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**leads to the difficulty for analyzing those data. Organizing
**

data into interesting collection is one of the most basic forms

of understanding and learning. Thus, a proper data mining

approach is required to organize those data for better

understanding. Clustering is one of the standard approaches in

the field of data mining. The main of this approach is to

organize a dataset into a set of clusters, which consists of

similar data items, as calculated by some distance function. K-

Means algorithm is the widely used clustering algorithm

because of its ability and simple nature. When the dataset is

larger, K-Means will misclassify the data points. For

overcoming this problem, some constraints must be included

in the algorithm. The resulting algorithm is called as

Constrained K-Means Clustering. The constraints used in this

paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint, δ-

constraint and ε-constraint. For generating the must-link and

cannot-link constraints, Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used in

this paper. The experimental result shows that the proposed

algorithm results in better classification than the standard K-

Means clustering technique.

Keywords--- K-Means, Self Organizing Map (SOM),

Constrained K-Means

I. INTRODUCTION

HE growth and development in sensing and storage

technology and drastic development in the applications

such as internet search, digital imaging, and video surveillance

have generated many high-volume, high-dimensional data

sets. As the majority of the data are stored digitally in

electronic media, they offer high prospective for the

development of automatic data analysis, classification, and

retrieval approaches.

Clustering is one of the most popular approaches used for data

analysis and classification. Cluster analysis is widely used in

disciplines that involve analysis of multivariate data. A search

through Google Scholar found 1,660 entries with the words

data clustering that comes into sight in 2007 alone. This huge

amount of data provides the significance of clustering in data

analysis. It is very complex to list the different scientific fields

and applications that have utilized clustering method as well

as the thousands of existing techniques.

The main aim of data clustering is to identify the natural

classification of a set of patterns, points, or objects. Webster

defines cluster analysis as “a statistical classification method

for discovering whether the individuals of a population fall

into various groups by making quantitative comparisons of

multiple characteristics”. The another definition of clustering

is: Provided a representation of n objects, determine K groups

according to the measure of similarity like similarities among

objects in the same group are high whereas the similarities

between objects in different groups are low.

The main advantages of using the clustering algorithms are:

• Compactness of representation.

• Fast, incremental processing of new data points.

• Clear and fast identification of outliers.

The widely used clustering technique is K-Means clustering.

This is because K-Means is very simple to implement and also

it is effective in clustering. But K-Means clustering will lack

performance when large dataset is involved for clustering.

This can be solved by including some constraints [8, 9] in the

clustering algorithm; hence the resulting clustering is called as

Constrained K-Means Clustering [7, 10]. The constraints used

in this paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint

[14, 16], δ-constraint and ε-constraint. Self Organizing Map

(SOM) is used in this paper for generating the must-link and

cannot-link constraints.

II. RELATED WORKS

Zhang Zhe et al., [1] proposed an improved K-Means

clustering algorithm. K-means algorithm [8] is extensively

utilized in spatial clustering. The mean value of each cluster

centroid in this approach is taken as the Heuristic information,

so it has some limitations such as sensitive to the initial

centroid and instability. The enhanced clustering algorithm

referred to the best clustering centroid which is searched

during the optimization of clustering centroid. This increases

An Efficient Constrained K-Means Clustering using

Self Organizing Map

M.Sakthi

1

and Dr. Antony Selvadoss Thanamani

2

1

Research Scholar

2

Associate Professor and Head, Department of Computer Science, NGM College, Pollachi, Tamilnadu.

T

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011

94 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

the searching probability around the best centroid and

enhanced the strength of the approach. The experiment is

performed on two groups of representative dataset and from

the experimental observation, it is clearly noted that the

improved K-means algorithm performs better in global

searching and is less sensitive to the initial centroid.

Hai-xiang Guo et al., [2] put forth an Improved Genetic k-

means Algorithm for Optimal Clustering. The value of k must

be known in advance in the traditional k-means approach. It is

very tough to confirm the value of k accurately in advance.

The author proposed an enhanced genetic k-means clustering

(IGKM) and builds a fitness function defined as a product of

three factors, maximization of which guarantees the formation

of a small number of compact clusters with large separation

between at least two clusters. Finally, the experiments are

conducted on two artificial and three real-life data sets that

compare IGKM with other traditional methods like k-means

algorithm, GA-based technique and genetic k-means algorithm

(GKM) by inter-cluster distance (ITD), inner-cluster distance

(IND) and rate of separation exactness. From the experimental

observation, it is clear that IGKM reach the optimal value of k

with high accuracy.

Yanfeng Zhang et al., [3] proposed an Agglomerative Fuzzy

K-means clustering method with automatic selection of cluster

number (NSS-AKmeans) approach for learning optimal

number of clusters and for providing significant clustering

results. High density areas can be detected by the NSS-

AKmeans and from these centers the initial cluster centers

with a neighbor sharing selection approach can also be

determined. Agglomeration Energy (AE) factor is proposed in

order to choose a initial cluster for representing global density

relationship of objects. Moreover, in order to calculate local

neighbor sharing relationship of objects, Neighbors Sharing

Factor (NSF) is used. Agglomerative Fuzzy k-means

clustering algorithm is then utilized to further merge these

initial centers to get the preferred number of clusters and

create better clustering results. Experimental observations on

several data sets have proved that the proposed clustering

approach was very significant in automatically identifying the

true cluster number and also providing correct clustering

results.

Xiaoyun Chen et al., [4] described a GK-means: an efficient

K-means clustering algorithm based on grid. Clustering

analysis is extensively used in several applications such as

pattern recognition, data mining, statistics etc. K-means

approach, based on reducing a formal objective function, is

most broadly used in research. But, user specification is

needed for the k number of clusters and it is difficult to choose

the effective initial centers. It is also very susceptible to noise

data points. In this paper, the author mainly focuses on option

the better initial centers to enhance the quality of k-means and

to minimize the computational complexity of k-means

approach. The proposed GK-means integrates grid structure

and spatial index with k-means clustering approach.

Theoretical analysis and experimental observation show that

the proposed approach performs significantly with higher

efficiency.

Trujillo et al., [5] proposed a combining K-means and

semivariogram-based grid clustering approach. Clustering is

widely used in various applications which include data

mining, information retrieval, image segmentation, and data

classification. A clustering technique for grouping data sets

that are indexed in the space is proposed in this paper. This

approach mainly depends on the k-means clustering technique

and grid clustering. K-means clustering is the simplest and

most widely used approach. The main disadvantage of this

approach is that it is sensitive to the selection of the initial

partition. Grid clustering is extensively used for grouping data

that are indexed in the space. The main aim of the proposed

clustering approach is to eliminate the high sensitivity of the

k-means clustering approach to the starting conditions by

using the available spatial information. A semivariogram-

based grid clustering technique is used in this approach. It

utilizes the spatial correlation for obtaining the bin size. The

author combines this approach with a conventional k-means

clustering technique as the bins are constrained to regular

blocks while the spatial distribution of objects is irregular. An

effective initialization of the k-means is provided by

semivariogram. From the experimental results, it is clearly

observed that the final partition protects the spatial distribution

of the objects.

Huang et al., [6] put forth the automated variable weighting in

k-means type clustering that can automatically estimate

variable weights. A novel approach is introduced to the k-

means algorithm to iteratively update variable weights

depending on the present partition of data and a formula for

weight calculation is also proposed in this paper. The

convergency theorem of the new clustering algorithm is given

in this paper. The variable weights created by the approach

estimates the significance of variables in clustering and can be

deployed in variable selection in various data mining

applications where large and complex real data are often used.

Experiments are conducted on both synthetic and real data and

it is found from the experimental observation that the

proposed approach provides higher performance when

compared the traditional k-means type algorithms in

recovering clusters in data.

III. METHODOLOGY

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The methodology proposed for clustering the data is presented

in this section. Initially, K-Means clustering is described. Then

the constraint based K-Means clustering is provided. Next, the

constraints used in Constrained K-Means algorithm are

presented. For the generation of constraints like must-link and

cannot-link, Self Organizing Map is used in this paper.

K-Means Clustering

Provided a data set of data samples, a preferred number of

clusters, k, and a set of k initial starting points, the k-means

clustering technique determines the desired number of distinct

clusters and their centroids. A centroid is defined as the point

whose coordinates are determined by calculating the average

of each of the coordinates (i.e., feature values) of the points of

the jobs allocated to the cluster. Properly, the k-means

clustering algorithm follows the following steps.

Step 1: Choose a number of desired clusters, k.

Step 2: Choose k starting points to be used as initial estimates

of the cluster centroids. These are the initial starting values.

Step 3: Examine each point in the data set and assign it to the

cluster whose centroid is nearest to it.

Step 4: When each point is assigned to a cluster, recalculate

the new k centroids.

Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4 until no point changes its cluster

assignment, or until a maximum number of passes through the

data set is performed.

Constrained K-Means Clustering

Constrained K-Means Clustering [15] is similar to the

standard K-Means Clustering algorithm with the exception is

that the constraints must be satisfied while assigning the data

points into the cluster. The algorithm for Constrained K-

Means Clustering is described below.

Step 1: Choose a number of desired clusters, k.

Step 2: Choose k starting points to be used as initial estimates

of the cluster centroids. These are the initial starting values.

Step 3: Examine each point in the data set and assign it to the

cluster whose centroid is nearest to it only when the violate-

constraints ( ) returns false

Step 4: When each point is assigned to a cluster, recalculate

the new k centroids.

Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4 until no point changes its cluster

assignment, or until a maximum number of passes through the

data set is performed.

Function violate-constraints ( )

if must_link constraint not satisfied

return true

elseif cannot_link constraint not satisfied

return true

elseif δ-constraint not satisfied

return true

elseif ε-constraint not satisfied

return true

else

return false

Constraints used for Constrained K-Means Clustering

The Constraints [11, 12, 13] used for Constrained K-Means

Clustering are

• Must-link constraint

• Cannot-link constraint

• δ-constraint

• ε-constraint

Consider S = {s

1

, s

2

,…,s

n

} as a set of n data points that are to

be separated into clusters. For any pair of points s

i

and s

j

in S,

the distance between them is represented by d(s

i

, s

j

) with a

symmetric property in order that d(s

i

, s

j

) = d(s

j

,s

i

). The

constraints are:

• Must-link constraints indicates that two points s

i

and

s

j

(i ≠ j) in S have to be in the same cluster.

• Cannot-link constraints indicates that two point s

i

and

s

j

(i ≠ j) in S must not be placed in the same cluster.

• δ-Constraint: This constraint represents a value δ > 0.

Properly, for any pair of clusters S

i

and S

j

(i ≠ j), and

any pair of points s

p

and s

q

such that s

p

e S

i

and s

q

e

S

j

, d(s

p

, s

q

) ≥ δ.

• ε-Constraint: This constraint represents a value ε > 0

and the feasibility need is the following: for any

cluster S

i

containing two or more points and for any

point s

p

e S

i

, there must be another point s

q

e S

i

such

that d(s

p

, s

q

) ≤ ε.

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Must-link constraint and Cannot-link constraint are

determined with the help of appropriate neural network. For

this purpose, this paper uses Self Organizing Map.

Self Organizing Map

Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) is a general type of neural

network technique that is nonlinear regression method that can

be utilized to determine relationships among inputs and

outputs or categorize data so as to reveal so far unidentified

patterns or structures. It is an outstanding technique in

exploratory phase of data mining. The results of the

examination represents that self-organizing maps can be a

feasible technique for categorization of large quantity of data.

The SOM has set up its place as an expensively used

technique in data-analysis and visualization of high-

dimensional data. Among other statistical technique the SOM

has no close counterpart, and thus it offers a balancing sight to

the data. On the other hand, SOM is the most extensively used

technique in this group as it offers some notable merits among

the substitutes. These comprise, ease of use, particularly for

inexperienced users, and highly intuitive display of the data

anticipated on to a regular two-dimensional slab, as on a sheet

of a paper. The most important prospective of the SOM is in

exploratory data analysis that varies from regular statistical

data analysis in that there are no assumed set of hypotheses

that are validated in the analysis. As an alternative, the

hypotheses are created from the data in the data-driven

exploratory stage and validated in the confirmatory stage.

There are few demerits where the exploratory stage may be

adequate alone, such as visualization of data with no

additional quantitative statistical inference upon it. In practical

data analysis problems the majority of mission is to identify

dependencies among variables. In such a difficulty, SOM can

be utilized for getting insight to the data and for the original

search of potential dependencies. In general the findings

require to be validated with more conventional techniques, for

the purpose of assessing the assurance of the conclusions and

to discard those that are not statistically important.

Initially the chosen parameters are normalized and then

initialize the SOM network. Then SOM is trained to offer the

maximum likelihood estimation, so that an exacting stock can

be linked with a particular node in the categorization layer.

The self-organizing networks suppose a topological structure

between the cluster units. There are m cluster units,

prearranged in a one or two dimensional array: the input

signals are n dimensional. Figure 1 represents architecture of

self-organizing network (SOM) that consists of input layer,

and Kohonen or clustering layer.

Finally the categorized data is obtained from the SOM. From

this obtained categorized data, must link and cannot link

constraints are derived. The data points in a cluster are

considered as must link constraint and data points outside the

clusters are considered as cannot link constraints. These

constraints are used in the constraints checking module of

constrained K-Means algorithm.

Figure 1: Architecture of self-organizing map

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The proposed technique is experimented using the two

benchmark datasets which are Iris and Wine Dataset from the

UCI machine learning Repository [17]. All algorithms are

implemented under the same initial values and stopping

conditions. The experiments are all performed on a GENX

computer with 2.6 GHz Core (TM) 2 Duo processors using

MATLAB version 7.5.

Experiment with Iris Dataset

The Iris flower data set (Fisher's Iris data set) is a multivariate

data set. The dataset comprises of 50 samples from each of

three species of Iris flowers (Iris setosa, Iris virginica and Iris

versicolor). Four features were measured from every sample;

they are the length and the width of sepal and petal, in

centimeters. Based on the combination of the four features,

Fisher has developed a linear discriminant model to

distinguish the species from each other. It is used as a typical

test for many classification techniques. The proposed method

is tested first using this Iris dataset. This database has four

continuous features consisting of 150 instances: 50 for each

class.

To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach, this

technique is compared with the existing K-Means algorithm.

The Mean Square Error (MSE) of the centers HSE =

.||:

c

-:

t

||

2

where v

c

is the computed center and v

t

is the

true center. The cluster centers found by the proposed K-

Means are closer to the true centers, than the centers found by

K-Means algorithm. The mean square error for the four cluster

centers for the two approaches are presented in table I. The

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

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ISSN 1947-5500

resulted execution for the proposed and standard K-Means

algorithms is provided in figure 2.

TABLE I

MEAN SQUARE ERROR VALUE OBTAINED FOR THE THREE

CLUSTERS IN THE IRIS DATASET

K-Means

Proposed K-

Means

Cluster 1 0.3765 0.2007

Cluster 2 0.4342 0.2564

Cluster 3 0.3095 0.1943

Figure 2: Execution Time for Iris Dataset

Experiment with Wine Dataset

The wine dataset is the results of a chemical analysis of wines

grown in the same region in Italy but derived from three

different cultivars. The analysis established the quantities of

13 constituents found in each of the three types of wines. The

classes 1, 2 and 3 have 59, 71 and 48 instances respectively.

There are totally 13 Number of Attributes.

The MSE value for the three clusters is presented in Table II.

The resulted execution for the proposed and standard K-

Means algorithms is provided in figure 2.

TABLE II

MEAN SQUARE ERROR VALUE OBTAINED FOR THE THREE

CLUSTERS IN THE WINE DATASET

K-Means

Proposed K-

Means

Cluster 1 0.4364 0.3094

Cluster 2 0.5562 0.3572

Cluster 3 0.2142 0.1843

Figure 3: Execution Time for Wine Dataset

From the experimental observations it can be found that the

proposed approach produces better clusters than the existing

approach. The MSE value is highly reduced for both the

dataset. This represents the better accuracy for the proposed

approach. Also, the execution time is reduced when compared

to the existing approach. This is true in both the dataset.

V. CONCLUSION

The increase in the number of data world wide leads to the

requirement for the better analyzing technique for better

understanding of data. One of the most essential modes of

understanding and learning is categorizing data into

reasonable groups. This can be achieved by a famous data

mining technique called Clustering. Clustering is nothing but

separating the given data into particular groups according to

the separation among the data points. This will helps in better

understanding and analyzing of the vast data. One of the

widely used clustering is K-Means clustering because it is

simple and efficient. But it lacks accuracy of classification

when large data are used in clustering. So the K-Means

clustering needs to be improved to suit for all kinds of data.

Hence the new clustering technique called Constrained K-

Means Clustering is introduced. The constraints used in this

paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint, δ-

constraint and ε-constraint. SOM is used in this paper for

generating Must-link and Cannot-link constraints. The

experimental result shows that the proposed technique results

in better classification and also takes lesser time for

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011

98 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

classification. In future, this work can be extended by using

more suitable constraints in the Constrained K-Means

Clustering technique.

REFERENCES

[1] Zhang Zhe, Zhang Junxi and Xue Huifeng, "Improved K-Means

Clustering Algorithm", Congress on Image and Signal Processing, Vol.

5, Pp. 169-172, 2008.

[2] Hai-xiang Guo, Ke-jun Zhu, Si-wei Gao and Ting Liu, "An Improved

Genetic k-means Algorithm for Optimal Clustering", Sixth IEEE

International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, Pp. 793-797,

2006.

[3] Yanfeng Zhang, Xiaofei Xu and Yunming Ye, "NSS-AKmeans: An

Agglomerative Fuzzy K-means clustering method with automatic

selection of cluster number", 2nd International Conference on Advanced

Computer Control, Vol. 2, Pp. 32-38, 2010.

[4] Xiaoyun Chen, Youli Su, Yi Chen and Guohua Liu, "GK-means: an

Efficient K-means Clustering Algorithm Based on Grid", International

Symposium on Computer Network and Multimedia Technology, Pp. 1-

4, 2009.

[5] Trujillo, M., Izquierdo, E., "Combining K-means and semivariogram-

based grid clustering", 47th International Symposium, Pp. 9-12, 2005.

[6] Huang, J.Z., Ng, M.K., Hongqiang Rong and Zichen Li, "Automated

variable weighting in k-means type clustering", IEEE Transactions on

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 27, No. 5, Pp. 657-668,

2005.

[7] Yi Hong and Sam Kwong “Learning Assignment Order of Instances for

the constrained k-means clustering algorithm” IEEE Transactions on

Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol 39, No 2. April, 2009.

[8] I. Davidson,M. Ester and S.S. Ravi, “Agglomerative hierarchical

clustering with constraints: Theoretical and empirical results”, in Proc.

of Principles of Knowledge Discovery from Databases, PKDD 2005.

[9] Wagstaff, Kiri L., Basu, Sugato, Davidson, Ian “When is constrained

clustering beneficial, and why?” National Conference on Aritficial

Intelligence, Boston, Massachusetts 2006.

[10] Kiri Wagstaff, Claire Cardie, Seth Rogers, Stefan Schrodl “Constrained

K-means Clustering with Background Knowledge” ICML '01

Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Machine

Learning, 2001.

[11] I. Davidson, M. Ester and S.S. Ravi, “Efficient incremental constrained

clustering”. In Thirteenth ACM SIGKDD International Conference on

Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 2007, August 12-15, San Jose,

California, USA.

[12] I. Davidson, M. Ester and S.S. Ravi, “Clustering with constraints:

Feasibility issues and the K-means algorithm”, in proc. SIAM SDM

2005, Newport Beach, USA.

[13] D. Klein, S.D. Kamvar and C.D. Manning, “From Instance-Level

constraintes to space-level constraints: Making the most of Prior

Knowledge in Data Clustering”, in proc. 19th Intl. on Machine Learning

(ICML 2002), Sydney, Australia, July 2002, p. 307-314.

[14] N. Nguyen and R. Caruana, “Improving classification with pairwise

constraints: A margin-based approach”, in proc. of the European

Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of

Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML PKDD’08).

[15] K. Wagstaff, C. Cardie, S. Rogers and S. Schroedl, “Constrained

Kmeans clustering with background knowledge”, in: Proc. Of 18th Int.

Conf. on Machine Learning ICML’01, p. 577 - 584.

[16] Y. Hu, J. Wang, N. Yu and X.-S. Hua, “Maximum Margin Clustering

with Pairwise Constraints”, in proc. of the Eighth IEEE International

Conference on Data Mining (ICDM) , 253-262, 2008.

[17] Merz C and Murphy P, UCI Repository of Machine Learning Databases,

Available: ftp://ftp.ics.uci.edu/pub/machine-Learning-databases.

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The rapid worldwide increase in the data available leads to the difficulty for analyzing those data. Organizing data into interesting collection is one of the most basic forms of understanding and ...

The rapid worldwide increase in the data available leads to the difficulty for analyzing those data. Organizing data into interesting collection is one of the most basic forms of understanding and learning. Thus, a proper data mining approach is required to organize those data for better understanding. Clustering is one of the standard approaches in the field of data mining. The main of this approach is to organize a dataset into a set of clusters, which consists of similar data items, as calculated by some distance function. K-Means algorithm is the widely used clustering algorithm because of its ability and simple nature. When the dataset is larger, K-Means will misclassify the data points. For overcoming this problem, some constraints must be included in the algorithm. The resulting algorithm is called as Constrained K-Means Clustering. The constraints used in this paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint, δ-constraint and ε-constraint. For generating the must-link and cannot-link constraints, Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used in this paper. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm results in better classification than the standard K-Means clustering technique.

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