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The rapid worldwide increase in the data available leads to the difficulty for analyzing those data. Organizing data into interesting collection is one of the most basic forms of understanding and learning. Thus, a proper data mining approach is required to organize those data for better understanding. Clustering is one of the standard approaches in the field of data mining. The main of this approach is to organize a dataset into a set of clusters, which consists of similar data items, as calculated by some distance function. K-Means algorithm is the widely used clustering algorithm because of its ability and simple nature. When the dataset is larger, K-Means will misclassify the data points. For overcoming this problem, some constraints must be included in the algorithm. The resulting algorithm is called as Constrained K-Means Clustering. The constraints used in this paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint, δ-constraint and ε-constraint. For generating the must-link and cannot-link constraints, Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used in this paper. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm results in better classification than the standard K-Means clustering technique.

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Self Organizing Map

M.Sakthi1 and Dr. Antony Selvadoss Thanamani2

1

Research Scholar 2Associate Professor and Head, Department of Computer Science, NGM College, Pollachi, Tamilnadu.

Abstract--- The rapid worldwide increase in the data available analysis. It is very complex to list the different scientific fields

leads to the difficulty for analyzing those data. Organizing and applications that have utilized clustering method as well

data into interesting collection is one of the most basic forms as the thousands of existing techniques.

of understanding and learning. Thus, a proper data mining

approach is required to organize those data for better The main aim of data clustering is to identify the natural

understanding. Clustering is one of the standard approaches in classification of a set of patterns, points, or objects. Webster

the field of data mining. The main of this approach is to defines cluster analysis as “a statistical classification method

organize a dataset into a set of clusters, which consists of for discovering whether the individuals of a population fall

similar data items, as calculated by some distance function. K- into various groups by making quantitative comparisons of

Means algorithm is the widely used clustering algorithm multiple characteristics”. The another definition of clustering

because of its ability and simple nature. When the dataset is is: Provided a representation of n objects, determine K groups

larger, K-Means will misclassify the data points. For according to the measure of similarity like similarities among

overcoming this problem, some constraints must be included objects in the same group are high whereas the similarities

in the algorithm. The resulting algorithm is called as between objects in different groups are low.

Constrained K-Means Clustering. The constraints used in this

The main advantages of using the clustering algorithms are:

paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint, δ-

constraint and ε-constraint. For generating the must-link and • Compactness of representation.

cannot-link constraints, Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used in • Fast, incremental processing of new data points.

this paper. The experimental result shows that the proposed

• Clear and fast identification of outliers.

algorithm results in better classification than the standard K-

Means clustering technique. The widely used clustering technique is K-Means clustering.

This is because K-Means is very simple to implement and also

Keywords--- K-Means, Self Organizing Map (SOM),

it is effective in clustering. But K-Means clustering will lack

Constrained K-Means

performance when large dataset is involved for clustering.

I. INTRODUCTION This can be solved by including some constraints [8, 9] in the

clustering algorithm; hence the resulting clustering is called as

technology and drastic development in the applications

such as internet search, digital imaging, and video surveillance

Constrained K-Means Clustering [7, 10]. The constraints used

in this paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint

[14, 16], δ-constraint and ε-constraint. Self Organizing Map

have generated many high-volume, high-dimensional data (SOM) is used in this paper for generating the must-link and

sets. As the majority of the data are stored digitally in cannot-link constraints.

electronic media, they offer high prospective for the

development of automatic data analysis, classification, and II. RELATED WORKS

retrieval approaches.

Zhang Zhe et al., [1] proposed an improved K-Means

Clustering is one of the most popular approaches used for data clustering algorithm. K-means algorithm [8] is extensively

analysis and classification. Cluster analysis is widely used in utilized in spatial clustering. The mean value of each cluster

disciplines that involve analysis of multivariate data. A search centroid in this approach is taken as the Heuristic information,

through Google Scholar found 1,660 entries with the words so it has some limitations such as sensitive to the initial

data clustering that comes into sight in 2007 alone. This huge centroid and instability. The enhanced clustering algorithm

amount of data provides the significance of clustering in data referred to the best clustering centroid which is searched

during the optimization of clustering centroid. This increases

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the searching probability around the best centroid and the better initial centers to enhance the quality of k-means and

enhanced the strength of the approach. The experiment is to minimize the computational complexity of k-means

performed on two groups of representative dataset and from approach. The proposed GK-means integrates grid structure

the experimental observation, it is clearly noted that the and spatial index with k-means clustering approach.

improved K-means algorithm performs better in global Theoretical analysis and experimental observation show that

searching and is less sensitive to the initial centroid. the proposed approach performs significantly with higher

efficiency.

Hai-xiang Guo et al., [2] put forth an Improved Genetic k-

means Algorithm for Optimal Clustering. The value of k must Trujillo et al., [5] proposed a combining K-means and

be known in advance in the traditional k-means approach. It is semivariogram-based grid clustering approach. Clustering is

very tough to confirm the value of k accurately in advance. widely used in various applications which include data

The author proposed an enhanced genetic k-means clustering mining, information retrieval, image segmentation, and data

(IGKM) and builds a fitness function defined as a product of classification. A clustering technique for grouping data sets

three factors, maximization of which guarantees the formation that are indexed in the space is proposed in this paper. This

of a small number of compact clusters with large separation approach mainly depends on the k-means clustering technique

between at least two clusters. Finally, the experiments are and grid clustering. K-means clustering is the simplest and

conducted on two artificial and three real-life data sets that most widely used approach. The main disadvantage of this

compare IGKM with other traditional methods like k-means approach is that it is sensitive to the selection of the initial

algorithm, GA-based technique and genetic k-means algorithm partition. Grid clustering is extensively used for grouping data

(GKM) by inter-cluster distance (ITD), inner-cluster distance that are indexed in the space. The main aim of the proposed

(IND) and rate of separation exactness. From the experimental clustering approach is to eliminate the high sensitivity of the

observation, it is clear that IGKM reach the optimal value of k k-means clustering approach to the starting conditions by

with high accuracy. using the available spatial information. A semivariogram-

based grid clustering technique is used in this approach. It

Yanfeng Zhang et al., [3] proposed an Agglomerative Fuzzy utilizes the spatial correlation for obtaining the bin size. The

K-means clustering method with automatic selection of cluster author combines this approach with a conventional k-means

number (NSS-AKmeans) approach for learning optimal clustering technique as the bins are constrained to regular

number of clusters and for providing significant clustering blocks while the spatial distribution of objects is irregular. An

results. High density areas can be detected by the NSS- effective initialization of the k-means is provided by

AKmeans and from these centers the initial cluster centers semivariogram. From the experimental results, it is clearly

with a neighbor sharing selection approach can also be observed that the final partition protects the spatial distribution

determined. Agglomeration Energy (AE) factor is proposed in of the objects.

order to choose a initial cluster for representing global density

relationship of objects. Moreover, in order to calculate local Huang et al., [6] put forth the automated variable weighting in

neighbor sharing relationship of objects, Neighbors Sharing k-means type clustering that can automatically estimate

Factor (NSF) is used. Agglomerative Fuzzy k-means variable weights. A novel approach is introduced to the k-

clustering algorithm is then utilized to further merge these means algorithm to iteratively update variable weights

initial centers to get the preferred number of clusters and depending on the present partition of data and a formula for

create better clustering results. Experimental observations on weight calculation is also proposed in this paper. The

several data sets have proved that the proposed clustering convergency theorem of the new clustering algorithm is given

approach was very significant in automatically identifying the in this paper. The variable weights created by the approach

true cluster number and also providing correct clustering estimates the significance of variables in clustering and can be

results. deployed in variable selection in various data mining

applications where large and complex real data are often used.

Xiaoyun Chen et al., [4] described a GK-means: an efficient Experiments are conducted on both synthetic and real data and

K-means clustering algorithm based on grid. Clustering it is found from the experimental observation that the

analysis is extensively used in several applications such as proposed approach provides higher performance when

pattern recognition, data mining, statistics etc. K-means compared the traditional k-means type algorithms in

approach, based on reducing a formal objective function, is recovering clusters in data.

most broadly used in research. But, user specification is

needed for the k number of clusters and it is difficult to choose III. METHODOLOGY

the effective initial centers. It is also very susceptible to noise

data points. In this paper, the author mainly focuses on option

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The methodology proposed for clustering the data is presented Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4 until no point changes its cluster

in this section. Initially, K-Means clustering is described. Then assignment, or until a maximum number of passes through the

the constraint based K-Means clustering is provided. Next, the data set is performed.

constraints used in Constrained K-Means algorithm are

presented. For the generation of constraints like must-link and Function violate-constraints ( )

cannot-link, Self Organizing Map is used in this paper.

if must_link constraint not satisfied

K-Means Clustering

return true

Provided a data set of data samples, a preferred number of

elseif cannot_link constraint not satisfied

clusters, k, and a set of k initial starting points, the k-means

clustering technique determines the desired number of distinct return true

clusters and their centroids. A centroid is defined as the point

whose coordinates are determined by calculating the average elseif δ-constraint not satisfied

of each of the coordinates (i.e., feature values) of the points of

the jobs allocated to the cluster. Properly, the k-means return true

clustering algorithm follows the following steps.

elseif ε-constraint not satisfied

Step 1: Choose a number of desired clusters, k.

return true

Step 2: Choose k starting points to be used as initial estimates

else

of the cluster centroids. These are the initial starting values.

return false

Step 3: Examine each point in the data set and assign it to the

cluster whose centroid is nearest to it. Constraints used for Constrained K-Means Clustering

Step 4: When each point is assigned to a cluster, recalculate The Constraints [11, 12, 13] used for Constrained K-Means

the new k centroids. Clustering are

Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4 until no point changes its cluster • Must-link constraint

assignment, or until a maximum number of passes through the

• Cannot-link constraint

data set is performed.

• δ-constraint

Constrained K-Means Clustering • ε-constraint

Constrained K-Means Clustering [15] is similar to the Consider S = {s1, s2,…,sn} as a set of n data points that are to

standard K-Means Clustering algorithm with the exception is be separated into clusters. For any pair of points si and sj in S,

that the constraints must be satisfied while assigning the data the distance between them is represented by d(si, sj) with a

points into the cluster. The algorithm for Constrained K- symmetric property in order that d(si, sj) = d(sj,si). The

Means Clustering is described below. constraints are:

Step 1: Choose a number of desired clusters, k. • Must-link constraints indicates that two points si and

sj (i ≠ j) in S have to be in the same cluster.

Step 2: Choose k starting points to be used as initial estimates • Cannot-link constraints indicates that two point si and

of the cluster centroids. These are the initial starting values. sj (i ≠ j) in S must not be placed in the same cluster.

• δ-Constraint: This constraint represents a value δ > 0.

Step 3: Examine each point in the data set and assign it to the

Properly, for any pair of clusters Si and Sj (i ≠ j), and

cluster whose centroid is nearest to it only when the violate-

any pair of points sp and sq such that sp Si and sq

constraints ( ) returns false

Sj, d(sp, sq) ≥ δ.

Step 4: When each point is assigned to a cluster, recalculate • ε-Constraint: This constraint represents a value ε > 0

the new k centroids. and the feasibility need is the following: for any

cluster Si containing two or more points and for any

point sp Si, there must be another point sq Si such

that d(sp, sq) ≤ ε.

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Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011

Must-link constraint and Cannot-link constraint are constraints are derived. The data points in a cluster are

determined with the help of appropriate neural network. For considered as must link constraint and data points outside the

this purpose, this paper uses Self Organizing Map. clusters are considered as cannot link constraints. These

constraints are used in the constraints checking module of

Self Organizing Map constrained K-Means algorithm.

network technique that is nonlinear regression method that can

be utilized to determine relationships among inputs and

outputs or categorize data so as to reveal so far unidentified

patterns or structures. It is an outstanding technique in

exploratory phase of data mining. The results of the

examination represents that self-organizing maps can be a

feasible technique for categorization of large quantity of data.

The SOM has set up its place as an expensively used

technique in data-analysis and visualization of high-

dimensional data. Among other statistical technique the SOM

has no close counterpart, and thus it offers a balancing sight to

the data. On the other hand, SOM is the most extensively used

technique in this group as it offers some notable merits among Figure 1: Architecture of self-organizing map

the substitutes. These comprise, ease of use, particularly for

inexperienced users, and highly intuitive display of the data IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

anticipated on to a regular two-dimensional slab, as on a sheet The proposed technique is experimented using the two

of a paper. The most important prospective of the SOM is in benchmark datasets which are Iris and Wine Dataset from the

exploratory data analysis that varies from regular statistical UCI machine learning Repository [17]. All algorithms are

data analysis in that there are no assumed set of hypotheses implemented under the same initial values and stopping

that are validated in the analysis. As an alternative, the conditions. The experiments are all performed on a GENX

hypotheses are created from the data in the data-driven computer with 2.6 GHz Core (TM) 2 Duo processors using

exploratory stage and validated in the confirmatory stage. MATLAB version 7.5.

There are few demerits where the exploratory stage may be

adequate alone, such as visualization of data with no Experiment with Iris Dataset

additional quantitative statistical inference upon it. In practical

data analysis problems the majority of mission is to identify The Iris flower data set (Fisher's Iris data set) is a multivariate

dependencies among variables. In such a difficulty, SOM can data set. The dataset comprises of 50 samples from each of

be utilized for getting insight to the data and for the original three species of Iris flowers (Iris setosa, Iris virginica and Iris

search of potential dependencies. In general the findings versicolor). Four features were measured from every sample;

require to be validated with more conventional techniques, for they are the length and the width of sepal and petal, in

the purpose of assessing the assurance of the conclusions and centimeters. Based on the combination of the four features,

to discard those that are not statistically important. Fisher has developed a linear discriminant model to

distinguish the species from each other. It is used as a typical

Initially the chosen parameters are normalized and then test for many classification techniques. The proposed method

initialize the SOM network. Then SOM is trained to offer the is tested first using this Iris dataset. This database has four

maximum likelihood estimation, so that an exacting stock can continuous features consisting of 150 instances: 50 for each

be linked with a particular node in the categorization layer. class.

The self-organizing networks suppose a topological structure

between the cluster units. There are m cluster units, To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach, this

prearranged in a one or two dimensional array: the input technique is compared with the existing K-Means algorithm.

signals are n dimensional. Figure 1 represents architecture of The Mean Square Error (MSE) of the centers

self-organizing network (SOM) that consists of input layer, || || where vc is the computed center and vt is the

and Kohonen or clustering layer. true center. The cluster centers found by the proposed K-

Means are closer to the true centers, than the centers found by

Finally the categorized data is obtained from the SOM. From K-Means algorithm. The mean square error for the four cluster

this obtained categorized data, must link and cannot link centers for the two approaches are presented in table I. The

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Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011

K-Means

algorithms is provided in figure 2. Means

Cluster 1 0.4364 0.3094

Cluster 3 0.2142 0.1843

TABLE I

1.2

MEAN SQUARE ERROR VALUE OBTAINED FOR THE THREE K-Means

CLUSTERS IN THE IRIS DATASET 1

Proposed

Proposed K- K-Means

Time (seconds)

K-Means 0.8

Means

Cluster 1 0.3765 0.2007 0.6

Cluster 2 0.4342 0.2564

0.4

Cluster 3 0.3095 0.1943

0.2

1.2 0

K-Means

1 Figure 3: Execution Time for Wine Dataset

Proposed

K-Means

Time (seconds)

proposed approach produces better clusters than the existing

0.6 approach. The MSE value is highly reduced for both the

dataset. This represents the better accuracy for the proposed

0.4 approach. Also, the execution time is reduced when compared

to the existing approach. This is true in both the dataset.

0.2

V. CONCLUSION

0

The increase in the number of data world wide leads to the

Figure 2: Execution Time for Iris Dataset requirement for the better analyzing technique for better

understanding of data. One of the most essential modes of

Experiment with Wine Dataset understanding and learning is categorizing data into

reasonable groups. This can be achieved by a famous data

The wine dataset is the results of a chemical analysis of wines mining technique called Clustering. Clustering is nothing but

grown in the same region in Italy but derived from three separating the given data into particular groups according to

different cultivars. The analysis established the quantities of the separation among the data points. This will helps in better

13 constituents found in each of the three types of wines. The understanding and analyzing of the vast data. One of the

classes 1, 2 and 3 have 59, 71 and 48 instances respectively. widely used clustering is K-Means clustering because it is

There are totally 13 Number of Attributes. simple and efficient. But it lacks accuracy of classification

when large data are used in clustering. So the K-Means

The MSE value for the three clusters is presented in Table II.

clustering needs to be improved to suit for all kinds of data.

The resulted execution for the proposed and standard K-

Hence the new clustering technique called Constrained K-

Means algorithms is provided in figure 2.

Means Clustering is introduced. The constraints used in this

TABLE II paper are Must-link constraint, Cannot-link constraint, δ-

constraint and ε-constraint. SOM is used in this paper for

MEAN SQUARE ERROR VALUE OBTAINED FOR THE THREE generating Must-link and Cannot-link constraints. The

CLUSTERS IN THE WINE DATASET experimental result shows that the proposed technique results

in better classification and also takes lesser time for

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

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classification. In future, this work can be extended by using [17] Merz C and Murphy P, UCI Repository of Machine Learning Databases,

Available: ftp://ftp.ics.uci.edu/pub/machine-Learning-databases.

more suitable constraints in the Constrained K-Means

Clustering technique.

REFERENCES

[1] Zhang Zhe, Zhang Junxi and Xue Huifeng, "Improved K-Means

Clustering Algorithm", Congress on Image and Signal Processing, Vol.

5, Pp. 169-172, 2008.

[2] Hai-xiang Guo, Ke-jun Zhu, Si-wei Gao and Ting Liu, "An Improved

Genetic k-means Algorithm for Optimal Clustering", Sixth IEEE

International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, Pp. 793-797,

2006.

[3] Yanfeng Zhang, Xiaofei Xu and Yunming Ye, "NSS-AKmeans: An

Agglomerative Fuzzy K-means clustering method with automatic

selection of cluster number", 2nd International Conference on Advanced

Computer Control, Vol. 2, Pp. 32-38, 2010.

[4] Xiaoyun Chen, Youli Su, Yi Chen and Guohua Liu, "GK-means: an

Efficient K-means Clustering Algorithm Based on Grid", International

Symposium on Computer Network and Multimedia Technology, Pp. 1-

4, 2009.

[5] Trujillo, M., Izquierdo, E., "Combining K-means and semivariogram-

based grid clustering", 47th International Symposium, Pp. 9-12, 2005.

[6] Huang, J.Z., Ng, M.K., Hongqiang Rong and Zichen Li, "Automated

variable weighting in k-means type clustering", IEEE Transactions on

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 27, No. 5, Pp. 657-668,

2005.

[7] Yi Hong and Sam Kwong “Learning Assignment Order of Instances for

the constrained k-means clustering algorithm” IEEE Transactions on

Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol 39, No 2. April, 2009.

[8] I. Davidson,M. Ester and S.S. Ravi, “Agglomerative hierarchical

clustering with constraints: Theoretical and empirical results”, in Proc.

of Principles of Knowledge Discovery from Databases, PKDD 2005.

[9] Wagstaff, Kiri L., Basu, Sugato, Davidson, Ian “When is constrained

clustering beneficial, and why?” National Conference on Aritficial

Intelligence, Boston, Massachusetts 2006.

[10] Kiri Wagstaff, Claire Cardie, Seth Rogers, Stefan Schrodl “Constrained

K-means Clustering with Background Knowledge” ICML '01

Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Machine

Learning, 2001.

[11] I. Davidson, M. Ester and S.S. Ravi, “Efficient incremental constrained

clustering”. In Thirteenth ACM SIGKDD International Conference on

Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 2007, August 12-15, San Jose,

California, USA.

[12] I. Davidson, M. Ester and S.S. Ravi, “Clustering with constraints:

Feasibility issues and the K-means algorithm”, in proc. SIAM SDM

2005, Newport Beach, USA.

[13] D. Klein, S.D. Kamvar and C.D. Manning, “From Instance-Level

constraintes to space-level constraints: Making the most of Prior

Knowledge in Data Clustering”, in proc. 19th Intl. on Machine Learning

(ICML 2002), Sydney, Australia, July 2002, p. 307-314.

[14] N. Nguyen and R. Caruana, “Improving classification with pairwise

constraints: A margin-based approach”, in proc. of the European

Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of

Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML PKDD’08).

[15] K. Wagstaff, C. Cardie, S. Rogers and S. Schroedl, “Constrained

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Conf. on Machine Learning ICML’01, p. 577 - 584.

[16] Y. Hu, J. Wang, N. Yu and X.-S. Hua, “Maximum Margin Clustering

with Pairwise Constraints”, in proc. of the Eighth IEEE International

Conference on Data Mining (ICDM) , 253-262, 2008.

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