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accepted for publication in the ApJ Letter
Rotation-Resolved Spectroscopy of a Very Young Asteroid, (1270)
Datura
Naruhisa Takato
1
Subaru Telescope, 650 North A‘ohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720
takato@naoj.org
ABSTRACT
(1270) Datura is the largest member of a very young asteroid cluster that
was thought to be broken-up 0.45 Myr ago. The light-curve and the rotation-
resolved reflectance spectra (0.6 µm – 1.0 µm) were observed in order to find
“fresh” surface. Our data show no significant spectral variation along the rotation
phase. The depth of the 0.95 µm absorption band, which indicates the degree of
space weathering, was similar to that of an old S-type asteroid. This suggests that
the reflectance spectrum in this wavelength range changes rapidly and saturates
the depth of the 0.95 µm absorption in less than 0.45 Myr in the main belt
environment.
Subject headings: minor planets, asteroids — planets and satellites: individual
(1270 Datura)
1. Introduction
A parent body of an ordinary chondrite, one of the most common stony meteorites, is
believed to be a S-type asteroid that is commonly distributed in the inner main belt region
and is thought to consist of silicate rocks covered with regolith. However, there are discrep-
ancies between the reflectance spectra of ordinary chondrites and S-type asteroids: S-type
asteroids show redder spectral slope in the visible wavelength and the depth of the absorption
band at ∼ 0.95 µm is shallower than that of ordinary chondrites (Chapman & Salisbury
1973).
1
another affiliation: SOKEN-DAI, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193, Japan
– 2 –
These spectral discrepancies are attributed to “space weathering,” which alter a fresh,
chondritic spectra to the S-type asteroid spectra (e.g., Clark et al. 2002). Although details
of the physical process of the space weathering have not been fully understood, it is thought
that irradiation of high energy particles (solar wind or cosmic ray) and/or bombardment
of micro-meteorites makes nanophase iron in the surface of regolith that cases the spectral
change (Adams & McCord 1971; Hapke 2000; Pieters et al. 2000; Sasaki et al. 2001).
One of the unsolved issues on space weathering is to determine the time scale of the
weathering process. Dynamical investigations of asteroid families are enabling us to create
a time scale of the history of asteroid evolution (e.g., Nesvorn´ y et al. 2005). Nesvorn´ y et al.
(2005) related the family age and the spectral slope, and Willman et al. (2008) revised their
results and found that the time scale of the spectral slope change by space weathering
was 570 ± 220 Myr. However, Chapman et al. (2007) and Vernazza et al. (2007) observed
(832) Karin, whose age was estimated to be 5.8 Myr, and found that the depth of 0.95 µm
absorption band was as shallow as a typical S-type asteroid. These observations suggest
that the depth of 0.95 µm absorption band changes faster than the reddening of the spectral
slope.
Recently Nesvorn´ y et al. (2006a) found a very young asteroid cluster, Datura cluster,
whose age was estimated to be 0.45 ± 0.05 Myr. Datura cluster has been exposed for only
1/10 of the age of the Karin cluster. Thus this cluster is a good target to examine the
alteration speed by space weathering at the 0.95 µm absorption band.
(1270) Datura has a diameter of about 11 km and is orbiting in the inner main belt
region (a = 2.2 AU). I have observed (1270) Datura, which is the largest member of the
Datura cluster, expecting to find a “fresh” region on its surface because the space-weathered
old surface was removed by the cluster-forming break-up and a fragment might expose a
fresh, interior surface on the whole area or at least in some area. In this letter I will report
the rotation-resolved reflectance spectra of (1270) Datura and its implication for the space
weathering.
2. Observations and Results
Light curve observations were made on 2008 February 16 and 20(UT) by using J-band
imaging of MOIRCS (Ichikawa et al. 2006) on the Subaru telescope in order to determine
the rotational phases at our spectral observations. Most of the exposure time were set to
30 sec. Photometric standard star, FS132, was also observed. The nights were photometric.
Figure 1 shows obtained J-band light curve of (1270) Datura. The sidereal rotation period
– 3 –
was derived to be 3.359 hr and the amplitude was about 0.4 mag
pv
, which are consistent
with previous results (Sz´ekely et al. 2005).
Spectroscopic observations were made on 2008 February 26(UT) using the grism mode of
FOCAS (Kashikawa et al. 2002) on the Subaru telescope. The wavelength range was λ = 0.6
µm – 1.0 µm and the slit width was set to 1.0 arcsec, which resulted the spectral resolution
to be R=400. The position angle of the slit was set to the direction of the asteroid motion.
The sky was clear and the spectra of (1270) Datura were taken continuously and covered
about 3/4 of a full rotational phase with 26 spectra. Exposure time of each spectrum was
180 sec. Spectra of a solar analogue star HD60298(G2V) were taken during the observation
to compensate atmospheric absorption features and to derive reflectance spectra of (1270)
Datura.
The spectra were traced and extracted using IRAF package and then were divided by the
spectra of the solar analogue star observed at a similar air mass to (1270) Datura. Figure 2
shows the obtained reflectance spectra of (1270) Datura averaged at several rotational phases.
No significant spectral variations were detected along the rotational phases.
3. Discussion
The rotation curve shows fairly large amplitude that means we are not seeing (1270)
Datura from above its pole, thus we see most of its surface when observing nearly a full
rotational period. The fact that there is no significant difference among the spectra obtained
at different rotation phases indicates that the surface of (1270) Datura has no significant large
scale spatial variation in composition and in the degree of space weathering. The rotation
speed of (1270) Datura is slow enough, and the size is large enough to be covered with
regolith that must be newly created at the cluster-forming collision at 0.45 Myr ago and
then deposited onto the surface. Since the deposition time scale might be longer compared
to the rotation period of (1270) Datura, the dusts/gravels covered evenly over the surface.
Thus it is natural that the surface of (1270) Datura is almost homogeneous when observed
in a large spatial scale as discussed by Nesvorn´ y et al. (2006b) and Vernazza et al. (2007)
for (832) Karin.
To see the degree of space weathering of the surface of (1270) Datura, the phase-averaged
spectrum is compared with that of an old S-type asteroid (15) Eunomia (estimated age is
2.5 Gyr (Nesvorn´ y et al. 2005)) and some of the ordinary chondrites as shown in Figure 3.
Contrary to our expectation, the spectrum of (1270) Datura does not resemble those of
ordinary chondrites, but is close to an old S-type asteroid (15) Eunomia. This means that
– 4 –
the surface of (1270) Datura was already altered in the same degree with an old S-type
asteroid in respect to the depth of 0.95 µm absorption band.
Because the surface was renewed 0.45 Myr ago by a cluster-forming collision, the change
of the reflectance spectrum (from ordinary-chondrite-like one to that of S-type asteroids)
must be completed in less than 0.45 Myr, if the age estimate by Nesvorn´ y et al. (2006a) and
the concept of space weathering are correct.
Binzel et al. (1996, 2001) found that many of the near-earth objects (NEOs) are Sq- or
Q-type, which connects S-type spectra to ordinary chondrite spectra. If NEOs have been
space weathered in the same manner as (1270) Datura, the surface of those objects have
been exposed much less than 0.45 Myr. If the surface was exposed by a recent collision in
the main belt, we can estimate the current collision rate in the main belt. However, we must
be careful that the environment of space weathering in NEO region differs from the inner
main belt. Also the establishment and stability of regolith might be different since the size
of the objects of Binzel et al. (1996, 2001) are one order-of-magnitude smaller than (1270)
Datura.
I am grateful to T. Hattori for his support of observation and data reductions. I thank
C. R. Chapman for his helpful comments and suggestions as a reviewer and S. Sasaki for his
useful comments. Light-curve data were obtained during telescope engineering time of the
Subaru telescope.
Facilities: Subaru (FOCAS, MOIRCS).
REFERENCES
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Binzel, R. P., Bus, S. J., Burbine, T. H., Sunshine, J. M. 1996, Science, 273, 946
Binzel, R. P., Harris, A. W., Bus, S. J., Burbine, T. H. 2001, Icarus, 151, 139
Burbine, T. H. & Binzel, R. P. 2002, Icarus, 159, 468
Bus, S. J. & Binzel, R. P. 2002, Icarus, 158, 146
Chapman, C. R. & Salisbury, J. W. 1973, Icarus, 19, 507
Chapman, C. R., Enke, B., Merline, W. J., Tamblyn, P., Nesvorn´ y, D., Young, E. F., Olkin,
C., 2007, Icarus, 191, 323
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Clark, B. F., Hapke, B., Pieters, C., Britt, D. 2002, Asteroids III, Bottke, W. F., Cellino,
A., Paolicchi P., Binzel, R. P., Univ. of Arizona Press: Tucson, 585
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Nesvorn´ y, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R. J., Ivezi´c,
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C. C., McKay, D. S., Wentworth, S. 2000, Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 35, 1101
RELAB data base, NASA RELAB facility at Brown Univ.
(http://www.planetary.brown.edu/relabdocs/relab.htm)
Sasaki, S., Nakamura, K., Hamabe, Y., Kurahashi, E., Hiroi, T. 2001, Nature, 410, 555
Sz´ekely, P. et al. 2005, Planet. Space Sci., 53, 925
Vernazza, P., Rossi, A., Birlan, M., Fulchignoni, M., Nedelcu, A., Dotto, E. 2007, Icarus,
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195, 663
This preprint was prepared with the AAS L
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(subtracted light traveling time). The sidereal period is estimated to be P = 3.359 hr.
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Fig. 2.— Average reflectance spectra of (1270) Datura for seven different 0.1 bin of rotational
phase. Each spectrum is normalized to unity at 700 nm and shifted vertically by 0.2 for
clarity. Data near 760 nm are excluded due to strong telluric O
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absorption band. At the
bottom panel, all the spectra are plotted with no vertical offset to see spectral difference
among various rotational phases.
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Fig. 3.— Average spectra of (1270) Datura compared to old (∼ 2.5 Gyr) S-type asteroid (15)
Eunomia (Bus & Binzel 2002; Burbine & Binzel 2002) and ordinary chondrites (RELAB
data base). The spectrum of (1270) Datura does not resemble that of ordinary chondrites,
but is similar to an old S-type asteroid.