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Summit on Energy Efficiency

29 April 2011
University of California, Santa Barbara

Naval Research for

Energy Efficiency

Julie Christodoulou
Office of Naval Research
Division Director Naval Materials
Sea Warfare & Weapons Department

The Office of Naval Research

Naval Research Laboratory (Appropriations Act, 1916)

[Conduct] exploratory and research work…necessary…
for the benefit of Government service, including the
construction, equipment, and operation of a laboratory….

Office of Naval Research (Public Law 588, 1946)

… plan, foster, and encourage scientific research
in recognition of its paramount importance as related to
the maintenance of future naval power, and the
preservation of national security.…

Transitioning S&T (Defense Authorization Act, 2001)

…manage the Navy s basic, applied, and
advanced research to foster transition from
science and technology to higher levels of
research, development, test, and evaluation.
ONR Organization
Naval S&T Strategic Plan

Focus Areas:
•  Power and Energy
•  Operational Environments
•  Maritime Domain Awareness
•  Asymmetric & Irregular Warfare
•  Information Superiority and
Discovery & Invention
(Basic and Applied Science)
•  Power Projection
•  Assure Access and Hold at Risk

Leap Ahead Innovations

(Innovative Naval Prototypes)

•  Distributed Operations
Acquisition Enablers
(FNCs, etc) ≈40% •  Naval Warfighter Performance
Quick Reaction & •  Survivability and Self-Defense
Other S&T
≈30% •  Platform Mobility
Narrow Time Frame •  Fleet/Force Sustainment
Near Long •  Total Ownership Cost

Tech Solutions Future Naval Innovative Naval Discovery &

Capabilities Prototypes Invention
Department of the Navy Energy Goals

•  Energy Efficient Acquisition: Evaluation of energy factors will be

mandatory when awarding contracts for systems and buildings.

•  Sail the "Great Green Fleet": DON will demonstrate a Green Strike
Group in local operations by 2012 and sail it by 2016.

•  Reduce Non-Tactical Petroleum Use: By 2015, DON will reduce

petroleum use in the commercial fleet by 50%.

•  Increase Alternative Energy Ashore: By 2020, DON will produce at

least 50% of shore-based energy requirements from alternative
sources; 50% of DON installations will be net-zero

•  Increase Alternative Energy Use DON-Wide: By 2020, 50% of total

DON energy consumption will come from alternative sources
Meeting National and DoN Needs

Develop & Support Our Sailors, Marines

Navy Civilians & Their Families

2020, 50% shore alt energy 2020, 50% DoN alt energy

Maintain Our Build the

Warfighting Readiness Future Force
Life cycle energy cost factored 2015, Vehicle petrol. 50% less 2012 Green Strike Group
into contract decisions 2015 Great Green Fleet

  President Obama (19 March 2009): ... We can remain one of the world s leading importers of foreign oil, or we can
make the investments that would allow us to become the world's leading exporter of renewable energy. We can let
climate change continue to go unchecked, or we can help stop it. We can let the jobs of tomorrow be created aboard,
or we can create those jobs right here in America and lay the foundation for lasting prosperity
Energy Technologies
Ships – Unmanned Vehicles – Aircraft Systems - Expeditionary
Unmanned Systems

Unmanned Air Vehicle Power Ion Tiger in Flight

  Long endurance fuel cell power

(26 hr flight Nov 2009)
  Low noise & heat signature
550 W fuel cell
  Affordable ($80K/vehicle)

ONR Swampworks
Unmanned Undersea Vehicle Power
  Lithium-ion battery safety
33 kW
kW per
per Stirling
Stirling Engine
  Air independent power systems: 48
48 Inch
Inch Hull
Hull Dia.
fuel cell, hybrid electric, Al-water
Distribution Statement A:
Approved for Public Release. Distribution is unlimited.

Unmanned Surface Vehicles

  Advanced platform designs
  Launch & recovery
  Autonomous operation
Fuel Cells: Materials and Devices

Enabling large, high energy density power generation

for primary sources and hybrid electric systems

Schematic of the optically accessible,

Surface Chemical & Electrochemical Reactions electrochemical rig that allows for
acquiring Raman data from SOFC
•  In-situ probes for determining reaction operated at 715 °C.
mechanisms at high temperatures
•  Multi-scale modeling of coupled reaction
mechanisms from atomistic to fuel cell stack
•  Exploration and synthesis of novel materials for
increased efficiency and immunity to
environmental conditions and contaminants
•  membranes WGSR

•  solid electrolytes Sulfur


•  electrodes

St. Gen HX

•  Evaluation of operational environments on ATR

Fuel Cell Processes
current and future logistics fuels Injector
D&I Investments for Reliability and Efficiency System
•  Efficient fuel utilization and extended mission
•  Reduced weight and volume power generation
•  Safe alternatives to lithium and lithium ion
Batteries: Materials and Devices

Understanding Nanoscale Structural Effects on Power Density Enhancement

3-D Ni-Zn
interdigitated Ni
3-D Architectures for Power Density battery
•  Identify, design and predict 3-D nanostructures to
accommodate high power densities Zn

•  Non line-of-sight deposition of conformal films on tortous

Physical Sciences, Inc.
Charge Storage and Transport 3-D foam battery

•  Material and nanoscale implications of electron and ion

transfer mechanisms
•  3-D imaging and modeling of electrode structures
•  Characterize degradation and failure mechanisms in
operational environment

100’s of µm’s
D&I Investments for Increased Efficiency
•  Compact, high energy batteries with increased safety
•  3-D micro- and nano-batteries for NEMS/MEMS
microsystems and sensors 10’s of nm’s
•  Reduced volume and weight Metal oxide
Porous carbon Thin polymer infiltrated into C
substrate electrolyte structure (green,
(purple; anode) coating (blue) cathode)
Expeditionary Portable Power

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Tactical Vehicle APU

and Towable Generator
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Efficient, low emission, and low signature

Module #1 – 500 Watt

DC Power Module Module #2a – Single System
Fuel Transfer Module
Standard Fuel
Vehicle Based Towable Power

Man-Portable Power Generation


24 VDC Module #4 – Small Battery Charger

Module #3a – Module #3b –

500 Watt DC-AC 500 Watt DC-DC
Converter Variable Converter
i.e. Sufficient DC Power for
120 VAC 60 Hz Power two Soldier Portable Battery Chargers %&'()#*+

GREENS – Ground Renewable #$

Expeditionary Energy System

#$ !"

Photovoltaics: Materials and Devices

Developing Low-cost, Flexible Photovoltaic Cells

Organic, Polymeric and Hybrid Materials Ag

•  Synthesis and characterization PTCBI

•  Develop materials for separate functionalities (50

e‑ Polymer


•  Design and optimization for (30

e‑ h+
•  charge transport
Electrode PCBM

•  absorption into near IR
•  charge separation Pt
electrode Dye

•  charge collection Sensitized

•  Reproducible processing technologies for affordability e- Liquid
e- Polymer
Focus on Microstructural Features h+ Matrix


•  Design tools to optimize component morphologies TiO2
and interfaces for efficiency CdSe

•  Investigate effects of organic/metal and organic/ 1) Vacuum deposited small molecule planar device
organic interfaces 2) Semiconductor nanorods in hole transport polymer
3) Bulk heterojunction polymer/small molecule cell (solution processible)
•  Understand thermodynamic phase separation in bulk 4) Electrochemical Gratzel cell
hetrojunction fullerene/polymer PV

D&I Investments for In-field Power Generation

•  High device-level power conversion efficiency (15%)
•  Light weight and flexible photovoltaic devices suitable
for disposable sensors, solar tent canopies and

battery rechargers.
High Temperature Superconducting
Reducing the Impacts Associated with Increasingly Sophisticated Degaussing Systems

Ship Class Weight


CVN21 64%

LPD17 79%

LCS 48%

DDG1000 49%

Degaussing Cable Comparison

USS Higgins (DDG-76)

USS Higgins (DDG-76) at-sea demonstration (2008-2010) confirmed reliability and endurance

Classical 1G 2G

NbTi Wire

Mid-1970 s Today
Advanced Turbine Engine Efficiencies
F-135 Demonstrators

XTE68/LF1 Performance Demonstrator • Increased Cooling Effectiveness

(testing FY11)
2nd Stage Vanes
• Multi-Layer Thermal Barrier
Coating (TBC)
• Microwave Blade Sensors

• Advanced Turbine Blades

– High-Lift/Reduced Count
– 2nd Generation Cooling
– Advanced Damping
– Reduced Neck
• Multi-Layer TBC (revised process) XTE69/LFU1 Durability Demonstrator
• High-Lift/Reduced Count Turbine Vanes (testing begins late FY14)
Propulsion Materials
Increased Operational Temperatures Complicate Material Interactions

Advanced High Temperature Materials

•  Integrate computational thermodynamics with
reaction kinetics to evolve new alloys
•  Optimize both hot corrosion and oxidation
Thermal and Environmental Barrier
•  Multidisciplinary research to understand failures
•  Physics-based models for lifing
•  Validate coatings and affordable processes
Advanced Materials Processing
•  Analytical process modeling and simulations
•  Reduce costs through simplified processing
Operational/Environmental Effects
•  Failure mechanisms and kinetics

Energy Efficiency & Maintenance

  Anti-Biofouling Coatings &

Hull Bug Hull Husbandry Anti-fouling coating

After   Nano-Ceramic Coatings for

Life-of-System Wear
No wear after 4 yrs Dissipating Blast
in-service Energy
  Lightweight Structural
Materials Desalination System

  Advanced Shipboard Water


Separation layer
Coarse high flux

100 µm
Experimental Studies Materials Atlas Predictive Simulations
DON Role in Energy Technologies
•  Support DON-unique research
and leverage other government
and commercial R&D

•  Support workforce development

in energy technology areas to
meet DON-unique needs
Fuel Cells

HTS •  Support test bed evaluations and

Degaussing Cable
be an early adopter of
technologies for shore facilities
and platforms

Dynamic 3-D
Digital Structures
Renewable Energy
Ultrafiltration skid with vertical elements,
Reverse Osmosis skid with horizontal elements