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Here are the 7 main types of motivation:

1. Self-Enhancement Motivation

If you believe the task at hand will increase your character, advent or monetary condition and
these self-improvements are vastly desirable to you, you will encounter significant motivation to perform
even unpleasant parts of the process necessary to reach the goal. How desirable the end improvements are
to you will determine the level of motivation you will encounter.

2. Achievement Motivation

It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. A party with achievement motivation desires to realize
objectives and development up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is vital for its own shake
and not for the rewards that accompany it. It is similar to ‘Kaizen’ approach of Japanese Management.

3. Internal Motivation

On the other hand, there are other less-noticeable types of motivation.

It would be a mix to say that such behaviour does not come lacking its own rewards. To be more
precise, the end goal is not a noticeable or outdoor thing, but more internal and psychological. The
achievement of these goals – by itself also correctly seen as a reward – is in all-function not noticeable to
other personnel.

4. Affiliation Motivation

It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Personnel with affiliation motivation perform
work better when they are complimented for their propitious attitudes and co-surgical procedure.

5. Competence Motivation

It is the drive to be excellent at something, allowing the party to perform high quality work.
Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving
skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their encounter.

6. Power Motivation

It is the drive to influence people and exchange situations. Power motivated people wish to make
a depression on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so.

7. Attitude Motivation

Attitude motivation is how people reckon and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in them,
their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the possibility and how they react to the past.


If Maslow’s theory is true, there are some very important leadership implications to enhance
workplace motivation. There are staff motivation opportunities by motivating each employee through
their style of management, compensation plans, role definition and company activities.
• Physical Motivation: Provide ample breaks for lunch and recuperation and pay salaries that
allow workers to buy life’s essentials.

• Safety Needs: Provide a working environment which is safe, relative job security, and freedom
from threats.
• Social Needs: Generate a feeling of acceptance, belonging, and community by reinforcing team
• Esteem Motivators: Recognize achievements, assign important projects, and provide status to
make employees feel valued and appreciated.
• Self-Actualization: offer challenging and meaningful work assignments which enable innovation,
creativity, and progress according to long-term goals.

Remember, everyone is not motivated by same needs. At various points in their lives and careers,
various employees will be motivated by completely different needs, it is imperative that you recognize
each employee’s needs currently being pursued. In order to motivate their employees, leadership must be
understand the current level of needs at which the employee finds themselves, and leverage needs for
workplace motivation.


Though Maslow’s hierarchy makes sense intuitively, little evidence supports its strict hierarchy.
Actually, recent research challenges the order that the needs are imposed by Maslow’s pyramid. As an
example, in some cultures, social needs are placed more fundamentally than any others. Further,
Maslow’s hierarchy fails to explain the “starving artist” scenario, in which the aesthetic neglects their
physical needs to pursuit of aesthetic or spiritual goals. Additionally, little evidence suggests that people
safety exclusively one motivating need at a time, other than situations where needs conflict.

While scientific support fails to reinforce Maslow’s hierarchy, his theory is very popular, being
the introductory motivation theory for many students and managers, worldwide. To handle a number of
the issue of present in the Needs Hierarchy, Clayton Alderfer devised the ERG theory, a consistent needs-
based model that aligns more an accurately with scientific research.


Fredrick Herzberg, a famous psychologist, developed another theory of motivation. This theory
is variously termed as ‘two factor theory’, ‘the dual factor theory’, and ‘the motivation hygiene theory’.

Herzberg and his associates developed the two factor theory in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Herzberg started his famous motivational study by interview 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. He used the critical incident method of obtaining data for analysis.

Herzberg asked essentially two questions:

1. When did you feel particularly good about your job-what turned you on; and
2. When did you feel exceptionally bad about job-turned you off?

From this study, Herzberg uncovered two separate sets of factors which led to job satisfaction and
job dissatisfaction. Interesting and unique finding was, “the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction”
as was traditionally believed. That is, if you remove dissatisfying characteristics from a job, it won’t
make the job satisfying. It just makes the job “not dissatisfying”. Hence, in Herzberg’s finding, the
opposite of “satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “No
In short, Herzberg’s theory is that “the work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two
different sets of factors”. Hence, this theory derived the name two-factor theory.


Hygiene factors are based on the need to for a business to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these
factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they can cause dissatisfaction with work. Hygiene
factors include: Company policy and administration, Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration,
Quality of supervision, Quality of inter-personal relations, Working conditions, Feelings of job security

Environmental, External to job

Hygiene Factors Prevent dissatisfaction

Are not motivators

Must rise continually to prevent recurrence of dissatisfaction


Motivator factors are based on an individual's need for personal growth. When they exist,
motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. If they are effective, then they can motivate an
individual to achieve above-average performance and effort. Motivator factors include: Status,
Opportunity for advancement, Gaining recognition, Responsibility, Challenging / stimulating work,
Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job

There is some similarity between Herzberg's and Maslow's models. They both suggest that needs
have to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. However, Herzberg argues that only the higher
levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e.g. self-actualization, esteem needs) act as a motivator. The remaining
needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed.
Herzberg’s Two-factor theory of Motivation
Hygiene Factors Motivators
(Dissatisfiers: Factors mentioned most often (Satisfiers: Factors mentioned most often by
by dissatisfied employees ) satisfied employees)
1. Company policy and administration 1. Achievements
2. Supervision 2. Recognition
3. Relationship with supervisor 3. Work itself
4. Work conditions 4. Responsibility
5. Salary 5. Advancement
6. Relationship with peers
7. Personal life 6. Growth
8. Relationship with subordinates
9. Status
10. Security
11. Working Condition
12. Environment


Herzberg’s theory is closely related to Maslow’s theory of need hierarchy. Hygiene factors, which
prevent dissatisfaction but do not lead to satisfaction, are roughly equal to Maslow’s lower level needs.
The motivators which motivate employees on the job are roughly equivalent to Maslow’s higher level
needs. Below figure shows the comparison of needs in both the models.



Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg’s two factors

Issue Need Hierarchy Two-Factor Theory

∗ Type of theory Descriptive Prescriptive

∗ The satisfaction Unsatisfied need influence Needs cause performance

performance relationship behaviour and performance.
∗ Effect of need satisfaction A satisfied need is not a Satisfied hygiene need is not a
motivator (except self- motivator, other satisfied needs
actualization) are motivators.

∗ Order of Needs Hierarchically arranged No such arrangement

∗ Motivator Any need can be a motivator if it Only higher order needs serve as
is relatively unsatisfied. motivators
∗ View of motivation Macro- View deals with all Micro-view, deals primarily with
aspects of existence. work related motivation
∗ Worker level Relevant for all workers Probably more relevant to white
collar professional workers.


What might the evidence of de-motivated employees be in a business?

• Low productivity
• Poor production or service quality
• Strikes / industrial disputes / breakdowns in employee communication and relationships
• Complaints about pay and working conditions

According to Herzberg, management should focus on rearranging work so that motivator factors
can take effect. He suggested three ways in which this could be done:
• Job enlargement
• Job rotation
• Job enrichment


The values of human relations movement were exemplified by Douglas McGregor, an American
scholar in his classic book ‘The Human side of Enterprise’. McGregor distinguished two alternative
basic assumptions about people and their approach to work. He named these two assumptions as Theory
“X” and Theory “Y”. They are summarized in the below table.

TABLE: McGregor’s Theory ‘X’ and ‘Y’

Theory ‘X’ Assumptions Theory ‘Y’ Assumptions
1. People do not like work and they will try to 1. People do not naturally dislike work; work is a
avoid it. natural activity like play or rest.
2. People prefer to be directed. 2. People are capable of self-direction and self
control if they are committed to objectives
3. Since employees dislike work, they must be 3. People are very committed to work; they finish
coerced, controlled, or threatened with their work within committed period.
punishment to achieve goals
4. They avoid responsibility. They are very lazy 4. People will seek and accept responsibility under
towards work favorable conditions.
5. Little ambitious 5. More ambitious
6. They are interested only in security. 6. People have the capacity to be innovative and
also very creative in solving organizational
problems. Their needs are very standardized.
7. Pessimist 7. Optimist
8. Here we can see negative environment and 8. Positive environment and motivation
9. Negative motivation such as cutting salary, 10. Positive motivation such as rewards,
demotion, transfer. promotion, incentives, certificates, gift
vouchers, coupons.
10. 11. People are bright and allowing participation
in decision making and offering for more
challenging job
11. Dis-satisfied Employees 12. Satisfied Employees
Theory ‘X’ takes a generally negatives and pessimistic view of human nature and employee
behaviour. Hence, it assumes that people must be constantly coaxed into putting forth effort in their jobs.
In many ways, it is consistent with the tenets of scientific management. McGregor criticized traditional
view (Theory ‘X’ assumptions) as pessimistic, stifling, and outdated. He viewed the typical employee as
an energetic and creative individual who could achieve great things if given the opportunity. This
optimistic perspective was labeled by him as theory ‘Y’. He held the belief that theory ‘Y’ assumptions
were more valid than theory ‘X’ assumptions. Therefore, he proposed such ideas as participation in
decision-making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations as approaches that would
maximize an employee’s job motivation.

If one accepts McGregor’s human model, the following managerial practices will be seriously

1. Abandonment of time clocks.

2. Flexible basis
3. Job enrichment
4. Management by objectives and
5. Participative decision-making.

McGregor’s theory ‘X’ and ’Y’ philosophy has left an indelible mark on modern management
thinking. Some historians have credited McGregor with launching the field of organizational behaviour.

Unfortunately, there is no evidence to confirm that either set assumptions are valid. Also there is no
evidence that accepting theory ‘Y’ assumptions and altering one’s actions accordingly will lead to more
motivated workers.


Although Herzberg's paradigm of hygiene and motivating factors and Maslow's hierarchy of
needs may still have broad applicability in the business world, at least one aspect of each, salary as a
hygiene factor (Herzberg) and esteem as a lower order need than self-actualization (Maslow), does not
seem to hold in the case of elementary and secondary school teachers. These findings may begin to
explain why good teachers are being lost to other, higher paying positions and to help administrators
focus more closely on the esteem needs of teachers, individually and collectively.