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MEEN 364 Parasuram

Lecture 19, 20 August 25, 2001

HANDOUT E.19 - EXAMPLES ON FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEMS

Example1

Consider the system shown below.

The open loop transfer function is given by

K
G (s) = .
s ( s + 1)

The closed loop transfer function is

K
Y ( s) G( s) s ( s + 1) K K
= = = = 2 .
R(s) 1 + G (s) K s ( s + 1) + K s + s + K
1+
s ( s + 1)

Example 2

Consider the system shown.


a) Determine the transfer function from ‘r’ to ‘y’.
b) Determine the transfer function from ‘w’ to ‘y’.

To obtain the transfer function between ‘r’ to ‘y’, assume ‘w’ to be equal to zero.
Therefore the block diagram reduces to,

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MEEN 364 Parasuram
Lecture 19, 20 August 25, 2001

Hence the open loop transfer function is

( K1 + K 2 s) 10 10( K 1 + K 2 s )
G (s) = ⋅ = .
s s ( s + 1) + 20 s ( s 2 + s + 20)

The closed loop transfer function is given by

10( K 1 + K 2 s )
Y ( s) G( s) s ( s 2 + s + 20) 10( K 1 + K 2 s )
= = = 3 .
R(s) 1 + G (s) 10( K 1 + K 2 s ) s + s + s (20 + 10 K 2 ) + 10 K 1
2
1+
s ( s 2 + s + 20)

To obtain the transfer function between ‘w’ and ‘y’, assume ‘r’ to be equal to zero. Hence
the block diagram reduces to,

For the above block diagram the open loop transfer function is

10 10
G (s) = = 2
s ( s + 1) + 20 s + s + 20
and the feedback transfer function is given by

K1 + K 2 s
H ( s) = .
s

Therefore the transfer function from ‘w’ to ‘y’ is given by

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MEEN 364 Parasuram
Lecture 19, 20 August 25, 2001

10
2
Y ( s) G( s) ( s + s + 20) 10s
= = = 3 .
W ( s) 1 + G( s) H ( s) 10 K 1 + K 2 s ( s + s + s (20 + 10 K 2 ) + 10 K 1 )
2
1+ 2 ⋅
( s + s + 20) s

Example 3

A unity feedback system has the open loop transfer function

s +1
G (s) = .
s + s2
3

Find the error constants Kp, Kv and Ka for the system.

The closed loop transfer function is given as

s +1
Y ( s) G( s) 2 3s +1
= = s +s = 3 .
R(s) 1 + G (s) s + 1 s + s 2
+ s + 1
1+ 3
s + s2

The transfer function for the error signal is given by

s +1 s3 + s2
E ( s) = R(s ) − Y ( s) = R(s ) − R ( s ) = R ( s ).
s3 + s2 + s + 1 s3 + s2 + s +1

Therefore the steady state error for the system can be obtained by applying the final value
theorem as

ess = lim sE ( s ).
s −>0
Therefore,

s3 + s2
ess = lim s R( s ).
s − >0 s3 + s2 + s +1

For a unit step input, we have R( s ) = 1 , therefore the steady state error is
s
3 2
s +s 1 s3 + s2 1
ess = lim s ⋅ 3 ⋅ = lim =0= .
s − >0 2 3 2
s + s + s + 1 s s −>0 s + s + s + 1 1+ K p

Therefore the value of Kp is given as

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MEEN 364 Parasuram
Lecture 19, 20 August 25, 2001
K p → ∞.

For a ramp input, we have R( s ) = 1 , therefore the steady state error is


s2

s3 + s2 1 s2 + s 1
ess = lim s. 3 2
. 2 = lim 3 2
=0= .
s − >0 s + s + s +1 s s − > 0 s + s + s +1 Kv

Hence the value of Kv is given as

K v → ∞.

For a parabolic input, we have R( s ) = 1 , therefore the steady state error is


s3

s3 + s2 1 s +1 1
ess = lim s. 3 2
. 3 = lim 3 2
=1= .
s − >0 s + s + s +1 s s − > 0 s + s + s +1 Ka

Therefore,

K a = 1.

Example 4

The block diagram shown below shows a control system in which the output member of
the system is subject to a disturbance. In the absence of a disturbance, the output is equal
to the reference. Investigate the response of this system to a unit step disturbance.

Since we are interested in the response of the system to a unit step disturbance, assume
the reference input to be equal to zero. Therefore the block diagram reduces to

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MEEN 364 Parasuram
Lecture 19, 20 August 25, 2001

The open loop transfer function is given by

1
G (s) = , and the feedback transfer function is given as
Js

H ( s) = K .

Therefore the transfer function between the disturbance and the output is given as
1
Y ( s) G (s) 1
= = Js = .
W (s) 1 + G (s) H ( s) K Js + K
1+
Js
For a unit step disturbance, the output reduces to

1 1 1
Y (s) = ⋅ = .
Js + K s s ( Js + K )

The steady state value of the output can be obtained by applying the final value theorem
as
1 1 1
y ss = lim sY ( s ) = lim s ⋅ = lim = .
s − >0 s − >0 s ( Js + K ) s − > 0 Js + K K

Therefore the system is incapable of rejecting the disturbance completely as there is a


steady state offset.

Example 5

Consider a nonunity feedback system, whose open loop transfer function is given by

1
G (s) = ,
s (1 + Ts )
where in the feedback loop transfer function is given as

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MEEN 364 Parasuram
Lecture 19, 20 August 25, 2001

H ( s ) = h, with h > 0. Determine the system type with respect to the reference input.

The closed loop transfer function is given as

1
Y ( s) G (s) s (1 + Ts ) 1
= = = 2 .
R(s) 1 + G (s) H ( s) h Ts + s + h
1+
s (1 + Ts )

The transfer function for the error signal is given by

 1  Ts 2 + s + h − 1
E ( s ) = R ( s ) − Y ( s ) = 1 − 2  R ( s ) = R( s ).
 Ts + s + h  Ts 2 + s + h

The steady state error is obtained as

Ts 2 + s + h − 1
ess = lim s ⋅ E ( s ) = lim s ⋅ R( s ).
s − >0 s − >0 Ts 2 + s + h

For a step reference input, the error is

Ts 2 + s + h − 1 1 Ts 2 + s + h − 1 h − 1
ess = lim s ⋅ ⋅ = lim = .
s − >0 Ts 2 + s + h s s − >0 Ts 2 + s + h h

If the system is not unity feedback then, h ≠ 1 , therefore the system is of Type 0. If the
system is unity feedback, i.e., h = 1, then the system is of Type 1 as the steady state error
for the step reference input is zero.

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MEEN 364 Parasuram
Lecture 19, 20 August 25, 2001
Assignment

1) Consider a unity feedback system whose open loop transfer function is given by

( s + 1)
G (s) = 2
.
s ( s + 2 s + 5)
Determine the closed loop transfer function of the system.

2) Problem 4.32a from the textbook “ Feedback control of dynamic systems”, by Franklin
et.al.

Recommended Reading

“Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems” 4th Edition, by Gene F. Franklin et.al – pp 201
– 215, 230 – 242.

Recommended Assignment

“Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems” 4th Edition, by Gene F. Franklin et.al –


problems 4.22, 4.28, 4.33, 4.35, 4.37.