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Buildings performance is an interdisciplinary field primarily

devoted to Facilities Management. Building performance also is a
practice of coordinating the physical workplace with people and work
of the organization integrating the principles of many business
administration, architecture and behavioral and engineering science.
Building performance is the item that related to the process of
determines the extent to which the facilities support or adapted to
changing needs of occupants either internal or external.

In the process to manage the building which handle by Facility

Manager are increasingly diverse range in user’s requirements,

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building performance can be apply to ensuring it smoothly perform and

respond precisely. Building Performance is important to provide best
quality of working environment in social and managerial environment
and physical setting for work.

The better performance will create improvement in organization

regarding commitment amongst members (occupants, and
stakeholders), effective communication, generate better image for
company, succeed in changing, and rising of productivity of product or
services that provided by organization
There are five broad aspects to be considered in delivering
building performance by Facility Manager. The aspects are
performance in physical functioning, the technological environment,
spatial provision and adaptability, personal microenvironment and
qualitative factors. These five aspects will determine either the
building performance is successful deliver or not.

Once there is successful deliver, the stakeholder or building

users will get the benefits from it either in physical or mental benefits
and others benefit that create in the positive side. In this case, there is
issues that Facility Manager need to take as important part, the issues
is about environmentally friendly. Without referred to environment
issues, the managing the building will be effected by related problems
by it. The overview of Building Performance was illustrated as figure in
the next page.

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Definition : The Practice

of coordinating the physical Physical
workplace with people and Benefits
work of the organization
integrating the principles of
business administration, Mental
architecture and behavioral Benefits
and engineering science

TOTAL QUALITY Environmental Green Building

Intelligent Respond
Building appropriately
5. Qualitative factors
Maintain commitment among employees Supportive
4. The personal Effective communication among Informative
employees and operating units
and adaptability
3. Spatial provision Influential etc
environment Project positive responsive image
2. The technological
functioning Enable change
1. Physical
Considered Improve productivity
Need to be
Figure 1: Overview of Building Performance

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There has been a great deal of talk lately about how the
changes and demands of today’s workplace are affecting occupants’
lives. Adapting to these changes and demands—as well as to company
growth goals—requires employees to work smarter and improve their
work practices to be more effective and productive. Employees or
occupants are striving for improved quality and effectiveness both in
their work and their personal lives. When employees achieve these
goals, their employers benefit as well. Apart of occupant issue the
flexible workplace also useful for building support which is the main
idea for providing the services or product.
In this information age, work teams form and reform to meet
organizational needs, technological innovations, and changing
business relationships. Buildings and interior spaces need to be flexible
to anticipate and support to changing nature of work. Within the past
few years, designers have sought to create new generations of
“flexible” building and workplace environment within building that
have infrastructures and structures that fully support change while
sustaining new technologies and multi-capable individuals and teams.
The changing nature of work means greater mobility for
workers, a multiplicity of workspaces within and external to buildings,
greater use of geographically dispersed groups, increased dependence
on social networks—and greater pressure to provide for all of these
needs and behaviors in a leaner and more agile way. Workplaces have
responded with many new options, including more teaming and
informal interaction spaces, more supports for virtual individual and
group work, more attention to integrating learning into everyday work
experience, greater flexibility in work locations, and more focus on
fitting the workplace to the work rather than vice versa. Many
workplaces are also incorporating spaces that encourage relaxed
engagement with colleagues to reduce stress and promote a sense of

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Flexibility is used by many occupants for wide variety of work

and personal reasons as below:

• To have uninterrupted time to complete certain tasks and to

accommodate urgent work requests
• To be available to colleagues and clients in other time zones
• To address life interests and needs put aside during periods
of heavy workload
• To avoid long commutes
• To care for children or sick family members
• To exercise, engage in hobbies and community activities
• To transition from full-time work to retirement
• To pursue additional education or certifications


Flexibility is a powerful—and often underutilized—tool for

becoming an employer of choice and increasing work productivity and
effectiveness. Offering flexibility allows companies to recruit the best
talent and retain experienced and valuable occupants. It also helps to
boost occupant satisfaction, engagement, and morale. A flexible work
environment can be the difference between employees that feel
energized, committed, and ready to go to bat for us and those that feel
burned out, unsupported, and ready to walk out the door at the first
chance they get. In addition, flexibility simplifies work processes and
focuses on output. In so doing, it encourages occupants and work

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groups to work more creatively and effectively. Flexibility shines the

spotlight on leadership capabilities such as crystallizing and
communicating priorities, setting the stage for thoughtfully executing
plans, encouraging teamwork and coordination, and harnessing
occupant talents to drive results.


1. Provide flexibility for delivering power, voice, and data.

2. Provide distributed, vertical cores, satellite closets, and generous

horizontal plenum spaces with re-locatable, user-based services to
ensure technical, spatial, and environmental quality in the rapidly
changing electronic office.

3. Provide systems that are controllable and adjustable by the users

without burdensome reliance on outside contractors.

4. Incorporate sustainable design principles, which can help achieve

flexible spaces.


In one sense, Total Quality Workplace is about increasing the

effectiveness and sustainability of the organization. There is research
shown that those who made Total quality a top priority improved their
fiscal strength (sustainable profits). The meaning of Total Quality
workplace is:

Quality – The customer defines quality… usually that the product or

service is delivered in timely way, at a reasonable price, that meets or
exceeds expectations.

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Total -- Simply means that everybody involved in providing the

product or service also works to improve its quality in every aspect.
These are the principals of inclusion and participation.

Workplace – a place, such as office or factory where peoples



It should not be so hard to get work done, and it should not be so

hard to find and build upon that work once it is done. To make the
works are perfectly done, social environment in organization is about
how the occupant of the building making their cultural in workplace.
Communication is about how the occupant of the building can share,
giving, or inform to other occupants about the works things.
Communication can be amongst internal occupant or external
occupant. So the social environment needs tools as network to help
the organization achieve their mission and vision in their business. This
is a new era of real-time collaboration, of community-based networks
of great minds that meet to share and experience the power of
collective knowledge. The benefits of better communication for
occupant are:

• Enable teams to work effectively together

• Instantly identify the experts and resources that can connect the

• Capture and build on the work of your organization continuously

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• Deploy an enterprise-ready, scalable, governed, and secure


In the other environment, which is managerial environment

there are important issue that helping the building to perform as a
good organization. Managerial or management, basically under
management department of organization but the good environment is
all occupant applied the management in their work nicely and at the
same time helping to reach the goal. The scope of managerial can be
dividing into internal, external, cultural and ethics or social
responsibility. Which is mean if all these types can be perfectly
manage the environment of managerial will produce better quality.
The management party need to familiar with leadership concept,
coaching and etc item that related.


Physical setting for work is a tool to helping an organization.

Physical is about the basic requirements for organization to deliver the
work, especially for internal occupants of building. Internal occupants
need the basic things to perform their scope of job to produce the
output either products or services. Workplace can be so favorite place
for occupants if the building itself can perform as a building that
helping them to perform their works. Basically the building was
designed based on client requirements, and the requirement must be
related to business that will held in the building. If the workplace was
designed fulfill the scope of work that related to business, then the
occupant will not stress and the running cost will reduce without doing
the renovation of building area to fulfill the workplace’s requirement,

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which mean it is flexible. For example offices area, pantries, services

area or main area for the business (shopping mall) etc.


a) Maintain Commitment among employees

Quality Workplace can maintain the commitment among

employees through two ways either via mentally or physically. As
mentally, the employees in the building can separate their outside
problems and inside the problems once there are ways for them to
settle it. Flexible in workplace can help them to solve and at the same
time they will reduce the stress and can focus during works plus the
workplace area helping them to deliver the tasks. The commitment
comes naturally without force from superior of the organization. As
physically, commitment will comes depend on organization cultural.
Workplace is a place for them to deliver their jobs plus the workplace
making them increase their performance. For example the basic stuffs
for office work are provided; this will maintain or increase their
commitment to their organization.


b) Effective Communication Among employees and operating units

Communication is an important thing in organization. If the

communication is poor then the communication failed will take place.
For effective communication the quality workplace also helping the
interaction between employees and operating units there are tools or
channel can be use. The quality workplace consists of better
communication tools, such as telephones or other new technologies.
For effective communication channels play their roles. Quality

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workplace provides better communication channels and gives effective

communication among the occupants.

c) Project positive responsible image

Quality workplace will help organization for positive image. This

image can be interpreted by outside occupants, clients, or other
parties. The image came from quality of work from the organization.
The organization will get best compliment from other and at the same
time they will be trusted and open opportunity for new projects and
can raise profit for organization. The positive image will be inspired by
other organization as role model.

d) Enable Change

Quality Workplace also used to make any change for organization.

Change for workplace cultural and change to become profitable
organization. The quality workplace gives opportunity for organizations
to create their own ways or to guide for positively. For example, the
banking workplace can be change to other services such as insurance
services, financial adviser or other services related, which mean
multitasking. The flow of working spaces also can be change, which
means the location of officer tables, the flow direction to other
department was make it easy for occupant to walk etc. which mean
comfortable for them.


e) Improve Productivity

Quality workplace can also improve productivity. Productivity not

also comes from capable occupants but also from system that use for the
organization. By using 5S (seiri, seiton, seiso, seikutse, shitsuke) method

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and carried out gradually and systematically the organization can improve
productivity. The meaning for these Japanese words is:

• Seiri/ Sort : Clear out unused or rarely used items from the work

• Seiton/Straighten: Create a place for everything and everything

in its place

• Seiso /Shine: Keep things clean no dirt or trash in the work

place. Regularly look for and remove things that could interfere
with quality, timely work.

• Seikutse /Standardize: Develop systems and procedures to

maintain productivity and quality work.

• Shitsuke /Sustain: Use regularly management audits to maintain

a stabilized workplace

Impact of 5S implementation reduce inventory, efficient on

workplace usage, reduce time for searching spare part, improve
working condition, reduce accident, increase discipline, follow
procedure and better relationship among employee.

Apart of that, by empowered teams in organization also can

contribute to improve productivity by three assumptions:

1. Those closest to the work know best how to perform and improve
their jobs.

2. Most employees want to feel that they "own" their jobs and are
making meaningful contributions to the effectiveness of their

3. Teams provide possibilities for empowerment that are not available

to individual employees.

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In the recent survey by Gensler, the prominent corporate

architecture firm, half of all employees say they would work an extra
hour per day if they had a better workplace. So now we can see how
many companies still maintain dark, cramped, ugly, or poorly designed
offices. It’s can be the problems within the employees because they
not comfortable with the workplace. Even the beauty and nice
workplace must spend the high cost but it can improve the productivity
of the employees, besides that the employees can give more
responsible to their work with the comfortable office workplace.

The good designed office is one of the easiest and most cost-
effective ways to retain workers and make them more productive. The
bad office designed can make low of the concentration to the work.
Gervais Tompkin, a vise president in Gensler’s San Francisco office,
says the best way to find out if your office is dysfunctional is to
conduct a formal study. There are three key methods for gathering
information are shadowing employees on their paths through the
office, visiting conference rooms and desk areas every half ad hour to
determine how they are being used and asking the employees to track
their own movements and report back on how they spend their time.

There are $3, 870 per person (open office design) and $6, 447
per person (closed office design) to outfit an empty building, according
to the International Facilities Management Association.

Based on the GE Commercial Finance case study, 2006 it

showed to us that the poor use of office workplace was actually
hindering the company’s relationship with customer. The customers
feel that the employees work so slowly because of the poor workplace
in the organization. The major problem in this case study is about the
physical location of key employees. Loan approval required 22
different handoffs and two miles of walking, which meant the loan

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approval can take time for months. Franchise-lending operations were

spread across two buildings, with different teams which are legal, sales
and closing situated on different floors. Garavel says because of


this kind of problem they have been to organize the work by

department and also decided to organize the business differently. They
employees just work in single-function departments, GE created new,
cross-functional teams so the workers no longer had to walk or send
documents back and forth between departments. After the physically
reassigning employees, loan processing time dropped to less than a
month and required only several handoffs. Changing of the design in
office workplace can improve the productivity of the employees. The
work done also can be fast, so the customer always can trust us to
settle their problems. The customer also can realize our organization
can do the works properly.

Some of the organization had moved their work from individual

work to team based. This team based work can give us more idea
during do the works. Sometimes we have to decrease the number of
group member because difficult in workplace. The limited workplace is
the main of the problem to hem work together. Based on the study,
Group Health defined three design goals for this situation. First, the
office needed more conference space. The conference spaces can
make the easiest work for the employees because they can always
together in the conference space to do their work from starting to
finish. This is also can make the effective communication among
employees and operating units. The communication within the
employees can be easy to understand because they face to face and
discuss the problems of work on time. Secondly, cubicle size could
shrink somewhat since workers were increasingly spending time
outside of them. Finally, mobile workers like Biggs needed “touch-

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down” space where they could check their e-mail and make phone
calls when visiting different divisions of the company.


10.1 A Clean, Well-Lighted Workplace

The workplaces that always use the natural lighting can

save energy efficiency. This situation can be improving the
human behavior to think how natural lighting can affect our
energy efficiency. Now, many of building build the workplace
area to use the natural lighting. Besides that, the solar energy
also can help to save efficiency energy in our country.

The clean air and water also are freedom from distracting
noises and smells. So, the workplace is comfortable to the
employees done their work. The noises and bad smells can
disturb the employees and also customer on the workplace. This
situation can decrease the effective communication within the
employees and customer. Sometimes, the customers feel not
confident to the organization capability and maybe they decide
not even come again. This can be big problem to the
organization, if customer decrease the profit and income
company also got problem.

The case study was took from Google Office, the

workplace in this building so clean and well lighted because of
that there have a good performance in their job. The employees
in the workplace feel comfortable and more interested to do
their job in the long time working period.

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Figure 2.0 - Google Office Zurich, Switzerland


10.2 Corner Office for Executives

The designed corner office for executives is the designed

that giving the bosses all the views and natural light, put
executive office at the centre of each floor and seat rank and file
workers. Those who spend more time at their desks it provide
open spaces by the windows. The executives can more
comfortable with the natural air within the time work. The corner
offices designed for executive can make the work retention and
improve the work productivity.

Google office has used the designed in the corner office

design. It can improve save our energy because it more use the
naturally daylight. Besides that, the corner office design can
make the employees more relaxing because most of the corner
office has built using the glazing wall. So the employees can
view the natural environment from the office area.

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Figure 2.1- Corner Office in Google Office, Zurich Switzerland


10.3 Random Seating and Collaboration Areas

There are some of organizations interested to design

random seating and collaboration areas. This designed enclosed
mini conference rooms inside. When collaborative areas are
scattered between clusters of cubes, the noise prevents cube-
dwellers from getting work done. Instead, allocate small spaces
with doors, sometimes called “iso pods” for informal meetings.
Workers can quickly huddle without having to leave their
immediate area and reserve a conference room. This situation
can achieve the goal to spontaneous collaboration of the

Random seating in the Google Office most practically

used, so it can help the employees improve their communication
among the employees because they can seat or doing their job

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anywhere they want in the office area. Sometimes the random

seating and collaboration area can make the employees easy to
do their work either in individual or group.

Figure 2.2- Random and Relaxing Seating Area in Google Office, Zurich


10.4 Traditional and Uniform Size Offices

Based on the traditional workplace there are most of the
designed have uniform size offices because on that time they
design the workplace just refer to their budget not considerate
the comfortable of the employees. Traditional design
sometimes, almost not valid for today. It is because today, many
of organization realize that not al workers need the same size
office. The job function within the employees maybe different so,
the size office also can different because the needed of the
room so different. This is especially true of those who spend a
lot of time at other sites. Make the offices smaller to allow room
for “touch-down” or “hotel” workspaces for visitors from other
offices. This is to have a mobile workforce. This designed also

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can be maintain the commitment among employees because

the employees got their own size office to they do work more

In the Google Office the entire employees can used the

workplace in good way. Most of the building design is in the
modern design, it is because Google have to make sure their
workplace can give more comfortable to their employees.
Sometimes, the modern way can make employees excited to
performance their good job because many facilities they can
used in the workplace.

10.5 Open Desk spaces with Minimal Dividers

The designed open spaces with minimal dividers have
lower cubes walls. Traditional cubes are too isolating, but the
“open desk” system that grew popular in the dot-com boom.
This designed was separating workers with only the tiniest
partitions because to prove to be too noisy. The companies can
simply lower cube walls from six feet to four, affording just
enough privacy and plenty of visibility. This type of workplace
can make easily communication within the employees during do
their work. Sometime, they also want to ask each other about
the work they are doing.


10.5 Open Desk spaces with Minimal Dividers (Cont’d)

Google Office have used the open desk spaces, it is

because it can help the employees to communication among the
employees so effectively. Besides that, it can make sure the
information in the workplace can flow to all the employees
because it can improve the productivity of the job performance.

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Figure 2.3- Employees Workplace in Google Office, Zurich

10.6 Intelligent Design

The designed of building is important to all occupants in

the building. Based on the case study of Google Office, the
building was designed by 300 engineers. The Google Office
workplace includes a slide, a games room, a “chill-out”
aquarium, plenty off free food and others. The designed of its
new European engineering headquarters in Zurich Switzerland,
which is meeting “pods” in the style of Swiss chalets and igloos,
fireman poles to allow easy access between floors and a slide to
ensure that people can get to the cafeteria as quickly as

10.6 Intelligent Design (Cont’d)

Many of the sub section in the office building will improve
the job function of the employees. The modern design that
shown in the Google Office make the spirit of the employees
come to the office to done their work.

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Figure 2.4- Intelligent Meeting Room Designed in Google Office, Zurich

Figure 2.5- Creative Meeting Room in Google Office, Zurich


10.7 Access All Areas

Nelson Mattas, vice president of engineering said that

they are the best served by both a creative work environment
and a flat, open working structure. The lava lamps, free food and
games are all part of the Google culture. The function of al these

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thing is informal and a structure that isn’t dictated from top. The
unconventional design of the office represents what Google
hopes is a free flow of information through all parts of the

Figure 2.6- Google Office Lobby in Zurich, Switzerland

10.8 Area for Users

Based in the Google Office workplace, the designed of the

office more different than the another building. Engineers work
in small teams of three or four, which is reflected at the Zurich
HQ with small offices, each of which comes with the requisite
“bean bag” meeting room.


10.8 Area for Users (Cont’d)

The white boards are everywhere in the Google Office. If

anyone allows ideas, can be written down wherever they

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thought up. This can give many new ideas by the employees in
the office. The employees also can change idea by each other.
Other areas include games room, a library in the style of an
English country house and an aquarium space. Many types of
room that required in this office should help the employees to
improve their productivity of work. Some of the rooms are
suitable for the employees to improve the effective
communication among employees, such as area of meeting
room and library.

In the principal of Google Office they always put users

first. The Principe of this organization is becoming more
challenged as the company becomes ever more powerful.

Figure 2.7- Discussion Room in the Google Office, Zurich Switzerland


10.8 Area for Users (Cont’d)

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Figure 2.8- Library in the Google Office

10.9 Glass Office Designed

The designed of glass office give more benefits to

employees, clients and also the environment. It is because by
using the glass office designed we can save our energy
efficiency by using the natural daylight.

Google Office for example, the Wilkinson’s group

designed an ingenious system of tented glass offices that allows
daylight to stream through the window-side offices and into the
center of the floor while preserving acoustic integrity. The
designed of white canopies are made of an acrylic-coated
polyester, quilted together with polyester-fiber fill. The white
canopies help reflected light into the rest of the office and are
topped by a neat unobtrusive unit that contains lighting, air-
conditioning, sprinkles and an air diffuser. At interval panels of
glass are glazed in color combos that identify each office
neighborhood. The employees get the opportunity to work in the
modern workplace, so they always excited to do their work
everyday. The employees feel more comfort during the office
hour and make their high commitment on their job.

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10.9 Glass Office Designed (Cont’d)

Figure 2.9- Glass Office Designed in Google Office, Zurich Switzerland

Figure 2.10-Subsection Workplace Designed in Google Office, Zurich


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Technological Environment means the development in the field

of technology which affects business by new inventions of productions
and other improvements in techniques to perform the business work. "

To be stable in business, organizations have to stay current,

purchasing the appropriate server, database, media, router and other
technologies that sustain their work. They must leverage these
evolving information technologies to match the specifications of their
stakeholders. The technologies also important to the organization to
maintain their progress of the business always are planning.

The building systems should able in whole building including air-

conditioning, lighting, security and fire alarm. This element can have
the optimize performance. Assuring flexibility to accommodate the
dynamic nature of telecommunications systems start first and
foremost with properly designed pathways and spaces.

Now days, the market will be strong for high performing

buildings by having:

• Power supply systems that provide flexible service, reliable,

clean power and can adjust power delivery to building
occupation patterns.
• Wire management systems that enable quick and low-cost
• Integration of wireless products as they become commercially
• Distributed computing environments that have reliable cooling
compatible with human comfort.

11.1 Mobile Supports (Phones, labtops, PDAs, wireless)

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The mobile supports give more changing to organization

structure and relationship. This element of technology has been
supported and enable by transformations in information and
communications technology, especially the internet and mobile
computing and communication devices. The relationship

11.1 Mobile Supports (Phones, labtops, PDAs, wireless)


development and networking can easy to produce when use the

mobile supports. The examples of mobile support are phones,
laptops, PDAs and wireless. By using the mobile supports the
process of sharing information, fulfilling promises, willingness to
be influenced, and listening are more easily and efficiency. It is
because communication within people by mobile supports can
make during the long time and can be followed from time to
Instant Messaging, Desktop Team Software, Email and Voice

Technology gives us more benefits especially to done the

work more easily and fast. The instant messaging and desktop
team software can be providing to employees. Besides that, this
technology should be providing to all different departments in
the organization because the information flow from one
department to another department can make in short time. The
email and voice mail helps the employees to get the information
more effective and fast because most of the people familiar
doing that thing.

11.2 Video Conferencing

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The use of video conferencing is the most popular

medium to sharing information between employees in the
organization. Besides that, the video conferencing also greater
use of work done by groups and sometimes it can be global
conferencing. We can see the face that was join the video
conference in the desktop. The video conferencing also can help
those people want to get the information immediately because
they just have to connect wireless and internet then start to
video conferencing. During the video conference the people can
show whatever information they. The advantages of this
technology, people don’t have to attend the discussion because
they can share and get more input about their work from the


11.2 Video Conferencing (Cont’d)

conferencing. The quality of information can be trust, so it can

be the effective communications among the employees.

The case study from University of Virginia, US has use the

video conferencing in the organization. The video conferencing
is using in interviewing, programming and staff meetings. This is
the one of way that improves the productivity of staff in the
University because they don’t have to move to interview and
meeting. So they have more time to spend time more focusing
on their work.

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Figure 2.11-Example of Video Conferencing in Organization

11.3 Wireless and Internet

The technological solutions respond to the changing
nature of work. Wireless and internet is the most important
element to support the changing nature of work. It is because if
the organizations not provide service wireless and internet the
information flow are so limited. The problems to this type of
organization are they difficult to have the good communication
between another organization and the process sharing

11.3 Wireless and Internet (Cont’d)

information by employees also decrease. The wireless and

internet can help the employees to get the new ideas and
thinking strategic to improve productivity of work and product.

Police Department in Turkey is using wireless as their

medium to provide security to both resident and tourism. The
city-wide wireless video surveillance network is connecting over
70 video surveillance cameras wirelessly. Besides that, it also
cans proximal wireless “Tsunami” around the city. It is can
connected to the 37 base stations for security of the “Tsunami”
events. Even the installing to this wireless system have high

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cost but it is the one system that can improve the

communication people in the city and also the police
department. The police department can get the information fast
by using this wireless.

Figure 2.12-Proxim Wireless Network in Turkey City,


11.4 BUS Network

BUS configuration, each node is connected sequentially

along the network backbone. A node is any device connected to
the network, such as a computer, printer, or scanner. Backbone
is the term used to describe the main cables to which the
network segments are connected. Resistors are placed at each
end of the network to ensure that the signal is terminated when
it reaches the end. When one node sends information to another
node through the network, the information travels along the
backbone until it reaches the desired receiving node. This
system can help the organization to share their information to

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the employees from the other departments. So, it can make sure
the communication effectiveness in the organization.

Figure 2.13- BUS Network


11.5 STAR Network

Star configuration, each node is connected to a central

hub via network segments. When one node sends information to
another node, the information passes through the hub. The hub
does not filter or route the information in anyway; it simply
serves as a connector between network segments.

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Figure 2.14- STAR Network

11.6 Design Accessible, Modifiable Vertical Power, and

Telecom Cores

This element is to provide modular power panels with

appropriate open riser space. Besides that, the design of
accessible, modifiable vertical power and telecom cores is to
consider emerging technologies to provide secure, high-speed
access to the desktop for data, voice, security and
environmental information.

11.7 Wireless Bluetooth Headset

A wireless Bluetooth headset, coupled with Cisco-

developed software, enables workers to use their laptops to
send and receive phone calls while they are working in a
difference spaces in the connected workplace. The tools were
enabling workers to quickly locate each other in different areas
of the building.


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Figure 2.15- Wireless Bluetooth Headset Use in the Workplace in Jabra

Corporation, US

Based on the case study of Jabra Corporation, US. This company use
wireless bluetooth headset for their employees. It is to make sure the safety
at work and noise protection in the organization. Besides that, it can improve
the productivity and the efficiency in the job performance.


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There are spatial requirements for occupant’s activities and

equipment that have to make sure the good building performance. The
requirements are the organization should consult planning guides and
specialist on programmed activities. All of the document should
regulatory requirements, such as building code, accessibility laws and
etc. Explore the possible necessity of making spaces flexibility to
accommodate changes in business practices, work activities and
technologies. Besides that, the organization should be consider
operations and building maintenance because to avoid the high cost of

The adaptability is one of the important parts to provide the

good functional of building. There is some of adaptability of building
that can affect the operations of the building, which:
• Constructability
• Political Influences
• Cost and Time Considerations
• Accommodation
• Design Life
• Design Process

12.1 Parking Spaces

The parking spaces are constructed in combination with

most buildings to facilitate the coming and going of the
buildings’ users. Parking spaces is providing to locate the
vehicles of the building occupants. The parking spaces included
indoor and outdoor area. There are many modes of parking
spaces such as parallel parking, perpendicular parking, angle
parking or echelon parking and other parking methods. The
modes of parking depend on the building design. If the buildings
have a limited space, so the parallel parking and perpendicular
parking can be practice. Parallel parking is the most common

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mode of street side parking for cars. It may also be able to be

used in parking

12.1 Parking Spaces (Cont’d)

lots and parking structure, but usually only to supplement

parking spaces that use other modes.

The parking spaces were facilities that important in a

functioning building. The parking spaces that have planned
designed and make suitable arrangements able to show the
positive responsible image to the organization. When the
designed process of the parking spaces there are some
important thing we should be considerate. The size, height and
turning radius are based on the current automobile. Even
though, the past and future trends of automobile size and
statistical quantity must be taken into account, these are called
parking geometries. The good natural ventilation also is the one
important element in parking design. It is to make sure the
occupants or employees in the building feel comfortable during
park their car on the area. The zoning issues require the number
of spaces for parked automobiles because avoid crowded
situation in the parking spaces.

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Figure 2.16- Underground parking garage at the University of Minnesota.


Figure 2.17-Top floor of a multi-floor parking deck at Rutgers University in

New Jersey.

Figure 2.18-Bombala's (perpendicular) back-in parking style.

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Figure 2.19- Cars parked on the sidewalk in Moscow


12.2 Cafeteria

The designed of the cafeteria will affect the organization

because most of people in the organization can go to the
cafeteria to take their breakfast, lunch and etc. Employees also
can have the informal communication during they eat. The
informal communication usually happen during they take their
breakfast or lunch and maybe during they looking around.

Cafeteria in the Google Office have fulfill with the

entertainment element provided for the employees and client.
The element can make the employees more relaxing.

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Figure 2.20- Cafeteria with Entertainment Area of Google Office in Zurich,



12.2 Cafeteria (Cont’d)

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Figure 2.21- Cafeteria Area of Google Office in Zurich, Switzerland.

12.3 Toilet Space

Toilet is one of the importance spaces in the building. The

organization should always keep the toilet clean to provide the
comfortable situation to the employees. The ventilation and
access are two most important issues to consider in the toilet
designed. Besides that the floor and the lighting of the toilets
also should be considerate. The quality of toilet able to make
employees always uses the toilet.

In the Google Office, examples of the perfect toilet that

can make the uses feel so comfortable. The ladies toilet in the
Google Office is one of comfortable and innovative toilet. The
toilet fully covers of greeting wallpaper, candles, mirror and
romantics lighting. The relaxing designed of this toilet can give
the opportunity to the uses generate ideas and thinking more


12.3 Toilet Space (Cont’d)

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Figure 2.22- Ladies Toilet in Google Office in Zurich , Switzerland


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The definition of microenvironment is factors or elements in an

organization’s immediate area of operations that affect its
performance and decision making freedom. These factors include
competitors, customers, distribution channels, suppliers and general

There are six major microenvironment forces which is cultural,

demographic, economic, natural, political and technological. The
natural environment is the most importance aspect to make sure good
building performance. The natural environment involves all the natural
resources, such as raw materials or energy sources. The technological
environment consists of those forces that affect the technology and
which can create new products, new markets and new marketing

13.1 Lighting

The lighting is the important element in the building

because if there is no lighting the building cannot be
functioning. The good practice is to use the natural lighting in
the designed. Maximize use of daylighting and any related
control device to reduce the energy efficiency. Besides that, the
design also should be considering emergency back-up lighting
systems such as generator, battery and etc for critical function
areas. Besides that, should have the emerging lighting
technologies such as low voltage lighting systems, fiber optics
and light emitting diodes (LEDs) that provide quality lighting
with greater reliability. The problems of lighting can be affecting
the progress of work.

Case study from Philip Merrill Environmental Centre in

Annapolis, Maryland have design their building with the low
energy efficiency of lighting. It is because the employees and
the entire occupant in the building can enjoy access to daylight

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and views from all areas of the building. So this building also has
used the most of natural daylight.


13.1 Lighting (Cont’d)

Figure 2.23- Philip Merrill Environmental Centre in Annapolis, Maryland

13.2 Air-conditioning

Employees should reduce the use of air-conditioning

because it can make the high coat of electricity. Maximize use of
natural air by operable windows and natural ventilation. The
natural air, gives the employees more oxygen from outdoor
different by using the air-conditioning that just share oxygen
from the other people. The natural air can make the employees
more confident to do their work because they always feel

Besides that, the organization can provide systems that

minimize reliance on building management or maintenance
personnel. The networked computerized building system sensors
to monitor and control the air system, such as for security, fire
suppression and smoke alarm. The other system is building

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automatic systems that are remotely accessible by facilities

managers to determine problem locations and monitor
environmental conditions without disturbing workers. The
systems that provide to the building are most important for
flexible workplace.

5.2 Air-conditioning (Cont’d)

The air-conditioning in the workplaces area can be control

by the management team. Emerson Global Data Centre has
provided the control system of air-conditioning to save the use
of air-conditioning every day. To enhance the efficiency of the
HVAC systems, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model
was run to simulate space loads within the data center. Air
devices then were located to ensure optimal system
performance and a high performance environment for the

Figure 2.24- Subsection of Control System in Emerson Global data Centre.

13.3 Security and Safety

The security and safety element is the most main thing
that organization should concentrate, but now this element still
not take very serious in the organization management. It is
because people not already realize the risk by ignoring this
element in long period of time.

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The ways that we can use of the organization to security

and safety element are provide identification or verification
systems, such as card key, fingerprints and eye scan to access
or control IT, data, space and property in the organization
building. Provide hardwired smoke alarms with back-up battery
power. Then, provide the low power usage emergency lights and
LED illuminators with rechargeable battery (back-up gel

13.3 Security and Safety (Cont’s)

cell). The last is providing security systems with back-up
capability for emergency signals and communication. This
security should be provide in the organizational building
because to make sure the communication within the employees
still have even in the emergency situation.

Emerson Global Data Centre in USA has use the secure

and safety in their building. In the building the glass used on the
front of the building is rated to withstand hurricane-force winds.
Three separate fire protection systems also were incorporated to
provide protection in the event of an emergency, including a
pre-action dry pipe, a traditional wet system and a clean
chemical system. Besides that, the security also important to
provide the security for all the data sources in the building. It is
showing the commitment of the workers.

13.4 Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

Facilities should be constructed with an appreciation of

the importance of providing high-quality, interior environments
for all users. The facilitate quality IEQ through good design,
construction, operating and maintenance practices. The good

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IEQ can be provide the healthy, comfortable workplace and the

employees are invariably more satisfied and productive.
The advantages of IEQ include providing thermal comfort
with a maximum degree of personal control over temperature
and airflow. It is also to supply adequate levels of ventilation and
outside air to ensure indoor air quality. Besides that, prevent
airborne bacteria, mold and other fungi through heating,
ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC) system designs that are
effective at controlling indoor humidity, and building envelope
design that prevents the intrusion of moisture. The employees
can feel more productive if the workplace always in the
conducive area. It is because the IEQ


13.4 Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) (Cont’d)

improvements to an existing building can occur at any point

during the use of a building. So if the organization can still
maintain the quality of IEQ, the employees also can maintain
their work performance.

The Emerson Global Data Centre in USA also provides the

IEQ in this building. It is to make sure the occupants in the
building always feel health and comfortable during do their job.
Most part of the workplace in this building have link with the
natural environment. Around of this building have many trees to
provide good air for the occupants.

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Figure 2.25- Sustainable Building of Emerson Global Data Centre in USA


14.1 Transportation Function in Organization

The organizations that have the best practices in

transportation should be managed by excellent people that well
planned organization structure. Transportation is one of pillars of
Supply Chain Management in small organizations or large
organizations. An effective supply chain strategy can be a key
differentiator for a company. To be effective, it must be align
with customer delivery requirements, production capabilities
and profitable pricing level.

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Companies with multi type of transportation required

centralized control and oversight. This will ensure that all of the
transportation has the strategy guides. The top transportation
executive should have a formal education in logistics and
transportation, at least at the undergraduate level if not
Master’s degree level. Some of the companies have been
mention the management of the transportation department such
as traffic manager, transportation supervisor and etc. It is
because transportation is the most important issues to maintain
the planning in organization. Effective transportation
organizations are learning organizations. If there is no
transportation, the employees cannot present their good
product to the customer and the product not able to deliver
early by using transportation. So, the transportation in a reality
is very helpful in an organization and able to improve the quality
of works.
(Goodwill, september 2010)

14.2 IT Services Management

IT service management is a discipline for managing
information technology (IT) systems, centered on the customer’s
perspective. The IT services cannot just focus on technology in
the internal organization, but now the organization have to
consider the quality of the services they provide and focus on
the relationship between employees and customer.


14.3 Strong Management Team

The team management in an organization should be

strategic and effective. To maintain an effective management
team is keys to success of any business or organization. The
strong of management team not just only consider needs to

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make sure your organization functions well, but also needs of

the unit your hire will be responsible for managing. The good
management in the organization can make the employees more
confident to do their work.
(Jack Junier, Nov 2007)

14.4 Quality Framework

The quality framework provides the structure and tools for

disability providers to deliver high quality services in an
organization. There are eight critical dimensions or categories of
quality that can serve as a framework for strategic analysis
which is performance, features, reliability, conformance,
durability, serviceability, aesthetics and perceived quality.


1.0 Objective

The objective to be achieve in the organization is :

a) Satisfaction

b) Comfort

c) To increase productivity

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d) Improved speed and accuracy the task performed

e) Feel safe in building they occupy

2.0 Features

The features in the environmental can be dividing into three (3)

categories, is:-
a) Environmental

b) Economic

c) Health and Community

2.1 Environmental

 Enhancement and protection of ecosystem

 Improvement of air and water quality

 Reduction of solid waste by using building materials

 Conservation of natural resources

2.2 Economic

 Reduction of operating and energy cost

 Enhancement of asset value and profits

 Improvement of employee productivity and satisfaction

 Optimization of life-cycle economic performance

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2.0 Features (Cont’d)

2.3 Health and Community

 Improvement of indoor air thermal, and acoustic environments

 Enhancement of comfort and health for employee, tenants,

students and customers

 Minimization strain on local infrastructure by using less energy,

water, and reducing solid waste

 Improvement of overall quality of life employee, tenants,

students and customers.

3.0 Issues

3.1 Costs

Typically building cost includes the cost of design, materials,

construction, and permitting and approval costs. Green building
must also include these costs in the budget process, and if
green building elements are incorporated early on, green
buildings can be built within the same cost range as non-green
Green buildings differ from conventional buildings, however in
that many of the financial benefits will be realized over the long-
term life of the building.
Measuring the cost of green building is more complex than
simply measuring the costs of materials and construction for a
green building versus the costs of materials for a conventionally
built building.

3.2 Long-term energy and operations / maintenance cost

These issues to consider whether savings in operations and

maintenance costs, and energy use outweigh or compensate for
any initial increased costs of green building. The main argument

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of these issues is that if green buildings cost more in materials

to build, this difference will be recouped due to the savings in
infrastructure, maintenance and energy use over to five years of
a building’s operation.
3.0 Issues (Cont’d)

3.3 Lower cost to society due to environmental benefits

These issues to consider whether societal benefits of green

building can be quantified, and if so, whether those benefits are
worthy of encouraging through legislation or other policy or
economic measures.
For example, because green buildings utilize materials that
include recycled materials as well as materials that will be less
harmful to the environment, the ‘costs’ of these materials is
lower due to reduction in disposal costs and lower costs of
remediation actions.

3.4 Health and productivity benefits due to green building

For many business, the costs of salaries and benefits far exceed
the cost energy. Several issues explore whether green building
can significantly increase worker productivity and improve
worker health, as well as improve worker recruitment and
retention, thus lowering labor costs for employers. This benefit
would not accrue to the builder, but would accrue to the
business owner or corporation that might be considering
whether to build green.

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4.0 Case Study

4.1 Tower of Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS)

Tower of Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS)

The new office tower headquarters for Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) in
Rhode Island was designed to meet national goals for efficiency and
sustainability, while encouraging good health and morale for its
workforce, reports Providence Journal.

Blue Cross officials told the Providence Journal that their building

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promotes a healthy economy and a healthy environment and that it

will save $25 million over 23 years.

The $90-million, ($125 million including furnishings and “soft” costs

such as fees and engineering) 13-story green building is expected to
recover the additional costs in a relatively short time by saving on
electricity, paper, natural gas and water, reports the newspaper.

4.0 Case Study (Cont’d)

4.1 Tower of Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) (Cont’d)

Green features include a green roof, special compost and recycling

stations, and big tanks on the top floor to collect 6,000 gallons of storm
water and supply it to the air conditioning system, which reduces
runoff of pollution and the use of potable water, reports Providence

To save water, toilets have buttons that provide a choice in how much
water is flushed, and all furnishings are recycled or recyclable. The
building also has plenty of light from nine-foot windows with low sills
for “daylight harvesting.”

James E. Purcell, Blue Cross president and chief executive officer told
the Providence Journal the green features cost about $1 million extra
but the company will recoup the money quickly. Energy savings alone
will be more than $160,000 annually, reports the newspaper.

The Blue Cross building is the latest in a stream of “green” buildings

completed recently in Rhode Island, reports Providence Journal, aimed
to meet the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED) building standard.

Other examples cited in the article include the recent opening of a new

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$60-million headquarters for FM Global in Johnston, a $14-million

library at the University of Rhode Island’s Bay Campus, and a $59-
million biotechnology center at URI’s Kingston campus.

4.0 Case Study (Cont’d)

4.2 Office Building

Businesses today are seeking to remain Eco-friendly like never before.

Getting rid of the old ideas and adapting those that are newer and
fresher, ensures that they are able to get a green office that is
reasonable and functional. With all the various initiatives and benefits
of a greener office, why not join in and create a more Eco-friendly
office? After all, the world that is set today will be in motion for the
generations to follow, which does include any children or grandchildren
you may have along the way. Helping to create a better world for the

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future includes getting in the trend of green operation, which can be

done through these 10 ways to a truly green office.

Recycled supplies. This is very important in getting a greener office, as

the supplies you use each day can be great and they are all obtained
through plants such as trees and other materials that can destroy the
environment as well. When you use recycled office supplies, you are
helping to conserve the resources of today, while preventing pollution.

Recycle. When you are getting ready for trash day, make note to
observe recycling as it is one of the most effective ways you can really
achieve a green office. Sorting trash and
4.0 Case Study (Cont’d)

4.2 Office Building (Cont’d)

recyclables isn’t difficult in the office, especially if you are utilizing

appropriate containers to discard various items based on recyclability.

CFL or LED lights. When it comes to your office’s lights, you would be
surprised just how much energy is generated to power them non-stop
throughout the day. If you switch your lights to CFL or LED lights,
however, you can save up to 85% on energy costs from the bulbs
alone. These are both great examples of energy efficient replacements
for older technologies.

Lighting motion sensors. Why should the lights be on when you aren’t
in the room? With lighting motion sensors, they don’t have to be, as
they only light up when there is movement detected within the room.
Once you leave the room, the lights will turn back off, allowing the
office to only utilize the energy that it really needs for adequate

Turn everything off when not in use. If you aren’t using something,

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there is no reason why it should be on. In fact, you should be trying

your best to keep anything that isn’t in use turned off to save as much
energy as possible.

Use laptops instead of desktops. The great convenience and benefit of

a laptop is you are using only a very small percentage of the energy
you would use with desktop computers. A desktop generally is plugged
in and running all day from electrical current, while the laptop utilizes
battery power.

4.0 Case Study (Cont’d)

4.3 G-tower Building

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Now leasing, GTower on Jalan Tun Razak in Kuala Lumpur City Centre
(KLCC) is the first Malaysian building to receive an international green

Singapore’s Building & Construction Authority has given it provisional

status as a Green Mark Gold rated building. The building is a 30-story
twin tower owned by Goldis Berhad (Goldis) and was built at an
estimated cost of RM470 million ($134 million). It is a mixed-use
development containing a 180-room 5-star hotel, 100,000 ft2 of
general office space, another ~400,000 ft2 spread amongst 112 CEO
duplex suites and numerous meeting rooms. Additionally, there is a
private club, lobby bar/café, rooftop bar, other food & beverage outlets
and a wellness floor with gym, yoga, spa and pool facilities.

The building is designed to maximize energy and water efficiency.

According to Colin Ng, Head of Corporate Investment at Goldis, energy
efficient building systems will cut carbon dioxide emissions by at least
60% (Source: The Green Channel). The IT infrastructure alone is
expected to produce 30% energy savings. They installed 3Com’s

4.0 Case Study (Cont’d)

4.3 G-tower Building (cont’d)

Intelligent Building Solutions (3CiBS) products which combine state of

the art hardware and software that optimize network capacity while
reducing power consumption and carbon emissions.

After construction began, Goldis brought on a consultant to implement

green features. This Architecture Malaysia article provides more
details. Five areas were addressed with a multitude of technologies
and installations:

• Energy Efficiency – double glazed windows; efficient chiller plant

system for cooling; efficient lighting system with sensors and controls

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to minimize usage; efficient elevators/escalators; extensive use of

green roofing, landscaping and green walls

• Water Efficiency – efficient fittings (faucets, toilets, showers, etc.)

connecting to building management system to monitor leakage, etc.;
rain water harvesting for irrigation of all the greenery; collection of
condensate for water tanks
• Site & Project Management – direct link to LRT station (mass transit
train); monitoring and reduction of construction waste; extensive use
of recycled building materials

4.0 Case Study (Cont’d)

4.3 G-tower Building (cont’d)

• Indoor Environmental Quality & Environmental Protection – dynamic

ventilation through building management system; monitoring and
detection of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and refrigerant
chemicals; low VOC paint and wallpaper

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• Energy, Water and Waste Innovations – heat recovery system; eco-cool

outdoor air coolers; eco friendly pool sanitation; auto-tube cleaning
system for chiller; anti-corrosion coating for air handling units; organic
fish pond (to provide fish for restaurants in building); recycling center;
bridge bar made of all recycled materials


1.0 Case Study: Nortel Network, Canada

 Architecture is said to have helped reinvent the company, reworked

how they work, cut costs, and boosted productivity.

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 Employees and customers who visit the building can see tangible
evidence of Nortel’s state-of-the-art technology and working.
 There is a centrally located cyber-shop displaying the latest products.
”Homebase is a house within the building demonstrating home office
 Nortel Network was invested about $50 million to their new building,
but it is estimated to have saved the company $100 million over from
their new building.

Nortel and its executives see the facility as a brilliant vehicle

for changing the company, promoting its values and products,
attracting new recruits, and keeping staff happy. All this and significant
cost savings is a winning package for communication and collegiality.

Hypercommunication during the planning process

informed people of the ideas behind the new workplaces, and several
hundred participated in focus groups to invent the details. Many
managers were coaxed out of their offices into the open plan. Alternate
officing packages of hoteling and homework were made available, with
a business center in the HQ.

In this building, business units can readily arrange, then rearrange

their layouts to meet work demands, as long as they obey the planning
rules that govern the building zones. And each unit has its own "town
hall" of meeting rooms, and a distinctive color scheme.

1.0 Case Study: Nortel Network, Canada (Cont’d)

The implication on improvisation to an organization can be

categories to several level of achievement. Different level needs a

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different specification to suite the environment that will give the total
effect and impact due to achievement of highest productivity.

The level that included in this case study is:

1. Organization Level
2. Public Level
3. Individual Level
4. Department Level

2.0 Organization Level

2.1 Overall performance of the organization

Executive management and the organization's owners,

shareholders and stakeholders see satisfactory results, due to
high productivity and quality of work, high turnover of
personnel and receptive unions.

2.2 Reduce energy consumption

e.g.: electricity, water and ventilation

Use as low as the energy spending of the building to support the
government regulation towards the better future.

2.3 Cost reduction

When the energy consumption is minimize, the cost to

operate the building will also reduce. Thus can give benefit to
the organization, for example the company can provide more

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facilities in the building and this will increase the productivity of

the workers.

3.0 Public Level

3.1 Give the corporate and professional image to the


The expectation and trust from customer is important

thus it is essential to show customer that the organization is well

Nortel Networks have provided the virtual-reality

headsets that can be donned for an interactive ride through
the company’s intranet. The “City” has many landmarks
designed to make the place so attractive that people don’t want
to leave it

4.0 Individual Level

4.1 Encourage the Stress Reduction and Leisure

The design in the Nortel Network's building also provide

names likes Main Street and Memory Lane and highlights
services from the travel shop, Internet café, restaurant and
sandwich outlets, a vast chess board, plazas, artwork,
conference area, gym, and a general store.

4.0 Individual Level (Cont’d)

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4.1 Encourage the Stress Reduction and Leisure


In other word, the management can provide the cafeterias

in the incorporating spaces that will encourage relaxed
engagement with colleagues to reduce stress and promote a
sense of communities.

Companies increasingly believe that staff accepts a job

in the first place partly on the basis of the design of the physical
environment. Nortel had seen a rise in job applications since the
building opened. The aim was to stimulate the senses in the
course of day's work as people move away from their
workstation into the urban facilities.

5.0 Department Level

5.1 Incorporated and efficient communication

The Nortel Network’s aim was to stimulate the senses in

the course of a day’s work as people move away from their
workstations into the urban facilities. People appreciate that
communications and interaction are far easier here than in most

 Employees can use the office networking systems or

connectivity. (e.g.: intercom and internet services)
 Provide more brainstorming room and meeting room.
 Provide individual telephone and perhaps the video conferencing
facilities so that can minimize staff members and reduce
business travel and expenses.

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Thus can increase communication in organization and

teamwork between employees and they can do their work
efficiently and effectively.


1) Flexible Workplace Environment, 2009 [online]. Available at

[Accessed 14 Feb 2010]

2) Workplace Innovation-Productivity and Quality Workplace, 2005

[online]. Available at
[Accessed 14 Feb 2010]

3) How Cisco Achieved Environmental Sustainability in the Connected

Workplace, 2007 [online]. Available at
rk/pdf/Cisco_IT_Case_Study_Green_Office_Design.pdf> [Accessed 14
Feb 2010]

4) Google Office Design in Zurich [online]. Available

< >
[Accessed 14 Feb 2010]

5) Google Workplace Design, 2005 [online]. Available at

[Accessed 14 Feb 2010]

6) Behind The Glass Curtain,2006 [online]. Available at

curtain> [Accessed 14 Feb 2010]

7) Measuring Performance of Sustainable Buildings, 2010 [online].

Available at
[Accessed 16 Feb 2010]

8) CBPCA An Association for Contractors and Building Performance

Professionals,2002 [online] Available at <>
[Accessed 16 Feb 2010]

9) Making Workplaces Work Better, 2010 [online] Available at

<>l [Accessed 16
Feb 2010]

Building Performance
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10) Videoconferencing,2005 [online]. Available at

[Accessed 16 Feb 2010]


11) Jabra, 2011 [online]. Available at

<> [Accessed 20 Feb 2010]

12) Garvin, David .A,1987. Competing on the Eight Dimensions of Quality,

Harvard Business Review.

13) Amina Hameed, 2009. Impact Office Design on Employee’s

Productivity Department of Management Science, COMSATS Institute
of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

14) :11 FEB


15) 11 feb 4.45pm

16) 11 feb 5.20pm

Gurus.html 11 feb 5.30pm

management.php 13 feb 4pm

19) 13 Feb 7.15pm

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workplace.html 13 Feb 7.28pm

workplace.htm 14 Feb 4.20am


Productivity&id=3685496 16 Feb 5.15am

24) 16 Feb 5.10am

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