Brick and block

Steve Coombs

History: ancient civilisations

History: Greek and roman
The name brick is derived from the Greek word keramos – fired earth. Romans – introduced brick across Empire with mobile kiln.

History: 12th – 18th century
Middle Ages and lack of natural building stone developed the brick-Gothic church building in N.Europe. UK - Prior to industrial revolution brick was expensive to transport further than 10miles. Local materials and local kilns.

History: 19th century .

History: Building tall .

History: arts and crafts .

History: volume housebuilders .

module: nominal size Brick Block d be he ad er H er ch t tre 3H + 20 L s T L T 2L + 10 .

215 & 290 mm W = 75. 115. 440. 100. 190.5 215 100 440 L = 203 – 250 mm H = 50 – 76 mm W = 102 – 120 mm L = 390. 150 & 215 mm . 590 & 610 mm H = 140.module: nominal size Brick Block 215 d be he ad er 65 er ch t tre s 102. 140.

5 .5 215 327.module: coordinated size 10 75 65 112.5 225 215 10 ½ brick 1 brick 1 ½ brick 102.

cellular. keyed.Module: types Solid. insulated . perforated. frogs.

Module: shapes Feature quoin Flat single bullnose Double cant Single cant Double bullnose Plinth stretcher Single bullnose Corbel pedestal Wave coping end stop Squint Plinth corner Plinth internal corner .

Material Bricks • Clay (95%) • Calcium silicate (1%) • Concrete (4%) Blocks • Clay (0%) • Concrete (100%) .Dense .Lightweight .Aerated .

marl and mudstone with silica and alumina with impurities: iron. magnesia. potash.Raw material: Clay Clay. sodium or sulphur .

quartz. flint.Raw material: calcium silicate Sand. water . (quick)lime.

basalt. pumice. aluminium powder . lime/ cement. perlite Aerated concrete: quartz. blast furnace slag. gravel. PFA (pulverised fuel-ash). granite Light aggregates: clinker. water Dense concrete aggregates: hard sandstone and limestone. expanded clay.Raw material: concrete Cement. sand. vermiculite.

Manufacturing: clay (fired) .

Manufacturing: clay (fired) .

Video? .

Manufacturing: clay (unfired) .

Manufacturing: calcium silicate .

Manufacturing: concrete .

Manufacturing: aerated concrete .

.Embodied energy • Fired clay bricks are responsible for the greater of environmental impacts amongst bricks. • The other major impact is the degradation of the landscape resulting from the extraction of raw materials. hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride. • Emissions include sulphur dioxide.

Appearance: colour and texture .

Properties: strength .

Properties: strength .

Properties: movement .

Properties: thermal .

salt and frost .Properties: water.

Units above 20 kg should be handled mechanically or non repetitively. This ruling effectively only applies to Concrete Blocks and Autoclaved Aerated Blocks. Cutting clay blocks Nailing into clay low density bricks and blocks .Properties: using HSE Guidance on the one person repetitive handling of masonry units is that such units should not exceed 20 kg in mass. or by more than one person.

Detailing: masonry bonding English cross bond Stretcher bond Flemish bond Header bond Monk. Yorkshire bond English bond Dutch bond .

Detailing: mortar joints Weathered Struck Raked Concave ‘V’ Flush Extruded .

Detailing: joints .

Detailing: arches .

Case studies ‘What does a brick want to be?’ Louis Kahn .

Merida .Rafael moneo Roman art museum.

Bearth & deplazes Gallery in Marktoberdorf .

Lewerentz .

Fuchs.Bibliography/ reading list Materials 5th edition. Auch-swelk. Hegger. Nils Kummer Constructing Architecture: materials. processes. Alan Everett Chapters 6&7 Basics: Masonry Construction. Rosenkranz The Ecology of Building Materials second edition. structures. Andrea Deplazes Chapter Masonry Construction Materials Manual. Bjorn Berge . Mitchell’s Building Series.

appendix .

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