LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu.

In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ

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I am working We are working. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. Ex. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. Ex.: I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arata o actiune repetata. In acest caz, exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous 1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have", atunci când nu inseamna „a avea, a poseda", ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". 1. 2. 3. 4. I love my brother. She talks too much. I understand you. You play the piano very well.

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I always believe you. He remembers my phone number. They live in Bucharest. He has a hot bath every day. I trust my friend. I have lunch at one o’clock.

2. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It is raining. I am having a walk. He is telling the truth. You are typing a letter. They are swimming in the river. My friend is wearing a new dress. My mother is resting. We are studying English. Ann is knitting. The child is learning to play the piano.

3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. him. 7. 8. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). What you (do) on Sundays? He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. In England it often (rain). I (not like) that boy. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) You (like) this book? You (dream) at night?

Yes, I (dream) every night. 9. 10. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). How you usually (get) to work?

I usually (go) by bus, but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. 11. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. 12. You (write) to John now? Yes, I (be). I always (write) to him on his birthday.

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13.

Where you (hurry)?

To the theatre, as I (not want) to miss the first act. 14. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. 15. You (go) to work every day? Yes, of course, except Saturdays and Sundays. 16. 17. Why you (smoke) so much? Who you (wait) for?

I (wait) for John, but he is late, as usual. 18. 19. I always (have) a rest after lunch. What you (think) of?

I (think) of my mother just now. 20. You (know) what time is it?

4. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Iarna ninge. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. Eu nu studiez seara. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. Nu-mi place cafeaua. Ce carte citesti? La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? Ce faci tu in zilele libere? Cui ii telefonezi? El nu merge la scoala cu metroul, merge pe jos. De ce deschizi fereastra? Adesea citesc carti englezesti. Ea isi face bagajul. Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. B. Past Tense Simple

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Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? 5 . de obicei.) Last year I travelled to England. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. cu perfectul compus. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia. forma III – participiul trecut. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). (Ieri am mers al plimbare. Ex. terminata.Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate. Ex.Paste Tense. Este timpul de naratiune.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Ex. forma II. Se traduce. efectuata intro perioada de timp trecuta. terminata. Yesterday I went for a walk. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat.

ele aratând actiuni paralele. in plina desfasurare. Ex. 2. 4. 2. 9. That sounds interesting. Ex. In acest caz. You ask too many questions. 8. 3. 6 . This time yesterday. He translated the text.) Adesea. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: He thought about you. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. 10. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. He forbade her to do this. He came home late. 4. We worked very hard. 3. de asemenea. Se traduce. I enjoyed travelling. 10. They drank all the wine. in aceeasi fraza. 7. 1. When I first (meet) him. You drink too much. I always make cakes on Sundays. 5. sora lui privea la televizor. 5. I own two umbrellas. 1. While he (learn) to drive. He changed his library book every day. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: When you (come in). 2. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. In aceasta situatie.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous 1. Ex. 1. (In timp ce John citea. 6. 9. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). 8. he (work) in a bank. I hated him.Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. While I was crossing the street. 1. he (have) an accident. I like to have a coffee in the morning. While John was reading. cu imperfectul. You speak English well. I play football. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. Este. intr-un moment trecut. I met John. 6. 1. I was watching TV. 7. his sister was watching TV. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). 3. I sold my car. de obicei. I talk on the phone. He meets John on Sundays.

mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. This time last Sunday. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? In timp ce ploua. 12. 7. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. someone (ring up). the teacher (write) on the blackboard. 11. 8. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. I (watch) a film on TV. Traduceti in limba engleza: Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? Ieri m-am sculat devreme. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. 8. 16. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta.4. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. 21. 5. 20. 13. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. 17. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. 15. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? What you (do) this time yesterday? When I (enter) the classroom. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. 7. 9. 6. As I (write). When I (arrive). Când te-ai intors de la munte? Când ai cumparat acest televizor? Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. 1. 10. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. 9. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? 7 . 10. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. C. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. 6. 14. scola. she (have) dinner. 4. 1. 2. 22. 18. 5. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. 19. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. 3.

ora 2 p.) I have known John since 1990. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani. I didn’t get up early this morning. ora 10 a.) I have known John for two years. I haven’t seen John for two months. arata o actiune trecuta. I haven’t got up early this morning. dintr-un motiv sau altul.Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. care are rezultate in prezent sau care. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua. Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni. (Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca. I have seen two films this week.m. I must buy a new one. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata.m. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990.) I haven’t seen John since September. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect.) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . intereseaza in prezent. folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. • Ex. In 8 . Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. Ex.) arata o actiune trecuta. timp de). • Ex. terminata. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. In acest caz. • Ex. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. incepând din) si for (de. this year. this month. Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica. this week. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today. daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent.

I lost my umbrella yesterday. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) No. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. always.) Dupa cum se poate observa. It has been raining for three hours. yet (in propozitii negative). Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be".acest caz. seldom. Ex. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua. fie cu perfectul compus. I am tired because I have been working all day. daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". De asemenea. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. just. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. care continua in prezent. 9 . Ex. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. If it doesn’t stop soon. I must buy a new one. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. intre un moment trecut si prezent. He hasn’t returned home yet. Ex. I have often been to England.) De asemene. already. Ex. sa continue si in viitor. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. ever. se foloseste Past Simple. He has not (hasn’t) been working.) I haven’t seen him lately. (Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. Ex. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut. Yes. never. we shall have floods. cu accent pe durata. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. I have never been to England. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Ex. in functie de context.

m. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. 10 . It (not rain) since December. How long you (live) here? I (live) here for one year. 11. 18. We (know) each other for several years. 7. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous 1. How long you (wear) glasses? I (cook) all the morning. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. 10. 10. 2. You (water) the flowers? He just (leave) home. It’s time we woke him up. 17. I (buy) a new house. 15. 11. 2. 21. 3. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on Would you like a cake? No. 9. Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. 14. How many dishes you (cook)? Why you (be) in the garden so long? I (water) the flowers. 4. He (not come) home yet. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. 8. 22. I (lend) him some money today. it? 12. I just (have) one. 5. You must come and see it. 19. You ever (drive) a car? He always (rely on) his friend. 1. When are you going to do Ever since that woman came to work here. 16. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. strike. 8. You (visit) the Village Museum? You ever (eat) caviar? I (not write) to my friend for three months. vom avea inundatii. thank you. Daca nu se opreste in curând. The radio (play) since 7 a. 5. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days.(Ploua de trei ore. I (not be) to the seaside this year. 6. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? You (pay) the telephone bill? He (not go) to bed yet. 3. she (try) to make trouble. I’m tired of it. 9. 7. 6. 20. 13. 4. 12. 1. I already (see) this film.

6. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. 6. 19. I am not out of work now. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. 11. De când mi-am cumparat masina. You (see) your mother this week? No.1. 12. Ai mai fost in acest oras? Da. I (get) a job last month. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 13. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminat-o inca. Un copil a spart geamul. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. 11. 9. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? A plecat John? Da. 4. 1. 7. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. El este ministru de doi ani. 14. 24. D. 4. 3. 3. 16. 22. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. 25. 23. 17. 8. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? Nu am mers la vot. 7. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). 10. 9. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. When you (use) it last? 2. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. 10. acum doi ani. 15. 18. Past Perfect Simple 11 . Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Ninge de doua ore. l-am luat la ora 8. La ce te-ai uitat? A fost un accident. You (be) out of work long? 5. 5. 20. 21. I haven’t. I (lose) my pen. De cât timp inveti engleza? Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. am petrecut o luna aici. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. 8. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? Da. 2. a plecat acum o ora. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. You (not see) it anywhere? No.

(Când el a intrat in camera. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Ex. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. she had been typing for one hour. I had finished writing my homework. ca si Present Perfect. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. Afirmativ I had been working. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. s-a plictisit.) Ca sens.) When you rang me up. un verb de relatie.Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple.) He said it had been raining for three days. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. (Când mi-ai telefonat.) Dupa cum se observa. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. When he entered the room. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I had worked. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. he got bored. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile. Este. in acest caz. Ex. ea batea la masina de o ora. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous 12 . Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". terminasem de scris temele. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. dar. De asemenea.

After we (walked) for an hour. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. When she decided to have a rest. 10.1. 3. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. When we arrived at Sinaia. 13 . mother (cook) for two hours. 8. I realized she (have) a party. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. 3. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. 10. 5. we (realize) we (lose) our way. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. it (rain) for one hour. 2. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. I (return) from school. 6. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: When I left home. 8. 4. 5. When I rang her up. She said she already (be) to England. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. we (climb) for 7 hours. 7. When we met them. 1. When we reached the top. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. At 3 o’clock on Friday. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. 6. After John (leave). 2. 9. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: After they (finish) dinner. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. 1. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. 7. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). When she sat for the exam. 1. 2. When I called on her unexpectedly. 9. When I arrived home. she felt chilly. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. she (study) the subject for a week. they drank some coffee. 4. 1. 3. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. 4. When I (find out) he (get married). 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. 2. 9. 10. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. 3. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. 7. she (write) letters for one hour. a inmânat-o profesorului. 1. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. 8. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. 5.

De indata ce au plecat musafirii. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. 10. They will be going. iar pentru „will not" este won’t. 14 . 6. We (shall) will be going. You will be going. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I. Ex. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. 7. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. 9. He/she/it will be going. 8. se foloseste numai „shall". Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. am mers la culcare. Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. We (shall) will not be going. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. You will be going.4. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. 5. E.) Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". I (shall) will meet him next week. He/she/it will not be going. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. will la persoana II si III. Negativ I (shall) will not be going. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. You will not be going.

la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. When you come home. I (shall) will have been going. You will not have gone. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. I will be travelling to England. We (shall) will have gone. 15 . Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". I will have been studying for three hours. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. By three o’clock tomorrow. He/she/it will have gone. Este un timp rar folosit. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. They will not be going.You will not be going. I will have reached Predeal. They will have gone. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. He/she/it will not have gone. They will not have gone. Ex. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. (have + forma III). Ex. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. You will have gone. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. Ex. At three o’clock. You will not have gone. Când vei veni tu acasa. We (shall) will not have gone. You will have gone.

Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara.Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele).) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor.) Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. la ora 3. He said he would be late.) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). • 16 . Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". I leave for London tomorrow. bine stabilit. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. arata un program precis. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit. Ex. He said that at 3 o’clock. (El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. • Ex. Ex. the next day. Arata o intentie. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. • Ex.) Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv. he would be travelling to England. va calatori spre Anglia. I should (would) be going. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. I am meeting John this morning. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut. Intr-un astfel de context. Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. (El a spus ca va intârzia.

you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. I am sure you (like) this book. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: This time next month. 1. I (pay off) all my debts. we (take) our exam. we (climb) the mountain. Next year. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. She (watch) TV. I (work) on this paper for a month. 3. 6. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. 1. You (recognize) him when you see him? I (remember) this day all my life. He (be) pleased if you invite him. By the end of the season. 4.) It is going to rain. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? I am sure when I arrive home. I am sure I (succeed). The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. Let’s hurry to the beach.Ex. I am going to read this book. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 4. By the beginning of next week. (Voi citi/am de gând sa citesc aceasta carte. I (swim) in the sea. 10. 7. 10. 8. the baby (cry). He (study) all day tomorrow.m. 9. 2. 5. they (be married) for 25 years. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. This time next day. When you reach Sinaia. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 17 . 6. 8. If we don’t hurry. 5. 2. 4. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: I (know) the results in three days’ time. I (work) at the office till late at 3. I (have) breakfast. it probably (rain). You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. 10. 4. In a week’s time. 3. 9. I (cook) for two hours. By 5 o’clock. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. 5. By the time you come home. 7. Don’t expect me home for dinner. 9. When I take the exam. 3. 6. night. You (remember) to post my letter? I hope I (pass) the exam. 1. 7. By the end of the month. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 8. You (be) in London tomorrow. 2.

Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. Present Tense Continuous. 9. intre orele 12 si 1. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza. Past Tense Continuous. 4. (El a spus ca este bolnav. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. (El a spus ca merge la scola. 6. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. Vineri.1. mâine. 8. ci in fraze.) He said he was going to school. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. nu in propozitii. 7. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. Unde il vei pune? LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. desigur. 11. Pâna la ora 1. Present Perfect Simple.) 18 . Past Perfect Simple. 10. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. 2. 5. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. E un obiect frumos. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. Propozitia principala 1. Voi vizita târgul international. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill.

un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. Ex. Ex. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. (El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul.) I will have finished studying when you come home. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: a. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. Future-in-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singura data.b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before.) 19 . dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. care nu pot include un verb la viitor.) 1. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. He said he would come to see me when he had time.) She promised her mother she would help her. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp.

2. It was clear they (talk) business again. She told me his name after he (leave). 8. 1. Ex. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 1. având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. 6. 3. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. de exemplu. Pentru moment insa. Looking out of the window. 10. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. sa ajunga regula. Se poate intâlni. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. când propozitia secundara este atributiva. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. 2. 7. I was not sure if you (speak) English. 9. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. I understood you (be) a painter. 20 . (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. Ex. I believed you (be) at the seaside. 4. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). 5. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. cu timpul. când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil.b. Ex. tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: 1. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. They didn’t know that I (play) football.) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 3.

too. 8. After she (learn) to type. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. 7. this beach will become very crowded. 5. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. When I arrived. 3. 4. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. 9.2. 10. 3. We all believed he (win) the competition. 7. 5. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. they will have been married for five years. 8. 10. After he (repair) the car. 2. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). He just (leave) home when he came across John. He promised he (drive) me home. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 2. 21 . I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. I congratulated him. 4. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. 12. we supposed prices (go up). I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. 6. After I (hear) the news. 10. 15. 1. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. I will lend it to you. 1. 13. 8. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 5. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. When he finally reached London. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. 9. As wages had gone up. When I (finish) the book. I shall have typed all the letters. By the time you (finish) translating the text. 6. When it started to rain. 14. 3. he will drive to Sinaia. she will take a job as a secretary. the concert already (begin). He believed the strike (end) very soon. 11. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 9. As soon as the holidays (begin). When their first baby (be born). I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 7. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. When I heard the main actor was ill. 6. 4. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one.

17. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. After we have finished dinner. When I finally arrived home. 4. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). 20. 11. After having visited Italy. After you (drink) a coffee. 4. I will do it when I (want) to. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. 18. You will never know how much I (suffer). 16. 19. 10. 6. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. In 1998. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. 2. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. they were listening to music. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. 7. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. He was very upset because I (be) late. 17. 2. 6. 18. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 9. A week ago. He told me he never (see) the sea. 6. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years.16. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. 13. he decided he (change) his job. 7. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. 9. 10. 15. 5. 8. 12. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. precum si exceptiile: 1. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. I (not decide) yet. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. 8. 3. not before. 22 . When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. 3. 14. 5. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. 20. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. we (drink) coffee and brandy. 19. you will feel better. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. 5. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. When we (go) to see them last night.

9. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. wouldn’t. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. 8. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. 7. 5. 12. 4. LECTIA III MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul.7. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. 11. 2. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. 6. 10. Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? 23 . 3.

). (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. ai fi mers.) Tipul 2 24 . Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers.Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. ai merge. (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua.). ar merge etc. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat).) I will stay at home if it rains. ar fi mers etc.

Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. we would be fined. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. Ex.) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. 25 . were. In acest caz. In caz ca telefoneaza. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. cu exceptia verbului „to be".Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. had. What shall we do. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua. If the police should find out the truth. in case. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. De asemenea. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. If she should ring up. daca s-ar intâmpla ca. should se traduce cu: in caz ca. should). (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. providing. noi am fi amendati. este posibila omiterea lui if. unde se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. suppose.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. in loc de Present Simple. tell her I am out. Ex. dar improbabila. supposing.) I would stay at home if it rained.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained.

he (take) a pill. If I like the dress. 5. 6. he would have gone home. Unless you come at 6. 6. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation.Ex. 6. If you had known English. 5. 8. If I won the lottery. If I tell you something. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. we shall have floods. he would never have known. If you had taken my advice. If I see him. 3. 7. I (buy) it. If I (know) his phone-number. you (be) late. If he (realize) it was so late. 9. 8. 9. 9. 5. 4. you (not pass) the exam. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale 1. If she finds out what has happened. I (buy) a car. If you (take) a dog. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. you (not get) into trouble. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. you will have to look after it. Should he have a headache. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. I would ring him up. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 3. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? If I (give up) smoking. 3. I (not do) this. 2. If I (not tell) him. you (promise) to keep it a secret? Unless you study more. I (greet) him. 10. Had I been at home. I would be nervous. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. Had I learned English grammar. 2. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. he (not make) so many mistakes. 7. 10. 1. you (not find) me at home. 8. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1. 2. 26 . If it (go on) raining. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Were I in your place. If I (know) you had no driving licence. I would have succeeded. If I (move) to the country-side. would you visit me? You (buy) this house if you had money? If he were more careful. I (answer) the phone. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. she (be) very angry. 4. 7. 10. 4. If you don’t hurry. If I (work) harder.

2. 1. I (answer) it. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 9. I (answer) your question if I can. I-ai da? 3. 7. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. 7. 6. Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. If he had written a letter to me. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. 2. I would speak to him. LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA 27 . mi-ar fi fost frig. strazile ar fi fost ude. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. I would go home immediately. 1. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. strazile ar fi ude. 12. 6. You (be) sick if you eat so much. 4. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 8. 6.1. Daca ar ploua. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. 10. 8. 5. 5. 4. he (get) a bar of chocolate. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. 9. If I (see) him. If you (drive) more carefully. strazile vor fi ude. 3. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. 2. voi mânca la un restaurant. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. 11. Dacaar fi plouat. 10. If I (be) you. 1. 3. 10. It (be) better if you had waited. 8. 5. you wouldn’t have an accident. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. If the child is good. 9. 7.

He said he had been working hard. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Se schimba pronumele. He said she had given him a book. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. – He said „I am ill". Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. 1. He said he would do the exercise.Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. o 1. He said he was ill. in functie de sens. He said: „She gave me a book". Ex. 2. o He said „I was ill". in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. He said he had been ill. o He said „I will do the exercise". today that day 28 . He said „I have been working hard. Ex.

He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow"." He said if itrained he would stay at home. 29 . Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains.yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex. 3.  He said he would be at home on that day.  He said he was going to do that translation the next day. He said: „I’ll be at home today". I will stay at home. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained." He said if it rained he would stay at home. I would stay at home.

Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex. could. on holiday.  He told me to go out. Ex. I would have stayed at home. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. Ex. Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. The weather was fine yesterday. He said: „I am ill". 2. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb.  He said (that) he was ill. He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late. He asked me where I had been. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. Ex. 1. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. ought to. 30 . He said „Don’t go out"  He told me not to go out. ceea ce este o greseala. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. He said „Go out". 3. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv."If it had rained. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. Verbele modale would. 1. Where have you been? I’ve been away. should." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. Ex. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. He asked me if I liked music. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. Ex.

6. 5. 10. 1. 10. 6. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. 8. 2. 3. 2. If I had been at home. 5. 8. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. Will you help me. John left for Sinaia two days ago. 4. 6. 11. 7. I will go shopping right now. I will buy a car next year. 1. 3. ordered) me to come in. I would have answered the phone. please! Read the text. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. 4. 4. I went to England two years ago. 9. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. 12. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? 31 . I saw this film a week ago. 9. 9. 8. If I have enough money. 10. 7. 3. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. I am very busy today. 7. 2. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. 11.2. 5.

Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect 32 . I had been asked. complementul indirect si. please? 4. 1. I have been asked. I will be asked. complementul prepozitional. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. 8. Ex. 2. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. 6. 7. I am asked. In limba engleza. Desigur. Could you lend me a book. Activ: I gave him a book. Unde complementul direct este a book. I was asked. Ex.12. 5. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. 3. 9. Ex. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. In limba româna. 10. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. iar complementul indirect este him. 4. in unele cazuri.

pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. se omite formularea by. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. 4. The policeman will show us the way. He has found your bag. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. 10. 6. They will finish the work today. care. In aceste situatii. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 8. 33 . punctuality este un complement prepozitional. 7. While I am in hospital. I teach them English. de asemenea. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. Ex. I have lent John two of my books. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). They have given me a nice present. His coworkers must do something for him. In multe cazuri. de la sfârsitul propozitiei. 2. The noise frightened me. Someone has found the missing child. 9. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. 8. 2. 5. They are building a new house round the corner. 7. 2. In this office punctuality is insisted on. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. Activ: She looked after the child. my flat is being painted. A specialist will repair my TV set. when I passed by. my flat was being painted. 6. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). 3. They will give me a reward. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. The teacher asked me a difficult question. 9. People play football all over the world. While I was in hospital. 5. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. 10. I will invite my friend to a party. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. Ex. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. 3. 4.He was given a book.

Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. 3. 8. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. He hates being made fun of. 4. 7. 9. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. 4. 3. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. 2. They set fire to the shed. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. This house has been built out of stone and cement. 9. A reception was held in his honour.3. We laughed at John. We objected to his proposal. English is spoken all over the world. 5. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa. 3. 6. 4. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. 6. They didn’t look after the children properly. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. 6. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 6. We called for the doctor. The pupils will be told where to sit. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. 2. 5. He hasn’t slept in his bed. Burglars broke into the house. Will someone tell him the details? 6. 4. 2. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. 8. I was recommended a very good doctor. 34 . 5. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. Have you fed the dog? 7. 7. This book will soon be forgotten. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. 10. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. These books mustn’t be taken away.

I can make this traslation. 11. 9. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) 35 . 12. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. 10. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. 15. (Pot sa fac aceasta.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do". a fi in stare Ex. Ex. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. can’t Ex. LECTIA VI VERBELE MODALE Can. prezent. He cannot (can’t) speak English.7. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. Ex. He can speak English. Can is a model verb. shall. may. Ex. should. will.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. I can do this. ought to. would. might. could. Can = infinitiv. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. Se folosesc inlocuitori. • Nu au toate timpurile. 14. 13. are sensul de a putea. must. prezent Negativ: cannot. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XV-lea. need. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. 8. Can 1. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii.

nu e posibil sa. Ex. 3. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. a avea permisiunea Ex. Soarele nu a apus inca.) Negativ: may not. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. Ex. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. In vorbirea familiara.) I can speak English. (Da. Se traduce cu a sti sa.) Cu acest sens. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. 2. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri. can I take your car? Tata. poti. Ex. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri.Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. Ex. are sensul de a putea. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. I can swim. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. Ex. Ex. He is abroad. (Stiu sa inot. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. El e in strainatate. prezent 36 . mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. The sun hasn’t set yet. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. Ex. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut Ex. Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". May 1.). I couldn’t come to you yesterday. you may. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada. Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. He could have been here in time. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. Father. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. Voi putea veni la tine mâine.

Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. 3. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. poate avea sensul probabil ca: Ex. Let’s go home. A trebui Ex. I must go home. Ring up John. Telefoneaza-I lui John. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. De asemenea. May/might pot exprima un repros. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. You may/might help me when I am in need. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. Ex. S-a facut târziu. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. Ex. It’s got late. Ex. He may/might be at home now. Ia-ti umbrela. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. Cu acest sens. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. He said I might smoke in that room. s-ar putea sa ploua. Trebuie sa plec acasa. It may/might rain. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. se adauga infinitivul trecut. dar se foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). It must be late. 2. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. Ex. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. 2. 37 . Hai sa mergem acasa. Ex. to be permitted to. to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Negativ: must not. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. Take your umbrella. Probabil ca e târziu. Ex. Must 1.Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. Ex. Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must.

Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". you must! (Da. Ex. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes. cu sensul de a avea nevoie Ex. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus. Cu acest sens. Ex. 38 . Let’s call on him. notional. Nu. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede. Need Exista doua verbe: • To need: verb obisnuit. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No. • Ex. • Need: verb modal. It must have been late. Ex. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. you needn’t. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta. cu sensul de a fi nevoie Ca verb modal. Ex. we have enough time. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. You needn’t drive so fast. avem destul timp. exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara.John must be at home now. dar a fost facuta. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Probabil ca era târziu. se foloseste verbul must. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. He doesn’t need this book. ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. nu e nevoie. Hai sa-l vizitam. We didn’t need to do this exercise. se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul • Ex. need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut.

Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. Folosit cu persoana I. Should. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. interogativ. solicitarea unui sfat. de asemenea. Ex. o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor. se adauga infinitivul trecut. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Shall Folosit cu persoana I. poate indica.You mustn’t drive so fast. aici e limita de viteza. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. o obligatie morala. 39 . Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you? Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. o oferta sau o sugestie.in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Would • Formula de politete. Ex. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa. This radio won’t work. • Actiune repetata: . ar fi cazul sa. shall poate arata o promisiune. Will. there is a speed limit here. Ex. o recomandare. cerere politicoasa: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation. shall indica viitorul. please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. ar fi bine sa.

She can play the piano very well. care are numai forma de trecut. acolo unde este necesar: 1. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. 7. 5. Exercitii cu verbe modale 1. 4. 2. 18. 15. • Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi. 19. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. You may not smoke in this room. You may leave earlier. Nota: In afara de „would". Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". I cannot translate ten pages a day. my mother used to read me fairy tales. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. my mother would read me fairy tales. 9. I must look up the words in the dictionary. I must learn English. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . 17. Ex. Când eram copil. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. 6. I must go soon. 14. This child may have another cake. She can lend you that book. 20. You may not speak to your mother like that. She will be her sister. 40 . 8. When I was a child. 13. This girl looks very much like Jane. 10. He can swim very well.o in trecut When I was a child. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. 11. 3. mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti. O fi sora ei. 12. 16.

He probably thinks I am wrong. Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 15. 11. holidays will be very different. It might rain. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. 6. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. 3. 10. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. He must speak English well. 2. 7. 17. He …reach the Moon and walk there. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 4. 41 . He must be in the garden at this time of the day. You must have forgotten to lock the door. there is plenty in the fridge. 3. 20. 7. You probably forgot to lock the door. Man …travel through space now. You might pay more attention to your work. 19. 1. 13. You might change your mind about that. John could be a winner. He should go to school everyday. He ought to tell me the truth. 1. 16. 12. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. He is probably older than he looks. 5. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. 8. He needn’t buy milk. He must be delayed at the office. 6. 9. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 4. 4. 14. 3. You might write to me more often. 1. You needn’t do this. 18. It can’t be too late. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. He …even drive on its surface. He may be at home. She is probably a very good doctor.1. He probably came home very early. 5. 2. 5. John must be ill. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. 2. You should visit your sick friend in hospital.

7. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. 4. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 3. It may/might snow in the mountains. 1. 6. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. 5. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : You … take an umbrella. You have probably forgotten his address. I … return the books before the 1st of September. 5. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. 8. I don’t believe it is his fault. You can’t be right. 10. 10. 8. 2. Don’t wait. but I doubt it. I don’t think the weather will change. 7. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. 10. 1. 6. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. I don’t think this is a true story. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. It is possible for her to be very late. I think she was angry with you.8. It is possible that I come home early. 4. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. He was probably late. 3. 42 . Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. 6. I have bought his latest book. 1. 9. You can’t have been right. 9. Take your umbrella. 5. 2. 2. perhaps it will rain. The sky is clear. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. perhaps it is a good one. I don’t believe she has got so fat. 1. I don’t believe you were right. 9. I don’t believe it was his fault.

I …wear my hair long. This door … not unlock. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. 6. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. You …(buy) so much bread. 10. 3. When I was a teenager. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. You …do this whether you like it or not. … you correct my exercise. You …not expect everybody to obey you. 10. 5. If you win the contest. 7. …you tell me the truth. I’ll give you as much as you want. I promise you not …be disturbed. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. We …(wait) too long. 10. 4. You … worry about money. 8. 8. You…water the flowers. 1. 3. 2. it will soon start raining.3. You … take sleeping pills too often. 9. 9. 3. I …(answer) the questions. 7. 9. I wrote him a letter. 2. 7. It’ll get stale. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: You …not go to bed so late at night. 9. 10. 8. please? This letter is full of mistakes. 6. … you help me solve this problem? When I was young. I …(see) him for that. 6.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. 5. 5. 1. I …read one book a day. I …(answer) the questions. he was back soon. I am sorry you wasted your time. He …read for hours on end. 4. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. 7. 2. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. Go to sleep. he will never read them all. they are addictive. 43 . you…get a nice present. 4. 10. She …write an article for this magazine every week. but I forgot it was Sunday. You …(lend) him so many books. please? He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. People … speak during the concert. which was very convenient. 5. 8. which would have saved me a lot of work. 9. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. You …(wait) for me. I …(get up) so early today. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. 4. The student …(write) such a long composition. 6. for once? This …be John’s house. you …re-type it.

20. Va trebui sa plec curând. He has one of his own. 12. am baut deja doua astazi. 9. 11. John …(do) such a thing. I locked the door and took the key with me. 7. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. The light was on in his room. She is away. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. 14. I haven’t got my bag with me. 5. 5. He …(swim) across the Danube. he is a nice boy. I …(be) in the garden. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. 4.11. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. Nu stiu sa crosetez. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. 7. he is a very poor swimmer." "His family consider he should. I …(leave) it on the bus. Traduceti in limba engleza." "Yes. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. the road is dry. 10. I didn’t hear the phone. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. 4. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. You …(see) Anna yesterday. 6. 8. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora. 17. He …(be) at home. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. 3. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. 3. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. 8. 19. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni. 9. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. You…(lend) him your text – book." 1. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. 13. 18. 16. Completati spatiile goale cu must. but he himself believes he needn’t. The child … (leave) home. 2. It …(rain) here. Nu. 2. 44 . folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. 12. Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. 6. 10.

Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is c. Somebody bring me a glass of water. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. Everybody leave the hall. Fie ce-o fi. 28. 24. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. 30. would + infinitiv. 23. 1. Ex. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. Unde mergem acum? Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. o urare. it is likely that. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. in situatii in care. Ex. De asemenea. 22. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. 45 . it is desirable that. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala.21. o incuiasem chiar eu. exprimând o lozinca. Vreti. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. 29. might. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that. Apare in propozitii exclamative. sa astepti câteva minute? Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. va rog. 27. LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana. in engleza contemporana. d. o dorinta sau un blestem. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. 25. it is necessary that. 26. may. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine. Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. Ex. Come what may.

e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. to insist. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. apare ca were la toate persoanele. to suggest. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. Ex. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. 1. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. It is impossible that he do this. to order Ex. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. • Ex. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. It is necessary that you be present. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. to urge. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor.Ex. to recommend. • I wish (mi-as dori. I wish it would stop raining. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. se foloseste would. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. I wish I were in England now. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. to demand. • Ex. 46 . ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. I wish I had been born in England.

ci este necesara introducerea lui should. It is necessary that you should be present. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. a. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. De asemenea. In exemplul de mai sus. to suggest. to recommend. Ex. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. (E timpul. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). It is time the child went to bed. I would sooner stay at home tonight. • Ex. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. Dupa cum se observa. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut.You speak English as if you had lived in England. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. (Era de mult timpul. Ex. it is necessary that. to insist. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. It is impossible that he should do this. to demand. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) 47 . Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. 1. Ex. Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare.) It is high time. d)It is time. It is high time you began to study seriously.) Ex. to urge. It is impossible that he should have done this. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv.

• Dupa to hope. Dupa whoever. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. why. you have no right to do this. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. whenever. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. to be afraid Ex. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. fie in vorbirea indirecta. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el.when. I hope that he may pass the exam. wherever. no matter when. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. etc. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. fie in vorbirea direca. Whoever you may/might be. • Dupa so that.Ex. • Ex. in secundara se foloseste may. you have no right to do this. however. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. whichever. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. 48 . where. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. Ex. may. a. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. Hurry up lest you miss the train. • Ex. Intrebari introduse prin how. No matter who you may/might be. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. in order that Ex. in secundara se foloseste might.

I regret I have only one child. 1. • Dupa it is possible. 5. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. 6. 10. I regret I can’t go to the concert. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 1. iti voi telefona. I am sorry you live so far away. I wish I might borrow your car. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. I am sorry my friend is ill. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. I regret I am not a student. 1. I wish I could speak English.Oricine ai fi. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I regret I have no children. Oriunde as fi. It was possible that he might be here in time. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. 4. I wish the weather were fine. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. Ex. 2. 9. 7. 8. I am sorry books are so expensive. iar in aceste cazuri. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. Wherever I may/might be. I will ring you up. it was possible Ex. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. 3. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: 49 . Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. I am sorry it rains so often. It is possible that he may be here in time. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv.

I am sorry you had an accident. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal.I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I was sorry you had got a fine. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. It’s time we (go) home. 10. If only I (be) in Italy now! I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 1. 5. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. 1. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. 3. 11. I was sorry you were out when I called. 8. 5. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. 14. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. 7. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 8. 4. If only my telephone (work)! I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 2. 4. 12. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. 4. 6. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. 7. 3. I would rather you (not waste) your time! I am cold. 2. 1. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. 2. I regret you didn’t win the competition. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. 7. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. 6. 9. 3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: You behave as if you (own) the place. I am sorry I was late for the party. 13. 9. 1. 50 . I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. 5. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. 10. 1. I wish he would take my advice. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. I would rather you (close) that window. 8. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. 10. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 9. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 6.

15. 12. 10. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. 4. 19. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. 9. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. 20. 7. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. 6. 18. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 51 . It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. 11. 4. 17. As prefera sa merg la teatru. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 18. 9. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 17. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. 2. 16. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 3. 5. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. 14. 19. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. If only I (not forget) his phone number! He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! If only I (become) a millionaire. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. am putea merge la plaja! 6. 20. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. 10. 13. 8. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 2. 16. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 6. 3. la tara.

7. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte.

8. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot, astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). Orice mi-ai spune, nu te pot crede. Oricât te-ai stradui, nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. Oricând te vei intoarce, eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine, nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. Oricare ar fi motivul, nu ar trebui sa ma minti.

1. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. 2. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. 3. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. 4. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. 5. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be), you should remember your own phone number. 6. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. 7. I wish my car (not break down) last week. 8. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 9. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. 10. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. 11. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. 12. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). 13. The road is wet; drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. 14. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. 15. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. 16. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. 17. All success (attend) you! 18. I wish I (be) there when it happened. 19. I have such a boring job; I wish I (find) another.

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If only I (have) a brother or a sister!

LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza, modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul, forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. Infinitivul poate avea aspect, diateza si timpuri. Diateza activa
o o o o

infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling

Diateza pasiva
o o

infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called

Forma -ing. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. Diateza activa
o o

nedefinit: calling perfect: having called

Diateza pasiva
o o

nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called

Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate; in cazul verbelor neregulate, el reprezinta forma a III-a:
o o

to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul

1.

Acuzativ cu infinitiv

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Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Ex. I want you to go now. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want, to wish, to like, to dislike, to hate. Ex. I’d like him to come with me. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine.) I want John to do this. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta.) b. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see, to hear, to feel, to watch. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). Ex. I saw him leave the room. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera.) c. verbe exprimând un ordin, o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make, to cause, to allow, to order. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). Ex. I made him study English. (L-am facut sa invete engleza.) I let him go out and play. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal.) He ordered the door to be locked. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa.) d. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think, to suppose, to expect, to consider, to understand, to know, to believe. Ex. I consider him to be a good student. (Consider ca el este un bun student.) I expected him to come in time. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp.) e. verbe declarative: to state, to declare, to admit. Ex. He admitted the news to be false. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false.) They declared him to be the man of the year. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului.) f. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on, to count upon/on . Ex. I rely on you to do this. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta.) 1. Nominativ cu infinitiv

Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. a. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see, to hear, to know, to say, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to make, to consider.

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Ex. He is said to be a good writer. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. I made him study English. He was made to study English. I consider him to be a good student. He is considered to be a good student. He considered the news to be false. The news was considered to be false. They declared him to be the man of the year. He was declared to be the man of the year. b. cu verbele: to happen, to prove, to turn out, to seem, to appear
o

la diateza activa:

Ex. He proved to be a good journalist. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist.) I happened to meet him in the street. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada.) If I happen to meet him, I will tell him where you are. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc, ii voi spune unde esti.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este, de obicei, tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. a. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain

Ex. She is sure to come in time. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". 1. For – phrase

Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Ex. It is easy for me to do this. (E usor sa fac asta.) This remains for him to decide. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el.) It is impossible for him to come. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina.)

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(Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. Ex. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut.) She was heard singing.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. It is impossible that I (should) come. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see.) I heard her singing.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. (Orele fiind terminate. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. to hear. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. 56 . (Daca vremea va permite. am mers acasa. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. 2. (Ea a fost auzita cântând. vom merge la plaja. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazuto plecând. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. It is necessary that I (should) go there. Ex. (Am auzit-o cântând. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving. (El a fost vazut plecând.) Weather permitting.) I will have my hair done.) I left / found her crying. precum si cu verbele to find. we went home. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. we shall go to the beach. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa. to leave. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1.) 3.It is necessary for me to go there. to smell. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. Ex: The classes being over. to watch.

8. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. 6. We should do it now. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. 6. I-am privit jucând fotbal. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. You should bear it in mind. I have closed the window. 10. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. 7. 5. 12.(Voi merge sa ma coafez. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. 2. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. This is a strange thing. 2. I can’t solve it. 57 . Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. The match was about to begin. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. I cam make it. 11. Cred ca el e un sot bun. This is the main thing. I can’t believe she said that. 13. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. You should read it. I don’t want you to catch a cold. The people were impatient. 1. 15. 3. You should take it. 5. 3. This translation is easy for me to make. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. 4. We should have a heart to heart talk. 9. This is a good book. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. 2. The time has come. Ex. 10. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. This problem is too difficult. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. 14. I had my bedroom window broken. 7. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. This is a valuable piece of advice. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 8. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. I ordered a taxi. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. She had two sons killed in the war. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. 4. 9. This fact is important.

Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „forphrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 4. 3. 1. 7. 5. It is necessary that he be present. 5. She heard the baby crying. It is sure they have had an argument. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. I saw her lying on the beach. 10. 9. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. Expected that he would resign. 2. at once. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. 8. 3. 6. 4. 7. I saw her fainting. They heard him repeat it several times. Everybody. 4. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. I thought she was unable to win the contest. 7. 2. 10. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. It was proved that she was a liar. 1. It is important to know the truth. It is advisable that you should resign. 58 . It’s time you started learning foreign languages. It is recommendable that you should read this book. l. I could hear her typing. I saw the peasants working in the field. It is possible that I might buy a car. I saw the plane landing. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. It is impossible that he should have said that. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. I found the boy breaking the window. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. It is important that you should come to the office. 4. The dog was heard barking. 9. 8. 6. 5. It’s time we met again.3. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. 5. 2. She was thought to be a gifted child. 6. They said she was ill. 3.

Ann isn’t knitting. Do you play? 5. I went to post it. The decision being taken in my favour. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. 9. The sun having risen. Does she talk? 3. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: 59 . I stopped smoking. 9. He isn’t telling. I found her digging in the garden. The child isn’t learning. Do I understand? 4. I don’t trust. You don’t play. The letter being written. 8. I don’t love. CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. She doesn’t talk. Is it raining? 2. Are they swimming? 6. Am I having? 3.8. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. He doesn’t remember. 10. Is he telling? 4. 6. Everybody being at home. I heard the child breaking the vase. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. The concert being over. My mother isn’t resting. They aren’t swimming. The plane having taken off. I had to change them. Does he remember? 7. I went home relaxed. 4. Do I always believe? 6. He doesn’t have. You aren’t typing. 2. I am not having. The rain having stopped. The mud having ruined my shoes. She heard the hunters shooting. Do I love? 2. My friend isn’t wearing. 3. 10. the audience left the hali. Do they live? 8. The river having risen in the night. 6. 7. We aren’t studying. we sat down to dinner. They don’t live. It isn’t raining. 5. Is my friend wearing? 7. Weather permitting. I don’t always believe. Do I trust? 10. I went shopping. we were seared about having floods. I don’t have. Does he have? 9. Are you typing? 5. Is Ann knitting? 10. we hurried to the beach. Are we studying? 9. I don’t understand. Is my mother resting? 8.

12. 4. am. Do you like? 8. 3. Do you smoke? 17. Do you go? 16. Now I am doing my homework in English. 19. You drank. he had. he realized. He didn’t change. You spoke. I always made. 5. 5. That sounded. Did he change? 5. On Sundays. 9. Did he come? 8. 8. I met. I always have. I slept. 20. go. always borrow/is always borrowing. He met. He didn’t forbid. 16. When I go to the seaside. I often read English books. I owned. She is packing her luggage. 9. 18. She goes shopping on Saturdays. it often rains. he walks. 15. Did he think? 2. 10. I do not study in the evening. 1 first met. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. He didn’t come. I entered. It snows in winter. Whom are you ringing up? 13. I was watching. I was writing. Are you writing. 19. 7. do you do? 3. speaks. write. am taking. 6. I didn’t enjoy. 7. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. he was working. 1 don’t like. 11. Do you dream? I dream 9. I am not going. 3. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. How often do you write to your parents? 18. We didn’t work. I don’t like coffee. What book are you reading? 10. 14. 3. Did he translate? 10. she was having. 4. 6. 20.l. 9. don’t understand. Did I sell? 6. were you going. the teacher was writing. I was talking. 13. The secretary is just typing a report. They didn’t drink. 10. He doesn’t go to school by underground. 1 am cooking. 5. he doesn’t get up early. Did we work? 7. I didn’t hate. Did I enjoy? 9. 2. 6. it is raining. 1 liked. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. 17. were you doing? 7. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. 8. 4. you came in. What do you do on your free days? 12. Do you usually get. he was-learning. remembers. 8. I like to swim a lot. Exercitiul 2: 1. 2. are you thinking? I am thinking. he wasn’t wearing. He didn’t translate. 60 . He didn’t think. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. is drinking. You asked. I arrived. are you hurrying? I don’t want. I didn’t sell. 2. drinks. 10. someone rang up. 7. are you waiting? I am waiting. Why are you opening the window? I5. 14. Did I hate? 4. I played. he is having. 4. 6. 2. Did they drink? 3.

When did you buy this TV set? 12. I have lost. I have’ been shopping. I got up. she has been trying. began. What were you doing last Tuesday. Have you read? 18. 8. 6. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. have you cooked? 7. 4. 7. Have you paid? 19. Yesterday. 9. Have you watered? 3. 19. 8. I have just had. I haven’t written. 4. The child has been playing. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. While it was raining. Have you lived? I have lived. Yesterday I got up early. This time yesterday it was raining. I have been wearing. 4. Have you ever tried? I tried. 10. He has always relied. have you been. I saw. I have been asking. I was. Have you been. 13. 5. I have been watering. 3. 2. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. 9. 10. Exercitiul 3: I. 8. Last Sunday. 2. I got up late yesterday morning. I have lent. I got. 5. I have been cooking. 6. 10. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. Exercitiul 4: 61 . He sat for his first exam last week. Have you seen? she left. While I was looking for my passport. 17. the engine – drivers have gone. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. I5. Exercitiul 2: l. Have you ever driven? 16. He has been fishing. he has caught. I was driving to Sinaia. He has been. I found this old photo. Have you ever eaten? 13. I had breakfast and then I left for school. 10. 5. 5. I haven’t been. have you been wearing? 6. He has been sleeping. 4. Last night. my friends played chess. When did you return from the mountains? 11. It has been raining. I returned. 11 . We have known. He hasn’t come. 18. 6. I have been doing. we left. 14. He hasn’t gone. She has changed. 20. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. 9. He has just left. I have already seen. Have you visited? 12. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. 16. 7. 7. Did you sleep well last night? 3. 17. 9. 14. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. I didn’t succeed. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. Yesterday I lost my gloves. 3. 2. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. 1t hasn’t rained. The radio has been playing.Exercitiul 4: 1. I have bought. 8. Have you been? I have been.

it had been raining. two years ago. 3. She had just gone out. He has been a Minister for two years. I found out. Exercitiul 4: 1. 5. We have been walking since 3 o clock. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. he had thought. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. 3.1. A child has broken the window. 13. we realized. Have you been to this town before? Yes. they had been. 7. we asked. 8. 4. We must replace it. they had been waiting. 5. As soon as the guests had left. 2. had been cooking. I have seldom walked to my office. she had been cleaning and dusting. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. we had been walking. I had it at 8 o’clock. 20. 4. she had been studying. it had been raining. 2. he went. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. 2. 9. 8. 11. Exercitiul 2: 1. 5. I went to 62 . 4. How long have you been learning English? 5. he went. 14. he left an hour ago. 8. had left. 3. I rang him up. congratulated. 9. she had not passed. I spent a month here. 10. I entered. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. 5. had listened. 10. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. 7. We have walked 10 km so far. 9. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. 19. had spread. it had been raining. he had learned/he had been learning. What did you look at? It was an accident. had eaten. 12. he had been. Exercitiul 3: 1. had not told. 6. 7. 8. 10. 6. he had got married. Since I bought a car. he told. He thanked me for what I had done for him. 4. she told. she had been writing. 6. I called. they had finished. 15. 10. 4. 6. Has John left? Yes. I had returned. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. we had lost. 2. had been swimming. had been having. It has been snowing for two hours. I had met. he had visited. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. had been climbing. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. 18. she had already been. The weather has got warmer lately. he handed it to the teacher. I was sorry I had hurt him. had been speaking. 9. 3. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. 7. he had caught.

You will like. 10. wilt be rising. Exercitiul 3: 1. I shall/will have saved five million lei. I shall/will have paid off. 6. I shall/will pass. I shall/will have been cooking. I shall/will be working. Wil1 you remember? 9. I shall/will be having. Where will you put it? 63 . 4. 9. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. Exercitiut 2: 1. 8. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 9. 7. I shall/will know. 7. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 8.bed. 3. between twelve and one o’clock. will/shall will be climbing. 2. I shall/will succeed. will have risen. will be crying. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. 7. 3. I shall/will be swimming. 10. it will probably be raining. He will be studying. I shall/will have finished. I shall/will have read 8. they will have been married. 5. 3. By this time next year. 2. 10. 10. 8. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. On Friday. 8. 6. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. 6. 5. When I arrived at the bus stop. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. 7. 6. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. will have spent. 5. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. 7. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 2. 9. 3. 4. Will you be needing? 5. You will have seen. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. He will be. 4. We shall/will have taken. 6. Will you recognize? 4. 2. Exercitiul 4: 1. I realized I had left my bag at home. She will be watching. You will not/won’t find. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. I shall/will have been working. 9. 10. I shall/will remember. they will be having their last English class. You will be.

Exercitiul 4: 1. you see. 8. 6. 2. 4. 4. You had to type. we had been digging. 18. I was. 16. 4. 3. I want. 10. 10. 15. they have been. 10. is. 3. had already begun. 7. they were talking. 7. I have suffered. I will earn/will be earning. 5. I had heard. 10. 5. did not remember. he had never seen. 3. you have just told. he would finish. is. 14. would not go. we will drink. 6. is. you have read. he trusted. I would spend. there are. 20. you were. 8. 4. he tells. I usually read. you see. he had been travelling. 2. will soon move. begin. he has arrived. do not eat. 5. 7. 17. I had read. I had not enjoyed. you do. 2. I played/I was playing. he had stolen. I have received. he would pass. 5. she looks. 20. was shining. he has repaired. would be cancelled. 4. 9. I finish. I had done. she has learnt. 18. is born. 7. she has changed. Exercitiul 3: 1. 19. 5. had failed. 15. I had lost. 2. 11. 13. would end. 12. he would win. they would remain. you see. 7. Exercitiul 5: 1. I read. 64 . 9. 9. he would change. 14. he would have. 6. 3. 4. 9. you finish. he would not remember. 7. 10. I would remain. Exercitiul 6: 1. 6. you spoke. 17. you had been wearing. 8. he would give. 6. he had left. I have been reading. he would drive. I had not eaten. I finish. he had to write. I had not decided. 12. 10. 8. 19. I have. he wanted. she notices you have broken. 13. he hoped. 3. they have done. I work/I worked. 8. prices would go up. melts. they had been listening. 9. 9. he had just left. you would soon have. you were. he had not expected. I was. 6. 16. Exercitiul 2: 1. 2. arrive. you have drunk. 5. he had eaten. 3. we reach. we went. 2. they had known. it would not be raining when I arrived. 11. you are reading.LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. 8.

I moved. 6. 9. 8. you wouldn’t have got. 2. 7. I would buy. he leaves. 8. I had known. 9. I will answer. Would you buy? 4. 9. you take. he would take. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. he had realized. 8. you will not find. 4. it goes on. 5. 10. 11. 7. 3. I would have answered. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. 7. I will greet 2. you will be. It would have been. I saw. he would have told. I knew. 2. 5. Exercitiul 4: l. I will buy. 10. you would have read. I had worked. I would not have made. 5. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. I would have answered. he would not make. 2. 10. 3. 10.Exercitiul 7: l. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. 9. 3. you were. 4. 8. 6. 4. you had invited. you will not pass. I knew you were in Bucharest. I will lend. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. I wouldn’t do. I were. The secretary told me the manager was busy. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. you had driven. 7. 10. 3. 5. she will be. 4. 3. 6. will you promise? 6. he will get. 7. 2. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. I had not told. 12. Exercitiul 5: 65 . He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. I gave up. 5. 8. you will be. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. Exercitiul 2: 1. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. 6. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. 9. he had tried.

He said she would go shopping right then. Exercitiul 2: 1. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. He said he had gone to England two years before. would you give him some? 3. 6. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. 6. 4. 8. 66 . 11.1. 12. If a beggar asked you for money. If it rained. 9. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. I will eat at a restaurant. 8. 10. 6. 3. 5. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. You will see him if you wait. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. He told me to take that pill. 7. LECTIA IV Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. the streets would have been wet. He told me to open the door. 7. 5. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 9. 2. 7. 4. 6. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. I would like the play more if it were shorter. He told me to read that text. He told me to be careful with his books. 3. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. 2. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. What would you do if you meet John? 12. He said he had seen that film a week before. 3. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. He told me not to smoke so much. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. 8. 5. 5. If dinner is not ready in time. 10. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. If it rains. He said he was very busy on that day. If it had rained. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. 2. 2. 7. the streets will be wet. the streets would be wet. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 4.

He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). He asked me if I drank coffee every day. 7. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. Exercitiul 4: 1. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 3. 10. He asked me if I could lend him a book. The work will be finished today (by them). He asked me how I had travelled. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. 10.English. 7. I have been given a nice present (by them). 10. Your bag has been found (by him). He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. Football is played all over the world.9. 8. I was frightened by the noise. He asked me if my mother had been at home. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. 5. 5. 7. 2. The missing child has been found (by someone). He asked me when I would be back. 11. 4. 3. 2. He asked me when the rain had stopped. 8. 9. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. He asked me if I would like a cake. 4. 6. 9. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 4. He asked me if the train had left. He asked me who that man was. 2. Exercitiul 2: 1. when I passed by. 9. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. 6. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. He asked me if I would help him. He asked me how long I had been learning . My friend will be invited to a party (by me). Exercitiul 3: 1. A nice present has been given to 67 . He asked me what I was going to do the next day. 3. 12. 8. 2. 6. 5. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. Something must be done for him by his coworkers.

He hates people making fun of him. 9. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. 5. 6. English is taught to them (by me). The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 6. The house was broken into (by burglars). 3. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. Exercitiul 4: 1. Fire was set to the shed (by them). People will soon forget this book. They have built this house out of stone and cement. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). They are taught English (by me).me (by them). People mustn’t take away these books. The doctor was called for (by us). A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. Has the dog been fed? 7. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. 2. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). 5. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). John has been lent two of my books (by me). They held a reception in his honour. Exercitiul 3: 1. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). 8. 9.: 3. His proposal was objected to (by us). 7. 5. 10. 2. 6. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 4. 10. 4. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). Exercitiul 6: 68 . Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. 9. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. 4. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. I will be given a reward (by them). 7. 3. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). 8. John was laughed at (by us). The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. A reward will be given to me (by them). People speak English all over the world. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. 8. Were you told about the meeting? 9. 7. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. We will be shown the way by the policeman.

8. John must have been. You didn’t have to do. 69 . Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. 6. 14. 2. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. I won t be able to translate. 5. She could play. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. 4. 5. 3. We were told very interesting things at the conference. She will be able to lend. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. I had to go. 11. Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. 6. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. Many new blocks are being built in our district. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. 16. You were allowed/permitted to leave. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. I will have to learn. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. She will be able to play. I had to learn. He must have been delayed. 12. 12. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. We were asked to show our passports. 9. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. She will be able to read and write. 7. 3 It might have rained. 15. You might have written. 15. 4. 2. 7. I will have to go. Exercitiul 2: 1. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. 10. He could swim. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. She could lend. You won’t have to do. He will be able to swim. He could read and write. It can t have been. 6. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. 5. 10. 2.l. I will have to look up. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. 19. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. 13. I had to look up. The museum was closed for repairs. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. I couldn’t translate. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 8. 3. 4. 14. The child was allowed/permitted to have. He was not allowed/permitted to come. 13.

7. 18. 5. 3. S. 3. should. This can’t be a true story. 5. He must have been. You can’t have seen. 19. You must have forgotten. 2. You can’t have been. 4. He ought to have told. You might have changed. It can’t have been his fault. 9. mustn’t. 6. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 8.You should have visited. mustn’t. would. He must think. 5. needn’t. The weather can’t change. 5. 6. should. She may/might have been out. 3. Exercitiul 7: 1. would. 8. She may/might have returned. 20. You shouldn’t have gone. 6. She can’t have learned English. 9. 4. You needn’t have done. 11. 10. needn’t. It can’t be his fault. 4. You might have paid. 2. It may/might be a good one. needn’t. He can’t have passed. Exercitiul 5: 1. He may have been. 2. It must have been. 9. He must have been late. He needn’t have bought. Exercitiul 6: 1. She can’t have got. It can’t have been. 7. mustn’t. This must be the best. She may/might have been angry. Exercitiul 9: 70 . 7. You can’t miss the train. 15. 9. 8. 12. 10. can. It must have taken a long time. 3. should. needn’t. 4. John could have been. needn’t. You must have known the lesson. 2. 10. Exercitiul 3: 1. She can’t have married. can’t. 7. She may/might be very late. would. 3. I may/might come home. He must have come home. 4: She must be a very good doctor. 10. He may/might have been right. 4. 6. 9. would. can. would. 10. Exercitiul 4: l. 8. 7. You must have left your umbrella. He must be older. Exercitiul 8: l. 14. 6. 3. 13. can’t. He should have gone. 8. can. 6. It may/might rain. He can’t be at the office. 17. would. 9. mustn’t. 5. 16. 2. should. He may/might have done. 5. 10. 7. mustn’t. 2. can.

as I knew the information was recorded on tape. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. 6. didn’t need to buy. 5. shall. 8. 24. shall. 10. 13. 10. 2. 14. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 17. 2. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. shall. 4. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". 6. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. 9. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 12. 9. You ought to/should have insisted. 3. 5. didn’t need to wait. 5. 6.1. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. You needn’t have made coffee for me. All the children ought to/should do some housework. No. will. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. can’t have rained. you shall have the book tomorrow. will. must have been. 26. can’t have left. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. You will have to help me more today. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. must have been. 10. can’t have done. 3. 16. I have already drunk two. needn’t have lent. 10. I had locked it myself 27. I rang you up and nobody answered. Exercitiul 10: 1. 18. 4. Exercitiul 12: 1. 7. needn’t have written. 7. will. 9. will. 23. 11. 8. can’t have seen. 19. 2. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. 4. You can’t have found the door open. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. didn’t need to see. 25. needn’t have answered. I promise you. 3. shall. must have left. 3. needn’t have got up. needn’t have waited. 7. 8. 9. needn’t have lent. 20. a porter could help you. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. needn’t have bought. All the students can and must write this paper. today. 21. 6. 22. I can’t knit. I will have to leave soon. 7. will. 2. didn’t need to answer. I could play the piano when I was a child. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. 4. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. Exercitiul 11: 1. will. 8. must have taken. Exercitiul 13: 1. can’t have swum. I must have been still at the faculty. Where shall we 71 . 5.

I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 3. 13. I were. 3. 2. I wish he would accept my proposal. I got. Exercitiul 2: l. Will you. I would become. 5. I wish I had money to buy that painting. 9. 6. 29. 3. Exercitiul 3: 1. you started. 11. you closed. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. I wish it didn’t rain so often. S. 1 wish I had children. I wish they would sign the contract. I wish I could pay the piano. 4. watched. I stayed. 9. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 72 . I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. his daughter didn’t get married. I wish you didn’t live so far away. 5. 19. 14. Exercitiul 4: 1. I were. I wish you would come on holiday with me. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. 6. I wish you had won the competition. 7. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 4. 7. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. 9. I wish books weren’t so expensive. 2. 8. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 4. I wish I didn’t have only one child. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. You may not speak during the exam. 6. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. S. you owned. 20. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 6. you were. 2. please. I wish I could go to the concert. 10. 7. 17. 18. I wish I were a student. he would have. 8. 4. 10. I wish I lived in Bucharest. 15. my telephone worked. he took. I wish my friend weren’t ill. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. you didn’t waste. I hadn’t forgotten. 16. 7. 10. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. wait for a few minutes? 30. stopped. I wish you would take a driving licence. 8. he told. 3. we went. 2. I had entered. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. I wish I had won the Great Prize. 8. 9. 12. hadn’t caught a cold. 10. his book would become.go now? 28.

4. 20. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. She looks as if she were a model. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. 4. 9. 3. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 3. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. 18. 7. 12. 19. He suggested that we (should) buy this house.Exercitiul 5: l. 7. 6. 6. too. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. 11. It is important that you (should) know English well. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. Exercitiul 8: 73 . but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. 5. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 9. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. 8. You speak as if you were angry with me. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. 4. 16. 13. Exercitiul 6: 1. 5. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. 17. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. 6. 8. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 14. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. I would rather you got up earlier. we could go to the beach. I insist that you (should) accept this job. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. 2. 2. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. I would rather you went to the theatre. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 10.

7. 3. 4. 10. 5. 4. 4. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 3. 12. John admitted the fault to be his. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. you can’t win such a competition. hadn’t broken down. (should) have. Exercitiul 2: 1. 9. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. I heard her scold/scolding her child. it should get. I will be at home waiting for you. 15. should have told. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. 5. 13. 2. 7. might prosper. 9. I watched them playing football. he were. I saw some children playing in the park. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. 8. you may/might be. He wanted me to help him. 14. he were. 2. She made me understand what had happened. I would find. 10. 15. Whenever you may/might return. 13. 6. I 74 . 19. 11. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. you shouldn’t lie to me. 10. I had. 11. 2. I can’t believe you. 7.1. you should have. 9. I rely on you to lend me some money. 3. This is a good book for you to read. 5. we (should) leave. I saw him speaking to his friend. This is the main thing for us to do. 6. you shouldn’t have believed it. I think him to be a good husband. 14. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. Mother would like me to become a doctor. may attend. 8. 2. 3. 18. No matter how hard you may/might try. 6. it might not get. The people were impatient for the match to begin. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 4. I had been. It is possible that she might be away. 6. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. 8. I expected you to come earlier. Exercitiul 9: 1. 16. 12. she should have left. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 17. you may/might understand. Whatever the reason may/might be. we should take. they (should) divorce. 5. Whatever you may/might tell me. 20. 8. 9. you retired. He made me miss the train. 7.

10. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. Exercitiul 4: 1. She was seen fainting. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. 9. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. It’s time for us to meet again. am plecat la cumparaturi. 4. a trebuit sa-i schimb. 7. Daca vremea va permite. 10. am plecat acasa linistit. publicul a parasit sala. The boy was found breaking the window. 9.ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. She could be heard typing. 7. This is a strange thing for her to have said. Exercitiul 6: 1. 6. 10. 4. 3. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. She was said to be ill. The child was heard breaking the vase. ne-am asezat la cina. 6. The hunters were heard shooting. ne-am grabit spre plaja. 7. 10. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. Intrucât soarele rasarise. 9. 5. 2. It is recommendable for you to read this book. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE 75 . It is advisable for you to resign. 6. It is possible for me to buy a car. It is necessary for him to be present. 9. 2. 3. 8. 2. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. 3. Intrucât ploaia incetase. 8. Exercitiul 5: 1. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. The baby was heard crying. She was seen lying on the beach. She seemed to be satisfied with me. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. He was heard to repeat it several times. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. It is impossible for him to have said that. 7. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. The plane was seen landing. He was expected to resign. 8. It is important for you to come to the office at once. They are sure to have had an argument. am mers sa o pun la posta. 10. 5. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. 8. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. 2. 5. The peasants were seen working in the field. She (was) proved to be a liar. Concertul fiind terminat. 4. 5. She was found digging in the garden. Toata lumea fiind acasa. 3. 6.

were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt been borne.to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream was. born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt 76 .

to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt 77 .

learned left lent let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold 78 .to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell knew laid led leant learnt. learned left lent let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold known laid led leant learnt.

to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove set sewn shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven 79 .

to swear to sweep to swim to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand 1 swore swept swam took taught told thought threw understood sworn swept swum taken taught told thought thrown understood 80 .

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