowing First. etc. Fourth. Dr. Higher region above 3050 meters.

Avi- cennia nitida. vanilla. Wagner calls special attention to a noted uniformity on the coasts of both oceans. orders figure r undergrowth. rubber trees (Castilloa costaricencis and C. also The latter with Orchidea and Loranthacece among and Bromcliacccc. Mclastomacece. nucifcra. palms and others. It is Anacardiacece. Pithecolobium. corozo (Attalea cohune). and between Panama and San Juan del Sur on the other side. Swietenia. Simaba bar.. Leguminostf and Palmce. smilax. Urticacece. bondncclla and other Leguminoste. Moritz Wagner states that all along the southern limits Palicourea. Ipomoca pescaprce. species of Enterolobium. Moracece. cedron. and parasites which cover the acteristic Among the epiphytes the most char- plants of this region we name the coyol palm (Acrocomia). The litoral zone has The predominating a width of about four maritime miles. etc. Tecoma Croton pentaphylla. such as the piper. Sterculiacccc. of Costa Rica a likeness of climatic and geological condi- tions gives to the vegetation a nearly uniform character. Acrostichum aurcimi. Geoff r&a superba. Cecropia. Meliacece. J'ilices from ligneous Cyperacex. of the flora flora is composed Cocos of Rhizophora mangle. while further northward a notable contrast is observed be- tween the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of the mountain groups . and Professor Pittier affirms that the vegetation between Colon and Greytown on one side. is remarkably uniform. Uniola Pitticrii and also Eiiphorbiacece. Casal pinia. further. Sponti-ias. such as Scitaminea?. Eriodendron. maii- cinella. Chrysobalanus Cccsalpinia Crescent ia Acacia spadicigera. Sapota. of tropical forests shows. especially on the behind the coast region. underneath. relatively free S apindacece . Ficus. having more monocotyledonous plants. Hymencea courbaril. a strip of from twenty Atlantic side to twenty-two miles in width. etc. Cedrela. Piper. Hippomane icaco. elastica). Marantacece. ferns. trees. Cannaccce. which palmiche (Elais melanococca) and Raphia nicaraguensis forms almost forests along the River San Juan. Euphorbiacece. still further.33 Dr. Cinchona. citjcte. with lofty trees of Rubiacece. gossypifolins. The zone Myrtacca. Liquidam- Copaifera. Many of these characteristic plants are largely social. biscoyol (Bactris hor- rida). Cycadece. Bombax ceiba.

However. show such a dense prise vegetation that its interior can be penetrated almost only by way of the rivers. in view of its luxuriant character." and this name Professor Pittier applies also to the entire Atlantic region. in the region of Buenos Aires and Terraba. over half of its area lies between 900 and 2100 meters above mous Owing extension be studied only from high mountains. with a relatively dry climate and rainless summer. sometimes also with catingas and meadows flecked with shrubs and matorrales. reaching. This forest here and there ascends still higher." calls the forest region of the San Juan River. and its general character and its enorto the very mountainous character of the country. the sea. deep river valleys and some slopes near the watershed have dense. which comtwo-thirds of Costa Rican territory. The of the Atlantic virgin forests. islands interspersed with more densely forested isolated trees or groups of higher and thicker virgin forests. also over the plains of Terraba. is rarely where it forms a belt from sixteen to eighteen miles in width. while the Pacific lands. of trees. it a distinctly forests and savannas.the upper limit of the oak region about 2700 meters above the sea. attributing to South American character. park-like features. in an interesting publication entitled "Flora of Costa Rica. The zone of the open river valleys. The savannas and open extent over Guanacaste. and is almost wholly covered with virgin forest. "The Central American Hylsea. those of Rivas in Nicaragua. with many deciduous trees and shrubs. present more open and savannas. The Atlantic more constant humidity of air. There are some . and especially over the forests spread to a considerable where they are a continuation of coast-lands of Golfo Dulce. as well as those in the region San Juan River and of Lake Nicaragua.34 and on the interior terrace lands. virgin forests. evergreen. dense. which has found away from the Pacific side. evergreen forests. and their vegetation does not differ much from that of the Atlantic slope. Dr. is characterized by slope. with vast. The flora of forests tivation as to have almost lost the high terrace lands has been so altered by thorough culits original character. Polakowsky.

and Paspalum uotatum. Clidemia. Eragrostis. Epidendrum. The trees of the savannas are generally of little height. lichens. Among the epiphytes and parasites may be mentioned small ferns. Miconia (santa maria). Alibertia edulis) . Davilla (Bombax Duranta apeiba) . Isolepis. Spilanthes). (Guazuma (Cocobola) . Iridacece. Bombacacece. Andropogon. Roupala (danto hedliondo). Pectis. etc. Dalbergia and many other Leguminosce. of Guanacaste. Lcandra) . Convolvulacece. Mdastomacecc (Miconia. guacimo macho (Luhea). Rubiacea (Spermacoce) . Peperomia. grass lands are almost wholly composed savannas of of Graminea and Cyperacea. being often very abundant and the plants tangled together. Turialba. lucida. Only .35 -small similar tracts at some other near Alajuela. especially Mimosa pudica. Plumieri. Further. Santa Clara and points. Tillandsia and other Bromeliacea. The cyclocarpum (the guanacaste). Byrsonima crassifolia (nance). Myrtacece (Psidium. Polygalacea?. as well as of ferns (Pteris aquilina) and Schiz&a occidentalis. Conostegia. Professor Pittier attributes to this flora of the Pacific slope a more northern During the dry season the vegetation of the savannas almost disappears. Panicum. when moist. Cypcracecc. Aroidea. Other abundant plants in the open forests and savannas Composites are (Zemenia. Loranthus. Curatella americana (chamico). guacmro de burio DC. and still more so as. origin. Sauvagcsia. Rhyndiospora and Scleria. mosses. which gives large tracts in many places a special character. a general movement all around is caused when one is touched. nlmi folia) . excepting the Enterolobium the pochote and ceiba. Moracea (Madura. Ficus) . the greater part of the trees and bushes shed their leaves and herbs become dry and brittle. Euphorbiacece . argentea ternero fiambar Proteacea. besides species Cyperus. and Acacia sclcroxyla Lonchocarpus atropurpureus. takes on the character of turf. The paramos are found on poor soil and have a vegetation more herbaceous than ligneous. as well as catingas and paramos in the high mountain ridges of the south. which. The most especially in the characteristic plants are Digitaria marginata Setaria.

at a height of about one hundred meters above the sea. The vegetation on the summits of the high mountains of Costa Rica is of a marked subalpine character. The potreros are characterized by Tagetes. Certain types of vegetation are often more due to the sterile nature of the soil than to elevation. This oak region slopes gradually down from east to west. Hyptis. petiolata Chamcedorea. etc. below the oak region. of and other palms utilis (the microphylla are seen in ferns like Alsopkylla pruinata. grasses. On the southern high mountains two species of Podo- carpus (P. real. in cultivated regions and along river shores. taxifolia 'and P. Euphorbiacecz. The peninsula its of Nicoya trees. prin- Gulielma longeEuterpe groups. bushes latter especially are and woods of etc.). Sida.) the oak forests. and one of Weinmannia Mirbelii among Spach. mostly species of Cereus. Alchemitta. mixed with tree the same cipally Quercus retusa. Toward the border of Nicaragua cacti appear. and Quercus costaricensis. Myrtacece.36 along the rivers is some freshness observable. Spircea. one of Alnus (Almts occur quite generally groups are repand fences.. amargo. rich in herbaceous plants. . Towards the upper limits of the Atlantic tropical forests. Calceolaria. is -and Cartago. Hemitclia grandifolia. Mimoseru. mora different cedars (Cedw and other Bactris. etc. Bignoniacecz. on Other distinct floral resented by /the vegetation along roads The potreros. as Vactinium. having a great number of northern genera. etc. Hemitelia horrida. that character is not general because of the introduction of cultivated tropical and other races of Although San Jose a northern flora frequent on the high ter- plants peculiar to Costa Rica. pinus. Pernettya. is noted for a large lumber industry among duke. C.. salicifolia). as well as and Carludovica pijivalle palm) great abundance. Buddleia Quercus citrifolia alpina. etc. mentions an oak forest of Quercus citri folia between Liberia and the Rio de los Ahogados. C. Cardamine. Quercus with granulata. Professor Pittier also Opuntia. Rubus.. Phypsalis and Mammilaria. 'Higher up appears the region of oaks. Lu- Here is also the region of the common potato. Geonoma.

having traveled through Costa Rica or established themselves there. Pittier. Spondias. Dr. Dr. Biolley. utilissima digo f era (yucca or mandioca). costaricana. Polakowsky. tannings. tioned Prominent characteristic plants. balsams. A. Tonduz.Ananas sativa (pine-apple). P. Mimosa pudica and M. C. and Alsophylla. Lycopersicum esculentum pcrsicum Hnmboldtii (tomatoes). . Capsicum annuum (chile). Wagner. sensitiva. (mamey). Cereus. etc. Inga edulis. Along fences there grow nearly everywhere Erythrina coralamerilodendron. Dr. Neudland. Erylhrina interii ForSt. it is advantageous to research to name those collectors and scientists who. Oryza sativa (rice). tuber osum Phaseolus (beans). etc. another is one of insensi- Cultivated lands. Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). Bursera. Bactris and Raphia of the palm order. Schiz&a occidentalis and Pteris aquilina of the ferns. Solanum Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). gums. Oestrum. The passage from one ble gradations. Mani- oipi and anil Manihot (indigo). Inbarbadense (cotton). guava (guayaba). Oersted. They are Professor H. Bromelia pin gum. Dr. The plants which are n'ow mostly cultivated are: Coffea arabica (coffee). flora to corallodendron. Ochroma lagopus. Gossypium (chicory). C. Mammea Theobroma cacao (cacao). have especially contributed to the knowledge of the C ichor ium Intyous natural resources of the country. Asparagus oMcinalis (asparPsidium americana agus). Batatas (potato). Warszewicz. Persea gratissima (aguacate). besides the already menspecies and genera. oils and oil seeds. do not show any longer the original vegetation. Captain J. are the Piperacece and Melastomacea. textile and medicinal plants. as already stated. Donnel Smith. M. resins. Gunnera Chusquea insignis. Yucca aloi folia. Agave cana. of Costa Rica. etc. Acacia Farnesiana. H. Dr. Zea mays (corn). Drymis W maurofernandeziana.37 Solarium. A. A. Salvia. hot Arwna cherimolia (cherimoya). waxes. S. . further. still further Castilloa Gliciridia. Hoffmann. Carica papaya (papaya). von Frantzius.. dyeings. etc. Musa paradisiaca and Musa sapientium (bananas). species of Iriartea.. Before giving the lists of the woods. etc. and Lycodulcis (sweet potato). rubber.

Native Names of the Woods of Costa Rica. and Bishop Bernardo Augusto Thiel.38 Franc Kuntze. Jose C. . Gab'b. Cooper. D. Anastasio Alfaro. Acacia. Professor W. D. Juan J. Zeledon. M.

Guapinol Guavo. Habilla. Jorobado. Genizaro.39 Fubus. Guanacaste. Gavilan Colorado. Guachipilin. Guacimo. Huesillo. Giiayacan amarillo. Gallinazo. Guavo silvestre. Jaul. Guapinol. Colorado. Gavilan. Ira. Lagartillo. Jaboncillo. Hay a. Jobo. Giiitite. Jicaro. Higuera. Guacimo ternero. Guaciino bianco. Jamaico. . Guayacan oscuro. Hormigo. rosa. Guacimo macho. Guacimo monillo. Guayabillo. Fustete. Ira Ira Ira Ira bianco. Juaquiniquil. mangle. Jinocuave. Guachazo negro. Ira amarillo. Gavilancillo. Ira. bofo. Guayacan. tierno. Guayavo. Guachipilin oscuro. Guachipilin claro. Golondrino. Guatil or Jagua. Furm. Guachi raton.. Guacimo amarillo. Guayacan de costa. Hule. Guayabito.

Quizarra barcii .

Yerba mora. Name. Velvet. Mozote de caballo. Ojoche rojo. vSangre de drago Colorado. Quina. Meloncillo. Mejorana. Sarsaparilla. Pichichio solano. Zorrillo. Quina Colorado. Zarzon. Yerba te". Tapate. Sagu. Tiguilote. Orosus. Ruda. Petrona. Raiz de toro. Valeriana. Platanillo. Reina de la noche. Nuez moscada. Tuete. Ruibarbo. Sangre de Sanco. Tarsana. Sal via. Yerba buena. Palo leche. Native Names of Costa Rican Tanning and Dyeing Plants. Zenizero. Quassia hombre grande. Peine de mico. Samo. Pochoche macho. Venado. Vainilla. Tamarindo. Matasano. Oregomo. Yerba tora. Romero. Michoacan. Sacate limon. Naranja. Ojoche macho. Polipodio. Verbena. Una de gato. Yerba culebra. Simaba cedron. Simaruba. Vetiver. toro. Zacate de limon Zacate de olor. Ortiga. . Suelda con suelda. Zarza. Zarzaparilla. Viborana. Naranja agria.Maranon. Pie de venado. Sacaguacal. Sensitiva. Paraiso.

Rubber. Etc. Names cf Costa Rican Gums. . Resins.42 Native Name.

there are in Costa Rica about one hundred and twenty-one species of mammalia. and 128 newly described species which live as well in the northern as in the southern continent. There are over 130 species of Reptilia and Batrachia in Costa Rica. and also but a small number peculiar to Central America. among which are the Tapirus dowi alston and three species of monkeys. About one-fifth of the total number also belong to South America and one-seventh to North America. The rest. There are only a few species peculiar to Costa Rica. It is composed of 67 Neoarctic species. leaving 107 as indigenous to Oosta Rica. (43) . Cacique. 60 Ophidia and 6 Testudinata. comprising 23 species. In regard to the fauna. Those known and described are 36 Batrachia. of 247 Neotropical or South American species. Setillero and Agiiillo. there are 725 known species. Comemaiz. Toledo. have a doubtful origin. Yigiierro. of 260 autocthonous or exclusively Central American species. The rest are found as well in North as in South America. to the geographical position be- tween two oceans and to the vicinity of so many islands of the Caribbean Sea. With reThis spect to the avifauna. Terciopelo and Cascabel. Bocaraca. The best singing birds are the Gilguero. snakes are the Toboba. FAUNA. of which ter> are domesticated and four of Mus introduced. Mongita.IV. Poisonous 28 Lacertilia. of the avifauna is due to especial climatic congreat variety ditions. Oropel. which are also found in the north of Mexico. Mozotillo. to the very rich flora.

(Dasypus gymmirus). puma (Fells concolor). perico (Dasyprocta puerco espino isthmica. (Dorcelophus clavatus). the picudos (Careba cyanca and C. And here the National Museum. Anastasio Alfaro. tigrillo (Urocyon cinereo). salimo (Dicotyles venado temama). perezoso (Cholocpus hoff- manni). the caciquita (Euphonia . guatusa ligero dillo pnnctata). the coyote (Canis latrans). pisote (Nasua narica). Pittier. serafin de platanar (Cyclothorus pelon didactylus). Zorro hediondo (Conepatus mapurito). nutria or perro de agua (Lutra felina). the tigre (Fclis marrigordo (Fells pardalis). climatologieal.' zorro and (Didelphis marsupialis aurita). and the "Instituto fisico geografico Nacional. tepeizcuintle (Coelogenys paca). among Ateles The most interesting species of the fauna in Costa Rica the mammalia are the monkeys (Mycetes palliatus. the yigiierro (Tur- dus grayi). (Synetheres mexicanus). Alfari). and 'botanical conditions of Costa Rica is also the invertebrate fauna." under Professor H. manati or vaca marina (Trichcehus australis). gabbi). Also its than those of the Atlantic slope. Dowi). fol- lowing the enumeration of Jose C. the rualdo (Chlorophonia callophrys). Sc. arma- (Tatusia novemcincta ) oso hormiguero (Myrmecophaga jubata). Among the birds the following may be mentioned. Those in the from those of the Atlantic tributary waters have more varied species also very rich work in done like service in other bringing them to our knowledge. oso colmeno or tejon (Myrmecophaga tctradactyla). and Ccbus hypoleucus). conejo (Lepus graysoni. geoffroyi. under Mr. zorro isi (Marmosa cincrca) zorrito de platanar (Marmosa murina). are doing equally excellent in Fishes. the jilguero (Melanops). brasiliensis). Sc. lucida). cabro de monte (Mazania tajacu) cari ardillas (Sciurus hypopyrrhus. (Bradypns castanciceps). D. bianco (Dicotyles labiatus). armado de zopilote . danta (Elasmognathus bairdii and E. onca). ohulomuco or tolumuco (Galictis barbara). cesiuans hoff- manni. L. martilla (Cercoleptes caudivolvulus). as they have branches of Natural History. comadreja (Mustek. Zeledon: The sensontle (Mimus gilous).44 Costa Rica is Pacific are almost entirely different Ocean. In correspondence with the varied topographical.

etc. giraudi).. Eurypyga major). cJici'iway). mayor (Rhamphococlus) the oropendula (Ocyalus waglieri and 0. periquitos (Comtrus pctzii and Brotogerys tovi). auripalliata) the . el cardenal (Pyranga leucoptera cyanospiza. the codorniz (Orty. Nycticorax americamis. la viuda (Tan- and P. the oysters from Puntarenas. carpintero (Campcphilits gnatemalensis and Centurus hoffinanni). the marand other garza (Tigrisoma tin pena (Ardca virescens) cabanisi. etc . colibris or gorriones (Trochilida). the patillo (Colymbus dominicus). tocard). the zopilote To (Catharista atrata) and the zonchiche (Cathartes aura). verde (Aulacorhamphus quioro cceruleigularis). carg a-hueso l the pa von (Crax globicera). the raj on (Cotinga iigra cana). -corals. the monjita fina (Euphonia affinis). the purple snail We (Murex)y also sponges. Further men>tion is made of the aguila (Trascetus harp- (Polyborus de zopilote (Gyparchus papa). the (Nacar de perlas) or pearl shells from Golfos Duke and Nicoya. the choltote or trupial (Icterus pcctoralis and /. the rey camaleon (Falco sparverius). and other species of Euphonia: further pipra mentalis. zarzetas (Numenius and Totanus). also the pijijes (Totanus flavipcs and Charadrius vocifcrus). the pava (Penelope cristata). montezumce). yia). still turther. C. guatemalce and C. costariccnsis). have further to mention the great turtles from both oceans. resplandor (Muscivora the mexi(R. rubra). these may be added the tortolita (Columbigallina passerina). the curre curre the (Ramphastus carinatiis). the quetzal (Pharomacrus caua). pelicanos and alcatraz (Pelecaniis).r leylaudi) and chirraxua (Denitortyx Icucophrys) . alcalde amabilis). die lapas rojas and lapas verdes (Ara militaris and Chryosotis diademata. pava negra (Chamapetcs unicolor). Gallina aquatica. sps.45 clcgantissima). the piche (Dendrocigna autumnalis).

Hon- duras. Their nomadic spirit led them Islands. and throughout the province of Panama. copper colored race who. and. occupied the coast from the mouth of the River Orinoco to that of the River Amazon. and in (46) . THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS." Along all the Caribbean coast districts of Yucatan. followed the Pacific slope of the Cordilleras and the narrow space between Lake Nicaragua and the Ocean. when the New World was discovered. penetrated into northwestern Costa Rica. Nicaragua. Colonel George Earl Church says in regard to the Inmany indications that Costa Rica was once dians: "There are the debatable ground between the powerful Mexican invader and the warlike Caribs of northern South America. Costa Rica and Chiriqui. urged them to invade the countries bordering the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico having estuaries and rivers which could be peneThese carried from twenty-five trated by their war canoes. into and through the long strip of the Pacific coast occupied by the Chorotegas or Mangues. and stretched inland over all the half-drowned districts and far up the valley of the Orinoco. I all am to the conquest of many of the Windward disposed to believe. muscular. to one hundred men each and were of sufficient size to make long voyages. Mexico. settled and helped the Mangues to develop a considerable civilization in the district of Guanacaste and Nicoya. It is evident that an offshoot of the highland Mexican race pressed south and east from Chiapas. the Carib has left traces of his presence.V." "The Caribs were a tall.

These graves also contain beautiful specimens of obsidian. In 1569 the Adelantado total Perafan de Rivera made an elaborate detailed enumeration of the Indians and found their Mr. Quepos. Yiceitas. Notably such words occur in the names of plants. their language was of ait spoken Acala. if The Nahuas came from go from Chiapas. where. weaving. especially throughout its northern half.000. no doubt. knives. etc. rings and a multitude of stone The Mangues appear to have manufactured idols. it the Mangues did not is the north. showing ilized gold extensively into jewelry. de Peralta says the Mangues (Chorotegas). due probably to the fertil- izing quality of the ejected ash. seats. animals and geographical localities. arrowheads. The Mexicans have guage in Many left abundant traces of their lanCosta Rica. of their words are now in common use and incor- porated into the Spanish spoken there.SITY 47 part subdued all the volcanic region lying north and west of the valley of the River Reventazon. Xahuas (Aztecs) and Chan- guenes. greenstone and even finely wrought jade tools and jade ornaments. amulets. occupied the peninsula of Nicoya and all the lands surrounding the gulf of that name. Giietares. They were then. axes. to greater perfection than any people occupying the region between their territory and that of the Chibcias on the table-land of Colombia. and carried some of their arts. Guaymies. Terrabas. and necessary to infer that from the Gulf of Nicoya and the shores of the lakes Nicaragua and Managua they extended to the south of Mexico. at the time of the The Mangues. such as pottery. M. . the most powerful and advanced people in Costa Rica. It is notable that inhabitants of volcanic countries crowd around the slopes of its volcanoes. number to be 25. Mexican invasion. or Chorotegas. Cotos and Borucas were the principal people who occupied the territory of Costa Rica at the time of the conquest. and tilling the ground. In their graves are found gold ornaments and specimens of the ceramic art taste in design superior to any that the present civCosta Rican Indian can manufacture. sculpture. up to a few years ago.

48 The Giietares Turialba. of (Chiapas). they shared in the skill and advancement of the latter.. It was not until to the 1856 that a small expedition penetrated across the country Rio Frio from the mouth of the River Arenal. The Guatusos forcing them to retire further up the river. live in palenques (stockades). in a less degree. They drink chicha. Dr. The rubber collectors of Nicaragua for many years have ascended the Rio Frio and otner rivers in canoes and plundered the settlements. As the bishop of Costa Rica. hilly slopes in its upper reaches. sugar cane. Their weapons are bows. the latter being abundant in the Rio Frio. maize. and. Irazu made their homes on the slopes of the and Barba to the southeast of the Mexicans and Chorotegas. yucca. but their pottery was inferior in artistic method and quality of material and workmanship." The Nahuas (Aztecs) left notable monuments of their material civilization and of their scientific attainments. stone axes. and their houses are similar to the maloccas among Amazon tribes. although the first still Nicoya survive in Mexico. and beautiful plains for. as the instrument of a cultivated During the forts to colonial period the explore the River Frio. were Spaniards. and also chicha mascada de maiz. judging from collections in the National Museum of Costa Rica. a very noted ethnologist and archaeologist. "The Nahuas and Mangues of the regions have completely disappeared. game and fish. and a language that served and thoughtful race. Each palenque shelters several families. a branch San Carlos. plantations and property of the Indians. Bernardo A.. made by fermenting roasted green plantains. who still occupy the greater part of its valley and the slopes of the volcanic mountains. in several efdriven back by the Guatuso Indians.. They also cultivate and smoke tobacco. and the latter are represented here and there bv a descendant in Masava (Nicaragua) and in Acaia Peralta says. who cook their food at separate fires built on the ground. says: . Thiel. and of the wooden knives.most of the distance traversed to its mouth. arrows. cacao. They live principally on plantains. They reported fertile.

for the lands are immeasurably rich and the 'climate one of the best in the tropical belt. . Every tropical product can be grown there in abundance.49 "The Guatuso country lightful portions of is probably one of the most deCosta Rica." is The last census of the Guatuso Indians as follows: Palenques.

There are also some Indians near the Terraba. The Borucas or Bruncas are dolichocephalic. . although there are also a few Indian palenques in the neighborhood of the Chirripo. Punta Mala and La Uvita 65 to 75 ranches scattered around.50 The Terrabas and Bruncas on the Pacific or Boruca Indians are located slope of the Talamanca mountains. remain in about 4000 uncivilized Indians are estimated Costa Rica. The men are large. Taken to in all. at Golfo Dulce. the women short and plump. while he found 50 to 60 ranchos with about 250 inhabitants in the town of Terraba and 25 to 30 ranchos with about 300 inhabitants in the town of Buenos Aires. with about 389 inhabitants. They are more intelligent and active than the Tishbi of Professor Pittier counted in the Boruca valley and Palma. and especially in the great valley of the Diquis or Rio Grande do Terraba.

love to work. clusively ilized race. The houses of the wealthy have all modern conveniences. industrious. and straw or felt Most of these people go barefooted. and wear petticoats. hats. The men are intelligent. The men dress in European style. are a well formed.VI. live almost ex- The Costa Ricans people with regular features. drill or cotton trousers. rebozos and very often panama hats. The better class of women follow in their dress the fashions of Europe. in regular streets (50 . of some kind. wear coarse cloth coats. Those of the poorer classes are nearly comfortless. as well as polite. and appear affable in manner. truthful and generous. They are mostly low and built of adobes. and are arranged The crossing each other at right angles. robust and healthy The women are gracious. economical. with a roof of tiles. The population of Costa Rica is nearly all white and mostly descendants of Spaniards from Galicia. POPULATION. public buildings are spacious and ornamental. Some adorn themselves with earrings and other jewelry and some wear shoes. have splendid eyes and abundance of hair. owners of small coffeeplantations and ox-carts and oxen for internal traffic. consisting of hard-working farmers. The Indians are not numerous and are completely distinct from the civ- The Negroes and mixed breeds on the coastlands. honest and peaceable. The lower class. the lower classes have gowns of muslin or calico. They respect order and property. and are proud of their wealth and of the independence Every Costa Rican owns property of their nation.

coffee. Nearly every city is well-supplied with water conducted through pipes. potatoes. the National Dis- Among National tillery. such as hosorphan asylums. literary and musical societies. rebozos. etc. Ladies. and plantains. tom House.000 pesos were invested. a Public Library and scientific. 37. The population of Costa Rica in 1897 was calculated to be 288. tobacco. Puntarenas. the Mint. as follows: 90. an International Club and a German Club. medical. besides earthenware. in which about 1. Heredia. the Cus- institutions. charcoal. the Palace of Justice. for the High School for High School Young Men.769.. Comarca de Limon. The food tortillas of the poor comprises meat. beans. etc.205 as the entire population of the Republic.769 8. and from sunrise till noon the market-places are crowded with Here can be found all kind of vegetables sellers and buyers and fruits. pitals.940 inhabitants in the Province of San Jose\ 67. corn. M. meat and other food. . Young the Market.603 23. Saturday is the especial market day of the cities.925 Cartago. that of 1892.52 the principal buildings in San Jose are the New Theatre. etc. a Museum. The cemeteries are under the supervision of charitable associations.399 The last census. sugar.000. insane asylums. There are several parks. beans. corn. The city possesses charitable The streets are mostly macadamized or paved with stones and lighted by electricity. Guanacaste. etc. cheese.i6i Alajuela. legal. hats. the Episcopal Palace. all under the management of corporations and associations constantly laboring for their improvement. the the University. the National Palace. gave 243. rice.972 45. hammocks. the Executive Mansion.

Canton.53 The following table shows the population of the different "cantones" in 1892 and 1897: Province of San Jose. .


The population

of Costa

Rica prior to 1868 was as



1835 1826

120,499 79,9 82



Costa Rica being a country of immense resources, with great opportunities for success in industrial, agricultural and

commercial enterprises,








smaller subdivisions, called barrios or districts, as presented in ^the following table, taken from the latest census, that of
Province of San Jose.

Canton de San Jose.
Barrios, etc.

Canton de Desamparados.
rrios, etc.


Barrio de San Juan de Dios

' '


" "

de de de de de de de

San Miguel San Cristobal San Rafael
Rosario Patarra



Los Frailes San Antonio


57 Canton de San Ramon. etc. . Canton de Grecia. Barrios.

Total. Males. Barrios.58 Canton de Naranjo. Females. Villa del Naraujo (Centre) . etc.

.59 Province of Heredia* Canton de Heredia. etc. Barrios.

c<Lstc Canton de Liberia. .6o Province of G~u*iria. etc. Barrios.

.153 8. . .. etc.292 Total 4.577 Comarca de Puntarenas. . Males. San Vicente Zapote Pueblo Viejo . Barrios. .6i Canton de Nicoya. . .869 . .27I 100 67 57 62 13 132 3 248 322 Tsi 211 ^ 60 106 106 100 \ . Ciudad de Puntarenas (Centro) Barrio de los Quemados de Pitahaya " de Lagartos " de Abangares " de Rio Grande de Paquera " de Chomes " de Ciruelitas " de Puerto Alto de Cabo Blanco " de Corosal " de Barranca " de Jicaral " de Chacarita " de Lepanto de Chira " de San Miguel " de Jigante " de Morales " de Tamhar de Las Agujas de Curfi de Presidio de San Lucas de Golfo Dulce (Centro) de Cabagra de Buenos Aires Pueblo de Terraba " de Baruca ' ' ' 1. . Males. . . etc. 132 2. . ..' I 77 75 51 ' ' ' . . 175 167 130 153 134 172 121 102 . . Females.188 I ' 704 148 85 81 81 146 190 120 98 105 128 2.538 I. . . . . 127 Humo Santa Ana San Joaquin San Lazaro San Pablo . Females. Canton de Puntarenas. Barrios. . Villa de Nicoya (Centro) Barrio de Corrahllo . Total.285 51 70 138 1 10 2. . . " " 222 181 161 186 " " " " " " " " " " " " de de de de de de de de de de de de de de Matina San Antonio Santa Rita Matambii Dulce Nombre Sabana grande . 55 52 57 53 85 29 153 303 43 125 107 175 4. . Total.. . .716 47 55 63 45 43 53 "3 132 105 102 89 143 I 220 40 154 124 214 65 153 523 83 279 Total 4. 376 .

etc.62 Canton de Esparza. . Barrios.


64 In order to give an idea of the density of the population. population per square kilometer: its total population and its . there is roundly presented in the following table the area of each province and comarca.

. 442 6. 40 5i " " " 989 162 197 - Bagaces Santa Cruz .207 .121 " i. 229 157 2. . .250 " " 163 544 1 . . . .094 San Mateo Naranjo Pal mares . .929 from 18 to 35 years " Barba . . 341 " " Santo Domingo 623 " " Santa Barbara 298 . 738 from 36 to 50 years. 913 from 18 to 35 years . .. 25.631 34..642 8. . .975 Province of Guanacaste. . 732 from 36 to 50 years. . . . 125 from 18 to 35 years .669 " " 407 614 4. 428 697 142 570 .. 732 from 1 8 to 35 years " " 122 146 " . 923 381 3. 478 3..947 926 599 Province of Cartage. ... 3. . . 39 from 36 to 50 years. 869 from 36 to 50 years.. i .512 from 18 to 35 years . 2..857 San Ramon Grecia . 2.. 270 from 36 to 50 years.387 " " 327 1.273 . .3o6 " vSan Rafael . 2.. . . Cartago Paraiso . Alajuela . 600 387 151 Atenas . 578 491 2. 630 " " 672 " " 2. .359 5.65 Province of Alajuela..069 " " " " 185 *39 " 76 3 Nicoya .. Liberia Canas .. 78 from 1 8 to 35 years .741 Comarca de Ptfntarenas. . . . 2.816 " La Union " " " . 257 from 36 to 50 years. . .. 409 1. 183 Comarci de Limon.667 " " 122 463 201 824 109 136 :. 943 " 1. 117 Total Costa Rica .175 Province of Heredia. . Heredia 1.

. | Influenza ( Blood-poison Syphilis Dropsy 31 . San Jose Alajuela Cartago .. San Jose Alajiiela .66 The movement deaths of the in and increase was population in regard to 1892 as follows: Births.067 814 577 433 2CO Total .793 1.474 802 . 31 Si 12 52 77 26 . The causes of death in each 1000 cases were as follows: Fever Cholera infantum Diarrhea 220 ..159 1. From From From From i to 5 years 709 65 6 to 20 years 21 to 50 years 51 317 192 and upward Total 1283 These data show in favor of births over deaths an in- crease of 337. . ! mate.412 717 . . Deaths.186 825 795 677 606 1. . .. Province or Comarca.665 . 179 . . 428 290 - Males. . ..616 1. Illegiti-jLegiti1 DEATHS Total | mate. births. .362 5. Males. of whom 148 were males and 189 females.620 44 38 35 24 . 82 63 13 34 607 372 420 825 795 247 "7 209 115 117 . ..283 Deaths by Ages. Cartago Heredia Liberia .458 2. 112 Heart failure Apoplexy and paralysis Indigestion i . 464 62 10.. 5. Increase. Dysentery and colic Gastro-enteritis 15 Typhoid fever Bronchitis and pneumonia Phthisis Enteritis j ! 28 35 16 17 5 91 42 17 . .633 1. Females. 13 15 Puntarenas . . Limon Total . . 3. Inflammation Cancer .295 the During the first half of 1897 there were in the same provinces or comarcas the following- capitals of births and deaths: BIRTHS. Heredia Guanacaste Puntarenas Ivimon . Females. . . 7 50 35 1. 'i 13 92 '4 < 456 232 250 177 27 . . 434 1. Total.

. by percentages. . Cartago Heredia Guanacaste Puntarenas Jyimon . . . the population of Gosta Rica was distributed in 1892.67 In regard to social conditions. . . Married. San Jos Alajuela . . . as follows: Province or Com area. .

Puntarenas Ksparza .76 15-25 . Readers Readers. and writers. .55 11. Oomarca de Limon.68 Comarca de Ptmtarenas. . 7-05 7-43 7-15 16.

22. male. 84 Sailors. 279 Butchers. 16 Engineers.102 Carmen. 1. to occupations. 911 Clerks. 8.873 Laundry cleaners. 194 Agriculturists. " female. 3.541 Seamstresses. 2. employes. male. 49 Tanners. 42 Physicians. A distribution of the people by tions in the different cantones was their principal occupaas follows: (See next page. male. 54 Pharmacists. 77 Printers. 12 Dyers. 243 Musicians.348 40 Cooks. 12 Mechanics. 5. 265 Hat makers. 27 Saddlers.190 Laborers. Commission merchants. 15 913 Government Watchmakers. " female. 36 Watchmen.801 4. 96 Mule drivers. 28 Carpet makers.farmers. 20 Silversmiths. 88 Hotel keepers. female.031 Laundry ironers. 349 Servants. 131 Barbers. 41 Painters. there were in Costa Rica in 2. 82 Blacksmiths. 366 Tailors. 378 Shoemakers.314 Agriculturists.69 With respect 1892: 896 Cattle. in ii Bakers. 92 Lawyers.) . 6 Miners. 46 Surveyors. 541 Cigarmakers. 980 Carpenters. 900 Merchants. 565 Masons.

l-llll" CO r^ 'U3UUBO oooo O O ON CO ^ M M CS t-i ir> M rO ' N 1 S31000 'SJUBAJ3S S431H JBJ .t<3 O OMO N 00 MOO | SJOJIBJ.

. . ... ...S9A*OldlU9 1U9UIIU9AOO S433JBUI tjOOO N S40IIBX 'U9UUB3 8^4913 'U9UUB3 8314910 'S491U4BJ SSS'SS S49lU4Bd .. .. Domingo Barbara Rafael Union Cartago Paraiso La Heredia Barba Santo Santa San . .

IBO M M SJOJIBJ. I IT) C U9UUB3 saatuaBj W -< t^VO <N oo rcoo N in SJ3UIJBJ saauuBj ! -1 cd AtR S38a>.l3JU3d.-S. bo a o .



criminal statistics of Costa Rica for 1896 were as fol-

There were 4022 delinquencies punished by the police courts, namely: 1,295 n San Jose, 626 in Alajuela, 678 in Cartago, 520 in Heredia, 200 in Liberia, 424 in Puntarenas and 279 in Port Limon. Of these there were convictions of

1686 for drunkenness



861 for slight misdemeanors.

340 274 280 80

for fighting, domestic scandals and inflicting slight injuries. for violations of sanitary and moral ordinances.
for vagrancy. for carrying arms.

65 for petty larceny. 6 for larceny.

There were also 989 criminal sentences recorded in the Court of Second Instance, together with 124 criminal and civil judgments in the Court of Cassation. The national "Presidio de Sam Lucas" contained at the same time 170 prisoners. Costa Rica in 1896 had 1744 prostitutes, mostly between sixteen and twenty-five years of age, under supervision. Nearly half of this number were in San Jose, the rest in the ports and in Heredia, Alajuela and Cartago. Nearly 300 women were in the hospitals being treated for venereal diseases, while 502 individuals were registered in
the "Department de profilaxis venerea." There were during the same year thirteen commercial insolvencies,


of partial divorce. different courts of the country, during the year of of absolute

two cases

and three

and testamentary judgments, including a number concerning mining and national land claims The people of Costa Rica must be considered as standing
1896, entered 5417 civil

high above those of the neighboring countries in regard to morals and civilization. The -mass of the people is industrious,

honest, sober, clean, comparatively well-clothed, economical, obedient to the authorities and respectful of the




Immigration to X^osta Rica has been small.

During the

half of 1897 there

Limon and 389 by same time 1150 persons

1533 individuals by Port the Port of Puntarenas; but during the

left Costa Rica through Port Limon and 344 through Puntarenas. The result is a gain of only 428 persons in favor of the country. In 1896, the excess of registered immigrants over emigrants was 1112 persons, Sevthere having entered 3980 and departed 2868 persons. eral times attempts have unsuccessfully been made by for-

eigners to establish colonies. Still there is a colony in the Department of Guanacaste,
called "Colonia de Nicoya," which was commenced by Cubans, headed by Maceo, the late Cuban revolutionist chief. This colony possesses a sugar factory and five trapiches, producing 720 quintals of sugar and about 3000 quintals of mascabado. Only five colonists still cultivate tobacco. The colony has a school for boys and another for girls, the latter attended by thirty and the other by forty Besides there is here postal service and a telegraph pupils.


second colony located
as "Colonia de

in the



San Carlos and has 500

district is



does not progress for lack of roads and markets easy to reach. A third colony was established in Santa Clara, on a

branch of the Atlantic Railroad. But there are actually there only eight families with about seventy hectares of cultivated land, one trapiche and a saw-mill.


Another colony was started by the River Plate Trust,

Loan and Agency Company, Limited, in railroad between Limon and San Jose.

Turialba, near the

There were


acres sold for 15 pesos each, 2071.9 acres for 20 pesos each, 750 acres for 25 pesos each, and 1381.1 acres for 30 pesos each, the land being situated on the Tuis River and Cabeza

de Buey. Besides a contract was made with W. C. Beal from Portland, Oregon, U. S. A., for the sale of 14,000 acres on condition of procuring each year for seven years the settlement of a number of families to cultivate these lands. In order to give easy access to the markets, a cart road is in process of construction, which will connect the colony with the nearest railroad station.

The Government
laws in regard
national lands.

of Costa









sale of

The former laws have been suspended,

Government being convinced that the lands appropriated in former years are more than sufficient to respond to the requirements of the next twenty years. The Government also
it to be preferable to promote by restrictive laws the subdivision of these lands and their cultivation than to con-

sent to


new grants under the former statutes. Exceptions are made for 'colonization companies and enterprises

adapted to the economic development of the country. In former years the Government of Costa Rica has often offered inducements in the way of land-grants for European
immigration. In 1849 a grant of land of twenty leagues in length by twelve in breadth was made to a French company
for looo colonists.


conditions of the contract were not

carried out, though a considerable formed under it an establishment.


of immigrants

on the Atlantic coast

to a British

was made which had no recompany,
similar grant


another concession was made,



German company organized
Riilow as Director.


1852, to a Ba'ron von

This enterprise died with






further attempt was made in 1852, by Crisanto Medina, a large grant of la.nd was made for colonization pur-

but this project too was abandoned after settling about thirty-seven Germans on the grant.76 poses at Miravalles. proved ineffectual. and in 1858 another colonization law was passed. about 2500 feet above the sea. In 1856. All these Government proffers have. some French immigrants came. and ever since the Government has persisted in the policy of augmenting the population by offering inducements to foreigners to settle in Costa Rica. however. .

or 53 per cent. The following data are obtained from the Minister of Public Instruction. as can be seen in the following table: . Licentiate Ricardo Pacheco. In 1896 Costa Rica had 327 primary schools with 21. at the Elementary instruction of both sexes is compulsory and expense of the Government. of all the children of school age. PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.913 enrolled pupils.VIII.

78 ings are the property of the "Juntas de Educacion. 327 schools in 202 different localities. of whom 337 are men and 447 women. distributed in the following way: . There are 92 schools in 48 different localities in the Department of San Jose. Heredia. 47 29 21 these. Puntarenas. 67 Alajuela. Linion. 50 27 Cartago. Costa Rica has more teachers than soldiers. The num- ber of the former reaches the figure of 784. 107 buildings are rented 107 22 8 i 9 i Guanacaste." Besides and 6 loaned.

000 more ready to be registered and incorporated. and in the Colegio Superior de Senoritas." under the direction of the very competent Professor H. Another useful institution is the "National Museum. Anastasio Alfaro. besides the taxes on slaughtering are turned over to them. also a meteorological and a botanical section. and a law-school dependon the ''college of lawyers. Pittier." under the intelligent direction of a young Costa Rican It has an interesting section scientist. and it is to be wished that its able and stituto learned director will get adequate aid to carry out his promising studies of the physical features of Costa Rica." For other higher studies the Government pays the expenses of ten Costa Ricans in European universities and highschools.79 aid these Juntas a special school-loan has been made. Then public instruction was deThe institution. with three sections. Further. of archaeology and ethnography. its expense in the pedagogical Institute of Another very important national institution is the "Infisico-geografieo. Castilo. the Government of Chile allows six Costa ent Ricans to study at Santiago. To given in the Liceo de Costa Rica. The efforts of Costa Rica to advance education have been great and susfirst The institutions . There is in addition a school for medicine and pharmacy in San Jose with seventeen students. and a section of zoology. Their excellent publications have proved the great usefulness of this institution. under the administration of Don Juan Mora Fernandez. both in San Jose. which afterward became the University of Santo Tomas. also in the Higher education is provincial Institutes of Cartago.242 catalogued books and about 5. was founded in 1844. Alajuela and Heredia. with 206 enrolled students. Mr. a geographical section for topographical study and a construction of maps. clared an obligatory duty of the State. with 223 students. steps towards the organization of educational were taken in 1824. A third useful institution is the "National Library" with 10. already rich in cabinets. to which is attached a small zoological garden. at the instigation of Dr.

Anuario de la Inspeccion general de ensenanza. El Bocaccio. Diario de Costa Rica. La Republica. El Diarito. Boletin de las Escuelas Primarias. Annual publications are: Anales del Museo Nacional. La Gaceta me"dica. Anales del Institute fisico-geogranco. . El Sancho Panzo. La Voz del Pueblo. Anuario estadistico. El Figaro. Memorias de los Ministerios. libre. Normal School was opened and a system adopted in harmony with modern standards. El Heraldo. and it is to be remarked that those in office have con- In 1869 the stantly shown laudable interest in the matter. periodicals and annual publications: The principal newspapers are: Dailies: La Gaceta oficial. El Imparcial. El Pabellon Liberal. El Latiguillo.So tained. the followlist enumerates the names of the principal daily and ing weekly papers. La Prensa La Union Cat61ica. <are: Weekly publications La Abeja medica. As related to the subject of public education.

16 German barks. POST AND TELEGRAPH. having carried the national flag. R. Keith for the Atlas Line. 3 the Colombian flag. I the Italian.IX. and tons. with a tonnage of 146. n Norwegian barks. Mr. The agents San Jose. 27 the Swedish-Norwegian. while 152 which 73 were steamers of the vessels entered Puntarenas. John M. are. 47 that of the United States. 16 vessels bore the national flag. Port Limon on the Atlantic anki Puntarenas on the Pacific Ocean are first in importance among the means of com- munication of Costa Rica. 3 English barks. 24 barks. renas 158 vessels In 1896 there entered the Port of Limon 258 steamers and 41 sailing vessels. 142 the English. 9 Co- lombian paileboats. Of these. TRANSPORTATION. During the same year there entered the Port steamers.313. 14 launches). 20 barks and 3 goletas). 4 the Danish. 4 a tonnage of 155. 23 the German.869 tons. 1 1 the Nicaraguan. In 1894 there entered the Port of Limon 294 vessels (271 steamers. while in the Port of Puntarenas there entered 147 vessels. 5 of Punta- (125 paileboats. 26 the German. 74 that of the United States. 12 the French.355 Of these. 2 Italian 'barks. of Pacific Mail Steamship Com28 steamers of an English cattle transporting company. with a tonnage of 281. with a tonnage of 348. Sasso for the Italian (Si) . and 5 the Colombian flag. iln 1895 there entered the Port of Limon 311 vessels.361. Juan Knohr for the Hamburg American Steamship Company. Mr. for the Port of of the different steamship lines in the capital. 8 German steamers of the Cosmos and Kirsten lines. I. Limon: Mr. 34 the English. pany. 3 the Swedish-Norwegian. and i French bark.

986 1. Rohrmoser & Co.409. Rio Segundo. Field & Co. It was originally intended to lay the track to Carrillo and through the La Palma Pass to San Jose.973936 2. while Messrs. Santiago. but this plan has not been of this road starts A branch carried out. In 1891-1892 1892-1893 1893-1894 1894-1895 Second half of 1895 1896 697.250. There are two important railroads. the Kosmos Line and the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. 1892-1893 4 i. Siquirres. Juan Vinas. Lyon & Co. Matina. Messrs. a recently founded colony on the plains of Santa Clara. for the French Transatlantic Line. San Joaquin. Alajuela. of the line are Limon. Messrs.979 2. Curridabat.113 4 The net earnings were as follows: 362. Heredia. San Pedro. San Juan. Mr.479 674. W. Messrs. Mr.030. the Atlantic and the Pacific Railroads.701 1893-1894 * 1894-1895 * Second half of 1895 1896 892. The Atlantic Railroad goes from the Port Limon westerly The stations on to Alajuela. Minor C. and runs first thirty-four northward and then westward until it re'aches Guapiles. for the Prince Line. Another branch goes from Port Limon River.932 2. for the Royal Mail Line. Cartago. a distance of about five kilometers.452 1. The gross earnings of this road were: In 1891-1892 ' to the Banana 1.446. Tucurique.114. Pascua.160 677. Santo Domingo. Line. Minor C. Alvarado & Co. from La Junta. S. Moiii. Paraiso. Keith for the Spanish Transatlantic Line. Mouth.066 pesos.82 La Veloce.598 pesos. Torito. Tres Rios. J. La Junta.618. a point about kilometers west of Port Limon. are the agents for the Port of Puntarenas of the Hamburg Pacific Steamship Company. Las Pavas. a distance of 190 kilometers. Keith for the New Orleans lines. Turialba.290 . San Jose.

83 It moved during the fiscal year of 1896: 574. Another railroad.60 pesos from and 19.060 bunches of bananas. The freight rates are rela- The Pacific Railroad.558 52. about seven hundred feet above the sea.80 pesos from passengers. The western end for about twenty-four kilometers will cross a roughly broken country in order to reach the roadstead of Tivives. on the Guapiles branch of the Costa Rica Railway.392. to Culebra Bay on the Pacific.723 10.. animals. " local freight tons or 1.. A connection of the Costa Rica Railway with Lake Nicaragua would also give to the State of Nicaragua . tons of goods for export. It is to be about ninety kilometers long and to run most of the way through the valley of the Rio Grande. a pier at Port This road has a number of good station-buildings. and runs from Puntarenas east to Esparta. Such a railway would contribute enormously to the development of northern Costa Rica. freights During the same time the Government expended 24.801 passengers. " imported goods. to the mouth of the Rio Frio.4^6. and Limon with all facilities for the quick handling of freight..315 23. 34. is under conSan Jose with the Pacific coast. about fourteen miles (or twenty- two kilometers) in length. belongs to the Government.570.31 pesos in improvements.335 3. about two thousand feet above sea-level. fifty-six miles from Port Limon. It received in 1896. from which point it is proposed to extend the line through a low its It is to cross pass of the 'Miravalles mountains. 18. An important line of railway is projected (to run from Jimenez. near entrance into the Lake of Nicaragua the River San Carlos near El Muelle. struction to connect on Government account. The region traversed by the line is highly fertile.245 . and a million pesos are annually set aside for the work.... especially of bananas. tively very high.288.

too. every proprietoi participating in proportion to his property. and there is no doubt that Costa Rica. plates. Iglesias contema ship canal along the coast line from Matina to the Colorado River. Besides these roads there is a small number of shorter and more local roads. about It goes twenty-five miles long. This ship-canal would open an extensive banana region as well as excellent lands for the cultivation of cacao and rubber trees and many other tropical plants. is far ahead of the other Central American countries. there good cart-road. Bagaces. trails. In each district there is a "Junta Itineraria" for the conservation and improvement of roads.84 a much needed its convenient a'ccess to the Atlantic Ocean for nearly entire trade. Tablazo and Sarapiqui and on bridges over the Rio Grande. a total distance of over sixty-five miles. During the last fiscal year over one hundred and ninety-four thousand pesos were spent on roads and bridges. said to be navigable now for the whole distance. takes care to increase and improve the cart-roads and other means of communications. 'Most of the Government expenditure named was spent on the national cart-road. from Cartago via San Jose to Puntarenas. however. etc. In San Jose a trolley line is soon to be established. the roads to San Carlos. Away from the conveniences now enumerated the people are wont to ride on horse or mule exists a fairly The Government. Santa Clara through and the Atlantic coast. not counting ia well-paved one. There is a tramway in Cartago. and even on to the mouth of the San This coast Juan. consists of a continuous narrow sandbank between which and the mainland there is an inlet or arm of the sea. Reventazon. in this respect. . now partly abandoned. opened about sixty years ago. connecting the city with its suburbs and Aguacaliente. the La Palma Pass towards Carrillo. Another cart-road runs across Guanacaste to Nicaragua. Puriscal. Over this road nearly all export and import traffic was done until the Atlantic Railroad was opened in 1891. It is Another important project President With respect to other internal 'communications.

their distances and character.85 The following itinerary of roads and water routes. is reproduced from Mr. Towns. the capital of Costa Rica. . Richard Villafranca's "Costa Rica:" Distances from San Jose.

La Laguna La Boca del Infierno 15 18 Cart road. | - 18 18 51 i " " Saddle road. 42 9 Santo Domingo i San Cristobal San Miguel 3^ 24 27 Cart road. " " Palmira Puntarenas Peie Paraiso ' 180 60 60 i6j^ de Aserri Paquita Pacaca Pirris 30 75 14 12 i Railroad. Cart road. Muelle de San Carlos Muelle de Sarapiqui ... Saddle road. " 24 San Jer6nimo San Roque San Rafael Sabanilla . | Cart road.. Cart road. . 54 18 .86 Towns. j Limon Los Frailes Las Graces 98 La Laguna de Aserri La Virgen Los Ojos de Agua Los Angeles . Rosario Saddle road. " Railroad.- ! 69 66 Nueva Santa Maria Naranjo Nicoya Orosi 60 33 213 18 " Cart road. 40^ 30 27 19^ la .. Cart road. Distance in miles... Character. . ! San Mateo Santa Rosa Santa Cruz Santo Domingo . . 18 18 10 Saddle road.27 .. 220 198 39 36 42 30 Cart road. " Salimos Sarchi Sapotal Santiago de Puriscal Sarcero " : . " Railroad. Railroad. Saddle road. cart road. La Barranca La Cuesta Vieja Las Canas Liberia 27 25 54 139 165 201 j La Cruz . Saddle road. . Saddle road. San Pedro de San Ramon San Miguel San Joaquin Calabaza . .. cart road. cart road.


Castro." principal post-offices in Costa Rica are these: Alajuela. ." "Fernandez" and "Dr.88 The namely the "Puntarenas.

.89 Paraiso.

AGRICULTURE AND LIVE STOCK. The cultivation of coffee and sugar cane then absorbed the at- tention of the country to such an extent that. The proper coffee zone lies ture. Desamparados Puriscal Aserri . The first seeds were s'own in Cartago. under the government of Don Tomas de Acosta. Mora Tarrazu Goicoechea . Calvo's book on Costa Rica). ." (J. . Experiments have proved that the coffee-tree can also be successfully cultivated at a height of 600 meters.. .. as were also the mango and the cinnamon. .. B. Number of San Jose Escasu .000 quintals were exported. The census cerning coffee: of 1892 supplies the following figures con- Province of San Jose.. by moderating the glare of the sun with adequate shades and by pruning to correct excessive growth and fructification.. is chiefly devoted between 800 to 1400 meters of elevation on both ocean slopes. Total . "Coffee was introduced into the country from Havana in 1796 by Francisco Javier Navarro. . .. 100. Much credit for the propagation of coffee culture in Costa Rica is due to Padre Velarde. in 1861. and still lower down. . . "During the administration of Don Juan Rafael Mora (1849-1857) farming received a remarkable development. who took great interest in agricul- Agricultural enterprise in Costa Rica to coffee. for it was much promoted by the construction of important roads.X.

Province of Alajuela. .

030 34.787 acres.486 33. York. bananas were used to feed pigs.492 37.801 . comprising over four thousand acres of land. from which. also to produce the raw sugar or dulce. Febru1880. in Puntarenas on 1471.000 banana plants. in Guanacaste on 719 acres.866 29. In 1889 sugar cane by provinces was raised on the fol- lowing number of acres: In San Jose on 4819 acres. in Alajuela on 5076 acres.000 401. which is consumed entirely by country people.588 990.861 56.621 45.833 52.517 854.970 889. in Heredia on 1114 acres. or roasted on hot is the banana.765 14.000 pounds of dulce.693 1884 1885 1886 420. The following table shows the banana export Bundles.400 in the Sugar cane is used largely in Costa Rica as fodder and manufacture of aguardiente. 1883 110.92 Another important agricultural product of Costa Rica Its cultivation was begun on the Atlantic coast in 1879. 420.373 19. and a production of 1. In 1884 there were 350 farms. by steamer "Earnholm" from Port Limon to New ary 7. containing 570. 3. 42. .000 pounds of sugar and 18. in that year.454. using the fruit boiled with salt.034. The aggregates were 14.898 1.000 13.183 595.368. in Cartago on 1466 acres. The laboring classes kept a few plants. 2 94 1890 1892 . Before 1879 banana plants were set out in coffee plantations The to shade the young trees and shelter their berries. coals instead of bread. . figures since 1883: Tons. and in Limon on 122 acres.651 1887 1888 1889 28.791 39. anc^ the ^ rst 3 bunches were shipped.000 bunches were obtained.

Other important agricultural products are rice.120 30. Atenas. Pounds.271 3.770 Most of the cacao was cultivated in Aserri.227 4.410 28. Value in Dollars. having in all 56. Tobacco was a monopoly cently has the culture been taken many years.906 4. 1884 1885 1886 .830 Total 90. pesos. where they acquire an 'extremely fine quality.900 pounds valued at 165. and only up by the people. the average annual . According to the census of 1892. everywhere in the country.084 2. up to 1860 there was sufficient for the consumption of the country. corn and potatoes. Naranjo. all the time and capital. Heredia. neglected. The rise In the price of coffee and the competition with the flour of the United States and Chile drove out the native wheat almost entirely.776 1887 1888 1889 10. beans.576 12. With respect to wheat.386 18. while the raising of potatoes is almost wholly confined to the hillsides of Cartago and Alacare and juela.204 Excellent cacao was grown during Spanish colonial days around Matina. but none is exported now. Cacao was exported from 1884 to 1889 as follows: established up to 1888 Years.93 little attention in Costa because the more profitable coffee plantations absorb Rica. Guanacaste and Limon. and to-day the cultivation of To-day the only flour-mill in for this grain is badly this country grinds re- imported wheat. Paraiso. 9. It was so intelligently cultivated that the finer grades were produced.927 16. The cultivation of rice in Costa Rica demands very little no irrigation to produce two crops a year of a very Beans and corn are successfully grown superior quality. The number of plantations regularly Cacao culture has received but yielded in the was 198.708 3.223 5.426 trees that same year 331.

94 production of these crops for years was in liters as that and the two preceding follows : .

.. 1897... zacate ancho.. cana de azucar. sabanilla. . .301 789 34. 1895.884 62.380 24.567 9.458 1. zacate de guinea.95 country of so many natural advantages. San Jose Alajuela 12..000.. 1896.402 7. Sheep.774 159 48.. arrocillo. etc. grama.221 770 488 17.824 13.. zacate para.438 7.000 pesos. like cola de venado....471 7.249 1. It has very nutritious forage plants. cattle.184 4.881 4. platanillo.302 . lengua de vaca..555 35.721 715 57 Guanacaste Puntarenas 296 9. adapted to gamalote.942 i.519 Further official reports disclose that in the capital the consumption of meat is quite uniform during the entire year.900 6.942 3.467 6.667 Limon Total 11 268 The consumption the following data: of cattle in Costa Rica is exhibited by First half of 1894.701 882 1.297 Cartago Heredia Guanacaste Puntarenas 5.538 Cartago Heredia .391 134. agricultural and live stock products of the country has been calculated at 19. guacimo. Horses.. .928 1. are still lacking. guate. The follows: live-stock of Costa Rica in 1892 was distributed as Cattle..472 Limon Total 804 35. San Jose Alajuela 51. teosinte. The total value of the natural..180 5....506 2. 16.410 17. 2.542 1.851 12.o8i 798 34.864 4.493 2.99 1. .207 4. while in the country it is greater from August to January than from February to July.. zacate de castilla. jengibrillo.. . At different times the development of this industry has been atCosta Rica has vast pasture lands splendidly tempted..

The exports of that age were cacao. potatoes. Thus more than a century passed.COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. (96) . sarsaparilla and hemp. Costa Rica was then in a flourishing condition and would have prospered finely but for the pirates and Mosquito Indians. At the same time itfhe Gulf of Nicoya became a centre of traffic. "In 1638 the opening of the Matina road was the beginning of a new era. as were also Coronado del Norte on the Island of Cano and the Golfo de Ossa. When the city was destroyed its traffic was dispersed. who constantly menaced its welfare and whose vandalism ravaged the coast in those times commerce manca. carrying "After that period Costa Rica was reduced to woeful on an insignificant commerce overland with Panama by mules and sending a few unimportant articles to Nicaragua. The most important centre of was the City of Santiago de Talawhence cargoes were sent in three days' extinct. in his work on Costa Rica published in 1890. "In the present century (1813) the Captaincy General imposed severe restrictions on the commerce of the Province. had some commercial importance. "All the ships then plying on the Pacific between Mexico Panama. on the Atlantic coast. now settlements. but that the Port of Rivera on the west coast of the Gulf of Nicoya was greater. honey. misery. Peru and intermediate' ports were wont to ride at anchor at the Island of Cano. now Golfo Duke. Joaquin Bernardo Calvo. The cacao haciendas in the valley of that name acquired a new importance. wax. observes that "at the 'beginning of the Colonial Government the Port of Suerre. time to Porto B'ello.

a new port which soon became the commercial route. having 137. per ton. 6d. situation of Costa "Just beginning an independent career. 5 IDS. the work undertaken by the forefathers of the present Costa Ricans was full of difficulties. per ton. and from Port Limon 2. and through Caldera on the Pacific. from Puntarenas to London. "This state of things. with the exception of some later laws especially enacted. contending with poverty. In 1894 there entered 158 vessels with 155. in a state of complete upheaval. having a registration of 7180 tons. The freight in 1858 on coffee to Panama by steamer alone was five-eighths of a cent per pound." In 1848 seventy vessels entered Puntarenas. In 1888 freights from Puntarenas to European ports were 4 per ton. od. unnecessarily adding to the expense of importations. turned the course of 'business to Puntarenas. It is based on no principle. The present tariff is in many ways inequitable. and in the same year there entered Port Limon. it does not correspond with th* . struggling to inaugurate a system of government wholly new and opposed to the preceding one. To-day the freight rates are cheaper still. 6 2s. and 294 vessels with 348. In 1884 this number had increased to 113.869 tons at Puntarenas. and. At the ck>se of the first half of the Nineteenth Century commerce was carried on with the north through Matina and Sarapiqui. however.875 aggre- gate tonnage.97 At the time of declaring independence the Rica was wretched. When the Port of routes and the Limon was opened to commerce the competition of two new facilities of a railroad and a wagon road to the Atlantic greatly promoted traffic and contributed to the general wealth. In 1870 the West India and Pacific Company's steamers received as freights from Puntarenas to Liverpool. especially when Panama Railroad sole a line of steamers connecting with the opened a new way to the Atlantic. continued for years. "Coffee culture gave a new impulse and importance to Costa Rica.355 tons at Port Limon. 121 vessels of 126.368 tons registration. "The greater facilities available on the Pacific coast.

3.389.745.200 " ' 5. 5. Salvador.615.689.702. articles of luxury. ( V 14.725. Great Britain $1. flour. linen.o 94.300 4. The custom-duties are collected on gross weight.647 526.642.85 3 " 5. on the valuation of imports. Importations. haberdashery. soap.257.664. $3. 4. butter. wines.8oo 6. Expectations.600 " " " 13.509. Bolivia and Uruguay. Exports in silver. " " <( " " 1889 1890 1891 6.145 $4.306.460 4.851. and generally amount to from twenty to twenty-five per cent.economic condition and commerce great of the country.818 " " 1896 Imports and Exports by Countries.600 " " " 1887 1888 4. furniture.535. " 3. cot- by and hardware and other industries.200 5.521.412 .597. machinery.351. shoes.896 Mexico 18.900 4.727 gold. sugar.Il6.400 8.100 5.922. 4. 2. They are paid one-half down and one-half within three months' time.700 . Belgium United States 7.725 . is Yet on a number of articles the tariff less than in Mexico.400 gold.382 189. etc. Table 1884 1885 1886 of Exports and Imports of Costa Rica Since 1884.849.623 386.204 gold. wool. liquors. Imports in gold.682 3.400 6.500 2.280 1. beer.737 70.900 6.900 gold.900 3.8t0 " " " 1892 1893 . harnesses. glassware. coffee-sacks.052. 1892.700 5.004 32. Guatemala.500 '894 1895 ' {*X*3 silver.601. tinware.000 4.660. implements and tools for agriculture fumery. mercury and perton. 947.537. ornaments. All goods for Costa Rica have to come accompanied voices. .201.294.440 silver.287 Germany France Spain Italy . Peru.6l2. saddles.748.295. The corresponding consular inprincipal importations are silk.916.

761 192.. 1... .609 252.. . 1.99 Colombia Ecuador Peru $82. Central America Total 15.926 1894. .023 25. Great Britain . . Germany France Spain Italy . Cuba Jamaica .697. . .921 81. . Germany France ..890 Cuba Jamaica .615 ". 1893- 123.836 807.399.944 . ..123. Great Britain .326 .026 39.993 228.....387 40. Colombia Ecuador . .416 800 502 3.. . 125. .829 .912 . ..... $20. .036 94.. .437 ...8io Imports in gold. United States . $1.804.691 Central America 75.. Mexico .939 143.

.3*5 37 58.951 48 Colombia .089 48 103 05 Denmark Portugal .. 813 75 16.074 25 . . Great Britain Germany France Spain (Cuba) Italy .179.560 19 1. 24 oo . $851.441 33. .263 81 ..906 35 .078 10 357. . . Ecuador Peru .095.534 223. Gold.118 261.401.$5.816 66 378. .488. . 5. 1. .622 93 6.198.856 33 893.113 14 1895.o88 .769 52 .623 59.5 8 4 66 115..095 84 Baggage of overland passengers 5. .. not coined 443. United States Central Americ . .609 60 Woods Various products Unspecified products Total .546 . $4. 263 65. $1.783 58 172. .791 35 Commodities Imported in 1896. Coffee 14. 23.818 62 ..633 1896.226. Gold.978 1.385 27 15. 38.. Woods Animals Coined money Total .052 86 12..264.375.748. Belgium United States Central America South America ... Great Britain Germany France Spain (Cuba) Italy . Belgium 3.069 23 4. 423. Gold.617 57 144.500 oo i44.852 95 58.611 78 10. .. . 162.100 Total Exports for 1894.825 54 71.252 08 Bananas Coined money Gold. $4.326 53 284.000 oo 21.849 684.231 68 69... Gold. Imports by Countries. Merchandise entered at custom houses Merchandise sent by post Baggage of marine passengers .053. .481 98 .925 05 61. Pesos..

.739 90 Nicaragua Guatemala Salvador Postal packages Merchandise in passengers goods 288 06 21. x >493 4 $2.743 60 $2. 670.885 2 7 $5. Great Britain 'Germany France Spain $518.102 bunches...713 99 The following list. 11.692.101 Total Exports for 1896.695 35 2 9459 . Hon. . Manuel Aragon. valued at . valued at Re-exports and provisions.597.970 39 Additional for 3816 animals.646 91 94.. shows the principal articles of import and their value in gold pesos by countries since 1893: . 50 .893 50 . Gold.652 02 167. which I owe to the amiability of the highly competent Director General of the National Department of Statistics...285 90 Bananas... .32859 82.072 40 485. 20.833 37 357.327.999 30 .318. 1. ...334 50 44. valued at $4. 11.. valued at Coined and other metal.303 77 55.523 kgs.. Belgium United States South America :Santo 871. . Italy . Coffee.154 48 Cuba. valued at Total 74..089..543 78 83.727 or Various commodities Total Imports by Countries for First Half of 1897.070 50 4. Gold. valued at Woods.252.57* 9 Tomas 445 oo 10.

.\o-<j--*r~: T i-o tn _ <5 >-T r^ ro l O .0....^ OC ro o vo r^ -< M O * Q t^Ttooopjco'vo M * * to .. 10 ...VOCOM vo co invo voin^ 4i^^j-oin . :*::*S * >O 00 OO OO M~ co rT o" roO^cO MOM \OOC coo- 4 M* i-< t^* u^ N ..% . CO O< coco .IO2 ON ' >-< . TJr~- - - M_VO oo' to 00 Ov u5 o" S'S&S ON co 4 N " fi 35 cf < MOO t- i i-i...VOVOVO .oo * ... O>vO OO .M . vo . N vo P4 rf co d" * NO fi * . M M ^ ir.. .i-*". * .. inoo 'c* ^ 5COCOM ^ M in r^VO I^>AO 00 00 00 VO O t--VO vO OO ON co .NO .*. . i/} W rocT of !>.MVO .. ... .00. r^oo t^ o Ovo M '"vo . .O\ I _ . .oocoin OOONPIVOO t^vo vo Tt- in ON TJ-VO MMCOPJO inco co M o M .-^ t^ M t^ covo" * ^"8 ^ 4 cood" M N " oo " * " M^i-NMO' " oo o> cooo p) COiDONt^rOtNOiO'<dCJWrot^rOt^roi-ioO oo *-"' iOO\Or^O)TtioOiO COCO Is* OO t-^ 4 in cToo" pT M" in o"oo" M~ M" pT co pf in COM ^-VOPtMM rooio "SinoN o" M"\O" M'^TPTM" Min >- in rC PI .CO . T? . O^ . M" "CO vo cOTfwooci ! r^-cscooo ONOO oo" co- < tot v <* r^-woo ' vo^o pt'Jn "r pf ' I ^coSoo* M" i-T of co 4 2coo?^co5<o 8" pToo" M" M"VO' 'ff in co S oc" 'o'Soo cooo" P>" PI MOOVOVOM ...'. oT ...o" .. M \o o co .vOOOt^.. . * i-t *-*-CO .. .*>.. ^j- M w ON in voin'vo o . O & O ' ' 5r tO ' ' Jo WO & vo" * . O 1 co in M" oo" M" rC M'VO" oo" vo* . Tt **.SO . <S t^- o ^ N rj- t* * 1 oo in VO O ' * t^SD rOVD cftC <$.. ft QQ r^t^oo o cot~-ot^i-'r^ M~cToo p) rj-oo ro - IOCXD M c uo o .. .. vo"o" m in o * t-^ rj- r? <N vo ON^-VO oo n..

.^.tf . rovcf t^ <* 10 _ ir}00~ rf ^ C rl-ON^vOf-'CSO'-i VD OO vO t~ POCO_ * <* " Tt * " M r^ N vo M O c^ O> O O\ wwy o.< -S . . "" ^ s . .r-* ! ! ^rt^l^ ro 10 o^ vd* 1 o ir> . * o" 10 to c .00 rC o w 10 ' 1^8 t*. a 2 iilgssrg-33S5 . t s. .

and wines ($6933). cotton cloth ($19. tobacco ($6288). cigarettes ($7753). wine ($3491). cattle imported in in 1893. alcohol ($7783).719). in 1894.000). cigarettes Colombia ($4229).418). and wines ($126.800). alcohol wines in alcohol ($30. cacao 1894. maize ($6891). 1893. The exportation during follows: the first sir months of 1897 was as . including Cuba.720). cacao ($9710). in 1894. alcohol ($15. wines ($14.346). in 1895. 'butter ($2893).847).500).104 Among in other countries Spain.436). ($10. Italy imported in 1893. sugar ($9895). hats ($1240). cacao ($11. Central America imported in 1893. cotton cloth ($1568). cognac ($8976). wines ($46.418). marble ($4623). in 1895.791). imported ($26.417). cigars ($7626). tobacco ($6959). tobacco ($112. 1895. liquors ($14. ($81. cigarettes ($11. ($115.416). cacao ($2846).957). butter ($2209).

.904 13. i.659.822 12. 33. From this amount 87.80 1 per cent. It will From Limon be interesting to of coffee is : know large amount shipped.072.11 3. through Puntarenas. 9..13 Switzerland .94 .03 . by the German Line.887 24. The scarcity of working people and the abgreatest barriers to the sence of capital were formerly ... .712 Valparaiso .. or 196.980 2..2.80 7.. . Kilogr.. found in the following list London . . . . the places to which this These particulars are Sacks. . . . . 7.73 2.843. . Sweden Germany France Austria . by the French Steamship line.105 cent. in oro..184.991 sacks (1.. .oo Norway..827 346. Pounds.00 13.329 per cent.1348 . . in pargement..33 per or 35. ..183. .89 United States . went through Port Limon and 12. 32. . 439 254 50 62 i Panama Barcelona Total 231.93. 2. . . 5. .008 In connection with the coffee trade there are here given interesting statistics concerning the average annual consumption of coffee per capita of the population of different countries : Pounds.289 1.. by other lines.45o 1.502. 0. 3.027 kilos). . Pounds.07 per cent.6.93 cent. or 27.oo . . by the British Royal Mail.343 sacks.61 Greece Italy .299 per cent. 21. the European Russia . 1. 310 i i i Malaga Geneva Trieste 821.271 per cent.524 1 206 12.300 per cent. was transported by the Atlas Line.19 Industries. . and 15.67 per kilos). . Great Britain.946 : . Holland . .833 Hamburg Bordeaux Paris .311 19. 61.24 i.561 sacks.061 which 84.373 Bremen Montreal 37 Antwerp Lockport Chicago .. . per cent.0. or 203.913 sacks (12. San Francisco New York I33 6 76 7. Denmark Belgium . .

I 1 . " Limon. In regard to industrial and manufacturing establishments and workshops. while at the same time the abundance and relative cheapness of imported articles rendered useless all attempts at home production. Guanacaste. 272 187 " ' ' Cartago. 89 20 2303 Comarca de Puntarenas. Distribution of industrial and manufacturing }esta 1 lishments in Costa Rica. Heredia. there were in 1892: 842 in the Province of San Jose. 700 193 Alajuela.1 06 progress of industry.

000 pesos. capital 500. Costa Rica Pacific Gold Mining Company. Heredia Market Company. farming utensils. There also exist a silk and cotton factory. Monte de Among the miscellaneous companies for the Aguacate Mining Company. scarfs. La Trinidad Mining Company. cabinet work.000 pesos. Electric Light Company. capAgency Company unloading ital 200.000 pesos. which contributed greatly to the progress of mechanical arts.000 pesos. capital 100. capital 215.000 pesos. etc. San Jose Market Company. also an ice factory. a shoe factory mill. machinery. implements. in the favorite colors and a flour- we have to mention and loading vessels. capital 250. Costa Rica House Construction Company.000 pesos.icy There are in San Jose the San Jose Foundry and the National Workshop. manufacturing fine articles like shawls. . Cartago Market Company. iron manufactures. wraps. tools. of the people.000 pesos. capital 100. Limited. capital 250.

.XII. Various sources etc. distributed in the follow- ing manner: Ordinary Disbursements for Administration.435..61.469 38 fiscal Expenditures during the year ending in il amounted to 6. revenue stamps and stamped paper. tax for registering property.21175 .415 oo 15.17074 274.10488 32.350 98 .685. etc. 101. The national revenue for 1896 was as follows: Pesos. coffee tax. tobacco revenue.71800 7. Pesos. The main custom house in San Jose contributed The custom house in Puntarenas Limon " national liquor business 1.. ) 6.51 pesos.051 84 Fomento Foreign Office Justice .2^2.746 58 474.17496 778.17887 233.326.697. Department of Gobernacion Police 666.568 83 Public Instruction CioS) 630. tax on slaughtering live stock. 148 27 404.044 26 Lumber tax Stamped paper Revenue stamps 70. FINANCE AND BANKING.930. 628. liquor monopoly.164 30 39.52989 89..6io 78 Total To this sum Pesos. The revenue of the Government of Costa Rica is derived from custom-house duties.) Public credit 395.444 25 Tobacco revenue Coffee tax 2. sale of public lands. etc. Revenues proper Public service (post.079 14 Funds in administration (postal-money orders.627 41 .429 55 163.

888 52 Hospital of Alajuela Bank of Costa Rica..915 50 Pesos. Hospital of San Juan de Dios Ecclesiastical funds 13.. Department of Cultus 24.213 44 115. Department of Beneficence Various other services 101.33939 in Administration.300 oo Legate of Barroeta Hospital of Cartago Various Accounts.15256 47. sugar.731.19399' Various Services... notes and interest .log Pesos.. 1894 Deposits in favor of pupils of Barroeta 14.. Bills payable 475. contract of June 20.82386 4..414 78 Interior Debt.558 06 1.638 oo 44. Buying tobacco.37252 1. 9.640 oo 6. Postal orders 19..684 67 Municipality of Cartago. 15.991 15 Private deposits Amortization of national notes 39. 340.229. Pesos. 135.11805 Monopoly Services. 6.884 5 11..337 50 15.. 432.84053 297.21553 * .495 55 Interest and discounts .414 62 Navy Finance Various services 1. .90461 217.. etc.56917 Total 6.068 82 6. Pesos.326 51 .559 5i 297. Pesos..697. Flint & Co 4.027.883 97 347. Pesos.10100 War Military police . freights Contract of Odilon Jimenez Contract of Robato & Beguiristain Funds Billets of Instruction 277.12634 18.7/5 63 Consolidates.94309 235.53 81 367.558 oo .

no The it..947 5.261 3. . notes of the Costa Rica bank.733 . 300. . . 1. . Including every kind of emission. in 1883-84 1884-85 1885-86 1886-87 .. . money in circulation amounted Pesos.404 of Costa Rica bank notes.666. and with 10.507.155-75 pesos in notes of war emission. The government is also authorized to buy in its own bonds for their immediate liquidation.820. . etc.5..721.837 There were in pesos as follows: in circulation. making a total of 1.630.000 in five per cent. - 5.000 pesos. cash orders.806. amortization of which is made annually. .. 4...416 5.669 war-emission paper money. .. The rest of the floating debt scarcely amounts to 50. 4.899. and of bills payable... . the Pesos.000 per year. land. .. .941. Lately an arrangement was made under which the amortization of this debt will begin in 1917. private deposits..784.518 3..000 coined gold money..210.762.395> 89 1889-90 1890-91 4. instead of 1898. ..129. currency valued 3.08 pesos per capita of the population of Costa Rica.512 5.. total 5.975 1891-92 1892-93 1893-94 1894-95 1887-88 .207 1888-89. floating debt chiefly consists of private deposits.633.885 1895-96..343 5. or 20.. instead of 20. has foreign debt contracted in 1871 and 1872. .. of paper money which is received in very limited amounts. municipal fund.752 5.434 3..000 coined silver money. .4.037. .628...000. national paper money.. in Engbeen disastrous to It amounts to 2. 98..707.18 pesos. ecclesiastical fund.000.. 1. war-emission paper money.... of the school-loan... in 1895-96..837.500... silver and gold 1882-83 coin.. .721.116.43 pesos for various accounts.. against the will of the nation. Another important factor in the commercial and economic life of Costa Rica is the money in circulation.619. The In figures the interior debt of Costa Rica may be represented as follows: 79. debentures. mostly given for sugar and syrups to the "National Liquor Distillery" and drawn on thirty days' sight. 2764 national paper money.

" "In order to avoid embarrassment in the commercial and economic life of the country it has been agreed with the Banco de Costa Rica to maintain parity between these certificates and its notes. "The emission of gold certificates is necessary." "In this \vay the following conclusion was reached: . as well as pending negotiations as to exportable products." "For these purposes. the Government of Costa Rica to displace the notes of the Banco de Costa beginning Rica by others issued by the government.' new gold coin. in ties which would arise from the bank. there had to be taken into conthe sideration: First. and the relation of the intrinsic value between gold and silver. the actual state of the national wealth. and third. 1896. is money issued by the order to avoid the difficulconstant retirement of this paper money. estimated in the already established credit circulating medium. also parity with the actual silver peso was established. the average ratio of silver to gold during the same period. and of acquiring by means of those certificates resources for fresh coinage of gold pieces. Again. It was further agreed that the 'colon de oro. second. In this way also the Government has the advantage of utilizing the quantities of gold in deposit. should correspond in intrinsic value with this standard of ratios. change during a number of the average range of international exyears. certifi- and importance. as it would be impossible to keep the gold coins in circulation so long as the quantity of paper far greater.Ill is indicated. that the following translation is given from such parts of the reports of the Minister of Finance as relate This monetary question is of such interest thereto. There had further to be considered the outstanding obligations of the interior and of the exterior debt. By the monetary law of October 24. the gold certificates must be issued to furnish an adequate supply of currency. maintained at As above par and guaranteed by a gold reserve or by gold cates.

with respect to the American gold. and later. new banks must be As established. 2. with authority to issue circulating notes. Its relation to the gold coins of other nations is as follows: . and in order to include an average exchange of 1 10 per cent. on the other hand. i American gold dollar 4 shillings sterling.000 'colones de oro' in ically. which will soon be issued. with re- spect to the pound sterling. The Costa Rican Bank.112 That the 'colon de fine gold.0481 " "In the contract with the Banco de Costa Rica. In consequence of this and purpose of giving to the 'colon de oro' the same fineness as has been given to the American gold coin.0921 " . there will be an abundance of currencv of a fixed value. of 10 colones in Costa Rica. 1495 2. 2.0737 2. As the Costa Rican Bank no longer has the exclusive privilege of issuing paper money. as soon as sufficient gold can be put in circulation. . and as has been adopted by the Union Latina.000 colones in pieces of 20. It is further willing to coin half a million more in the near future. gold 5 francs. it was established that the 'colon de oro' should have 778 milligrams of gold of 900-1000 fineness. colones each. these banks will have to keep a reserve of national gold coins for the redemption of their paper money. it was agreed that the Government should coin gold periodThere are already 600. the exchange of bills is to be made by this bank in gold instead of silver. As the fine- . and the Government pieces ordered furthermore a second emission of 400. gold 4 marks." There are sufficient reasons for believing that the Costa Rican Government will succeed in the realization of this highly important economic change without difficulty. gold Colones " '. as well as to create a relation of i to 26 between for the silver and gold. and of 1 15 per cent. in oro' should contain 700 milligrams of order not to complicate the situation created by the circulating notes of the Bank of Costa Rica. is to retire a corresponding amount of its notes from obliged circulation.

865 200.000 40..000 100. the necessity of a mortgage law was apparent to maintain and secure the Hence an official registry of titles and equities of all.714. 847. .000 . there will in the future be slight fluctuations.000 .000 Insane Asylum Pacific 405.000 175.000 75.ness of the 'colon de oro' constitutes the best type of international exchange. .000 .000 500.432 250.000 140.000 80. The value of the National Government property is estimated at 8. 900. 100. .000 150. 905. 159.000 94.000 60.000 Mint 42...000 Railway . . mortgages 8 .000 400.. Main armory Old temple of La Merced Ex-University 100.185 145. .815 286. and this will prove a most valuable guaranty of the stability of public wealth. 50.522.936 80.500 . .000 . was opened in 1867. National Palace Girls' 200.172 .000 65. Costa Rica being an essentially agricultural country.000 The private property owners are numerous and the orderly habits of the Costa Ricans are marked.000 High-School Islands of San Lucas and Chira Island of Uvita Presidential Palace Artillery .000 ..000 100. 389.94 pesos.. 350. House in San Jose" Place in front of the National distillery Custom-house in Puntarenas Pier in Puntarenas National telegraph Palace of Justice Hospital for lepers Penitentiary Police Stations .000 armory National printing establishment National College in Alajuela National Museum Park of Morazan Liceo of Costa Rica 150. National distillery Central custom-house National theatre Metal-building National park The principal items are: Pesos. .

339 " 1880.285.340. 41. 65.378.359.700.'.281 1885.511 9.019 45.228.007 2.051 " " 84.565 3.055 9.'.189 " 90. of Year. 65i 1896.896.885 10.386 8.253 15. 89.116 " " " 37.654. 94.789 2.286 1890.177 8.827 . 82.523 8.972 4.403.176 1.'.862. 63.594 1885.484 9.\ 1.610.676 9.889.132.The landed registered in the property of the people of Costa Rica is "Registro Publico" in the following way: First Inscription.551.011 4.941 549 fincas valued at " " 9.112.960. 1882 .805 25.659 erties) The following list gives the number of fincas (propand the amount in pesos for which they were mortgaged. .402 17.'.810 1.283.373 6.444 8.440. 1875.667.872 Net value of the 1870 1875 1880 I88 5 fincas was: Pesos.936 826. 99.858 1890 1895 35.961 12.567 52.475 8.944.583 1896 I8 97 43.060 1.110. 1880. Pesos. u 2 8 Si . 1870.39.567 45.243 fincas valued at 1875.'.126.331 " " 1895.928 10.105.968 9. 85.731.523 8.483 2.58o " " " " 502.755 " " " " " 67.528 6.503 9.557 " " 32.679.480.563 7.251.831.936 59. 5.702.!S ! I I 188 '.244.347.3 Year.569 1897.357 7.698 29. - I! 580.632 9.641 9.188.309 99^47.105. 26.027.339.204 14.858 1895.033.985 1897 ". 158 St < 2 2 c P4 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 130 435 632 1883 1884 x.417 8.772. 2.730 9.035 i9>090.748 5. '. Second Inscription. 24. 43.396 8. 79.630 8.222 1890.422 3.231.528 9. 54.510 15.'.088.565 2.546 24.909 3.308 16. 1870.333 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 8.711.642. Pesos.152.947 " " " 3.197 5.276 1896.686.821 48.614 1897.'.540 .415 9-331.326 62.'.398 Pesos.513 8.

LOGO ro o. to March 31.wq^i ^ CO r<D ^ *o < w g'-S . the Public Register shows the following moveIn the last fiscal ment : l*W a 6 ^ < - O M CM l^ ON mw o vS O >O O vO fO CO 1 ex. 1896. 1897.year from April i.

n6 For the same period the "Public Register" furnishes the following statistics of mortgages on real estate estimated in pesos: .

This bank still exists.892 1883-84 1884-85 168. 1888 1889 12. . breweries.820.100 1894 1895 482. coffee-cleaning establishments.079. in Costa This institution ceased and.290 2. itself the former Banco de la Union established in 1877. . cemeteries. for wine houses.. by Crisanto Medina.800 60. 1882-83 35. . The average circulation of these bank notes since 1882 has been as follows: Pesos. . etc. 1890 1891 1896 1897 1892 380. for slaughtering cattle and hogs.002.249.200 170. 1889-90 1890-91 .914 3.010 .700 The municipal taxes are not high.400 . taxes for registering of dogs.404 ..911. Pesos.167 2. Rica. 1893-94 1894-95 1895-96 3.000 1. amounts have been Pesos. The Bank of Costa Rica has had from the Government the privilege of issuing paper money to the extent of four times its cash on hand.000 pesos and a paid-up capital of 1.518. together with the Banco de Costa Rica established in 1867 with a It incorporated with paid-up capital of 2.191.000 666.381. Other important factors of the economic life of Costa Rica are the existing "banking establishments.037.. was replaced by the Banco Anglo-Costaricense with an authorized capital of 2.ooo 5 6 . The owners of real estate are required to pay only the taxes devoted to the maintenance of municipal police.170 1. taxes on tanneries.000 pesos.500 70. 1.000.479 3.000 . 2.000.n7 since that time cedulas to following issued: Pesos. 1892-93 . street lighting and the domestic supply of water. .067 3. .000 1.930 3.041 1887-88 1888-89 . .200. .000. Other municipal taxes comprise license fees for commercial business.565.004.890 1891-92 1885-86 1886-87 210.000 1893 336.820. in 1863. The first bank of Central America was established in 1857.

.984. 1.273. The Banco de Costa Rica.802. In view of the satisfactory transactions of the Bank 20 per cent..929.82 : Branch Banks Bonds of School.424.073.433-00 29.000 pesos and a dividend account of 50. in was distributed 1897.000.397-32 Securities in collection commission for 394. on July 15.50 Deposits.00 Immovable erty Furniture Stamps Sundry accounts . Daniel Nunez and Manuel Sandoval. .000. 'had a reserve fund of 745. .23 Government on account lones de Oro' .972. 2.000 pesos. Harrison.324-39 Capital paid up Reserve fund Dividend account Discounts .n8 This issue privilege was withdrawn in 1897 on the introduction of the 'colon de oro/ and a special arrangement was made with the bank to uphold the contemplated change from a silver to a gold standard.64 335.304-39 373. prop- 600.000. . 50. Cartago and Alajuela. INABILITIES.38a. .o 8.54 10.76 8.984. on time or 1.74 ' Deposit of ' Colones de Oro 6oo.70 2.052.00 745. .226.607.ooo. Bank Foreign correspondents Accounts current Bills receivable .420.70 Notes in circulation 3.000. Telesforo Alfaro.76 The bank is ready to retire 540.420.43 ..000. It has branches in Heredia. and its Board of Directors is composed of Messrs. Fabian Esquivel.075.802. Jose Its Board of Directors include Messrs. is The manager of the Banco Anglo-Costaricense Mr.757-76 191. Francisco Peralta. Percy G.915. . The situation of this bank at the same date was in pesos as follows: ASSETS.131-76 6.000 oo 120. Gerardo Jager and Mariano Montealegre. R. demand . .595-05 .948. Simeon Guzman. 1.00 ..000 pesos of its own notes in correspondence with the first gold deposit of 600. Cash on hand: Coin Checks against the Anglo-C.o2 Securities in collection commission for 394.954. fiscal manager Mr.149.74 'Co- loan Various obligations to collect 40.101. 5.. . 7.948..278. .805.682. 5.33 10.038.000. Adrian Collado.155-79 .50 254.268.. 1. .99 167. Aniceto Esquivel.108. Its in dividends for the is year ending Andres Coronado. 1897.00 1.



situation of the

Banco Anglo-Costaricense on

1897, was

in pesos as follows:
tO oq



vo 05


qd **) o\


O o o O



O t*5 w

88158?? 3%

Sv ~


2^8 ?








ill !



ss a


^!1Ml ^<2flC






















:l| :1


v ^

1 * IS -*

d du



^ Ppi

I*a:*r * fc^~-.c* IrJaJ!






s-ni^a i! 2! i 2=

liiip oucfl


" ^


Foreign commercial obligations were settled through these banks on the following terms: Drafts at three days' sight on Paris cost one per cent, less than on London on same time; those at ninety days' sight on Paris or London cost one per cent, less than at three days' sight those at sixty days' sight, on New York, cost two per cent, less than on three days' sight. Submarine cable transfers of money cost two per cent, more than by three days' sight drafts with the cost of telegraphing added. Until the 24th of March, 1897, the Bank of Costa Rica sold drafts on New York for five points more than

for those

on London.

difference of

exchange between those

Since the 25th of March, 1897, the cities has been eight

per cent.
rates on London, in October and November, were I2 7> an d those on New York were 135. 1897,




Costa Rica


a republic, the





representatives being representative, that one-half retires every two years. Since 1825 Costa Rica has had nine constitutions, the last one having been




promulgated in 1871. The government
tinct branches;


administered through three dis-

namely, the legislative, executive and judi-


Legislative powers are vested in a single house whose are chosen, one for every 8000 inhabitants, for a term of four years by an electoral college. This body is

called the "Constitutional Congress" and assembles every year on May i for a sixty days' session, which may be

extended for thirty days more.

The executive power


vested in the President of the



elected for four years and has the or removing his four cabinet ministers.


Annually, in May, Congress appoints, for a term of one year, three substitutes called "designados." During the intervals between sessions of Congress legislative power is represented by a board of five commissioners

appointed by Congress. Judicial power is lodged in a Supreme Court and in subordinate tribunals as constituted by law. The judiciary

years. restricted to popular conventions which Suffrage choose a limited number of electors. These meet in a

changed every four

called the electoral assembly and proceed to choose the President of the Republic and the Congressmen.



Each Canton has a municipal organization popularly elected and a political chief named by the President. peniis on . Judge of First Instance appointed by Costa Rica. organized a judiciary of her own consisting of a superior court. In the chief towns of each Canton the alcaldes act in civil cases of minor importance. several tribunals who were affairs of first resort in the provinces. The Territories are represented in Congress in the same way as the Provinces. Two Courts of second instance have three magistrates each.122 The Republic is divided into five Provinces and two Comarcas or Territories. and a military commandant also named by the President. Punishments are generally neither cruel nor pro- tracted. The Supreme Court is a Court Law composed of five justices. the island of They comprise confinement in a prison or transportation. and a National Judge of Hacienda. an alcalde of Hacienda. and the alcaldes of towns justices of the peace with jurisdiction over petty both civil and criminal. and in criminal cases are judges of petty offenses. For fiscal affairs there are an Inspector General of Hacienda. In each of the Provinces and in the Comarca of Puntarenas there are judges having criminal and civil jurisdiction. Both are divided into Cantones. ing at There is also a special judge of mines residSan Mateo. In each of the Provinces or Territories there is a Governor. The penitentiary San Lucas. tentiary. and a the Supreme Court. and the Cantones are subdivided into districts. and for graver charges are committing magistrates. In the districts the justices of the peace and the police are charged with maintaining the public peace and they act for small misdemeanors in a summary way. The Supreme Court has of since undergone many changes. or a fine. as soon as she became a member of the Central American Confederation.

like the Mining The Registry Statutes decreed in 1830. since of property and mortgages was opened which time various reforms have been introduced into the Mortgage Law. 1884. the The Municipal common education. Among the more important amendments are these: by the Penal Code in effect since 1880 the death penalty is abolished. Statutes prevailing to-day were issued General Police Regulations in 1849. In 1865 there was promulgated the law for a creditor's proceedings. 1886 there was promulgated a new Civil Code. age system for moneys . 1863. By decree of loth of July. The Fiscal Code of to-day went into effect in 1885. the Consular Regulations. Higher and professional education was provided for in 1843 by a law known as the "Statutes of the University of Santo Tomas. There are besides many special laws. The "Ley Organica" of tribunals was framed in 1845 and modified slightly in 1852. the decimal now in use was adopted. in force except as modified by subsequent statutes. founded on Spanish customs. the mortgage law was passed in 1865. was issued in 1853. in 1867. The Military Code of 1871 was superseded in 1884 by another more in accordance with modern institutions. the right of divorce and the civil equality of woman. By decree of 24th of November. The Code of Commerce in force. in which are prominent civil marriages. as well as humiliating and cruel punishments." and in 1886 there was enacted a law for in 1867. amending the code materially seventeen years This has been the basis of her legal progress and is later. and others.123 In 1841 Costa Rica codified its civil and penal jurisprudence. the Water Law of 1884 now in force. All Costa Ricans between eighteen and fifty years of are obliged to do military service according to law. The Jury System in criminal cases has been in force since 1873. the metric system was adopted for weights and measures.

citizens capable of shouldering arms . the second comprises under the head of "Reserve. under the head of active soldiers from eighteen all to forty years of age. including outside of the foregoing. the service. all known as the National Guard." the rest There is a third division.124 The army is divided into two parts. all first includes.

which the King ordered to be made about that time for purposes of taxation. (125) . the territory of within a period of sixty years from the date of its discovery some ten feeble exploring and colonizing expeditions. E. HISTORY. According to the narrative of Colonel G.. Barrantes says that in 1622 it had but fifty Spanish and these were in a condition of extreme poverty. In 1562 Juan Vasquez de Coronado was named Alcalde and Mayor of the Province of Costa Rica and Veragua. A report. Church.XIV. no families. but in that year it was erected into a province called Costa Rica. Until 1540 Spain reserved for the Crown that part of Veragua lying west of the portion which had been granted to the heirs of Columbus. to enslave the Indian population. those on the Atlantic Coast being the same as to-day. or to make the country prosperous. so far as Nicaragua is concerned. were fitted out to occupy Costa Rica. mostly from Panama. they allowed it to lapse into a barbarism far worse than it was at the time of its discovery. but disappointed in their efforts to find gold. but they all proved disastrous. butchered and treated with signal barbarity. no gold-washings. the only result being the exasperation of the natives whom the Spaniards plundered. He founded the City of Cartago which re- mained the Up capital until 1823. to 1622 fifteen governors succeeded Vasquez. stated: "In Costa Rica no mines of any metal are worked. Between 1560 and 1573 the limits of Costa Rica were defined and confirmed by Philip II.

in 1639 founded that of Matina. connecting it by a mule-trail 102 miles long with Cartago. hire and borrow from their friends/' This may be said to have been the condition of the country when the domination of Spain ended. The vate only maize and wheat. since 1563. The following year he reported to the King on the condition of Costa Rica. no sugar-mill exist. he noted the importance of having a better port than that then existing at the mouth of the river Pacuare. There is not an eatable sold in street or shop. poverty is such that the flour and biscuits which are not consumed are exchanged for necessary clothing.126 indigo cultivation." In 1797 the governorship and military command were conferred on Tomas de Acosta. From 1666 to the end of the century both the Caribbean and the Pacific coasts were ravaged by piratical expeditions. but after ruling for twelve years he wrote: "There is not in the entire monarchy a province so indigent as this. The fifty-eight Governors. which scarcely yielded sufficient to enable its laborers to eke out a miserThev had killed off or able." Gregorio de Sandoval was named CaptainGeneral. The current money is the cacao seed. and others. When In 1718 Diego de la Haya y Fernandez was appointed Captain-General. Every family has to sow and reap what it consumes or expends during the year. The people cultiThere is no money. Even the Governor has to do this or perish. . for some of the inhabitants are clothed with the bark of trees. which he pronounced the "poorest and most miserable of all America. had been little more than managers of a neglected farm. and. that they may go to church. half-starved existence. and reached his port from the Atlantic Coast. and among the whole of them there are not forty men of medium capacity. who. there not being a piece of silver in the entire country. in 1634. therefore. Meanwhile the inhabitants of the province are contentious. chimerical and turbulent. had followed the ill-fated Vasquez de Coronado.

September 15. and Rafael Iglesias. during three centuries of Spanish domination. Bernardo Soto. Their poverty had precluded the opening of roads or the clearing and cultivation of the lands. elected Juan Mora as President. constantly retrograded. and when the Spaniard retired from it. of internal communications. who remained in office for eight years. On want I* feH disintegration from 1838 to 1839. as slave territory to the Walker. from 1872 to 1876. On January 10. 1822. Venezuela and Ecuador.127 enslaved the indigenous population. since 1894. until to-day it may be said to be in a healthy political and commercial condition." but in 1824 she resumed her independence. General Tomas Guardia. several have been men of marked intelligence and devoted patriotism. Costa Rica joined Nicaragua in a decree of independence. and became one of the United Provinces of Central AmerThis weak. Costa Rica had. Juan Mora. 1821. Among the twenty-four presidents and dictators who have governed Costa Rica since 1824. and under their administration the country has slowly emerged from its former depression. Costa Rica is very much indebted to its first PresiOther successful Presidents were: dent. In fact. he left it less civilized than when he entered it in 1502. unmanageable union underwent a slow ica. Since its independence there have been but few The most imporstirring events to agitate the country. she proclaimed her union with the Iturbide Empire of Mexico under "the plan of Iguala. from 1850 to 1859. Juan Rafael Mora. declared herself a Republic. whose object United . and again from 1878 to 1882. from 1885 to 1889. while the exactions of Spain and its barbarous political and fiscal policy had smothered all commercial interests. tant of them was the efficacious aid it gave to Nicaragua in 1857 in crushing the filibuster was to add Nicaragua States. like the old m pieces for Columbian federation of New Granada.





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