Julie Vu September 04, 2008 4th Period Chapter Two, The Upheaval in Christendom (1300-1560) Why Italy?

Italy was centrally located in the Mediterranean and was the connection between the Middle East and the rest of Europe. Florence was connected to the Silk Road by the Orno River and Pisa was connected by a river was well. Milan was “the end of the Silk Road” and transferred goods to Western Europe. Because the merchants became extremely wealthy from such trade, they spent their money on beautiful artwork and toward enjoying their life. This led to the idea that appreciation of this world was just as important as the next. Italy’s climate was also compatible to artwork. For example, artists could not have painted frescos if Italy’s climate had been like Russia’s, where temperature fluctuations caused plaster on frescoes to expand and contract. Who were Machiavelli’s models? Machiavelli admired rulers such as Ferdinand of Aragon (Spain), Louis XI (France), and Henry VIII (England) because they were able to build strong states and exercise power. From his observations of the world around him, he produced The Prince, a secular book of statecraft. How was the Northern Renaissance different from the Italian? The Northern Renaissance began in Germany, the economic and cultural center of Europe until 1492, when Spain controlled trade on the Atlantic. Universities thrived in Germany, where scholasticism was followed: one could major in either law, medicine, or theology. In Italy, the humanities were beginning to emerge. The Northern Renaissance was more soberly moral than the Italian Renaissance. In Italy, religion became less prominent, and artwork was more important. The rest of Europe experienced a shifting of ideas in regard to religion. Patrons* Patrons* Trade in the Mediterranean led to great profits for Italian bankers and merchants. Thus, they became the patrons of the arts and spent their money commissioning the greatest painters and sculptors of the day to create beautiful artwork. In Florence, the Medicis were patrons, especially Lorenzo the Magnificent. Milan – Sforzas, Venice – Doges In the Papal States, Julius II was a great patron of Michelangelo and Raphael. Quattrocentro

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Julie Vu September 04, 2008 4th Period Chapter Two, The Upheaval in Christendom (1300-1560) Italian for the fifteenth century, when it is thought that the Renaissance began. In Italy of the quattrocentro, new ideas about life were emerging. Literature and the arts rapidly developed. The new conception of life was that the current life was worth living; it was not just an endless toil in preparation for the next life. Enjoying beautiful things and spending money were also important during the Renaissance. Virtù Virtù “Man is the measure of all things.” “Man can do all things if only he will.” Virtù was the quality of being a man. Although women could exhibit virtù, it was expected in aggressive adult males that successfully demonstrated human powers. A man of virtù, in the arts, in war, or in statecraft, was a man who knew what he was doing and that excelled in all he did. Essentially, it meant living up to one’s highest potential. Secular The Italian Renaissance was partly a revelation of the power human beings had. During the Middle Ages, most people worked in the fields or at a craft in the countryside, never venturing further than possibly a neighboring village during their lifetime. Poverty was to be endured in silence. Life was very difficult and was seen as only a preparation for the next life. A life of involvement became valued. Enjoyment of wealth was extremely important. Secular humanism celebrated human life while still within bounds of the church. They were separate from the church, but not against it. CityCity-States A unified Italy as we know it did not appear until the 1800s. During the Renaissance, Italy was divided into independent city-states. In each city, the merchant oligarchies were free to rule. The major city-states were the Republic of Florence, Republic of Genoa, Duchy of Milan, the Papal states, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and the Venetian Republic. The Medicis were the richest family in Florence, and were the unofficial rulers of the city. The Medici Family later came to rule the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (created out of the Republic of Florence). Oligarchies An oligarchy is a government by the minority, the few. The Renaissance was only for people with money. Peasants were not aware of the Renaissance. The richest members of any city formed oligarchies that controlled the city-states. Usually, these were merchants and bankers. Some worked with local princes or despots or governed themselves as republics. Members of each merchant oligarchy could contend for public office, suppress popular revolt or win popular 2

Julie Vu September 04, 2008 4th Period Chapter Two, The Upheaval in Christendom (1300-1560) favor, produce works of public munificence, make alliances, hire armies, outwit rivals, or conduct affairs of states. Republics A republic is any government that is not a monarchy. Dante Wrote The Divine Comedy, en epic poem, where he wrote of the Inferno, Purgatory, and Paradise. While the poet Virgil was able to lead him through Inferno and Purgatory, he could not go into Paradise because he was not a Christian. Instead, Beatrice, the ideal woman led the way. Virgil symbolized reason and classical values, while Beatrice represented love, faith, and divine revelation. Part of the Tuscan Triumverate. Sometimes regarded as the first writer of the Italian Renaissance. Petrarch Francesco Petrarca, trained for the law, became a clergyman. Later criticized the two professions for their “scholasticism.” Lived in the generation after Dante, anticipated the fully developed humanism that would soon develop. His writings illustrate the complexity of early Renaissance thought. Wrote sonnets in Italian, an epic in Latin, a study of himself, and many letters. He used language to convey different moods, to clarify doubts, and improve his own understanding of the choices and options that life affords. In his love poems, he continually described “Laura,” a woman of the upper classes whom he loved, but could never be with. Developed the Italian sonnet. Part of the Tuscan Triumvirate – group of the first three major writers of the Renaissance, all associated with Florence. Their work made Tuscan dialect standard form of the Italian language. Boccacio A contemporary of Petrarch, he wrote the Decameron in Italian, a series of tales designed to entertain and to impart a certain wisdom about human character and behavior. There were ten youths traveling in ten days, and each told a story. Later, Geoffrey Chaucer would use the Decameron to write the Canterbury Tales. Last member of the Tuscan Triumvirate. Machiavelli 3

Julie Vu September 04, 2008 4th Period Chapter Two, The Upheaval in Christendom (1300-1560) Most important writer of politics during the Renaissance. Rejected the idea of the state being subject to divine law – instead, he believed the state existed for its own sake. The ruler should be concerned with preserving their authority through any means necessary. He wrote The Prince as a leter to Lorenzo de Medici and advised him as to what government should do, in the face of the world around them. Medici (Giovanni, Cosimo, Lorenzo) Giovanni de’ Medici: Merchant and banker of Florence, founder of the Medici dynasty. He ignored the church’s prohibitions of lending for interest. Cosimo de’ Medici: Son of Giovanni and used the family fortune to informally rule Florence in place of a national monarchy. He was the unofficial ruler of the republic because he allied with the other powerful Florentine families Lorenzo the Magnificent: Cosimo’s grandson, was a lavish patron of the arts. Personified Renaissance attitude of living life. Recognized and supported the creative talent in his city. The Medici family produced two popes, many cardinals, and two queens of France. Milan)* Tuscany (Florence, Milan)* Florence was connected to the Silk Road by the Orno River. Major center of handicraft industry, specialized in textile. Important banking center, ruled by a small oligarchy. The Florentine became the coin of choice throughout Western Europe because its value was trusted. Milan was the jumping-off point to Western Europe and was the “end of the Silk Road.” Gained wealth from agriculture and industry, especially in silk and armor production. Bruni Wrote A History of Florence, it was a narrative that made the history come alive and was easy to read. It was a collective book of consciousness that made the history of Florence a past worth defending. He also wrote about civic responsibility citizens had to the Republic in his book. Da Vinci The true “Renaissance man,” Leonardo was a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, and scientist. His Mona Lisa and Last Supper were truly exceptional works of art. Raphael Worked mainly in Florence and Rome, most well-known for his madonnas, portraits of the Virgin Mary. He also painted a series of frescoes in the Vatican Palace as well as the School of Athens 4

Julie Vu September 04, 2008 4th Period Chapter Two, The Upheaval in Christendom (1300-1560) ReactionistReactionist-Counter Revolution Every revolution has a counter-revolution. Savonarola was a priest in the Catholic Church that was a counter-revolutionist. Savonarola Priest in Catholic Church, lived in Florence, liked and respected, became second leader of Florence. Imposed strict, puritanical rule over the city. He burned classical artwork and wanted to stop the Renaissance, stop the spread of knowledge and new ideas. He criticized the excesses of the church and especially Pope Alexander VI. He became excommunicated, and the people of Florence burned him at the stake and cheered. Humanism (Italian and Northern) Italian Humanism: program of study based on what students in the classical world would have studied. Literature was used to answer questions about life, amuse readers, and became an art form in itself, rather than just as a practical means of communication. Italian humanists wrote in Latin and Greek. Additionally, humanists began writing in Italian and the vernacular developed. Christian Humanism: tried to unite the Christian faith with classical knowledge, felt that understanding the classical languages would lead to a deeper knowledge of Christian faith. Rejected the medieval mindset that the next world was more important, wanted to balance otherworldly concerns and secular ideas. St. Augustine Bishop, a writer heavily engaged in the controversies of his time, taught the world was not evil for true Christians, wrote the “City of God.” Salutati Humanist, Coluccio Salutati became chancellor of Florence in 1375. When Florence was threatened by Milan, Salutati defended his state with words, glorifying Florentine liberty and identifying it with the liberties of ancient Republican Rome. Lorenzo Valla Studied the evolution of the Latin language. Found the document of the church, the “Donation of Constantine” to be a forgery through studying the Latin it was written in. Supposedly written by Constantine on his deathbed, bequeathing his power of the church to Bishop Sylvester. Valla found that the document was written in the 7th century. 5

Julie Vu September 04, 2008 4th Period Chapter Two, The Upheaval in Christendom (1300-1560) Pico della Mirandola The Spirit of the Academy, created the first secondary school to prepare students for university. Had the idea to section off by ability and age.

Castiglione Wrote Book of the Courtier, described how people should behave The “courtier,” should be a man of good birth and training. He should have neat clothes, graceful movements, a poised approach to other people, good speaking ability, proficient in athletics and arms, know how to dance and appreciate music. Should know Latin and Greek, be well-read, incorporated moral ideas of humanists. Condottieri Mercenaries: Machiavelli did not like mercenaries because they had their loyalty to money. He felt that rulers should not use them because their loyalty could be easily turned by offers of more money, they were dedicated to no cause, and would easily switch sides to join the winner. Sforza Francesco Sforza was the duke of Milan. The Fuggers* Dominated the Hanseatic League. Regiomontanus Credited with the heliocentric theory, contributed to Renaissance mathematics Copernicus Proved the heliocentric theory through mathematics, also discovered that the planets moved in elliptical orbits Geocentric/Heliocentric Geocentric: the universe orbits around the earth Heliocentric: the sun is the center of the universe Faust/Marlowe/Goethe* 6

Julie Vu September 04, 2008 4th Period Chapter Two, The Upheaval in Christendom (1300-1560) Dr. Faustus, remembered in literature and the arts. In real life, Faust, or Faustus, was probably a learned German of the first part of the sixteenth century, rumored to have sold his soul to the devil in return for knowledge and power. This story was dramatized in England as early as 1593 by Christopher Marlowe, and later by Goethe in poetry.

Oswald Spengler Later used the word “Faustian” to describe the European civilization whose doom he prophesied in Decline of the West. The legend of Faust was a symbol of the inordinate ambitions of modern people. Mysticism Essence lay in the belief, or experience, that the individual soul could in perfect solitude commune directly with God. The mystic did not need reason, words, to join with other people in open worship, or even the sacraments of the church. Mystics accepted the pattern of salvation of the church, but offered a deeper religion in which the social institution of the church was unnecessary. All social institutions, in fact, were transcended in mysticism by the individual soul. Gerard Groote Attracted followers by his sermons on spiritual regeneration. Founded religious sisterhood, the Sisters and Brothers of the Common Life, received papal approval. Lived communally, but not as monks and nuns, took no vows, wore ordinary clothing, free to leave at will. Worked at relieving the poor and in teaching. Schools of the Brothers were first to be organized in separate classes, each with its own room and its own teacher, according to the pupil’s age or level of advancement. The Sisters maintained similar though less elaborate schools for girls. Although reading and writing were taught, emphasis was on a Christian ideal of character and conduct, to instill qualities such as humility, tolerance, reverence, love of one’s neighbor, and conscientiousness in performance of duty. Refers to tolerance of new ideas. Emphasizes the Sermon on the Mount. Erasmus of Rotterdam Greatest of all the northern humanists. Chose to write in “purified” and intricate Latin style. Regarded the Middle Ages as benighted, ridiculed scholastic philosophers, and studied the classical writers of antiquity.

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Julie Vu September 04, 2008 4th Period Chapter Two, The Upheaval in Christendom (1300-1560) Did not care for deep philosophical questions or politics. Rarely thought in terms of worldly power or advantage. He was aware of the need for reform of the clergy. Put his faith in education, enlightened discussion, and gradual moral improvement. Prepared new Greek and Latin editions of the New Testament. Encouraged the reading of the New Testament even in vernacular languages. Hoped that people would turn from evil ways if they understood Christ’s teachings for themselves. Satirized worldly pretensions and ambitions (especially those of the clergy) in Praise of Folly. Showed how a man might take part in the affairs of the world while remaining a devout Christian in Handbook of a Christian Knight, offered guidance for proper social behavior in On Civility in Children. Erasmian virtues: mildness, reasonableness, tolerance, restraint, good manners, scholarly understanding, love of peace, reform through knowledge, quiet tone Attacked only abuses in church and corruption, never the essence and principle of the Roman Catholic Church Vernacular* A common spoken tongue. Writers of the Renaissance started to write in vernacular languages such as Italian, French, and English. Sonnet A certain type of poem. The Italian sonnet was perfected by Petrarch: poem of fourteen lines, divided into a group of eight and a group of six, each group has own rhyme scene. Nation Builders of the North* Machiavelli’s models: Francis of Aragon, Henry VIII, LouisXI. Secondary Education* Preparation for the university, see Pico della Mirandola. Geoffrey Chaucer Wrote the Canterbury Tales, ideas taken from Boccacio’s Decameron, writer of the English Renaissance

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