March/April 2011
Cinematic Stories of
Sporting Heroes
March/April 2011 3
intellect | www.intellectbooks.co.uk Published by
04 | Reel World
Rocky Runners
1 8 | one Sheet
Sporting Greats
26 | Four Frames
The Natural
32 | on Location
Milan, Spain
36 | Screengem
Jake LaMotta's
Championship Belt
40 | Parting Shot
Copycat Killer
46 | Listings
A roundup of this issue's
featured flms
contents Issue Thirteen. March/April 2011
06 | Spotlight
Good Sports:
Six Cinematic Stories of
Real-life Sporting Heroes
14 | Art & Film
Last Exit To Nowhere:
An Innovative Range of
Cult Film-Themed T-shirts
24 | Widescreen
Small But Perfectly Formed:
The World's Smallest
Travelling Movie Theatre
28 | 1000 Words
First Past The Post:
The Infuence of Eadweard
Muybridge and Sallie
Gardner at a Gallop
‘The horse is too small, the
jockey too big, the trainer
too old, and I'm too dumb
to know the difference.'
Charles Howard
The Big Picture ISSN1759-0922 © 2011 intellect Ltd. Published by Intellect Ltd. The Mill, Parnall Road. Bristol BS16 3JG / www.intellectbooks.com
Editorial ofce Tel. 0117 9589910 / E: info@thebigpicturemagazine.comPublisher Masoud Yazdani Senior Editor & Art DirectionGabriel Solomons Editor Scott Jordan Harris
Design Assistant Persephone Coelho Contributors Jez Conolly, Nicholas Page, Emma Simmonds, Neil Mitchell, Nathan Francis, Scott Jordan Harris, Gabriel Solomons
Please send all email enquiries to: info@thebigpicturemagazine.com / www.thebigpicturemagazine.com l The Big Picture magazine is published six times a year
The Directory of World Cinema aims to play a part in moving intelligent, scholarly criticism beyond the
academy. Each volume of the Directory provides a culturally representative insight into a national or regional
cinema through a collection of reviews, essays, resources, and flm stills highlighting signifcant flms and
players. Over time, new editions will be published for each volume, gradually building a comprehensive
guide to the cinema of each region. To contribute to the project or purchase copies please visit the website.
To viewour catalogue or order our books and journals visit www.intellectbooks.com. Intellect, The Mill, Parnall Road, Fishponds, Bristol, BS16 3JG. | Tel: +44 (0) 117 9589910
experience global culture
through the magic of film
directory of

started its Millennial festivities
with 2000 Rocky fans, all in
costume, making the famous
upwards dash. The motiva-
tions for the thigh-pumping
pilgrimages made by Rocky
Runners are often, though,
greater than a simple desire
to ape a movie scene – or
even participate in city-wide
celebrations – and some of the
most compelling were cap-
tured by Michael Vitez in his
2006 book Rocky Stories.
The same year as Vitez re-
leased his book, Stallone gave
some Rocky Runners an even
greater honour than immortal-
isation in its pages: immortali-
sation in a Rocky movie. After
the fnal bell rings in Rocky
Balboa (Stallone, 2006), the
credits scroll alongside images
of dozens of delighted Rocky
Runners. Seldom have the
movies and real life collided as
famously, or as powerfully, as
do at the Rocky Steps. [tbp]
March/April 2011 5
gofurther Read Rocky Stories: Tales of Love, Hope, and Happiness at america’s Most Famous Steps by Michael Vitez (author) and Tom Gralish (Photographer)
When Rocky Balboa ran up the steps beneath
Philadelphia’s Museum of Modern Art, he
inspired innumerable real-life runners to the
same. Scott Jordan HarriS tries to keep up.
No sequeNce i N ci Nema
is as simply inspiring as Syl-
vester Stallone’s frst sprint up
the 72 steps that lead to the
Philadelphia Museum of Art
(Rocky [Avildsen, 1976]). The
scene is a strong metaphor –
here is a man who refuses to
languish at the bottom of life,
powering himself to the top
through sheer effort – but it
appeals to audiences not only
because of its fgurative power,
but also because it can literally
be imitated. The Rocky Steps,
as they are now universally
known, returned for four of
Rocky’s fve sequels, and each
appearance increased the
number of fans who headed to
them to recreate Rocky’s run.
Indeed, so much a feature
of Philadelphia have ‘Rocky
Runners’ become that the city
left slyvester stallone as rocKy balboa
below trooP 2016 running uP tHe 'rocKy' stePs
fi lm beyond the borders of the screen
reel world
4 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
Here is a man who
refuses to languish at the
bottom of life powering
himself to the top
through sheer effort...
6 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
ci nema' s themati c strands
Te sports biopic is perhaps the most popular sub-genre of
the sports movie. Jez conolly and nei l Mi tcHell team up
to look at six cinematic stories of real-life sporting heroes.
March/April 2011 7
Knute Rockne is the American
football-themed flm that
gave former US President
Ronald Reagan the nickname
‘the Gipper’. Reagan plays
freshman George Gipp, who
is discovered by Notre Dame
team coach Rockne (Pat
O’Brien) and added to the
team as halfback, leading to a
winning streak. Tragedy dims
the team’s triumphs when Gipp
is struck down with a fatal
illness. Cue Coach Rockne’s
much-repeated and frequently
parodied half-time ‘win one for
the Gipper’ pep talk during a
key game in the 1928 season.
Reagan is only on-screen for
eight of the flm’s 98 minutes
but his four scenes stand out as
its emotional heart; the ‘Gipper’
tag stuck and was used to mock
and champion Reagan with
equal measure throughout his
political career. O’Brien’s per-
formance as Rockne, gradually
crippled by phlebitis and even-
tually killed in a plane crash,
helped make Knute Rockne All-
American an early example of
a sports flm that made grown
men cry. [Jez Conolly]
'Knute RocKne All-
AmeRicAn' AKA 'A
modeRn HeRo' (1940)
Dir. Lloyd Bacon
above and left
ronald reagan
reagan is only
onscreen for
eight of the film’s
98 minutes but
his four scenes
stand out as its
emotional heart
Kobal (2)
8 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
tom Hooper’s
adaptation of david
Peace’s novel...is
an affectionate and
humourous portrait of
the hubris, arrogance
and unyielding drive of
‘the greatest manager
england never had’.
One of the fercest rivalries Eng-
lish football has seen came not
between two teams but between
legendary manager Brian Clough
(Michael Sheen) and Don Revie
(Colm Meaney), whose cham-
pionship-winning Leeds United
Clough dubbed ‘the dirtiest and
most cynical team in the country.’
Tom Hooper’s adaptation of Da-
vid Peace’s novel, a fctionalised
account of Clough’s disastrous
44-day reign as Leeds’ manager,
is an affectionate and humorous
portrait of the hubris, arrogance
and unyielding drive of ‘the great-
est manager England never had.’
Alongside Clough and Revie’s
enmity, The Damned United charts
the touching ‘bromance’ between
Clough and his long-time assis-
tant, Peter Taylor (Timothy Spall).
The briefy estranged colleagues
are re-united after Clough’s chas-
tening sacking from Leeds, with
‘Ol’ Big ‘Ed’ falling to his knees
and begging Taylor ‘Baby, please
take me back.’ After the events of
the flm, Revie’s career petered
out, while the pair took Notting-
ham Forest to European Cup-
winning glory in 1979 and 1980.
[Neil Mitchell]
tHe dAmned united
Dir. Tom Hooper
Seabiscuit was the perfect hero
for Depression-era America – his
was a classic story of the under-
dog winning through against the
odds – but we have to wait over
40 minutes into Gary Ross’ screen
adaptation of the Laura Hillen-
brand 2001 bestseller, Seabiscuit:
An American Legend, before we
actually get to see the eponymous
legendary racehorse. This is a flm
focused at least as much, if not
more, on the human story of the
three men behind Seabiscuit’s suc-
cess as about Seabiscuit himself.
The horse’s owner, car magnate
Charles Howard (Jeff Bridges),
trainer Tom Smith (Chris Cooper)
and jockey Red Pollard (Tobey
Maguire) all carry deep emotional
wounds and are brought together
by a damaged horse – Seabiscuit
was a knock-kneed, undersized,
overlooked thoroughbred – in
which they see hope and fnd
healing. This critically lauded flm
failed at the box offce despite its
successful attempt to embody the
best and most noble qualities of
the human spirit. [Jez Conolly]
SeAbiScuit (2003)
dir. Gary Ross
above left
micHael sHeen
tobey maguire
March/April 2011 9
seabiscuit was
a knock-kneed,
undersized, overlooked
was a classic story of
the underdog winning
through against
the odds
spotlight good sports
ronald lee ermey, ed o'neill and Jared leto
above left
Paul newman
Rocky’s early life
was marred by an
abusive father, street
fghting, petty crime,
reform school, jail and
eventually military
Kobal (2)
Paul Newman’s career-making
portrayal of Rocky Graziano’s
troubled life and turbulent
rise to boxing’s middleweight
championship of the world tells
a real life tale of sporting glory
achieved very much against
the odds. Born Thomas Rocco
Barbella in New York City, the
future champ was, as respected
boxing writer Bert Sugar noted,
‘raised on the Lower East Side,
where both sides of the tracks
were wrong.’ Rocky’s early life
was marred by an abusive father,
street fghting, petty crime, reform
school, jail and eventually military
prison; but it was his fearsome
reputation as a brawler that
eventually gave his wayward life
the focus it needed. Graziano was
frmly established in American
sporting legend by the three
ferocious title bouts fought against
his ferce rival Tony Zale (Court
Shepard). He may have only held
the title for a year, but his is an
inspirational story for all of life’s
underdogs. [Neil Mitchell]
Somebody uP tHeRe
liKeS me (1956)
Dir. Robert Wise
10 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
the diminutive Prefontaine, born
with one leg slightly shorter than
the other, was a central fgure
in the ‘running boom’ that swept
America in the 1970s.
The short life of American middle
and long distance runner Steve
Prefontaine (Jared Leto) is cele-
brated in this flm by Hoop Dreams
(1994) director Steve James.
Prefontaine was tragically killed
in a car accident at 24, but his life
story was packed full of sporting
achievement, dramatic events and
moments of controversy.
Displaying an aggressively
single-minded determination, the
diminutive Prefontaine, born with
one leg slightly shorter than the
other, was a central fgure in the
‘running boom’ that swept Amer-
ica in the 1970s. James’ flm en-
compasses his dramatic failure to
take a medal at the 1972 Munich
Olympics, his much-criticised dis-
pute over appearance fees with the
Amateur Athletic Union (AAU)
and his staggering record of 120
victories in 153 races. Coached
by Bill Bowerman (R. Lee Er-
mey), whose Blue Ribbon Sports
company later became Nike, Pre-
fontaine was adored by his fans,
smashed records and ran his way
into sporting history.
[Neil Mitchell]
PRefontAine (1997)
Dir. Steve James
spotlight good sports
March/April 2011 11
ci nema' s themati c strands
12 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
go further [BookS] The damned United by david Peace and Seabiscuit: an american Legend by Laura Hillenbrand
March/April 2011 13
Considered by many to be the
fnest sports flm of all, The
Pride of the Yankees tells the
rags-to-riches story of baseball
legend Lou Gehrig and his he-
roic losing battle against illness.
The baseball theme shares
the screen with a moving love
story (included to appeal to
women, the main body of US
wartime cinemagoers) and a
stirring patriotism designed to
rouse the nation in the wake of
the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Gary Cooper, starring as
Gehrig, worked hard to emulate
the great man but, being right-
handed, had to rely on some
screen trickery to replicate
Gehrig’s left-handed batting
style: director Sam Wood flmed
Cooper batting right-handed
and fipped the negative to
make him appear left-handed.
To avoid the obvious oddities,
the lettering on Cooper’s cap
and uniform had to be reversed
and, when he hit the ball, he
had to remember to run to third
base instead of frst.
[Jez Conolly]
tHe PRide of tHe
yAnKeeS (1942)
Dir. Sam Wood
the pride of the
yankees tells the
story of baseball
legend lou gehrig
and his heroic
losing battle
against illness
gary cooPer
vi sual art i nspi red by fi lm
Te quintessence of cool, the range of cult flm-themed T-shirts by Last
Exit To Nowhere have taken the market by storm, bridging the worlds
of geek fandom and retro culture in style. Mike Ford, who once played
guitar for Nottingham punk band Consumed, is the guiding force behind
the innovative clothing line, which has paid homage to flms as diverse
as Te Ting (Carpenter, 1982) to Te Karate Kid (Avildsen, 1984) with
their sharp and witty designs. Te Big Picture caught up with Ford to
discuss Last Exit To Nowhere’s cinematic couture.
t o n o wH e r e
l a S t

When and how did the initial
concept for Last Exit to
Nowhere come to be?
The idea for the company
developed from my love of
cinema, collecting T-shirts, and
a feeling of being creatively
stifed at the design agency
I worked for at the time. My
brother is a screen printer by
trade, and I’ve always been
able to take ideas from popu-
lar/retro culture – including
flms – and design and produce
bespoke garments.
Can you describe your
creative philosophy?
I like to design T-shirts that ref-
erence my favourite flms. I’m
happy for people to buy them
if they like them too.
What was the frst T-shirt
design you created?
It was a band T-shirt for a UK
death metal band in 1987. The
frst flm based design was a
Thorn Industries T-shirt based
upon the fctional company
seen in The Omen (Donner,
1976; Taylor, 1978; Baker,
1981) trilogy in 1998.
How do you choose the flm
and detail to develop into one
of your designs?
Simply by watching flms!
Is it a struggle to identify
new flms and details to de-
velop into fresh designs?
I think there is a wealth of
ideas and new inspiration to be
drawn from old and new flms.
the idea for the company
developed from my love
of cinema, collecting
t-shirts, and a feeling of
being creatively stifed
at the design agency i
worked for at the time.
14 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com March/April 2011 15
clocKwise from toP left
forrest gumP
indiana Jones and tHe temPle of doom
tHere will be blood
raiders of tHe lost arK
ferris bueller's day off
taxi driver
suPerman ii (1980)
How long does the design
process take from original
idea through to the fnished
Some ideas come and it can
take just a couple of weeks to
turn it around. Other ideas stay
locked away for months before
making an appearance.
Do you often fnd yourself
noticing details watching re-
cent flms which would make
great Last Exit to Nowhere
Yes. It’s almost impossible for
me not to now.
the frst flm based
design was a thorn
industries t-shirt
based upon the
fctional company
seen in the omen
trilogy in 1998.
vi sual art i nspi red by fi lm
clocKwise from below
brazil / antiHeroes tHrougHout cinema / alien / blade runner / soylent green / tHe blues brotHers
[weB] www.lastexittonowhere.com seemore...
Have you ever wanted to de-
velop a detail from a flm into
a new design but have been
denied the right to do so?
Not so much denied, but
encouraged not to – for legal
reasons. We’d love to be able to
do references from the Duncan
Jones flm Moon (2009).
Have you ever received re-
quests for any particular
flms or details to be made
into a design?
Yes, we encourage people to
send in their ideas and sug-
gestions to us. It’s good to
know what folk think about
what we do.
What has been your most
popular design to date?
Our sci-f T-shirts are probably
the most successful.
What are your company’s
forthcoming projects and
overall plans for the future?
We’d like the company to con-
tinue in the way it has been
developing, offering new and
interesting designs along the
way. If you ‘Join Us’ at Last
Exit To Nowhere you can
qualify for discounts and spe-
cial membership offers. With
enough members we are hop-
ing to conquer a small country.
gHost busters
16 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com March/April 2011 17

ports are an increas-
ingly important part of
our culture and society
and so it is ftting that
the sports movie has
become such an important part
of cinema. As the following
examples prove, the genre is re-
sponsible for some wonderfully
designed movie posters.
Chariots of Fire (1981)
Original US One Sheet
Whether about tennis or football, surfng or skiing,
cinema has served up some memorable sporting stories.
ni cHolaS Page looks at a few of the posters that sold them
to us. Images courtesy of Te Reel Poster Gallery, London.
deconstructi ng fi lm posters
one sheet
The use of space and composition in
this poster for Hugh Hudson’s Chari-
ots of Fire is outstanding. The poster,
which shows a group of athletes from
the flm training for the 1924 Olym-
pics in Paris, uses negative space in
order to emphasise (to quote the Brit-
ish writer Allan Sillitoe) ‘the loneli-
ness of the long distance runner’. Un-
fortunately, this brilliant and some-
what unconventional design wasn’t
initially used to market the flm in the
West. After the success of Chariots
of Fire at the 1981 Academy Awards
(where it scooped four awards), the
flm was a promoted in America us-
ing a more standard poster so as to
show off these recent achievements.
gofurther... www.reelposter.com [Book] Josef Vyletal: Painter of death by Rostislav Sarvas
18 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
What frankfurt came
up with changed the
art of title design, and
led to the realisation
that movies could – and
perhaps should – be
packaged and sold in
their totality.
This poster for Ida Lupino’s tennis
drama Hard, Fast and Beautiful is
slightly more conventional than the
other posters here, but does well to
encapsulate the importance art once
held in the creation of successful
movie marketing material. Just as we
see with the posters for commercial
releases these days, it has always
been important to feature each of the
movie’s stars in order to sell it suc-
cessfully – and at the very least this
meant employing an artist who could
accurately draw characters that would
then be recognised by the general
public. This, of course, isn’t the fnest
artistic example, but it does also show
us an early use of the tagline.
This iconic poster for Michael
Ritchie’s 1969 flm Downhill Racer
is one of a number by successful
designer, art director and advertis-
ing mogul Stephen Frankfurt. At just
25 Frankfurt was noticed and hired
by producer Alan J. Pakula to design
the title sequence for Robert Mul-
ligan’s 1962 adaptation of To Kill a
Mockingbird. What Frankfurt came up
with changed the art of title design,
and led to the realisation that mov-
ies could – and perhaps should – be
packaged and sold in their totality. For
Frankfurt, simplicity and directness
(note the use of the tagline here) was
a must, and this can be seen not only
in this but also the remarkably similar
poster he designed for Roman Polan-
ski’s Rosemary’s Baby the year before.
Hard, Fast and Beautiful (1951)
Original US Insert
Downhill Racer (1969)
Original US One Sheet
Art by Stephen Frankfurt
20 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
The Film International Website
Come experience the miracle
Resurrected – Redesigned – Reanimated
New look, new material, features, reviews,
interviews, classic favourites, frequent updates.
The Endless Summer (1966)
Original US One Sheet
Art by John Van Hamersveld
22 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
Illustrator and graphic artist John
Van Hamersveld is perhaps best
known for designing the album
sleeves and concert posters of
popular and psychedelic bands
during the 1960s and ‘70s. He was
behind such covers as those used
for The Beatles’ Magical Mystery
Tour, Jefferson Airplane’s Crown of
Creation and The Rolling Stones’
Exile on Main St. From there, he
descended into the corporate world
of logo design, but not before
contributing this poster for Bruce
Brown’s 1966 crossover hit movie,
The Endless Summer. Here, Van
Hamersveld uses his experience
as a graphic designer for popular
surfng magazines to create a
striking image of one feeting but
memorable moment in American
history. [tbp]
Van Hamersveld uses his experience as
a graphic designer for popular surfng
magazines to create a striking image of
one feeting but memorable moment in
American history.
one sheet sporting greats
Powered entirely by the rays of the sun, the
aptly named Sol Cinema is the World's smallest
(and sweetest) travelling movie theatre.
to fi nd out more vi si t www. thesolci nema. org
seei ng fi lm i n a wi der context
24 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com March/April 2011 25 24 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com March/April 2011 25
developed by Swansea
based non-proft production
company Undercurrents, The
Sol Cinema is just one in a
series of initiatives set up by the
company to highlight envi-
ronmental issues in a fun and
creative way. The Sol Cinema
certainly ticks both these boxes
plus a few more as it refects
both the macro Eco-cool con-
sumer trend for all things green
as well as the nostalgic vintage
trend. The 1960s caravan con-
version snugly seats 8 adults and
offers up a unique cinematic
experience - screening an ec-
lectic range of short flms with
inspiring environment themes.
Lavished with pride, style and
a bubbly crew of usherettes, the
micro cinema uses lithium bat-
teries to store the energy from
the Sun to power the cinema
throughout the day and night
and the photovoltaic panel har-
nesses the sunlight, even as the
flms are being shown, so they
never run out of power.
The cinema is currently in the
running to win £5,000 from
The Co-operative group for the
best project to educate about
climate change, so to cast your
vote simply visit www.co-oper-
ative.coop and click on the 'Join
The Revolution' link. [tbp]
26 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
the art of abbrevi ated storytelli ng
four frames
Beyond BaseBall
When Barry Levinson
tried to make a baseball
movie for more than
baseball fans, he hit a
home run. Jez conolly
takes us out to the ball
March/April 2011 27
‘ Y o u d o N ’ t h a v e t o l o v e
[insert sport here] to love this flm.’
It’s a phrase often used by reviewers
keen to convince non-sports fans
that a movie isn’t going to be a just
another ball game – albeit one shot
from multiple angles. The phrase is
often close to the truth but it has never
been closer than in the case of Barry
Levinson’s The Natural (1984). Forget
about shortstops, pitchers, curveballs
and home runs. This is more than a
flm about baseball: it is a flm about
fundamental darkness and light.
Cinematographer Caleb Deschanel’s
backlighting technique and use of
flters to direct and diffuse light sources
lend the flm its sense of nostalgic
magic realism. In a key scene, an
angelically lit Glenn Close inspires
Robert Redford to a hit that takes
out the scoreboard clock; a moment
captured by the fashlights of the press
photographers. In that instant her astral
presence has caused time to stop.
Read More f o u r f r a me s online at
Te Natural, Dir. Barry Levinson, 1984
1000 words
moments that changed ci nema forever
sallie gardner at a galloP
Eadweard Muybridge’s nineteenth century
short of a galloping a horse named Sallie
inspired scientists, artists – and cinema
itself. Scott Jordan Harri S saddles up.
W h e N t h e Y t i r e o f
discussing whether the Mike
Tyson of 1987 could beat
the Muhammad Ali of 1974,
those who like to debate box-
ing often argue over who is
‘pound for pound’ the best
boxer of all. They suppose
there is an equation in which
a boxer’s amount of ability
can be divided by his weight
to give a per pound measure
of his powers. In this way a
featherweight can, at least in
a boxing fan’s fantasies, be
fairly matched against a su-
per heavyweight.
Were flms assessed by
a similar method, with a
movie’s amount of infuence
divided by its running time,
there would be one undisput-
ed pound for pound cham-
pion of the cinema. Eadweard
Muybridge’s three-second
short, Sallie Gardner at a Gal-
lop, has legitimate claims to
be both the frst and most
infuential flm ever made
– and, while the infuence
of most monumental flms
extends only to other flms, its
infuence reaches into science,
art and photography.
Muybridge shot Sallie
Gardner at Palo Alto, Califor-
nia, on 19 June 1878. Present
were an array of reporters
and Leland Stanford, an
industrialist with whom (de-
pending upon which sources
you consult) Muybridge was
either engaged in a noble
experiment or locked in a
high-stakes wager. Their pur-
pose was to answer a simple
but puzzling question: did
a horse at full gallop ever
lift all four of its feet off the
ground simultaneously?
Muybridge, already a re-
nowned photographer, had
found the answer a year ear-
lier, when he took a series of
pictures of a racehorse called
Occident; but questions over
the processes to which he
subjected his photographic
negative caused his fndings to
be discredited. His set-up at
Palo Alto ensured the results
of the Sallie Gardner experi-
ment could not be doubted.

The Infuence of Eadweard Muybridge
and Sallie Gardner at a Gallop
March/April 2011 29 28 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
[Book] Read Muybridge’s Horse: a poemin three phases by Rob winger and eadweard Muybridge, the Complete Locomotion Photographs by Hans-Christian adam
He planned and measured
the course the horse would
run, and then he planned and
measured a path parallel to
it. Along this he positioned
24 regularly spaced cameras
and a rigged series of trip
wires that, once broken by
the horse, would each activate
one of the cameras. To make
the process as transparent as
possible, he not only had the
press in situ, but also the fa-
cilities to develop the pictures
as soon as they were taken.
And so, ridden by a jockey
known as ‘Domm’, Sallie
Gardner began her gallop. A
few seconds passed, 24 shut-
ters snapped, and the pio-
neering pictures were taken.
Muybridge developed them
and, once he had fnished, the
results were clear. Soon, the
world knew that a horse in
fast motion did indeed lift all
four hooves from the ground
at the same time.
As worthy of celebration
as this is it does not account
for the experiment’s infuence
on cinema. That came when
Muybridge adapted the im-
ages so they could be shown
as a moving sequence through
the proto-projector he had
invented. Viewed via the Zoo-
praxiscope, Sallie Gardner at
a Gallop became perhaps the
world’s frst flm.
Whether it really was the
world’s frst flm will always
be debated. Certainly, Sallie
Gardner was a motion picture
– but, as essentially a high-
speed slide show, was it really
a flm? The famous Roundhay
Garden Scene, made ten years
later by Louis Aimé Augustin
Le Prince in the eponymous
area of Leeds, was the frst
movie shot on celluloid,
which is to say it was the
frst movie to be made using
flm – and that gives it a very
strong claim to the title of
the world’s frst flm. But, if
a flm must be made on flm
to earn the name, are movies
shot entirely on digital cam-
eras not truly flms?
Such arguments tend
towards the endless and, ulti-
mately, whether Sallie Gardner
was the frst true flm is im-
material. What matters is the
enormous signifcance it had
in the development of flm-
making. Eadweard Muybridge
1000 words first past the post
and his Zoopraxiscope led
to Thomas Edison and his
Kinetoscope, which led to the
Lumière brothers and their
Cinématograph, which over-
took the Skladanowsky broth-
ers and their Bioscope, to lead
us to the earliest incarnation
of cinema as we know it.
Few flms, then, can boast
of an infuence on cinema
equal to that of Sallie Gardner
– but none can boast of com-
bining it with Sallie Gardner’s
impact upon photography, art
and science. The flm’s infu-
ence on flm was almost inci-
dental (after all, Muybridge
was seeking to solve a scien-
tifc problem, not invent an
art form). More immediate
was its infuence on the way
scientists understood biome-
chanics and the way artists
appreciated motion.
While it seems unlikely
that scientists still refer to
Sallie Gardner during their
work – its appeal for them,
surely, is purely historical
– its appeal for artists per-
sists. Muybridge’s studies
of bodies in motion have
inspired artists as promi-
nent as Francis Bacon and
Marcel Duchamp (whose
1912 ‘Nude Descending a
Staircase No. 2’ is famously
descended from Muybridge’s
1887 ‘Woman Walking
Downstairs’) and are clas-
sic reference models for
animators and cartoonists.
Sallie Gardner in particular
continues to inspire: in 2007,
Canadian poet Rob Winger
published Muybridge’s Horse,
a book-length poem retelling
the story of Sallie Gardner
and its creator.
Even more impressively,
when the Wachowski siblings,
and their visual effects su-
pervisor, John Gaeta, came
to create The Matrix trilogy
(1999–2003), they used the
120-year-old flm as a model
while developing the tech-
niques necessary for their
now-famous ‘bullet time’ ef-
fect. Though the still cameras
used in flming The Matrix
trilogy’s ultra-slow motion
sequences were far more
numerous and sophisticated
than those used on Sallie
Gardner (in The Matrix up to
120 camera were employed,
allowing recording of up to
12,000 frames per second),
the principles were remark-
ably similar to those used
in, and were drawn directly
from, Muybridge’s work.
And, of all the evidence
of Sallie Gardner’s signif-
cance, its infuence on the
Wachowskis and Gaeta
– twenty-frst century flm-
makers looking to stretch the
boundaries of cinema – is
the most persuasive. When
Muybridge took 24 quick fre
photographs of a racehorse
in the summer of 1878 it
wasn’t simply a moment that
changed movies: it was a mo-
ment that is still changing
them now. [tbp]
tHe matrix
When the Wachowski
siblings, and their visual
effects supervisor, John
Gaeta, came to create the
matrix trilogy, they used
the 120-year-old flm as a
model while developing the
techniques necessary for
their now-famous ‘bullet
time’ effect.
30 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
the places that make the movi es
on location
Standing in the shadow of its colossal
cathedral under typically grey skies, it’s
difcult not to feel inspired by Milan’s
Gothic beauty. ni cHolaS Page takes a tour.
Michelangelo Antonioni’s La Notte
concerns, among other things,
the embattled wife of a suc-
cessful writer (played by Jeanne
Moreau), who one day, while
feeling particularly alienated from
her current life, decides to escape
the party thrown to celebrate the
release of her husband’s new book
and embarks on an aimless walk
through the streets. From an op-
pressive circle of cocktail glasses
and chatter, she is thrust into a
city of humming machinery, the
rhythmic beating of engines and
the screeching of sirens. This is
modern Milan, and few have ever
depicted it – indeed, have depicted
many things – in quite the same
way as Antonioni.
lA notte (1961)
Dir. Michelangelo Antonioni
Italy, 115 minutes
Starring Marcello
Mastroianni, Jeanne Moreau,
Monica Vitti
Rocco and his Brothers follows a
poor Southern family who migrate
to Milan during the economic
boom of the 1950s in search of
work and a better life. Led by
their embattled mother, Rosaria
(Katina Paxinou), four of the fve
brothers – Simone (Renato Sal-
vatori), Luca (Rocco Vidolazzi),
Ciro (Max Cartier) and Rocco
(Delon) – travel to the North by
train with the hope that the fam-
ily’s eldest son, Vincenzo (Spiros
Focas), will be able to fnd them
all somewhere to stay. Simone
and Rocco fnd some success as
boxers before eventually fghting
over the beautiful Nadia (Annie
Girardot), a prostitute with dark
eyes who enters their lives as if
by chance and eventually cause a
fatal rift in the family.
Rocco And HiS bRotHeRS
Dir. Luchino Visconti
Italy, 168 minutes
Starring Alain Delon, Renato
Salvatori, Annie Giradot
32 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com March/April 2011 33
the places that make the movi es
on location
miRAcle in milAn (1951)
Dir. Vittorio De Sica
Italy, 100 minutes
Starring Francesco Golisano,
Emma Gramatica, Paolo Stoppa
i Am loVe (2009)
Dir. Luca Guadagnino
Italy, 120 minutes
Starring Tilda Swinton, Flavio
Parenti, Edoardo Gabbriellini
In dealing with the lavish upper rungs of Milan’s
social ladder, Luca Guadagnino’s I Am Love has drawn
numerous comparisons from critics to the work of
infuential Italian flm-maker Luchino Visconti. It stars
English actress Tilda Swinton as Emma Recchi, the
bored daughter-in-law of a wealthy Italian textile baron
who, upon discovering the homosexuality of her artist
daughter, is inspired to fnd her own liberation. To this
end, Emma is drawn towards one of her son’s friends,
a local chef named Antonio (Gabbriellini), and the pair
begin a tentative romantic relationship.
Vittorio De Sica had a diffcult task in creating a flm
with similar themes to his beloved 1948 flm Bicycle
Thieves as a follow up to it. And yet Miracle in Milan
stands in its own right as a tale of poverty, freedom and
happiness in post-war Italy. Using both actors and non-
actors in the classic neorealist way, De Sica’s fantasy
documents the struggles of a young boy named Totò,
who is found in a cabbage patch and adopted by an old
woman, before being shunted into an orphanage by the
system once she passes away.
[FILM] watch Il posto (1961) Cronaca di un amore (1950), Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (1963) gofurther...
miracle in milan
i am love
the bored daughter-in-law of a
wealthy italian textile baron, upon
discovering the homosexuality of
her artist daughter, is inspired to
fnd her own liberation.
34 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com March/April 2011 35
seemore Read ‘Screengem: Bingham’s Backpack’ on TheBigPictureMagazine.com
robert deNi ro’ s Jake
LaMotta is seldom up on
his luck, but in one of the
passages of Raging Bull
when he is most defnitely
down on it, he becomes
desperate for money. Seizing
the title belt he earned as
middleweight champion
of the world, he smashes
it with a hammer to break
off its jewels. Taking these
to a pawnshop, he is told
evocati ve obj ects onscreen
Raging Bull (1980)
Nothing in Raging Bull sums up Jake LaMotta better
than his championship belt. Scott Jordan Harri S
tries not to take a hammer to it.
what we already know: that
the jewels themselves are
worthless – but the belt they
came from was a unique
item that could surely have
sold for a high price.
It is seldom discussed as
such, but the championship
belt in Raging Bull is one
of the most evocative
objects in American cinema.
Most big biopics centre
on a subject – a politician
given to making quotable
speeches, say, or a writer
whose aphorisms may be
easily appropriated for the
script – with a talent for
verbal expression. LaMotta
has no such faculty, and
nor does anyone around
him. And so it is his actions
that defne him – and no
action defnes him more
succinctly than the way
he treats his title belt, the
physical symbol of his
best accomplishments.
Like almost everything of
importance in LaMotta’s
life, he battles to get it –
and then wilfully destroys
it thinking he is doing the
right thing. [tbp]
36 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
Transnational Celebrity
Activismin Global Politics
Changing the World?
Edited by Liza Tsaliki, Christos A.
Frangonikolopoulos and
Asteris Huliaras
ISBN 9781841503493
Paperback | £24.95
New Zealand Cinema
Interpreting the Past
Edited by Alistair Fox, Hilary Radner
and Barry Keith Grant
ISBN 9781841504254
Paperback | 19.95
NewZealand has produced one of the world’s
most vibrant flm cultures – testament to the
country’s evolving history. From early silent
features like The Te Kooti Trail to recent flms
such as River Queen, this book examines the
role of cinema in building a shared sense of
national identity. The works of key directors,
including Peter Jackson, Jane Campion and
Vincent Ward, are introduced in a newlight,
and select flms are given in-depth coverage.
With informative accounts of NewZealand’s
fascinating national cinema, this will be a
must for flm scholars around the globe.
Atomic Postcards
Radioactive Messages
fromthe Cold War
By John O’Brian and
Jeremy Borsos
ISBN 9781841504315
Paperback | £29.95
Historical Comedy on Screen
Subverting History with
Edited by Hannu Salmi
ISBN 9781841503677
Paperback | £19.95
Film, Fashion & Consumption
Editor: Pamela Church Gibson
ISSN 20442823 | Online ISSN 20442831
First published in 2012 | 3 issues per volume

Film, Fashion & Consumption is a an
academic, refereed journal for scholars,
students, practitioners and designers
interested in the connections, convergences
and crossovers between the spheres of flm
and fashion, and the way in which these
synergies affect consumer culture. We
welcome articles presenting research in any
of these areas.
publishers of original thinking | www.intellectbooks.com
Journal of ScandinavianCinema
ISSN 20427891
2 issues per volume
Journal of African Cinemas
ISSN 17549221
2 issues per volume
Transnational Cinemas
ISSN 20403526
2 issues per volume
Studies in European Cinema
ISSN 17411548
3 issues per volume
A Divided World
Hollywood Cinema and
Emigre Directors in the Era of
Roosevelt and Hitler, 1933-1948
By Nick Smedley
ISBN 9781841504025
Paperback | £19.95
Toviewour catalogueor order our
booksandjournals visit:
Intellect, TheMill, Parnall Road,
Fishponds, Bristol, BS163JG.
Tel: +44(0) 1179589910
Fax: +44 (0) 117 9589911
Doyouhaveanoriginal ideathe
Weareheretosupport your ideas
andget thempublished. Tosendus
your newbookor journal proposals,
from: www.intellectbooks.com
Books & Journals
i mi tati on i s the si ncerest form of flattery
parting shot
Gus vaN saNt’s 1998 remake
of Alfred Hitchcock’s
Psycho (1960) is essentially
one long act of audacious
imitation – for the most part
a shot-for-shot copy, with
the action transposed to the
modern day. Although it’s
inferior in every respect,
it’s perversely watchable as
there’s a certain mileage in
comparing and contrasting it
to the superior original.
In this brazen facsimile,
the unfortunate Marion
Crane is played by Anne
Heche, who, as before, ab-
sconds with a fortune before
meeting a grisly end in the
Bates Motel at the hands of
mummy’s boy, Norman –
now Vince Vaughn.
Psycho ‘98 retains both
the original’s script and the
iconic Bernard Herrmann
score, with minor tweaks by
the original screenwriter Jo-
seph Stefano and celebrated
contemporary composer
Danny Elfman respectively.
The darting horizontal and
vertical lines of the opening
credits also remain intact,
but the monochrome is re-
placed by vibrant fashes of
wicked green.
Hitch’s cameo is replaced
by one by Van Sant himself,
who is wittily shown being
reprimanded by a Hitchcock
impersonator. Van Sant also
adds candy colour, masturba-
tion, male and female nudity
– and adjusts the stolen cash
for infation. It is both a gar-
ish, cynical imposter and cin-
ematic curio; it may well have
introduced a new generation
to Hitchcock as intended, but
ultimately it’s testament to
the reality that you just can’t
fake greatness. [tbp]
Gus Van Sant’s lurid, near-identical rehash of
Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho is an act of earnest
but ultimately misguided experimentation.
eMMa Si MMondS can’t believe her eyes.
left and bottom rigHt
PsycHo (1960)
March/April 2011 41
Although it’s inferior
in every respect, it’s
perversely watchable
as there’s a certain
mileage in comparing
and contrasting it to the
superior original.
go further Read ‘ace in the Hole: Your Guide to anal Fixation in Psycho’ on TheBigPictureMagazine.com
above and rigHt
PsycHo (1998)
40 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
42 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com March/April 2011 43
the art of abbrevi ated storytelli ng
four frames
ki ss goodBye
Wishing a fond farewell
to a screen siren who sure
knew how to kiss a fella.
words by Jez conolly.
a s a t r i b u t e to Elizabeth Taylor
let us linger for a while over what
is surely one of the greatest ever
onscreen kisses. If proof were needed
that, in her heyday, Taylor photo-
graphed better in close-up than pretty
much any other actress, this George
Stevens romance surely provides it.
To begin with, it’s worth noting that
unlike most other characters in the
flm George (Montgomery Clift) is
shown most frequently in medium
or long shot, quite deliberately so
as to suggest that he is the object of
scrutiny. The distance also implies his
relative anonymity; he often seems
somewhat dwarfed in both his exterior
and on-set scenes. We only really get
to see him in close-up when he is with
Angela (Taylor), as though it is only
when he is with her that he is in focus,
as though she has drawn him in and
somehow completed him.
In among the many slow, languid
dissolves that Stevens employed to tell
his story, this kiss stands out as espe-
cially rapturous and all-consuming. It
is during this clinch, when the couple
are dancing, that they express their
deep love for each other for the frst
time. The lines that are exchanged
emphasise the intimacy but no words
are really needed. The extreme close-
ups, with mouths mostly obscured or
occupied in the kiss, speak volumes:
this is love.
Read More f o u r f r a me s online at
A Place in the Sun Dir.George Stevens, 1951
44 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
Getting involved with...
would you like to contribute
to The Big Picture magazine?
We’re always on the lookout for
enthusiastic flm-lovers with a
passion and fair for the written
word. So, if this sounds like
you, then simply send us a few
examples of your writing along
with a short personal bio to:
Gabriel Solomons, Senior Editor
the big
Go Further
a complete back issue archive
Print issues of The Big Picture
get snapped up pretty fast, so if
you missed out simply visit the
downloads section of the website
to catch up on all content from
past issues.
The writing’s on the wall
Read some of the fnest
writing on flm by our growing
team of ridiculously talented
contributors, with regular posts
satiating even the most avid of
flm-loving appetites.
visit: www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
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thebigpicture magazine
A real page turner
The Big Picture Magazine Online
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44 www.thebigpicturemagazine.com
Rocky (1976)
dir. John G. avildsen
g see page 4/5
knute Rockne all-american (1940)
dir. Lloyd Bacon
g see page 6/7
The damned United (2009)
dir. Tom Hooper
g see page 8
Seabiscuit (2003)
dir. Gary Ross
g see page 8/9
Somebody Up There Likes Me
dir. Robert wise
g see page 10
Prefontaine (1997)
dir. Steve James
g see page 11
The Pride of the Yankees (1942)
dir. Sam wood
g see page 12/13
The Natural (1984)
dir. Barry Levinson
g see page 26/27
Sallie Gardner at a Gallop (1878)
dir. eadweard Muybridge
g see page 28/29

The Matrix trilogy (1999–2003)
dir. andy and Larry wachowski
g see page 30/31
La Notte (1961)
dir. Michelangelo antonioni
g see page 32/33
Rocco and His Brothers (1960)
dir. Luchino Visconti
g see page 33
Miracle in Milan (1951)
dir. Vittorio de Sica
g see page 34
I amLove (2009)
dir. Luca Guadagnino
g see page 34/35
Raging Bull (1980)
dir. Martin Scorsese
g see page 36/37
Psycho (1960)
dir. alfred Hitchcock
g see page 40/41
Psycho (1998)
dir. Gus Van Sant
g see page 41
a Place in the Sun (1951)
dir.George Stevens
g see page 42/43
Plublishers of this here magazine...
Film Index
So you’ve read about the flms, now go watch them!
Each issue of The Big Picture is produced
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in the felds of creative practice and popular
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from other publishers by campaigning for the
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to fll a gap in the market.
Intellect publish in four distinct subject areas:
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Intellect titles are often multidisciplinary,
presenting scholarly work at the cross section of
arts, media and creative practice.
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