The Effect Of Entrepreneurship Education On Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions This study set out to examine the effect of entrepreneurship

education on the students‟ entrepreneurial intentions. The study makes it clear that entrepreneurial characteristics of youth are diverse and their exposure to entrepreneurship education for a period of four years is capable of provoking the intention of becoming entrepreneurs. This is also an indication that they have been equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills required for a new venture start up. It is also deductive that entrepreneurship education is a useful programme that will enable the respondents either to help their future employers or manage their own business successfully. The essence of introducing entrepreneurial educational programs to schools is to equip students with the necessary skills and mindsets required for successful entrepreneurship from their early years and also to instill in students across all levels of education, the self confidence and assurance required for launching business. Clearly, institution and social contexts play important roles in determining the entrepreneurial inclination and action among students. Education conveys the required knowledge and skills which is capable of turning students‟ entrepreneurial intentions to entrepreneurial activities. In implementing intention, students‟ attitude towards other people’s resources and talents is important. Although participating in entrepreneurial education may not necessarily lead to entrepreneurial intentions, it has a way of motivating students in initiating entrepreneurial venture. Also, there is tendency that not all the students who had the intention to start entrepreneurial venture will end up as entrepreneurs.

Assessing Students




This research shows that prior exposure to entrepreneurship education has a positive effect on students’ attitudes toward a career in entrepreneurship and on perceived behavioral control or entrepreneurial self-efficacy. At the same time, individuals’ prior exposure to entrepreneurship in practice, both direct and indirect through their family background in business, is significantly linked to their attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding entrepreneurship. More specifically, having a selfemployed father is significantly related to the student’s positive attitudes, stronger norms, and greater self-efficacy with respect to entrepreneurship. This supports the findings of Krueger (1993) and suggests that students with self-employed fathers gain exposure to and tacit knowledge of entrepreneurship from an early age, which in turn affects their attitudes and perceptions of self-efficacy toward entrepreneurship. Prior experience of starting a business or trying to start a business is significantly linked with a positive attitude toward entrepreneurship and a greater degree of self-

much of the debate has centered on the concept of meritocracy in education. as evidenced by the drastic decline in Bumiputera businesses and corporate equity following the economic crisis. past and current policies to create a class of entrepreneurs have succeeded in the sense that there are more Bumiputeras involved in business and entrepreneurship now compared to before. In doing so. Recognizing this fact. the quality and level of competitiveness of the majority of Bumiputera companies could be improved so that they are more resilient to the ups and downs of economic cycles. Drawing on social psychology (the theory of planned behavior). NonBumiputera (mainly Chinese) companies are spreading their reaches overseas. The decision to innovate: Antecedents of opportunity exploitation in high tech small firms In this paper. risk taking Behavior. Indeed.e. it is still too early to gauge whether this will lead to actual changes in government policies on entrepreneurship or is merely political rhetoric. Entrepreneurial orientation and psychological traits: the moderating influence of supportive environment The entrepreneurial orientation dimension consisting of innovativeness. Malaysia has a vibrant entrepreneurial base with a huge potential to become a global player. This research study revisits the question of whether STRENGTHENING ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MALAYSIA . researcher focused on high tech small business owners to explore the antecedents of their decision to innovate.efficacy but not significantly related to subjective norms. and perceived control to actually exploit the opportunities. i. to exploit identified opportunities for innovation that they had already identified. favorable subjective norms of close ties. The finding regarding subjective norms suggests that students who are more confident in their ability based on practical experience are less influenced by perceived social norms about entrepreneurship. Nevertheless. researcher hypothesized that the decision to innovate is preceded by favorable attitudes toward identified opportunities. Nevertheless. although the debate has the potential to spread to the idea of entrepreneurship and meritocracy. entrepreneurship and organizational behavior literature. Admittedly. proving that Malaysian companies can succeed in the global arena. there have been some moves by the UMNO leadership to change the attitudes of Bumiputeras so as to be less reliant on the government. Some would argue that the reason for their complacency is the over-reliance on government contracts. proactiveness represents a recent model of conceptualization of entrepreneurial activities than have been employed in prior studies. This implies that students who have had direct experience of starting their own business have a more favorable attitude toward an entrepreneurial career and are more confident in their own ability to repeat that behavior. funding and support. researcher hoped to contribute to the literature by giving more precise explanations for individual differences in opportunity exploitation.

it provided significant insights into the influences of supportive environment on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and psychological traits. the small high tech firm moves away from the source of its most important characteristic. This research ventured to consider the dimension of entrepreneurial orientation as the dependent variable and psychological traits as the predictors. Low and MacMillan (1988). it appears that there may be great benefits in university programs that combine science and technology with business management. and flexibility is the key concept in guiding R&D effort within broadly defined objectives. Finally. locus of control. and whether supportive environments moderate the relationships between entrepreneurial orientation and psychological traits. First. Again Gartner (1988) and Vesper (1980) suggestion that the creation of an organization is a complex process and a contextual event. the firm level of entrepreneurial behavior or orientation. In addition. and technology strategy is determined within overall corporate strategy. In essence.are useful predictors by investigating their relationship to entrepreneurial orientation. including the individual personality traits. strategy activities become more formalized. The Role of Human Capital in Technological Entrepreneurship In this article. and tolerance for ambiguity-. thereby classifying the business as classically technology-driven. both aspects will evolve from R&D activity. As the firm grows and its technology matures. the outcome of many influences. technology transfer and innovation. Perhaps in so improving its prospects for longevity. The researcher conclude by offering some implications for policy makers and practitioners that have emerged from the studies comprising the current special issue as well as from other recent investigations focusing on human capital and technological entrepreneurship. researcher positions the special issue on human capital and technology-based entrepreneurship within the literatures concerning academic entrepreneurship. An example would be a dual MBA and MS in engineering . Strategy activities are likely to be informal. those psychological traits alone are inadequate in explaining entrepreneurial behavior. this is a more robust model for predicting entrepreneurial behavior because it incorporates variables from three different levels of analyses. and corporate spin-offs. and eventually the firm comes to be principally marketdriven. Aldrich and Zimmer (1986). and the positive influence of supportive environment. In parallel. Combining technology and corporate strategy in small high tech firms From this research we may conclude that technology strategy and corporate strategy are intimately linked within small high tech firms. it lends support to the criticisms advanced by Gartner (1988).psychological traits –need for achievement. During the early stages of the firm’s life. marketing considerations play an increasing part in ensuring the commercial success of innovation.

As Malaysia’s economic development moved towards industrial based. Such programs can provide both critical knowledge to nascent entrepreneurs as well as a platform for connecting technologists with experienced managers. The implementation of various policies and heavy industrialization effort by the government had fostered the development of technology-based entrepreneurial activities. emphasizing on the industrial sectors that are technology oriented. The transformation from entrepreneurship to technology entrepreneurship development in Malaysia The purpose of this paper is to discuss Malaysia’s industrial development since achieving its independence in 1957 to 2007. There was not much involvement of technological component.program including a major in entrepreneurship that focuses on the process of opportunity recognition and exploitation. The entrepreneurship development in Malaysia in the 1950s and 1960s was basically in the form of trading. the entrepreneurial activities simultaneously went in similar direction. This study focused on the industrial development in Malaysia due to the creation of large number of enterprises and entrepreneurs who served as vendors or suppliers to the manufacturers. the utilization of technological component more forcefully throughout the manufacturing value chain and the contribution of the sector to the nation’s economic growth and societal well-being. This paper has briefly provided an overview of the industrial development in Malaysia as a background to the discussion on the transformation to technology entrepreneurship development. .