CHAPTER ONE LITERATURE SURVEY 1.

1 CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTATIONS AND SUBSTATION LAYOUTS Substations maybe classified according to service,

mounting, function and type of apparatus. 1.1.1 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION: These are transforming

stations where voltages are transformed to low values for use by household and other small power consumers. This system is generally a four wire 3 - phase system with the Phase - Phase Voltage at 415V and the Phase - Neutral Voltage at 230V. 1.1.2 INDUSTRIAL SUBSTATION: These substations serve the needs of consumers who need bulk power, as it is advisable that they install an individual substation. 1.1.3 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION SUBSTATION: This variation of substation is used in the control of the transmission line receiving end voltage and power factor. They have synchronous condensers and reactors as their major components. These take care of the large variations in voltage and power factor, which occur because of the line inductance and capacitance. 1.1.4 FREQUENCY CHANGER SUBSTATION: These substations convert any frequency to the type that can be utilized. This substation is found where there are two or more power systems

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operating at two different frequencies. A typical example is in the United Kingdom where independent power producers generate different frequencies from each other and the public utilities. A frequency changer substation is used when it is required to connect the systems together. This kind of substation is not in the country right now but with the recent government policy on the deregulation of electric power industry, independent power producers are expected in the country and this shall give rise to this kind of substation. 1.1.5 OUTDOOR/INDOOR SUBSTATION: Substations can also be classified according to whether it is outdoor or indoor. The type chosen depends on choice after a careful consideration of their respective advantages and disadvantages.

1.2

ADVANTAGES OF OUTDOOR SUBSTATIONS OVER SUBSTATIONS

INDOOR

1. Outdoor substations require less constructional work than the indoor substation. 2. Less quantity of building materials is needed. 3. The cost of switchgear installation is less. 4. Adequate spacing between two adjoining equipment can be provided which will reduce the possibility of faults. 5. Erection of switchgear can be completed in a much lesser time.

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6. The whole equipment can be viewed and this makes fault location easier. 7. The scheme is easier to extend when needed.

1.3

DISADVANTAGES OF OUTDOOR SUBSTATIONS 1. A much more space is needed for arranging the equipment. 2. Dirt and dust deposits accumulate over the contacts of switches etc. and thus, the maintenance cost increases. 3. The switching operations become difficult during rainy season as the chances of current leakages increase.

1.4

TRANSMISSION SUBSTATION: This serves the purpose of

connecting generating stations to the national grid. They serve the purpose of stepping up the voltage obtained from the generating stations to higher values so that power can be sent over long distances across the country.

1.5

11/0.415KV LOCAL SUBSTATION An 11/0.415KV distribution substation is a local substation

used to feed the L.T lines within the L.T network. The substation usually consists of a distribution transformer, a feeder pillar and an

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Both the transformer and RMU are raised above the ground by the use of solid concrete plinths of standard dimensions specified by the authority for the contractors. but properly earthed fence shall be made to enclose the substation RMU which is raised above the ground by the use of plinths.T. The substation may be fed through an RMU or through a set of three J&P fuses on the H.T overhead lines. It is normally sited at junctions of two or more streets and shall be always locked and only authorized persons are allowed to enter the fenced area.74m properly fenced and earthed by wire . 4 .RMU for supplying voltage. They may be installed in the substation or anywhere along the street.side of the distribution transformer (The size of cables used depends on the capacity of the transformer but usually. The 11KV supply from either a fused RMU or from H. The local substation is usually a rectangular enclosed area of 3.logging or accumulation of oil. RMU are used either as sources of supply or as open points or as the junction points in the H. The ground is covered with gravel to avoid water .8m x 2.T network.gauze reinforced by concrete pillars. An outlet in the form of a door is provided in the fence. overhead lines through the three J&P fuses goes into the 11KV primary . This permits any dripping oil from the transformer to sink into the soil so as not to cause slippery hazard for the personnel working in the area.

T secondary side of the transformer. d. 1 . 1. In practice however.35mm2 XLPE cables or 70mm2. four single .6 PRACTICE POWER ROUTING AND TRANSFORMER LOADING A substation supplies a given area and should be located at or near the load centre of that area. it is usually impossible to obtain a suitable substation site at precisely the point required and hence compromise must be struck.7 ESTIMATION OR PREDICTION OF LOAD Load prediction for an area depends upon the following factors among others.core cables of sizes depending on the capacity of the transformers are connected by the use of Raychem. Thismakes the copper losses in the outgoing feeders or distributors a minimum and will reduce difficulties due to voltage drop.core cables are used as the droppers for up to 300KVA transformers). At the L. commercial and agricultural development of the . a. area 5 Nature of the area Population and population density of area Living standards of people in the locality Industrial. 1. b. c.

Thus. there is diversity in the occurrence of load. but with connected load of 500w has a Df= 400 = 80% 500 (2) Load Factor = Average load Maximum load Load Factor = Energy consumed during time t hrs Maximum demand in time t hrs The needs of consumers differ and accordingly they do not simultaneously impose their respective maximum demands at the same time on the supply systems. Accordingly. Terms that are important in forecasting load are: (1) Consumer Demand factor (Df) = Maximum Demand Connected Load Thus a consumer of maximum demand of 400w.e. From this. Diversity Factor = Sum of individual Maximum Demands Simultaneous maximum demand Diversity factor can easily be determined from a study of load curves of consumers or even the load curve of an area or town. Whether the load forecast is for a new town or reinforcements of existing supply. load current and load duration curve can be deduced 6 .

(6) (7) Irrigation loads for farms Mining Load (Heavy machinery) 7 . light and various types of electric appliances used in commerce. welding plants. sewage system and drainage pumps. air conditioners. water supply. fans. heaters. electric cookers. industries demand factors remain at about 85% to 90% whilst (4) load factor is 70% to 80%.8 TYPES OF LOAD The main types of load are: (1) Residential or domestic load which consists of. refrigerators. refrigerators. 1.which becomes very useful for deciding power generation requirements for the region. Industrial loads may further be classified as (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Cottage industries ≤ 5kw load Small scale industries ≤ 25kw load Medium scale industries ≤ 500kw load Heavy industries > 500kw load In 24 hours. (5) Municipal load: This includes street lighting. Government load: This includes various kinds of office equipment. fans. (3)Industrial load: This may include items in (1) and (2) above in addition to heavy machineries driven by electric motors. kettles. (2) Commercial loads which include shop lightings. their offices. electric water heaters and various other small appliances. electric furnaces.

leads. There may be limitations on the transformer imposed by bushings. It is obvious that different types of load at different time may be supplied by a power system leading to improvement of individual load factors. Increase in transformer loading is limited by the effect of temperature on insulation life. (9) (10) Bulk supply to distribution centers. refineries and extraction plants may need specific power supply arrangement. For recurring loads 8 . Overloading should be limited then by considering the effect on insulation life and transformer life.(8) Traction load for trains (not available yet in Nigeria except in moving devices which carry and generate their power (requirements). cables. High temperature decreases the mechanical strength. disconnecting switches. textile mills. 1. Good engineering design however will permit operation without these limitations. and makes transformer failure increasingly likely even though dielectric strength of the insulation may not be seriously decreased. paper mills. Specialised power requirement such as chemical plants. increases the brittleness of fibrous insulation. steel plants. etc. tap changers.9 TRANSFORMER LOADING PRACTICES Because of the varying load cycle of most transformers. circuit breakers. it is customary to permit loading considerably in excess of the transformer nameplate rating.

it may be necessary to remove some oil in order to avoid overflow or excessive pressure. The following temperatures and load limitations are generally applied to transformers. The maximum hot-spot winding temperature should not exceed 150oC for 55oC rise transformers or 180oC for 65oC rise transformers. The temperature of the top oil should never exceed 100oC.5% loss of life per day for a transformer may be acceptable. the transformer would be operated for normal life expectancy. In a typical case for a failure of part of the electrical system. (2) The voltage drop throughout the network must be kept to a minimum to hold the voltage at the consumers' terminals within specified limits. the consequence of which is damage to insulation. A substation must be designed to be efficient from the technological point of view. whatever the load condition. For emergencies. 9 . either planned or accidental.such as the daily load cycles. An allowable drop of 10% is used. That is: (1) It must be able to carry the load imposed upon it without causing excessive heating in the conductors. At abnormally high temperatures. Short-time peak loading for 1/2hr or more should not exceed 200% rating. loading would be based on some percentage cost of life. a 2.

) Over voltage.10 COMMON FAULTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Common faults in distribution system can be categorized as listed below: 1. 2. The system should be as simple to operate and maintain as possible and losses must be kept at a minimum.) Over . 1. overload and under voltage. bushings and insulators. earth . It is also required that routine maintenance should be carried out without interruption of supply. power interruption to individual consumers must be within the shortest possible time.11 NECESSITY OF PROTECTIONS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Protection of electrical distribution supply system is highly necessary and important to: 10 .) Insulation breakdown in cables. This highlight the features of a perfect system but the cost will be prohibitive 1. transformer windings. short . 3.current. underground cables. This condition involves a certain amount of circuit duplication. breakers and associated equipment.(3) The substation must be designed to provide for continuity of supply and should a fault occur on the system.circuit faults on lines.fault. transformer oil.

Spikes-: Used to absorb lightning charges down to the general earth instantaneously. (c) Maintain the continuityof the system for better revenue generation . 1. (b)Arcing .T. 11 .wire-: Used to protect and shield the entire switchyard equipment against lightning. It is normally installed above the switchyard or the H. (d) Lightning .12 These devices PROTECTIVE DEVICES protect electrical equipment physically against atmospheric and mechanical fault occurrences. lines to divert lightning strikes to earth. Protection is achieved by means of Protection devices and Protective relays.(a) Prevent damages on the equipment within the network and safety of personnel. Lightning strokes usually result in over voltages in the network. They are: (a)Lightning Arresters or surge diverters-: used to guard the outdoor equipment against direct and indirect lightning . (c)Shield . (b) Limit Load losses and prevent instability of the system .T lines at angles of 30o to the shielded equipment.horns-: Used on transformers and H.strokes by transferring the accumulated charges directly to the general earth.

1. (j) CT and VT-: Used to monitor excess current in a feeder or transformer and converts it to a value for the operation of the protective relays. (I) HRC fuses-: Used to protect electrical equipment against excessive fault currents within shorter .(e) Breathers (Silica gel)-: Used on transformers to prevent ingrain of moisture.conductor fuses-: Used to protect electrical equipment against excessive fault currents.level indicators-: Used to monitor the level of oil inside transformer tanks and oil switch gears for satisfactory performances. (h) Bare .relief device-: Used to release excessive gas pressure.time of fault.1. CHAPTER 2 DATA COLLECTED 2. (g) Oil .1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 2 X 15MVA 12 . (f) Pressure .1. to the atmosphere.1.0: SUBSTATIONS IN BENIN ENVIRONMENT 2. generated within transformers during faults.1: UGBOWO 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 2.

1.7m RATED LINE CAPACITY: 30MW 2.5KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 350A UGBOWO 11KV FEEDER TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL.1 LINE PARAMETERS LINE LENGTH: 20.2) Ω/KM NOMINAL VOLTAGE: 33KV CONDUCTOR SPACING: 0.1. 6KM section two.2.1.1.0022 +j0. Total line length = 14KM CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (ALL ALUMINIUM CONDUCTORS) CONDUCTOR AREA: 150mm2 LINE IMPEDANCE: (0. SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES AND OFFICES.2 LINE PARAMETERS: LINE LENGTH: 8KM section one. NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV 13 .SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR EARTHING SYSTEM: EFFECTIVELY EARTHED D C SYSTEM: 110V DC WITH NEGATIVE GROUND NUMBER OF RADIATING FEEDERS:4 2.

FEEDER OFF SEVICE DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY. OFF SERVICE ON 300A 296A (242MINS) 1210 – FEEDER 1808HRS (352MINS) EMERGENCY FOR THE REPAIR OF THE LINE CIRCUIT BREAKER. FEEDER OFF SERVICE BECAUSE of A BROKEN CROSS ARMS 316A 300A (270MINS) 1111 – FEEDER OFF SEVICE DUE TO POOR 1508HRS SYSTEM FREQUENCY.RAINSTORM WAS 260A (61MINS) 16.CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.395) Ω/KM TABLE 2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 LINE IMPEDANCE = (O. 14 .1: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 DATE 06-0507 07-0507 DURATION 1608 2110HRS REASONS FOR FAILURE – FEEDER OFF SEVICE DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY 296A LOAD INTERRUPTED (302MINS) 1005 – FEEDER OFF SERVICE ON OVER 1106HRS CURRENT .0430 07 19-0507 26-0507 30-0507 -0630HRS (120MINS) 1000 – 1430HRS REPORTED DURING TRIPPING.0024 + j0.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.05.

FEEDER WAS OFF ON LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR 110A SYSTEM FREQUENCY.05.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.395) Ω/KM TABLE 2.2.2.1.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.1109HRS 07 04-0507 16-05(53MINS) 2030– 2116HRS (46MINS) 15151816HRS SYSTEM FREQUENCY.0024 + j0.2: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 LOAD DATE DURATION 1016– FAILURE FEEDER WAS OFF ON LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR INTERRUPTED 100A 01.2 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT COLLEGE 11KV FEEDER LINE PARAMETERS LINE LENGTH: 7KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 110A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICES NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401. FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO 106A 15 .1.

2.07 19-0507 ( 181MINS) 20202310HRS (170MINS) 1516 A CUT DOWN WIRE. 108A 26-0507 -1610HRS (54MINS) 2.395) Ω/KM 16 .3 EGUADIAEKEN 11KV FEEDER LINE PARAMETERS LINE LENGTH: 9.0024 + j0.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.1. FEEDER WAS OFF ON LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR 99A SYSTEM FREQUENCY.0KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 180A TYPE OF LOAD: MIXED NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.1. FEEDER WAS OFF SERVICE AS A RESULT OF A SHATTERED LIGHTENING ARRESTER.

TABLE 2.3: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 17 .

1.1. 0918-1030 (72MINS) LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY. 09481030HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (72MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY.2.DATE 02-0507 09-0507 13-0507 16-0507 19-0507 20-0507 26-0507 31-0507 DURATION FAILURE LOAD INTERRUPTED 172A 170A 166A 150A 180A 170A 180A 180A 0600 – 0715HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (75MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY. 06000730HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (90MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY.4 USELU 11KV FEEDER 18 . 2. 0600 – 0730HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (90MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY. 1400 – 1442HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (42MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY 20152206HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (111MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY. 19502130HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (130MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY.

4: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2000 19 .5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.0024 + j0.395) Ω/KM TABLE 2.LINE PARAMETERS LINE LENGTH: 10KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 350A TYPE OF LOAD: MIXED NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.9A MW CAPACITY = 7.

LOADSHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY.0022 +j0.7m RATED LINE CAPACITY: 30MW 2. LOAD INTERRUPTED 300A 296A 200A 216A 219A 300A 2.1.0507 22-0507 24-0507 28-0507 DURATION 05300830HRS (180MINS) 19502200HRS (190MINS) 19522210HRS (132MINS) 12061515HRS (189MINS) 14141906HRS (308MINS) 0600 – 0815HRS (135MINS) FAILURE LOADSHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY. LOADSHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY. FEEDER OFF SERVICE AS A RESULT OF A BROKEN CROSS ARM LOADSHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY.4 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT 20 . LOADSHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY.1.DATE 01-0507 08-0507 16. 6KM section 2.1.1.2) Ω/KM NOMINAL VOLTAGE: 33KV CONDUCTOR SPACING: 0.3 INCOMING 33KV LINE PARAMETERS LINE LENGTH: 8KM section one. Total line length = 12KM CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (ALL ALUMINIUM CONDUCTORS) CONDUCTOR AREA: 150mm2 LINE IMPEDANCE: (0.

The problem of low voltage and the associated overload led to its upgrade. Siluko Injection Substation is feeding the Army barracks/Okada axes of the network. The incoming 33KV line ends at Ugbowo substation. the substation used to be a 33/6.The 33KV line is 12km long and the substation consists of two 15MVA transformers. from where it tees off to Ugbowo. It is interesting to note that until the year 2004.This study is based on the present arrangement 21 .6KV type. The original arrangement is such that the 33KV line terminates at Okada injection substation.1 SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF UGBOWO INJECTION SUBSTAT MAY 2007 The substation is fed on 33KV via the same line that supplies power to Guinness injection substation. This is due to the operational difficulties being encountered by the Authority of PHCN.Figure 2.

2: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF POWER FLOW FROM THE 33KV SOURCE TO UGBOWO INJECTION SUBSTATION AS AT MAY 2007 22 .FIG.2.

2.2.1.2.1.2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 23 .2 SILUKO 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 2.1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 2x15MVA SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR EARTHING SYSTEM: EFFECTIVELY GROUNDED DC VOLTAGE: 110Vdc YEAR OF COMMISSIONING: 1976 NUMBER OF RADIATING FEEDERS: FOUR 2.1 OLIHA 11KV FEEDER LINE LENTH: 6KM MAXUMUM LOAD RECORDED: 360A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.1.1.2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.2 LINE PARAMETERS 2.

Feeder off service on over current. A broken cross arm was replaced before restoration Feeder was off service on over current. Broken poles were replaced before restoration Feeder tripped on overcurrent. Feeder was opened on load shedding due to poor generated power 320A 308A 330A 312A 320A 212A 300A 200A 300A 312A 338A 318A 320A 24 . Rainstorm was reported during tripping. Feeder was opened on load shedding due to poor generated power. This was to enable them carry out maintenance at the transmission substation.5: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY DATE DURATION REASONS FOR FAILURE LOAD LOST 01-05-07 02-05-07 02-05-07 05-05-07 07-05-07 09-05-07 10-05-07 15-05-07 19-05-07 21-05-07 22-05-07 25-05-07 31-05-07 1830-2030HRS (120MINS) 1006-1209HRS (123mins) 1830-2030HRS (120mins) 1230-1436HRS (126mins) 0630-1016HRS (226mins) 1045-1845HRS (480mins) 1010-2010HRS (600mins) 1000-1408HRS (248mins) 1408-1610HRS (122mins) 1616-2010HRS (236mins) 1930-2030HRS (60mins) 1318-1710HRS (232mins) 1414-1508HRS (54mins) Feeder was off service on load shedding due to poor system frequency Feeder tripped on earth fault.Rainstorm was reported during the tripping and broken poles were re-planted before restoration of service. A cut down cable was amended before restoration Feeder off service on load shedding due to transformer load limitation Feeder off service on emergency load shedding due to transformer load limitation Feeder tripped on over current blue phase.TABLE 2. Feeder was off service for the maintenance of circuit the line SF6 circuit breaker at the substation. Loss of the 33KV incomer. 33KV incomer was opened on load shedding at Transmission end. Rainstorm was reported during tripping.

2 UPPER SILUKO 11KV FEEDER LINE LENTH: 8KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 240A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE: 2.2.2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.6 OUTAGES RECORDED ON UPPER SILUKO FEEDER IN MAY 2007 25 .1.

1KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 290A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401. Load shedding because of poor generation.2. Rainstorm was (214mns) 22-05-07 1930-2032HRS (58mins) 31-05-07 1444-1500HRS (16mins) reported during tripping.9A MW CAPACITY: 7. Rainstorm reported during tripping. 2.2. Feeder off service due to poor system frequency Broken poles.DATE DURATION FAILURE Feeder off service due to poor system frequency.3 EDO TEXTILE MILL 11KV FEEDER LINE LENTH: 6.1. Load shedding because of poor generation.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 26 . LOAD LOST 01-05-07 1828-2032HRS (124mins) 02-05-07 1606-2210HRS (364mins) 07-05-07 1206hrs(7/5/7)- 220A 218A 200A 218A 200A 212A 1206hrs(10/5/7) 19-05-07 1616-2000HRS Feeder tripped on over current.

Rainstorm reported during tripping. 219A 27 . 210A Load shedding on poor system frequency. 116A 13-5-07 (22mins) 20202356HRS (226mins) 16182015HRS (237mins) 101201418HRS (248mins) 17302230HRS (300mins) 16162210HRS (8mins) 08151015HRS (120mins) 210A 200A 15-0507 18-0507 19-0507 21-0507 22-0507 Feeder off service for the amendment of a broken cross arm on the 11kv circuit. Load shedding on transformer load limitation LOST 215A 200A 268A 10-5-07 Feeder off service on over current. Load shedding due to transformer load limitation. 219A Load shedding on poor system frequency. 268A Load shedding on poor system frequency.7: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 LOAD DATE 06.0507 07-0507 7-5-07 DURATION 10161515HRS (299MINS) 09061112HRS (186mins) 10302230HRS (180mins) 14101432HRS FAILURE Feeder off service on overcurrent.Lightening was Reported during tripping.TABLE 2. Transformer tripped on over current. Emergency load shedding on poor system frequency.

2.8: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 28 .1. Broken cross arms were replaced before restoration.4 UWELU 11KV FEEDER LINE LENTH: 8KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 320A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401. LOST 200A 2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.LOAD DATE 25-0507 26-0507 30-0507 31-0507 DURATION 19302210HRS (200mins) 20102018HRS (8mins) 16161840HRS (134mins) 00101008HRS (542mins) Feeder off service on over current. 218A 200A Feeder off service on over current 196A FAILURE Load shedding on poor system frequency.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2. Broken cross arms were replaced before restoration.2. Feeder tripped on earth fault.

312A 22-05-07 1030-1415HRS Feeder was opened on load shedding (225mins) due to poor system frequency Feeder was opened on load shedding due to poor system frequency Feeder was opened on load shedding due to poor system frequency 300A 25-05-07 1440-1928HRS (288mins) 333A 26-05-07 2010-2216HRS (6mins) 316A 2. (30mins) Rainstorm was reported during trip.3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT 29 .1.DATE 08-05-07 DURATION FAILURE LOAD LOST 299A 1030-1530HRS Load shedding due to low system (300MINS) frequency. 308A 13-05-07 2010-2350HRS Transformer tripped o overcurrent.The (190mins) transformer is suspected to have been 300A 18-05-07 1000-1510HRS loaded was opened onset point of its Feeder beyond the load shedding (310mins) due to poor system frequency.2. 10-05-07 1410-1440HRS Feeder tripped on over current.

Figure 2.6. 33/11KV SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR EARTHING SYSTEM: EFFECTIVELY EARTHED DC VOLTAGE: 110V dc YEAR OF COMMISSIONING 30 .The switchgear are arranged such that the 33KV circuit is outdoor while the 11KV is indoor.3: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF SILUKO SUBSTATION 2. commercial and industrial loads. The areas being fed by these feeders consists of residential.The substation is fed by a 33KV line that is approximately 32KM in lenth.1 WELFARE 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 1 X 15MVA.1. Four 11KV feeders radiate from the substation with two on each transformer.3 2.

9: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 31 .3.NUMBER OF RADIATING FEEDERS: TWO 2.2.3.1.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.1.1 LINE PARAMETERS UPPER SAKPONBA FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 7KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 440A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.2 2.

LOAD DATE 01-05-07 DURATION 18282932HRS 02-05-07 (124MINS) 16062210HRS 19-05-07 (364MINS) 16162000HRS 22-05-07 (214MINS) 19302032HRS 23-05-07 (58MINS) 13201700HRS 25-05-07 (220MINS) 14401500HRS 31-05-07 (16MINS) 18302030HRS (120MINS) 2.2.1. 414A 330A 328A LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR 400A SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY 400A 355A 389A REASONS FOR FAILURE FAILURE INTERRUPTED LINE LENGTH: 3KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 70A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW 32 . SAVIOUR 11KV FEEDER LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTE LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY M FREQUENCY BROKEN CROSS ARM ON THE 33KV LINE.3.2 ST.

1. Rainstorm was reported during trip. LOAD LOST 299A Feeder tripped on over current. Transformer tripped on overcurrent. Feeder was opened on load shedding due to poor system frequency Feeder was opened on load shedding due to poor system frequency Feeder was opened on load shedding due to poor system frequency 10-05-07 13-05-07 18-05-07 22-05-07 25-05-07 26-05-07 DURATION 10301530HRS (300MINS) 14101440HRS (30mins) 20102350HRS (190mins) 10001510HRS (310mins) 10301415HRS (225mins) 14401928HRS (288mins) 20102216HRS (6mins) 308A 300A 312A 300A 333A 316A 2. SAVIOUR FEEDERS.3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT Two 11KV feeders radiate from this substation namely: UPPER SAKPONBA and ST. 33 .3.The transformer is suspected to have been loaded beyond the set point of its protective relays.CURRENT CAPACITY: 401. Feeder was opened on load shedding due to poor system frequency.10: DATE 08-05-07 RECORDED IN MAY 2007 FAILURE Load shedding due to low system frequency.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.

2 LINE PARAMETERS 2.1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 1 X 15 MVA 33/11KV.5 MVA 33/6.1.1.1 LINE LEGTH: 8 KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 270A NEW BENIN 11 KV FEEDER 34 .4: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM 0F WELFARE SUBSTATIO 2.Figure 2.6KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 2.4.1.1.4.4 GUINESS 33/11/6. 1 X 7.4.2.6KV SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR EARTHING TYPE: EFFECTIVELY EARTHED D C VOLTAGE: 110V DC WITH NEGATIVE GROUND 2.

FEEDER OFF SERVICE AS ARESULT OF TRANSFORMER LOAD LIMITATION. 35 LOAD INTERRUPTED 120A 220A 211A 210A 215A .2 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 BDPA 11KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 4KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 230A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL DATE 10-05-07 16-05-07 21-05-07 24-05-07 30-05-07 DURATION 0530-0700HRS (90MINS) 1630-1710HRS (40MINS) 1515.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.11: 2. FEEDER TRIPPED ON OVERCURRENT.4.LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL. FEEDER OFF SERVICE AS A RESULT OF POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY.1.1810HRS (175MINS) 2030-2115HRS (75MINS) 2110-2115HRS (5MINS) FAILURE FEEDER OFF SERVICE ON POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY.2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2. THUNDERSTORM WAS REPORTED DURING TRIPPING. COMMERCIAL AND COTTAGE INDUSTRY NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401. FEEDER OFF SERVICE AS ARESULT OF A CUT DOWN 11KV CONDUCTOR.

200A 04-0507 216A 1020-1410HRS 10-0507 1020-1410HRS 14-0507 1810-1910HRS 15-0507 (60MINS) (230MINS) (230MINS) 216A FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY. FEEDER OFF SERVICE FOR THE EMERGENCY REPAIR OF A BREAKER 200A 200A 36 .NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.9A MW CAPACITY: 7. FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO BROKEN CROSSARM.12: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY DATE DURATION FAILURE LOAD INTERRUPTED 01-0507 0530-0630HRS (60MINS) 1016 – 1508HRS (308MINS) FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FEEDER OFF SERVICE AS A FREQUENCY RESULT OF A SHATTERED LIGTHENING ARRESTER.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.

6KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 670A MW CAPACITY: 7.2.3 ASABA 6.0024 + j0.2.6 KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 7KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 400A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL/COTTAGE INDUSTRIES NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 6.1. 180A 200A 2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 LINE IMPEDANCE (0.13: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY DATE 01-05-07 DURATION FAILURE 0545-0745HRS FEEDER TRIPED ON LOAD INTERRUPTED 37 .4.395)/KM TABLE 2.DATE DURATION FAILURE LOAD INTERRUPTED 1440-1810HRS 16-0507 27-0507 (210MINS) 1106-1206HRS (60MINS) FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO A SHATTERED FEEDER OFF SERVICE ON LIGHTENING LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY.

THE VALUES FOR THE FEEDER WAS SET 400A LOADED BEYOUND THE RELAYS. 2008-2016HRS FEEDER TRIPPED ON OVERCURRENT. 2008-2116HRS FEEDER TRIPPED ON OVERCURRENT. 1515-1615HRS FEEDER WAS OFF SERVICE ON LOAD (60MINS) SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY. (480MINS) A CUT DOWN CONDUCTOR WAS 200A 119A REPAIRED BEFORE RESTORATION. (45MINS) RAINSTORM WAS REPORTED 200A 180A DURING THE FAILURE 1616-1830HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (134MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY. 200A 188A 22-05-07 24-05-07 1010-1810HRS FEEDER TRIPPED ON EARTH FAULT.(120MINS) OVERCURRENT. 2020-2115HRS LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR (65MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY 0630-0715HRS FEEDER TRIPPED ON OVERCURRENT.THE VALUES 04-05-07 06-05-07 FOR THE FEEDER PROTECTIVE 02-05-07 WAS SET 392A LOADED BEYOUND THE PROTECTIVE RELAYS. 1306-1408HRS LOADSHEDDING DUE 318A 08-05-07 10-05-07 18-05-07 21-05-07 (62MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY. 1108-1208HRS FEEDER WAS OFF SERVICE FOR THE (60MINS) REFIL OF LINE CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH SF6 GAS. 26-05-07 28-05-07 38 . 0630-1118HRS FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO POOR (288MINS) SYSTEM FREQUENCY. (68MINS) FEEDER IS SUSPECTED TO HAVE 399A TO POOR 206A BEEN OVERLOADED. 1016-1208HRS FEEDER TRIPED ON (112MINS) OVERCURRENT.

(120MINS) 31-05-07 OVERLOAD BEYOUND PROTECTION 399A SETTING. (120MINS) OVERLOAD BEYOUND PROTECTION SETTING.4. 0530-0730HRS FEEDER TRIPPED ON OVERCURRENT.4 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT 39 .1. 390A 2.1.7m 2.3 INCOMING 33KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 8KM LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC LINE IMPEDANCE :( 0.22)Ω/KM NOMINAL VOLTAGE: 33KV CONDUCTOR SPACING: 0.0022+j0.4.

5 NEKPENEKPEN 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 2.2 2.5.5: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF GUINESS SUBSTATION The substation is fed by a 20KM –long 33KV line from the transmission substation.5.1.1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 2x15MVA SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR EARTHING SYSTEM: EFFECTIVELY EARTHED SYSTEM DC VOLTAGE: 110V DC 2. which is the indoor/outdoor type.1.Figure2. 2.1 LINE PARAMETERS FEEDER 1 40 .1.2. The injection substation.5. has two power transformers with different power and voltage ratings.1.

Feeder was off service due to system frequency correction.LENTH OF LINE: 7KM LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED: 350A TYPE OF LOAD: MIXED TABLE 2. Feeder was off service for the emergency repair of a hot spot at the 11kv busbar.2 FEEDER 2 LENTH OF LINE: 6KM LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD 41 . Rainstorm was reported during tripping.1.14: OUTAGES RECORDED IN THE MONTH OF MAY DATE 02-0507 06-0507 09-0507 10-5-7 16-0507 20-0507 DURATION 10151315HRS (180MINS) 15302010HRS (280MINS) 06301030HRS (280MINS) 16201830HRS (130MINS) 14401640HRS (120MINS) 23102354HRS (44MINS) FAILURE Feeder was off service on load shedding due to poor system frequency Feeder tripped on over current. Feeder was off service as a result of high transformer winding temperature.5.2. LOAD LOST 300A 295A 318A 326A 318A 341A 2. Feeder was off service as a result of a broken cross arm.

COMMERCIAL AND COTTAGE INDUSTRY NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.15: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY DATE DURATION 10155-0507 1035HRS (20MINS) 1902Feeder off service due to transformer load limitation Feeder off service for replacement of broken pin insulator Feeder tripped on earth fault.MAXIMUM LOAD: 400A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL. Cut down wire was amended before restoration Feeder off service due to broken pole 310A Feeder off service on poor system frequency 312A 316A 320A 350A (133mins) 06306-0507 12-507 14-0507 14-0507 1108HRS (66mins) 22102315hrs (65mins) 10101806HRS (474mins) 15151610hrs (53mins) 42 Feeder tripped on over current 210A FAILURE LOAD LOST 5-5-07 2115HRS .5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.

A cut down jumper was replaced before restoration Feeder off service to correct poor system frequency.1.3 FEEDER 3 LINE LENTH: 6KM LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD MAXIMUM LOAD: 410A TYPE OF LOAD: MIXED 43 . 310A 296A 22-05.5.1942hrs 07 30-0507 (50mins) 19162110hrs (114mins) 063031-0507 0710hrs (40mins) Feeder off service on transformer load limitation 382A Feeder tripped on over current 375A 2.101816_05 -07 1316hrs (178mins) 1832- Feeder off service on over current.2.

380A 200A 44 . 200A 04-0507 216A 1020-1410HRS 10-0507 1020-1410HRS 14-0507 1810-1910HRS 15-0507 (60MINS) (230MINS) (230MINS) 216A FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY. FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO BROKEN CROSSARM. FEEDER OFF SERVICE FOR THE EMERGENCY REPAIR OF A BREAKER 430A 400A 1440-1810HRS 16-0507 27-0507 (210MINS) 1106-1206HRS (60MINS) FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO A SHATTERED FEEDER OFF SERVICE ON LIGHTENING LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY.16: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 DATE DURATION FAILURE LOAD INTERRUPTED 01-0507 0530-0630HRS (60MINS) 1016 – 1508HRS (308MINS) FEEDER OFF SERVICE DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FEEDER OFF SERVICE FREQUENCY BECAUSE of A SHATTERED LIGTHENING ARRESTER.TABLE 2.

1KM LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD FEEDER 4 MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED: 220A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.4 LINE LENGTH: 7.2.2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.5.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 45 .1.

Feeder off service on over current. Feeder off service on over current. Feeder tripped on over current. A broken crosarm was replaced before restoration.TABLE 2.3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT 46 .5. Feeder tripped on earth fault. Lightening storm was reported 210A during tripping. A cut down conductor was replaced before restoration.1. Load shedding due to transformer load limitation. 200A 96A 168A 200A 16-05-07 19-05-07 1500-1606HRS (126MINS) 0816-1016HRS (120MINS) 20-05-07 1616-1630HRS (14MINS) 29-05-07 1008-1216HRS (128MINS) 2.17: OUTAGES RECORDED IN THE MONTH OF MAY 2007 DATE 01-05-07 06-05-07 DURATION 1816-2000HRS (104MINS) 00160230HRS(134MIN S) 0630-1030HRS (240MINS) FAILURE Load shedding on poor system frequency Feeder off LOAD LOST 200A service was on over 212A reported current.Rainstorm 09-05-07 during tripping. Rainstorm reported during tripping.

The injection substation fed via Nekpenekpen 33KV feeder from the transmission substation at Sapele road Benin City. The 33KV switchgear arrangement is outdoor while the 11KV ones are the indoor type. The substation supplies power to Sakponba, Evbuoriaria, Oka, Ugbekun, Idogbo and Muritala Mohammed settlements of Benin City. These are densely populated settlements that consist of mixed loads, as activities ranging from commercial to private and governmental take place here. Four 11KV feeders radiate from the substation, two being fed by each of the transformers.

Figure 2.6: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF NEKPENEKPEN SUBSTATIO

2.1.6

ETETE 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION

47

2.1.6.1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 2x15MVA SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR EARTHING SYSTEM: EFFECTIVELY GROUNDED D C VOLTAGE: 110Vdc WITH NEGATIVE GROUND YEAR OF COMMISIONING: 1997 2.1.6.2 LINE PARAMETERS

2.1.6.2.1

IHAMA 11KV FEEDER

LINE LENGTH: 5KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 432A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL/GOVERNMENT NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2

TABLE 2.18: OUTAGES RECORDED IN THE MONTH OF MAY 2007

48

DATE 02-0507 06-0507 09-0507 10-5-7 16-0507 20-0507

DURATION 10151315HRS (180MINS) 15302010HRS (280MINS) 06301030HRS (280MINS) 16201830HRS (130MINS) 14401640HRS (120MINS) 23102354HRS (44MINS)

FAILURE Feeder was off service on load shedding due to poor system frequency Feeder tripped on over current. Rainstorm was reported during tripping. Feeder was off service because of a broken cross arm. Feeder was off service for the emergency repair of a hot spot at the 11kv busbar. Feeder was off service because of high transformer winding temperature. Feeder was off service due to system frequency correction.

LOAD LOST 400A 295A 318A 366A 388A 349A

2.1.6.2.2

DUMEZ 11KV FEEDER

LINE LENGTH: 6KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 264A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL/OFFOCIAL NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2

49

9 : OUTAGES RECORDED DATE 02-0507 06-0507 09-0507 10-5-7 16-0507 20-0507 DURATION 10151315HRS (180MINS) 15302010HRS (280MINS) 06301030HRS (280MINS) 16201830HRS (130MINS) 14401640HRS (120MINS) 23102354HRS (44MINS) FAILURE Feeder was off service on load shedding due to poor system frequency Feeder tripped on over current. Feeder was off service because of a broken cross arm.6.3 UGBOR 11 KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 6KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 440A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL/OFFICES NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.9A MW CAPACITY: 7. Feeder was off service because of high transformer winding temperature. Feeder was off service for the emergency repair of a hot spot at the 11kv busbar.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 50 .2. LOAD LOST 200A 195A 118A 166A 188A 229A 2. Feeder was off service due to system frequency correction.1. Rainstorm was reported during tripping.TABLE 2.

A cut down conductor was replaced before restoration. Lightening storm was reported 310A during tripping. Feeder tripped on over current.6. A broken crosarm was replaced before restoration. Load shedding due to transformer load limitation.1.4 LINE LENGTH: 7KM UPPER SAPELE 11KV FEEDER 51 . Feeder tripped on earth fault.2.DATE 01-05-07 06-05-07 DURATION 1816-2000HRS (104MINS) 00160230HRS(134MIN S) 0630-1030HRS (240MINS) FAILURE Load shedding on poor system frequency Feeder off LOAD LOST 300A service was on over 312A reported current. Feeder off service on over current.Rainstorm 09-05-07 during tripping.20: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2. Feeder off service on over current. TABLE 2. 230A 296A 168A 300A 16-05-07 19-05-07 1500-1606HRS (126MINS) 0816-1016HRS (120MINS) 20-05-07 1616-1630HRS (14MINS) 29-05-07 1008-1216HRS (128MINS) Rainstorm reported during tripping.

Load shedding due to poor system frequency.MAXIMUM LOAD: 316A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICIAL NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401. Feeder tripped on over current.Rainstorm as 309A 300A 296A 290A 211 290A 310A 306A 289A reported during tripping Load shedding due to poor system frequency Load shedding due to transformer load limitation. Broken poles were replaced before restoration. Broken poles were replaced before restoration.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.21: OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 DATE 02-0507 04-0507 06-0507 08-0507 18-0507 21-0507 24-0507 26-0507 27-0507 29-0507 DURATION 0530-0730hrs (120MINS) 1018-1416HRS (238MINS) 2010-2210HRS (120MINS) 1944-2210HRS (86MINS) 1614-2018HRS (244MINS) 2014 -2030 HRS (16MINS) 10151206HRS(111MINS) 1515-1608HRS (53MINS) 0810-0916HRS (66MINS) 1018-1416HRS (238MINS) REASONS FOR FAILURE FAILURE LOAD LOST Load shedding due to poor system frequency Broken cross 300A arm . Load shedding due to poor system frequency Load shedding due to poor system frequency Load shedding due to poor system frequency 52 . Feeder tripped on earth fault.

8km away. CAPACITY: 2x15MVA SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR 53 .7.3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT This substation is fed via ETETE 33KV feeder from the transmission substation. which is just 2. EDO STATE.7: SINGLE DIAGRAM OF ETETE INJECTION SUBSTATION 2. UGBOR and UPPER SAPELE 11KVfeeders.29-0507 31-0507 1018-1416HRS (238MINS) 1106-1119HRS (13MINS) Load shedding due to poor system frequency Load shedding due to poor system frequency 289A 211A 2.7 2. These feeders are IHAMA.1. DUMEZ.1 GRA 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY.1. Four 11KV feeders radiate from the substation with two tied to each transformer.1. Figure 2.6.

1.2 2. COTTAGE INDUTRIES AND RESIDENTIAL.1 LINE PARAMETERS OBA PALACE 11KV FEEDER MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED: 285A LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD LINE LENTH: 7KM TYPE OF LOAD: OFFICES.2.7.1. TABLE 2.7.YEAR OF COMMISSIONING: 1995 EARTHING SYSTEM: EFFECTIVELY EARTHED DC SYSTEM: 110V DC WITH NEGATIVE GROUND 2.22 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 54 .

7. Rainstorm was reported during tripping. The feeder tripped on over current.2.23 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 55 .DATE 12-1507 22-0507 DURATION 10061200HRS (114MINS) 16001200HRS (55MINS) FAILURE The line was interrupted for replanting of a broken pole.1. LOAD LOST 280A 252A 2.2 GRA 11KV FEEDER MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED: 279A LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD LINE LENTH: 6KM TABLE 2.

2. 230A 2. Rainstorm was reported during the trip. 258A 270A 250A (265MINS) The feeder tripped on over current red and blue phases.3 RESERVATION 11KV FEEDER MAXIMUM LOAD: 430A LINE LENTH: 6KM TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL/GOVERNMENT OFFICES CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CURRENT RATING: 401.7. The feeder tripped on over current blue phase.9A MW RATING: 7. A cut-down conductor was amended before restoration. It was patrolled and no fault was found . 200A (19MINS) FAILURE The feeder tripped on earth fault. The feeder was opened for the emergency maintenance of its line breaker.LOAD LOST DATE DURATION 1616 -1635HRS 09-0507 0205-0630HRS 16-0507 1935-2000HRS 24-0507 1000-1245HRS 30-0507 1608-1702HRS 30-0507 (66MINS) (165MINS) (25MINS) The line was of service as the 33KV feeder was opened on emergency load shedding for system frequency control.It was then restored back to service. which lost SF6 gas.5MW 56 .1.

3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT Figure 2.8: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF GRA SUBSTATION 57 .1.LOAD DATE 12-507 DURATION 14401540HRS (60MINS) FAILURE The feeder was opened on emergency to replant a weak electric pole LOST 398A TABLE 2.7.24 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2.

The 11KV circuit is indoor.Transfomer one feeds Oba palace and GRA feeders while transformer 2 feeds Reservation feeder.GRA 33KV feeder feeds the substation from Benin transmission substation at sapele road in Benin City. The 33KV switchgear arrangement is outdoor and consists of isolators. insulation support and surge arresters which are so arranged that the 33KV line feeds into 33KV busbar to which two transformers are connected via isolators and circuit breaker. the transformers were running individually and not in parallel. 58 . The circuit breaker CB4 is provided to facilitate both parallel operation of the two transformers and to allow for transfer of load from one transformer to the other. At the time of this research however. circuit breakers.

1 LINE PARAMETERS EVBUOTUBU 11KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 8KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 288A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.1.1 EVBUOTUBU 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 1 X 15MVA.2 2.8.8 2.2.1.1.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.2.1.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 59 . 33/11KV EARTHING SYSTEM: EFFECTIVELY EARTHED DC SYSTEM: 110Vdc WITH NEGATIVE GROUND YEAR OF COMMISSIONING: 2002 2.8.8.

2.8.1.TABLE 2.25 DATE 06-05-07 16-05-07 22-05-07 24-05-07 26-05-07 30-05-07 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 DURATION 10051206HRS (120MINS) 12161416HRS (120MINS) 06301006HRS (116MINS) 19442210HRS (146MINS) 15152010HRS (295MINS) 02010415HRS (134MINS) FAILURE LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR FREQUENCY LOAD INTERRUPTED 200A 236A 250A 275A 200A 200A 2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.2 ASORO 11KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 8KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 255A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.5MW 60 .

26 DATE 09-0507 19-0507 DURATION 19302230HRS (180MINS) 19302230HRS (180MINS 26-0507 28-0507 31-0507 05300730HRS (120MINS) 14141814HRS (240MINS) 05300700HRS (90MINS) OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY FAILURE LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY 250A 250A LOAD 250A LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY 200A 250A 2.9: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF EVBUOTUBU SUBSTATION 61 .CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.1.3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT Figure 2.8.

Two 11KV feeders are available and they are EVBUOTUBU and ASORO 11KV feeders.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 62 .The substation is one of the newest in the zone and it supplies power to the Evbuotubu.9.9 FEDERAL SECRETERIAT 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 2. The substation is supplied on 33KV from the transmission substation. The load is largely residential with pockets of cottage industries.1 LINE PARAMETERS NEW AUCHI 11KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 6KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 440A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 1X 15MVA.9.9. 2.1.1. 33/11KV SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR EARTHING SYSTEM: EFECTIVELY EARTHED DC SYSTEM: 110V DC WITH NEGATIVE GROUND 2.1.2 2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.1.2. Ekenwan and Asoro communities.

TABLE 2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 63 .9.27 DATE 01-05-07 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 DURATION 06300800HRS (90MINS) 16162016HRS (240MINS) 10101510HRS (300MINS) 16061620HRS (14MINS) 19302030HRS (60MINS) FAILURE LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM 399A FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY 300A 430A 410A 409A LOAD LNTERRUPTED 06-05-07 16-05-07 23-05-07 29-05-07 2.2 FEDERAL HOUSING 11KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 4KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 180A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.1.

TABLE 2.1.28 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 DATE 06-0507 10-0507 16-0507 DURATION 05300730HRS (120MINS) 05450730HRS (105MINS) 19302030HRS (60MINS) FAILURE LOADSHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOADSHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD INTERRUPTED 170A 170A LOADSHEDDING DUE TO POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY 180A 2.10 IKPOBA DAM 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 64 .1.10: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF FEDERAL SECRETERIAT SUBSTATION 2.9.3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT Figure 2.

1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: BENIN CITY CAPACITY: 1X7.1KM MAXIMUM LOAD: 200A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401. 2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.10.1.2 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY FAILURE FEEDER WAS OFF SERVICE FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF ITS TERMINAL EQUIPMENT LOAD INTERRUPTED 186A DURATION 14401630HRS (110MINS) UPPER LAWANI 11KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 4KM 65 .1.9A MW CAPACITY: 7. 33/11KV SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR EARTHING SYSTEM: EFFECTIVELY EARTHED DC VOLTAGE: 110VDC WITH NEGATIVE GROUND.2.1 DAM 11KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 0.5MVA &1X15MVA.2.10.2.10.1.29 DATE 06-0507 2.2 LINE PARAMETERS 2.10.1.

10.3 OKHORO 11KV FEEDER LINE LENGTH: 4.MAXIMUM LOAD: 110A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.5KM 66 .30: DATE 06-0507 16-0507 20-0507 22-0507 26-0507 OUTEGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 FAILURE GENERAL MAINTENANCE POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY LOAD INTERRUPTED 100A 105A 103A 96A 108A DURATION 14401635HRS (115MINS) 06501005HRS (255MINS) 10051210HRS (125MINS) 16161916HRS (180MINS) 05300730HRS (120MINS) 2.2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.1.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.

10.3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT 67 .MAXIMUM LOAD: 190A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.1.30: DATE 6-05-07 OUTAGES RECORDED IN MAY 2007 FAILURE GENERAL MAINTENANCE LOAD INTERRUPTED 180A DURATION 1440-1640HRS 07-0507 10-0507 13-0507 23-0507 29-0507 (120MINS) 0630-0700HRS POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY (30MINS) 1630-1930HRS POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY (180MINS) 1900-2200HRS POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY (180MINS 2210-2220HRS POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY (10MINS) 0630-0659HRS POOR SYSTEM FREQUENCY (29MINS) 190A 120A 180A 152A 166A 2.

Figure 2.2.1 SUBSTATIONS IN DELTA STATE ENVIRONMENT OGHAREKI 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 68 . 2.11: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF IKPOBA DAM SUBSTATION This substation supplies power to Ikpoba River dam which is the only water works in Benin City and to two other feeders on 11KV .The feeders are: OKHORO & LAWANI 11KV FEEDERS.0 2.2.

1.32: DATE OUTAGES RECORDED IN THE MONTH OF MAY 2007 DURATION 1000FAILURE LOAD 69 .2.1.1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS LOCATION: Oghara town Delta state CAPACITY: 1x15MVA SUBSTATION TYPE: outdoor/indoor YEAR OF COMMISSIONING: 2001 2.2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.2.2 LINE PARAMETERS LINE LENGTH: 10KM LINE TYPE: OVERHEAD MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED ON THE FEEDER: 450A MINIMUM LOAD RECORDED ON THE FEEDER: 215A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.

The 33KV switchgear is outdoor and 11KV switchgear arranged indoor.1.2 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT The substation receives supply from Amukpe 330/33KV transmission substation via Mosogar 33KV feeder. Oghareki 11KV feeder originates from the station. This feeder feeds the Oghareki community. 70 . which has mixed loads (residential. offices and schools). One 11KV feeder.16-05-07 1015HRS (15MINS) 2105-2145HR LOSS OF SOURCE FEEDER TRIPPED ON OVERCURRENT A BLOWN HRC FUSE WAS REPLACED BEFORE RESTORATRION FEEDER TRIPPED ON OVERCURRENT A BLOWN HRC FUSE WAS REPLACED BEFORE RESTORATRION 300A 22-05 -07 (40MINS) 2130- 408A 430A 30-05-07 2155HRS (25MINS) 2.2. small cottage industries.

2.2.2.2 2. RESIDENTIAL AND COTTAGE INDUSTRIES. MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED: 220A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW LINE PARAMETERS GOVERNOR 11KV FEEDER 71 .1 SUBSTATION PARAMETERS CAPACITY: 1x15MVA SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR YEAR OF COMMISSIONING: 2001 2.2.1 LINE LENTH: 6KM TYPE OF LINE: OVERHEAD TYPE OF LOAD: OFFICES.2.2.2.2 OGHAREFE 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 2.2.2.

MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED: 300A NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.1 (480mins) 0924-1010HRS REASONS FOR FAILURE Broken pin insulators at Otefe town caused the trip.2.2. OFFICES AND RESIDENTIAL.2. Feeder opened to enable maintenance 200A 272A LOAD LOST (46mins) crew replace blown HRC fuses.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.9A MW CAPACITY: 7. BETA GLASS 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION SUBSTATION PARAMETERS 72 .CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.2.2.2 OTEFE 11KV FEEDER LINE LENTH: 10KM TYPE OF LINE: OVERHEAD TYPE OF LOAD: COTTAGE INDUSTRIES.3.33 OUTAGES RECORDED IN THE MONTH OF MAY DATE DURATION 0245-1045HRS 6-05-07 18-5-07 2.3 2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR:100mm2 OUTAGES RECORDED IN THE MONTH OF MAY 2007: NIL 2.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2.

5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR: 100mm2 TABLE 2. DELTA STATE CAPACITY: 1x7.34: OUTAGES RECORDED ON THE FEEDER IN MAY2007 DATE DURATION FAILURE The feeder tripped LOAD LOST 73 .LOCATION: UGHELLI.2.3.2.2.1 LINE PARAMETERS UGHELLI 11KV FEEDER LENTH OF LINE: 12KM TYPE OF LINE: Overhead MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED: 200A TYPE OF LOAD: RESIDENTIAL NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.3.2 2.5MVA SUBSTATION TYPE: OUTDOOR/INDOOR YEAR OF FIRST COMMISSIONING: 1978 2.9A MW CAPACITY: 7.

(275mins. (22mins. A tree branch was removed from the line before restoration. (21mins.2. This was for the purpose of maintenance of their 33kv line breaker.) 16-05-07 1436-1458HRS.9A MW CAPACITY: 7. 180A 200A 26-05-07 2006-2027HRS.2 BETA GLASS 11KV FEEDER LENTH OF LINE=3KM TYPE OF LINE: OVERHEAD MAXIMUM LOAD: 150A TYPE OF LOAD: INDUTRIAL (GLASS FACTORY) NOMINAL SENDING END VOLTAGE: 11KV CONDUCTOR TYPE: AAC (All aluminum conductors) CONDUCTOR CODE: SPARROW CURRENT CAPACITY: 401.3.03-05-07 0600-1035HRS. The feeder tripped on over current red phase.2. There was loss of supply from the source 33kv feeder.5MW CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONDUCTOR:100mm2 TABLE 2. 74 LOAD LOST 120A .) on earth fault.35: OUTAGES RECORDED IN THE MONTH OF MAY 2007 DATE 16-0507 DURATION 1436-1458 (22MINS) REASONS FOR FAILURE THERE WAS LOSS OF POWER FROM SOURCE 33KV SUBSTATION.) 200A 2.

The 11kv output of the transformer goes straight to the indoor switchgear arrangement for distribution to consumers via two 11kv overhead lines.2. an SF6 gas circuit breaker and a transformer isolator.1. CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF DATA 3. is fed via a 2km-long 33kv feeder which comes from Delta power station also in ughelli. which is both the indoor and outdoor type.1 UGBOWO 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION CALCULATIONS 75 .0 SUBSTATIONS IN BENIN ENVIRONMENT 3. The 33kv switchgear is outdoor while the 11kv switchgear is indoor.1. The 33kv arrangement consists of a line isolator.2.3.14: SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF BETA GLASS SUBSTATION The substation.3 SWITCHGEAR ARRANGEMENT Figure2.

0022 +j0.6)Ω AT FULL LOAD VOLTAGE DROP OF SECTION 1 = I x Z = 576.002+j0.7A AT 33KV TOTAL LOAD DUE TO GUINESS SUBSTATION = 13.2) Ω VOLTAGE DROP IN SECTION 2 AT FULL LOAD = 330 x (0.6) = (10.14 +j921.8MW CURRENT IN SECTION 1 = 576.2)Ω = (3.7A IMPEDANCE OF SECTION 1 = (0.6) V CURRENT IN SECTION 2 AT FULL LOAD = 330A IMPEDANCE OF SECTION 2 = (0.012+j1.6KV (80A AT 33KV) TOTAL LOAD DUE TO GUINESS SUBSTATION = 246.012+j1.7X (0.2) x 8 = ( 0.0176+j1.0176 + j1.96 + j396)V 76 .7A AT 33KV) MAXIMUM LOAD DUE TO TRANSFORMER 2 = 400A AT 6.Current in section 1 = Current due to Ugbowo substation + Current due to Guinness substation CURRENT DUE TO UGBOWO SUBSTATION MAXIMUM LOAD DUE TO TRANSFORMER 1= 460A MAXIMUM LOAD DUE TO TRANSFORMER 2=530A TOTAL LOAD = 990A AT 11KV TOTAL LOAD =330A AT 33KV CURRENT DUE TO GUINESS SUBSTATION MAXIMUM LOAD DUE TO TRANSFORMER 1 = 500A AT 11KV (166.2) x 6 = (0.

83KV VOLTAGE AT THE MOST REMOTE END OF FEEDER= 8.1.395) x 7 = (0.1.1.096)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I x Z = 350 x ( 0.2.1.TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP = VOLTAGE DROP IN SECTION 1 + VOLTAGE DROP IN SECTION 2 = (14.1.97 44640 3.32KV VOLTAGE AT THE RECEIVING END = 33-1.3% 401.22 + j2833.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.6) V |V| =1.1.0024 +j0.68 x 100 = 96 % 33.17KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 302+ 61 + 120 + 270 + 242 + 352 = 134MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINUTES AVAILABILITY = 44640 -1347 = 0.395) x 20.2.9 TOTAL LINE RESISTANCE = (0.0 3.1 + j1317.0168 +j2.2 3.096) = (17.1% 401.2 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT COLLEGE 11KV FEEDER RATED CURRENT CAPACITY OF LINE = 401.0492 + j8.9A % LOADING = 350 X 100 = 87.32= 31.9A % LOADING OF LINE = 110 X 100 = 27.68KV VOLTAGE REGULATION = RECEIVING END VOLTAGE x 100 SENDING END VOLTAGE = 31.6)V |V| =2.765)Ω 77 .5 = (0.0024 +j0.0492 + j8.1 CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEEDERS UGBOWO 11KV FEEDER RATED CURRENT CAPACITY = 401.

8) V |V| =0.765) = (1.3 EGUADIEKEN 11KV FEEDER RATED CURRENT CAPACITY = 401.64 = 10.96 +j640.0 – 0.99 44640 78 .848 +j304.022 + j3.9A %LOADING OF LINE = 180 x 100 = 44.VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 110 X(0.0024 + j0.99 44640 3.64KV VOLTAGE AT THE MOST REMOTE END = 11.38KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 692MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 692 = 0.3=10.3KV VOLTAGE AT THE MOST REMOTE END =11-0.0168 + j2.395) x 9 = (0.1.1.15)V |V| = 0.022 + j3.8% 401.56) = (3.7KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 53 + 46 + 181 +170 +54 =504MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 504 = 0.56) VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 180 X (0.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.2.

98 44640 3.0024 + j0.4KV VOLTAGE AT THE MOST REMOTE SUBSTATION = 11.1. 33/11KV COOLING TYPE: ONAN WINDING TYPE: DY1 CALCULATIONS 79 .95) V |V| = 1.024 +j3.4 =9.1.3.3 TRANSFORMER LOADING Transformer 1 RATING: 15MVA.024 +j3.1.2.1.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.0 – 1.395) x 10 = (0.4 USELU 11KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE = 350 X 100 = 87.1% 401.6KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 180 + 190 + 132 + 189 + 30C 8 + 135 = 1134MINS.95) Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 350 X (0. TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640 MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABITY = 44640 – 1134 = 0.

1.V VOLTAGE = 11.3.V VOLTAGE = 11.36 MAXIMUM H.98 % LOADING = 530 X 100 = 66% 803.V VOLTAGE = 10.3% 803.04KV (FROM CALCULATIONS) MAXIMUM L.3 KV 80 .V VOLTAGE = 31. 33/11KV COOLING TYPE: ONAN WINDING TYPE: DY1 TRANSFORMER 2 CALCULATIONS MAXIMUM LOAD ON TRANSFORMER = 180 + 350 = 530A P =√3xIxVxCosø RATED FULL LOAD CURRENT = 15 X 106 = 803.1.2 RATING: 15MVA.36 MAXIMUM H.4KV (FROM CALCULATIONS) 3.0KV MINIMUM H.V VOLTAGE = 34.04KV MAXIMUM L.3KV (RECORDE BY OPERATORS) MINIMUM L.98 %LOADING = 460 X 100 = 57.V VOLTAGE =34.36A 3 √3X11X10 X0.0KV (RECORDE BY OPERATORS) MINIMUM H.MAXIMUM LOAD ON TRANSFORMER = 350 + 110 = 460A P =√3xIxVxCosø TRANSFORMER RATED CURRENT = 15 X 106 = 803.V VOLTAGE = 31.36 √3X11X103X0.

1.4)Ω VOLTAGE DROP= IxZ= 360X(0.V VOLTAGE = 10.012 + j2.1 CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEEDERS 3.4KV PROTECTION AVAILABLE FOR THE TRANSFORMERS Differential protection Over current protection Restricted earth fault protection Buchholz (gas) protection Winding temperature protection Surge protection LINE PROTECTION 2-Phase over current relay 1-Sensitive earth fault relay 3.1.0024 + j0.2 SILUKO 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 3.2.1.012 +j2.MINIMUM L.32 + j864)V |V| =0.9 CALCULATIONS TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE= (0.1 OLIHA 11KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE: 360 X100 =89.1.2.395) x 6 = (0.9KV 81 .4)=(4.57% 401.

015 + j2.35 + j696) 82 .2% 401.1.9=10.76KV VOLTAGE AT THE MOST REMOTE END OF THE LINE =11-0.1 = (0.395) x 6.2.4) = (4.4KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 996 MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AILABILITY = 44640 – 996 =0.4) 1.2 UPPER SILUKO 11KV FEEDER % Loading of line = 240 x 100 =59.2.72% 401.95 3.16) =(4.0024 + j0.16)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I x Z = 240 x(0.7 KV |V| = 0.VOLTAGE AT THE MOST REMOTE END = 11-0.395) X 8 =(0.3 EDO TEXTILE MILL 11KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE: 290 X 100 =72.76=10.0192 + j3.1KV AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD: 44640 MINUTES AVAILABILITY= 44640-2147 44640 = 0.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.1.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE =(0.1.41) VOLTAGE DROP = I X = 290 X (0.015 + j2.1.0192 + j3.608 + j758.0024 + j0.98 44640 3.

1.7=10.4 UWELU 11KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE: 320 X 100 =77.019 + j3.019 + j3.9% 401.16)Ω VOLTAGE DROP : I X Z = 320 X(0.08 + j1011.1.16) = (6. 33/11KV COOLING TYPE: ONAN 83 .93 3.2.1.395) X 8 = (0.2 TRANSFORMER LOADING Transformer 1 RATING: 15 MVA.97 3.7KV VOLTAGE AT THE REMOTE END OF FEEDER = 11-0.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE :( 0.3KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 3056 MINUTES SERVICE PERIOD: 44640MINUTES AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY =44640– 3056 44640 =0.0024 + j 0.0KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 1349MINUTES SERVICE PERIOD: 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY= 44640 – 1349 44640 = 0.2.2)Ω |V| = 1.|V| = 0.

36A % LOADING OF TRANSFORMER = 610 X 100 = 76% 803.36 PROTECTION AVAILABLE FOR THE TRANSFORMERS Differential protection Over current protection 84 .33/11KV COOLING TYPE: ONAN WINDING TYPE:DY11 TRANSFORMER 2 CALCULATIONS COMBINED LOAD: 610A P =√3xIxVxCosø TRANSFORMER RATED CURRENT= 803.6A % LOADING 600 X 100 =74.7% 803.1.2 RATING: 15MVA.WINDING TYPE: DY11 CALCULATIONS COMBINED LOAD ON TRANSFORMER: 600A P =√3xIxVxCosø RATED FULL LOAD CURRENT: 803.2.2.6 3.

765) =(7.016 + j2.1 WELFARE 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEEDERS UPPER SAKPONBA FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE = 440 X 100 =109.98 44640 85 .765)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 440 X(0.1.2 = 10.1.5% 401.2KV VOLTAGE AT REMOTE END = 11-1.8KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 1116MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 1116 = 0.016 +j2.Restricted earth fault protection Buchholz (gas) protection Winding temperature protection Surge protection LINE PROTECTION 2-Phase over current relay 1-Sensitive earth fault relay 3.3 3.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.04 + j1216.3.395) X7 =(0.0024 + j0.6)V |V| =1.

1. SAVIOUR 11KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE = 70 X 100 = 17.1KV VOLTAGE AT REMOTE END = 11-0.2 = 0.9KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 1349MINUTES SERVICE PERIOD: 44640 AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY= 44640 – 1349 44640 3.0024 + j0.2 ST.97 TRANSFORMER LOADING RATING: 15MVA.185) Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 70 X (0.3. 33/11KV COOLING TYPE: ONAN WINDING TYPE : DY11 CALCULATIONS MAXIMUM LOAD = 440+70 = 510A P =√3xIxVxCosø RATED CURRENT = 803.0072 + j1.36A % LOADING = 510 X 100 =63.1.3.5% 803.395) X 3 = (0.36 86 .9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.4% 401.0072 + j1.3.1=10.185)V |V| = 0.1.

4 3.1.6KV INJECTION SUBSTATION INCOMING 33KV FEEDER 87 .4.1.1 GUINESS 33/11/6.PROTECTION AVAILABLE FOR THE TRANSFORMERS Differential protection Over current protection Restricted earth fault protection Buchholz (gas) protection Winding temperature protection Surge protection LINE PROTECTION 2-Phase over current relay 1-Sensitive earth fault relay 3.

92KV 3.6 = 80A 33 LOAD DUE TO GUINESS SUBSTATION AT 33KV =66.7 =576.0168 + j2.0024 + j0.76)Ω MAXIMUM LOAD DUE TO 11KV FEEDERS = 270 + 230 = 500A EQUIVALENT LOAD AT 33KV = 500 X 11 = 166.6)V |V| = 0.6) =(10.0168 + j2.6)V |V| =0.0022 + j0.1.7A LOAD DUE TO UGBOWO SUBSTATION AT 33KV = 330A TOTAL LOAD FLOWING THROUGH THE 8KM SECTION AT PEAK PERIOD =330 +246.7 x (0.CALCULATIONS TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.2 CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEEDERS 3.395) x 7=(0.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE= (0.6KV FEEDER = 400A EQUIVALENT LOAD AT 33KV = 400 X 6.1.14 + j921.2.765) =(4.7A 33 MAXIMUM LOAD DUE TO 6.8KV TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINUTES TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 385 MINUTES AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD 88 .2% 401.0176+ j1.22) x 8 =(0.765)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = 270 X (0.1 NEW BENIN 11 KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS % LOADING OF LINE = 270 X 100 = 67.0176 +j1.4.7+ 80=246.7A VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 576.54 + j746.4.

99 44640 3.3 ASABA 6.72 + j1108)V |V| = 1.208 + j363.77) Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I XZ = 400 X(0.58) = (2.395) x 7 = (0.0096 + j1.58) Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 230 X(0.1.2.0024+ j 0.1KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 1563MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINUTES AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE 89 .4.395) x 4 = (0.0096 + j1.2.4)V |V| =0.6 KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS % LOADING OF LINE = 400 X 100 = 59.AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 385 = 0.2 BDPA 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS % LOADING = 230 X 100 = 70.36KV 3.0024 + j0.1.7% 670 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.77) = (6.3% 401.0168 + j2.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.0168 + j2.4.

8% 669.4.TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 1563 = 0.3.4.97 44640 3.5 X 106 = 669.5 PROTECTION AVAILABLE FOR THE TRANSFORMERS Differential protection 90 .5A √3 X 6.1.4 .2% 803.1.2 Transformer 2 CALCULATIONS MAXIMUM LOAD ON TRANSFORMER = 400A P =√3xIxVxCosø TRANSFORMER RATED CURRENT= 7.365 3 √3 X 11 X 10 X 0.36 3.6 X 103 X0.1 Transformer 1 CALCULATIONS COMBINED LOAD = 270 + 230 = 500A P =√3xIxVxCosø RATED CURRENT CAPACITY = 15 X 106 = 803.1.3.3 TRANSFORMER LOADING 3.98 % LOADING OF TRANFORMER = 400 X 100 = 59.98 % LOADING = 500 X 100 = 62.

Over current protection Restricted earth fault protection Buchholz (gas) protection Winding temperature protection Surge protection LINE PROTECTION 2-Phase over current relay 1-Sensitive earth fault relay 3.1.1 3.1.5.1 NEKPENEKPEN 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEEDERS FEEDER 1 CALCULATIONS TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 135+71+175+76+124+66+25+51+199+3810+210+20+180+165+63=5370MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD: 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY= 44640-5370 =0.1.1.88 44640 3.5.1.1.5.2 FEEDER 2 CALCULATIONS 91 .5 3.

1.1.2 TRANSFOMER LOADING 92 .5.1.97 3.3 FEEDER 3 CALCULATIONS TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 1517 MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD: 44640 AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY= 0.TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD:15+116+126+70+195+64+375+24+49+75+200+45=1354MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD= 44640 AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY= 44640-1354 44640 3.1.97 =0.5.1.98 3.5.4 FEEDER 4 TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD=688MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD=44640MINUTES AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY=0.

6 3.2 TRANSFORMER 2 RATED CURRENT = 803.1.2.36 3.3.1 ETETE 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION INCOMING 33KV FEEDER 93 .36A %LOADING= 800 X 100 = 99.1.96% 803.2.5.36A % LOADING = 630 X 100 =78.6.1.1.4% 803.5.36 PROTECTION AVAILABLE FOR THE TRANSFORMERS Differential protection Over current protection Restricted earth fault protection Buchholz (gas) protection Winding temperature protection Surge protection LINE PROTECTION 2-Phase over current relay 1-Sensitive earth fault relay 3.1 TRANSFORMER 1 TRANSFORMER RATED FULL LOAD CURRENT= 803.

395) X 5 = (0.2.6.0144 + j2.37) Ω 94 .9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE :( 0.7)V | V| = 0.0120 = j 1.0144 + j2.1.395) X 6 = (0.0024 +j 0.1 IHAMA 11KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE = 432 X 100 = 107.2 CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEEDERS 3.95 44640 3.1.0120 + j 1.7% 401.80 + j625.6.395) x 6 = (0.0024 + j0.CALCULATIONS MAXIMUM LOAD AT 11KV= 432 + 264+ 440+316 = 1452A TRANSFORMER RATIO: 33/11 = 3:1 MAXIMUM LOAD AT 33KV = 1452 = 484A 3 VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 484 X (00616 + j0.5% 401.975)V |V| = 0.975)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 432 X(0.4)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = 264 X (0.3KV 3.2.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.9KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 2120 MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD: 44640MINUTES AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 2120 = 0.3 UGBOR 11 KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE: 440 X 100 = 109.0024 + j 0.1.0144 + j2.63KV 3.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.6.4) = (3.56)V |V| = 0.5% 401.1.2 DUMEZ 11KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE = 264 X 100 = 65.2.6.

0144 + j2.37)V |V| =1.765)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 316 X (0.97 44640 3.0024 + j0.98 44640 3.3.6% 401.9KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 1305MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD: 44640MINUTES AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 1305 = 0.1.395) X 7 = (0.1 Transformer 1 COMBINED LOAD: 696A P =√3xIxVxCosø 95 .6.1.1.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.2.04KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 866MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD= 44640MINUTES AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERI AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 866 = 0.3 TRANSFORMER LOADING 3.765)V |V| = 0.4 UPPER SAPELE 11KV FEEDER % LOADING OF LINE = 316 X 100 = 78.0168 + j2.6.VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 440 X(0.6.0168 + j2.

98 % LOADING OF TRANSFORMER = 756 x 100 = 94.1.7.2 Transformer 2 COMBINED LOAD = 756A P =√3xIxVxCosø I= 15 X 106 = 803.1.36 3.36A % LOADING = 696 X 100 = 86.2 GRA 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD 96 .36 √3x11x10 x0.99 3.6.1.3.I = 803.1.1.36 3 3.1% 803.1 GRA 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV OBA PALACE 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 114+55=169MINUTES TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD: 44640MINUTES AVAILABILITY=44640-169 44640 AVAILABILITY=0.7.7 3.7.1 3.1.7% 803.1.

1.2 3.1.2% 803.36 3.98 I= 803.36A % LOADING= 430 X 100 =53.5% 803.2 Transformer 2 Transformer rated maximum load= 803.2.2.1.TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD= 19+265+25+165+66= 540MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD=44640MINS AVAILABILITY= 44640-540 = 0.1.6A MAXIMUM LOAD RECORDED ON THE TRANSFORMER=564A % LOADING= 564 x 100 = 70.1 I= Transformer 1 TRANSFORMER LOADING 15x106 √3x11x103x0.3 RESERVATION 11KV FEEDER TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 60MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD: 44640MINS AVAILABILITY= 44640-60 44640 3.7.98 44640 3.36 97 .7.36A The full load current rating of the transformer=803.7.7.1.

0024 + j 0.1.8 + j2.98 44640 3.8) = (4.1.8KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 931MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 -931 = 0.3.8)V |V| = 0.1 EVBUOTUBU 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEDERS 3.2 ASORO 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS 98 .0168 + j2.8.1 EVBUOTUBU 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS %LOADING OF LINE = 288 X 100 = 71.8)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z =288 X(0.8.1.1.1.1.8.7% 401.395) X 7 = (0.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE= (0.0168 + j2.8 3.

%LOADING OF LINE =255 X 100 = 63.0024 + j0.36 3.8KV CALCULATIONS TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 810MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 810 = 0.9.8.16)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I XZ = 255 X (0.2 TRANSFORMER LOADING MAXIMUM LOADING = 543A P =√3xIxVxCosø RATED MAXIMUM CURRENT = 803.16) = (4.1 CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEEDERS 99 .98 44640 3.019 + j 3.9 FEDERAL SECRETERIAT 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION 3.019 + j 3.5% 401.1.395) X 8 = (0.36A % LOADING = 543 X 100 = 67.6% 803.9 + j805)V |V| =0.1.1.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.

4)V |V| =0.34 + j1042.0096 + j1.728 + j284.37) = (6.8)V |V| = 1.1.2 FEDERAL HOUSING 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS % LOADING OF LINE = 180 X 100 = 44.395) X 6 = (0.58)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = 180 x (0.0024 + j0.8% 401.99 44640 3.3.5% 401.9.1.587) = (1.0144 + j2.1.0024 + j 0.9.37) Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 440 X(0.1.0144 + j2.3KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 120+105+60+185 = 470 MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 470 = 0.1 NEW AUCHI 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS % LOADING OF LINE = 440 X 100 =109.04KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 90+240+300+60+4=694MINS TOTAL SERVICE PRIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 694 = 0.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.0096 + j1.395) X 4 =(0.99 100 .9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.

36A % LOADING = 300 X 100 = 37.10.395) X0.3% 803.1.3.1.0395) = (0.1.1 3.8% 401.2 44640 TRANSFORMER LOADING TRANSFORMER1 RATED CURRENT = 803.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.9.00024 + j 0.00024 + j 0.36 TRANSFORMER 2 MAXIMUM LOAD = 190 + 110 = 300A P =√3xIxVxCosø RATED CURRENT = 803.36 3.1.0024 + j0.1 IKPOBA DAM 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION CALCULATIONS ON 11KV FEEDERS DAM 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS % LOADING OF LINE = 200 X 100 = 49.10.048 + j79)V | V| =0.1.0395)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = 200 X (0.36A % LOADING = 620 X 100 = 77.10 3.08KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 110MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS 101 .2% 803.1 = (0.

8)= (2.1.0108 + j1.3% 401.052 + j337.98 44640 3.1.10.395) x 4 = (0.7)V |V| =0.795 = 0.0108 + j1.5 = (0.2 UPPER LAWANI 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS % LOADING OF LINE = 110 X 100 = 27.0024 +j 0.056 + j173.34KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 549MINS 102 .9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE =(0.1.3 OKHORO 11KV FEEDER % LOADING = 190 X 100 = 47.0096 + j1.4% 401.98 44640 3.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.0096 + j1.0024 + j0.58) = (1.58)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 110 x (0.8)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I x Z =190 x (0.395) X 4.8)V |V| = 0.10.2KV TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD = 795MINS TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640MINS AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640.1.AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 44640 – 110 = 0.

10.36A % LOADING = 300 X 100 = 37.1.1 3.1.1.7A % LOADING = 200 X 100 = 49.2.2.2.3% 803.2.2 TRANSFORMER 2 MAXIMUM LOAD = 190 + 110 = 300A P =√3xIxVxCosø RATED CURRENT = 803.1 TRANSFORMER 1 MAXIMUM LOAD = 200A P =√3xIxVxCosø RATED CURRENT = 401.1.99 44640 3.TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD = 44640 AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD AVAILABILITY = 4640 4-549 = 0.7 3.1% 401.10.2.36 3.1 SUBSTATIONS IN DELTA ENVIRONMENTS OGHAREKI 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION CALCULATIONS ON 11KV FEEDERS 103 .2 TRANSFORMER LOADING 3.10.0 3.

3.2.1.1.1 OGHAREKI 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS RATED CURRENT CAPACITY =401.9A % LOADING OF LINE = 400 X 100 = 68.8% 401.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE=(0.0024+j0.395) x 10 = (0.024 + j3.95)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 450 X(0.024 +j3.95)V = (10.8 +j1777.5)V |V|=1.8KV VOLTAGE AT THE MOST REMOTE SUBSTATION =11 – 1.8 = 9.2KV CALCULATIONS: TOTAL OUTAGE PERIOD: 15+40+25=80mins. TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD: 31x24x60=44640mins Availability of feeder= (44640-80)/44640 =0.99

3.2.1.2

TRANSFORMER LOADING

I=P/ √ 3xVx COSø = (15x106)/√3x11x103x0.98 Full load current = 803.36A Maximum load recorded on the transformer =450A

3.2.2 3.2.2.1

OGHAREFE 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION CALCULATIONS ON 11KV FEEDERS

3.2.2.1.1 GOVERNOR 11KV FEEDER

104

CALCULATIONS RATED CURRENT CAPACITY =401.9A % LOADING OF LINE = 220 X 100 = 54.7% 401.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE =(0.0024 +j 0.395) X 6 =(0.0144 +j2.37)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I XZ = 220 X(0.0144 +j2.37) = (3.16 +j521.4) |V| = 0.52KV VOLTAGE AT THE MOST REMOTE SUBSTATION = 11 – 0.52 =10.48KV No outage was recorded on the feeder in the month of May 2007. The availability of the feeder is unity. 3.2.2.1.2 OTEFE 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS RATED CURRENT CAPACITY =401.9A % LOADING OF LINE = 300 X 100 = 74.7% 401.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE=(0.0024 + j0.395) x 10 =(0.024+j3.95)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 300 X(0.024 + j3.95) =(7.2 +j1185) |V| = 1.2KV Total outage period = 526mins Total period in the month = 44640mins Availability = (44640-526)/44640 =0.98

3.2.2.2 P = √3xIxVxCosø

TRANSFORMER LOADING

105

Full load current = (15x106)/ (√3x11x103x0.98) = 803.36A % Loading of transformer = 520/803.36 x100 =64.7%

PROTECTION AVAILABLE IN THE SUBSTATION  TRANSFORMER PROTECTION 1. Differential protection 2. Over current protection 3. Restricted earth fault protection 4. Buchholz (gas) protection 5. Winding temperature protection 6. Surge protection  LINE PROTECTION 1.Over current relays 2.Earthfault relays

3.2.3

BETA GLASS 33/11KV INJECTION SUBSTATION

106

05 +j177.3. of days in May=31 No.1 UGHELLI 11KV FEEDER CALCULATIONS RATED CURRENT CAPACITY =401.0072 + j1.185) = (1.395) X 3 = (0.2 BETA GLASS 11KV FEEDER RATED CURRENT CAPACITY = 401.99 3.1.8)V |V| = 0.3.7% 401. of hours in a day=24 No.9A % LOADING = 200 X 100 = 48.0072 + j1.3.0024 + j 0. of minutes in one hour=60 Total period of time in one month=31x24x60=44640 Period feeder was off service=275+22+21=318minutes AVAILABILITY= (44640-318)/44640 =0.5 % 401.9 AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD No.2.2KV AVAILABILITY = ACTUAL PERIOD FEEDER WAS IN SERVICE TOTAL SERVICE PERIOD Availability = (44640-22) /44640 =0.99 107 .2.3.185)Ω VOLTAGE DROP = I X Z = 150 X (0.1 CALCULATIONS FOR 11KV FEEDERS 3.2.9 TOTAL LINE IMPEDANCE = (0.1.9A % LOADING = 150 X 100 = 36.

98) =401.68A Percentage loading of the transformer = (350/401.5MVA Cooling type: ONAF Winding type: Yd11 CALCULATIONS P = √3xIxVxcos P=Power=7.98 I= p/ (√3V cosø) = (7. a reserve capacity of 401.68A There is therefore.Ughelli 11kv feeder: 200A Beta glass 11kv feeder: 150A Total: 350A Rating of transformer: 7.68-350=51.5MVA I=current V=Voltage=11kv Cosø=power factor=0.68A The substation is capable of supplying 401.1 SUBSTA TION FEEDER LENG TH (KM) CAPACI TY (A) SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION TABULATED SUMMARY OF 11KV FEEDERS MAX. LOAD (A) %LOAD ING NOMIN ALVOLT AGE (KV) VOLTAGE DROP (KV) %VOLTAG E REGULA TION AVAILA BILITY REMARKS 108 .13% CHAPTER FOUR TABLE 4.5x106) / (√3x11x103x0.68) x100 =87.

36 1.7 9.9 401.9 401.98 0.90 0.0 401.0 6.9 401.4 47.0 7.88 0.9 5.7 0.9 70 440 270 230 400 350 400 410 220 432 264 440 316 285 279 330 288 255 440 17.9 401.99 SATISFACTORY LINE IS OVER LOADED SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY HIGN LOSSES SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY LINE IS OVER LOADED SATISFACTORY LINE IS OVER LOADED SATISFACTORY LINE IS OVER LOADED SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY LINE IS OVER LOADED SATISFACTORY SAT SATISFACTORY ISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY FEDERAL HOUSING DAM UPPER LAWANI OKHORO UGBOWO FEDERAL GOVERNMENT COLLEGE EGUADIAEKEN USELU OGHAREKI GOVERNOR OTEFE UGHELLI BETA GLASS OLIHA UPPER SILUKO EDO TEXTILE MILL UWELU 4.1 99.97 0.0 0.0 6.9 0.0 7.5 71.0 12.9 401.0 6.9 7.6 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 0.3 0.08 0.5 11 11 11 11 6.52 1.8 54.72 72.52 1.0 2.99 0.83 1.9 670.9 401.9 401.9 401.0 401.9 401.9 401.9 401.2 70.9 401.4 1.98 0.1 99.3 87.0 0.67 1.0 8.9 401.99 0.6 0.99 0.9 401.0 54.9 401.9 803.0 8.98 0.2 77.9 69.0 10.7 74.9 180 200 110 190 350 110 180 350 400 220 300 200 150 360 240 290 320 44.2 0.99 1.6 8.9 401.7 1.9 0.0 9.57 59.78 0.9 401.5 20.3 7.1 7.8 0.99 0.2 3.97 0.0 8.98 0.98 0.9 401.76 0.95 0.8 49.0 6.10 0.3 44.0 6.8 27.83 1.97 0.64 1.8 1.98 0.99 0.97 0.8 0.7 48.4 53.95 0.7 63.0 401.2 0.9 0.9 401.76 0.1 6.97 TABLE 4.8 0.0 8.1 27.98 0.3 9.2 0.17 0.04 0.97 0.90 0.0 0.98 0.1 5.2: TABULATED SUMMARY OF TRANSFORMERS 109 .3 59.7 1.9 401.10 1.1 4.9 401.9 401.0 4.0 10.04 0.1 2.97 0.95 0.5 78.WELFA RE “ GUINES S “ “ NEKPEN EKPEN “ “ “ ETET E “ “ “ GRA “ “ EVBUOT UBU “ FEDERA L SECRET ERIAT “ IKPOBA DAM “ “ UGBOW O “ “ “ OGHAR EKI OGHAR EFE “ BETA GLASS “ SILUKO “ “ “ ST.5 65.99 0.6 401.0 6.0 4.62 0.9 401.99 0.2 0.98 0.99 0.64 1.9 401.0 7.8 0.0 0.5 109.0 7.9 0.9 401.63 1.9 401.8 3.7 107.64 8.5 67.4 109.7 87.93 0.95 N/A 0.9 401.34 2.9 401.5 89.0 6.98 0.5 102.2 0.95 0.7 36.0 1.0 7.0 6.5 8.9 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 0.0 3.9 401.4 1.0 10.8 87.1 8.1 9.0 7.7 109.97 0.2 0.98 0.0 6.SAVIOUR UPPER SAKPONBA NEW BENIN BDPA ASABA FEEDER 1 FEEDER 2 FEEDER 3 FEEDER 4 IHAMA DUMEZ UGBOR UPPER SAPELE OBA PALACE GRA RESERVATION EVBUOTUBU ASORO NEW AUCHI 3.3 10.5 7.9 401.2 5.2 7.9 0.6 70.0 6.5 0.99 0.98 0.7 1.

9 2.96 5.7 2.6 77.7 2.6 86.7 2.8 78.7 N/A N/A 8.2 99.9 2.7 8.96 5. LOAD T2 (A) 530 610 N/A 400 630 756 430 N/A N/A 300 N/A N/A N/A % LOADING T1 57.3 5. LOAD T1 (A) 460 600 510 500 800 696 564 543 620 200 450 220 350 MAX.4 87.5 N/A N/A 37.1 27.5 2X15 2X15 2X15 1X15 1X15 1X7.3 74. It was also observed that feeders were taken off service due to poor generated power.7 70.6 8. • All the transformers belong to the ONAN cooling system.3 8.8 2.7 % VOLTAGE REGULATION T2 7. 110 .3 N/A N/A N/A % VOLTAGE REGULATION T1 7.5 1X15 1X15 1X15 1X7.0 N/A 59.3 5.5 62. This can be attributed to overloaded transformers and poor distribution network.3 N/A 5.SUBSTATION INSTALLED CAPACITY (MVA) 2X15 2X15 1X15 1X15 1X7.7 1.1 % LOADING T2 66.1 53.6 8.9 8.1 56.5 MAX. It is highly recommended that for the transformers to carry higher load especially in overloaded substations.2 49.7 63.2 67.7 N/A N/A N/A REMARKS UGBOWO SILUKO WELFARE GUINESS NEKPENEKPEN ETETE GRA EVBUOTUBU FEDERAL SECRETERIAT IKPOBA DAM OGHAREKI OGHAREFE BETA GLASS SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY DISCUSSION The availability of the 11KV feeders and the injection substations was observed to be quite low in some cases. assisted cooling in the form of fans should be provided.4 94. The common denominators to all the substations in this study are: • All the substations have outdoor 33KV switchgear and indoor 11KV switchgear.O 76.

• It was observed that a 33/6. 111 .• In some substations with two transformers. This should be upgraded to take care of the overload and voltage drop problem being encountered by consumers on that transformer. • No frequency meter was found in any of the control rooms. it was observed that their vector groups are dissimilar making it impossible to run them in parallel. • Transformers were observed to have tripped on high winding temperature on many occasions. This can be prevented if the temperature warning alarms are made effective.6KV transformer is in circuit at GUINNES substation in Benin City. This leads to slow response to system disturbances and eventually lead to system collapse.

Billinton. USA. New York. United Kingdom’’ Power Holding Company of Nigeria Hourly Reading Sheets and operational records. GEC –ALSTHOM (2004) ‘‘Network Protection and Automation Guide’’ ‘‘GEC. New York. Platinum Press. R. 112 .N (1996) “Reliability Evaluation of Power Systems”. R and Allan.REFERENCES Brown R.E (2002) “Electric Power Distribution Reliability” “Marcel Dekker.ALSTHOM. Inc.

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