You are on page 1of 24

Electric Vehicle Technology Roadmap

And grid integration


April 27th, 2011
JB Straubel CTO/Co-Founder
Tesla Motors Overview

  Technology leader in 100% electric powertrains


  First to market with a Lithium-ion vehicle
  First to market with >200 miles electric range
  Highest energy density batteries in production

  1200 Employees, 8 years old, public (TSLA)


  US-based electric vehicle manufacturer
  In-house powertrain R&D and production

  Worldwide brand/sales reach


  >1700 Roadsters delivered to date, 32 countries
  Model S sedan launching in 2012
  Smart EV in production now
  Mercedes A-class EV in production now
  Toyota Rav4-EV in development, 2012 production

2
Tesla Roadster

•  0-60 mph acceleration: 3.7 sec (sport)


•  Quarter mile acceleration: 12.6 sec
•  Driving range: 245 mi (combined city/hwy driving)
•  Carbon fiber body, aluminum chassis
•  Full Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) compliant
•  1700+ delivered
•  2009 model price:
–  US: $109,000 (Base model)
The Tesla Model S

•  Production launch 2012, over 4500 reservations


•  Designed for exceptional performance, aesthetics and functionality
–  4 doors + hatchback  Best in class cargo space
–  World class design; unrivaled user interface
•  Performance
–  0-60 mph acceleration: 5.6s
–  Driving range: 160 miles, 230 miles, 300 miles
–  45 minute charge capability
•  Base price: $49,900 after Federal Tax Credit
The high-level challenge of the next 100 years

Fossil Energy Use Renewable, Efficient



Energy Use
What is Tesla s Mission?

Convert transportation energy use to electricity

1.  Sell Tesla-branded electric vehicles (Roadster, Model S)


2.  Sell Tesla electric powertrains (Smart, Freightliner, Rav4)

6
Why is This Mission Important/Relevant?

1.  Create Diversity in Energy Source and Supply


•  Energy Security
2.  Reduce Petroleum Imports
•  Trade Balance
•  Politics
3.  Reduce CO2/mile (zero is possible with solar/wind)
4.  Higher Efficiency (less energy/mile)
5.  Save Money (Oil will become more expensive)

Efficiency:
Internal combustion ~15%
Electric propulsion ~80%

7
Oil Dependency

Source: Annual Energy Outlook 2006, Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy

8
We Use Oil Primarily for Cars/Truck/Airplanes

Oil for Transportation

Maritime Pipeline
2% 2%
Rail
2%
Air Passenger
13% Cars/ Light
Trucks
51%
Road Freight
30%
94% for cars, trucks,
and airplanes
Source: EIA & EFP 2001 Estimates

9
Energy Density Comparison

Gasoline

10
Energy Density Comparison

Gasoline – Net Thermal Energy

Gasoline – Usable Mechanical Energy

11
Energy vs. Power

Metal Air Possible

Lithium Ion Families

12
Energy vs. Power

Metal Air Possible

Lithium Ion Families

13
Energy vs. Power

14
Full Battery Pack
Specific Energy
Wh/kg

160

143
140 132

121
120

101 101
100
91 91
Wh/kg

80 80
80

60

40

20

0
Roadster Smart Model S Think Imiev BMW Mini E Chevy Volt Ford Focus EV Nissan Leaf

15
Complete Powertrain System

Battery Pack Power Electronics Motor


Largest battery pack and high On-board charging Instant peak torque
energy density
In-house drive inverter design 3 phase design with 87% average
Charge balancing and cooling efficiency
In-house charger design
>100k mile/7 year life expectancy

Control Software

16
Continuous Improvements

Performance & Cost Improvements from Roadster to Model S*

Battery Module Power Electronics Motor


Continuous Power (~horsepower)
50% Liquid Cooled Liquid Cooled

Volumetric Peak Power @70 mph


Continuous Current (~torque)
Energy Density (passing ability)
50%
40% 40%

* Planned. Metrics reflect 230-mile range Model S


17
Electric Grid Interaction

18
Roadster Charge Rate Data

19
Roadster Charge Time Data (CA)
4
x 10
15 5

Date compiled 13-Oct-2009


Total Energy delivered. 200 MWh

Energy in Mega-W-hr for Electricity Demand of CA


Total time Hrs. 64,00 Hrs
Total miles driven 619811
#of Customer 367
Total DC Energy Delivered in MWh

10 4

Energy Load Curve of


CA
of August 08 2009
5 3

0 2
12p 1p 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 7p 8p 9p 10p 11p 12a 1a 2a 3a 4a 5a 6a 7a 8a 9a 10a 11a
Charging Time Bins

20
Photovoltaic by individual choice

2.8 kW
1 car

~ 10kwh/day annual avg.


~ 3650 kwh/yr
~ 14,600 mi/yr @250Wh/mi

21
Convert transportation energy use to electricity

The stone age came to an end not for lack of stones


And the oil age will come to an end not for lack of oil
— Sheikh Yamani, former Saudi Oil Minister
22
Losses in City Driving

Wh
Per
Mile
‐ City
Model
S Model
S
‐ Alpha
1 Model
S
‐ Projected

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

23
Losses in Highway Driving

Wh
Per
Mile
‐ Hwy
Model
S Model
S
‐ Alpha
1 Model
S
‐ Projected

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

24