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Lab #3

Torsion Testing

Prepared for:

Mohamed Sabry Zeidan, CEE 307L

Department of Civil Engineering

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Prepared By:

Farid Najand

Date Laboratory Performed: 2-24-2011

Date Submitted: 3-3-2011


Table of Contents

1. Abstract ……………………………………………………………………3

2. Introduction and Background …………………………………………..…3

3. Equations…………………………………………………………………..4

4. Equipment …………………………………………………………………4

5. Procedures……………………………………………………………….…5

6 Data Analysis………………..……………………………………………..5-7

• Table 1.1 Steel Specimen…………………………………….5


• Graph 1.1 Steel Specimen……………………………………6
• Table 1.2 Brass Specimen……………………………………6
• Graph 1.2 Brass Specimen…………………………………...6
• Table 1.3 Brass Tube………………………………………...7
• Graph 1.3 Brass Tube………………………………………..7

7. Results …………………………………………………………………….8

8. Conclusion ………………………………………………...……………... 8

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Abstract:
This lab focuses on experimentally obtaining the relationships between variables
involved with torsional load to circular cross-section rod specifically brass and steel. The
variables that we will be focusing on include; applied torque, angular deflection, and
length of rod, polar moment of inertia and the shear modulus. The apparatus that will be
used for this experiment is the STR6. With the use of this apparatus the variables will be
obtained and used to calculate the conditions for failure of the different rod samples used.

Introduction and Background:

The experiments hardware fits onto a Structures Test Frame (STR1, available separately).
It examines the behaviour in the elastic region of solid and tubular-section specimens.
Two chucks on a backboard hold a test specimen. A mechanism on one chuck applies
torque manually to the specimen. A protractor scale on this chuck measures angular
movement. A load cell on the other chuck measures torque. The equipment includes a
lead to connect the load cell to a Digital Force Display (STR1a, available separately). To
vary the test length of a specimen, one chuck can traverse the backboard. Included is an
electronic angular transducer for use with the optional Automatic Data Acquisition Unit
(STR2000).
The purpose of this experiment is to experimentally determine the shear modulus of
rigidity, G. The specimens being used in this experiment are steel rod and brass rod. Once
the specimen is in the apparatus, twisting force will be applied and readings of the angles
will be recorded, plotted into a linear slope that represents the Shear Modulus.

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Equations:
% Error = average-expectedexpected×100

Shear Modulus (G) = TL/ Ф J

 T (Torque), L (Length), Ф (Angle of twist), J ( Polar moment of Inertia)

Polar Moment of Inertia =

Equipment:

STR 6 :
Torsion Apparatus

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Procedures:
1. The specimens were measured full length of 500mm and also marked and tested
in interval of 100mm long.

2. Set up the equipment


a. Visually inspect all the parts
b. Check all components are secured correctly
c. Position the test frame safely
3. Place the specimen in the apparatus. The specimen can be slid to the desired
length along the backboard
4. Zero the torque indicator
5. Torque was applied to the specimen, and readings (angle of twist) were taken and
recorded in every 1N of force

6. Repeat for remaining specimen samples

Data and Analysis

Table 1.1 Data for Steel Specimen

Data for steel specimen.


Torque ф in deg ф in rad TL Jф J
0 0 0
0.05 2.4 0.041866667 0.025 4.31227E-13 1.03E-11
0.1 4.4 0.076755556 0.05 7.90582E-13 1.03E-11
0.15 6.4 0.111644444 0.075 1.14994E-12 1.03E-11
0.2 8.4 0.146533333 0.1 1.50929E-12 1.03E-11
10 0.174444444 0.125 1.79678E-12 1.03E-11

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Graph 1.1 Graph of Steel Specimen

Table 1.2 Brass Specimen

Data for brass specimen.


Torque ф in deg ф in rad TL Jф J
0 0
0.05 3 0.052333333 0.025
Data for brass rod & tube specimen.4.7414E-13 9.06E-12
0.1 8.3 ф in 0.144788889 0.05 1.31179E-12 9.06E-12
0.15 13.7 deg 0.238988889
ф rod in 0.075 Jф for
2.16524E-12 Jф for
9.06E-12
Torque0.2 ф in deg20
rod tube 0.348888889
rad tube rad0.1 TL3.16093E-12 rod tube
9.06E-12 J
0 0
0.05233 0.08373 4.7414E- 7.65323E- 9.06E-
0.05 3 4.8 3 3 0.025 13 13 12
0.14478 0.16223 1.31179E- 1.48281E- 9.06E-
0.1 8.3 9.3 9 3 0.05 12 12 12
0.23898 0.23898 2.16524E- 2.18436E- 9.06E-
0.15 13.7 13.7 9 9 0.075 12 12 12
0.34888 0.32621 3.16093E- 2.98157E- 9.06E-
0.2 20 18.7 9 1 0.1 12 12 12

Graph 1.2 Brass Specimen

Table 1.3 Brass Tube

Figure 1.3

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Results:

Using the recorded data, polar moment J was calculated. TL was also calculated and we
used these results to plot the graph that shows the relationship between TL and J ф. The
linear slope of this graph represents G, which is the modulus of rigidity. According to our
result and the percent error we got a good result for the steel specimen, which only had a
6%. The other two samples however did not have good results with each having a 25%
error.

Specimen Average G Published G % Error


(internet)
Steel 70 75 6%
Brass 30 40 25%
Brass Tube 30 40 25%

Conclusion:

According to our results we can come to the conclusion that we did not have a successful
experiment. As we can see the percent error values were way too high. According to the
graphs however, we did have a good experiment. We can see a good correlation between
the values of TL and J ф. The R values were all .99> so we can see a good linear
relationship. Overall this lab was very helpful in visualizing such a difficult topic like
torsion. The apparatus helped with the understanding of the relationship between the
force and angle of twist, modulus of rigidity and polar moment.