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Creating

successful
masterplans
A guide for clients
Many people and organisations have contributed
to this guide and we are grateful to them all. It
has been written by Joanna Averley (CABE) and
Joanna Eley (AMA Alexi Marmot Associates), with
substantial inputs from Peter Stewart (CABE) and
Lora Nicolaou (DEGW). Thanks also to Emma
Published in 2004 by the Commission for Architecture Appleton, Gwilym Jones, Paul Lavelle, Jon Rouse,
and the Built Environment Selina Mason (CABE), to CABE Commissioners,
Reprinted in 2008
members of CABE’s Enabling Panel and
Graphic design: Draught Associates colleagues in CLG and English Partnerships
who have contributed content, comments and
All rights reserved. No part of this publication maybe illustrations. Designed by Draught Associates.
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, copied or
transmitted without the prior written consent of the
publisher except that the material may be photocopied The production of this guide is possible through
for non-commercial purposes without permission from the funding CABE receives from the Communities
the publisher. This document is available in alternative
and Local Government (CLG) and the
formats on request from the publisher.
Department of Culture Media and Sport (DCMS).
CABE is the government’s advisor on architecture,
urban design and public space. As a public body, we The guide aims to help you, as a client, achieve the
encourage policymakers to create places that work
for people. We help local planners apply national
masterplan you need. It offers advice based on
design policy and advise developers and architects, the experience of CABE’s Enabling and Design
persuading them to put people’s needs first. We show Review teams and members of CABE’s Enabling
public sector clients how to commission buildings that
Panel – to whom we are grateful. It accompanies
meet the needs of their users. And we seek to inspire the
public to demand more from their buildings and spaces. CABE’s Creating excellent buildings: a guide
Advising, influencing and inspiring, we work to create for clients, which provides advice to clients who
well designed, welcoming places. are commissioning buildings, Design review,
which provides guidance on how CABE evaluates
CABE 1 Kemble Street London WC2B 4AN
T 020 7070 6700 F 020 7070 6777 quality in architecture and urban design, and
E enquiries@cabe.org.uk www.cabe.org.uk Design reviewed masterplans.
Foreword

© Adam Gault Photography


Since CABE first published Creating Creating successful masterplans
successful masterplans in 2004, there provides a clear process to guide clients
has been major change across England. through the challenging and complex
task of masterplanning, defining what a
We have seen the beginnings of masterplan is and how to prepare, design
restructuring in cities, towns and and deliver high-quality places. The guide
neighbourhoods in the north, and housing draws on CABE’s experience of supporting
growth in the south. City centres have public sector clients on major projects
continued to enjoy an urban renaissance, across the country. It is written as a
with focused investment creating practical tool to be used on real projects
high-quality environments, providing on a day-to-day basis.
the right conditions once again for
business, living and recreation. The Since its publication, we’ve distributed over
government has committed itself to a 5,000 copies, with many more downloaded
massive development programme of from our website. Demand for the guide
public buildings, schools, health facilities continues, not least in response to the
and nurseries that will have an impact increasing pressure for housing growth
on the quality of services and on the and regeneration across the country.
look of their neighbourhoods. Design
processes such as masterplanning Creating successful masterplans will
have been central to delivering be fully updated in 2008/09, taking into
high-quality developments through account our experience since 2004. In the
these programmes. meantime, this reprinted edition contains
the same advice on process, with minor
While the outcome of all this investment updates on planning policy and useful
will affect the social, economic and contacts. The fundamentals of the guide
environmental characteristics of places, still hold true. I hope it will help you, as a
change will be realised physically. For client, to create truly great places.
investment to be successful and for great
places to be delivered, we need three
things - people with vision, commitment
and the right skills, a robust process
which demands and embeds quality
consistently, and a masterplan to
guide physical change. Richard Simmons
Chief executive, CABE
1 Introduction 9 3 Prepare 47

1.1 Why masterplan? 9 3.1 Identify aims and objectives 49

1.2 This guide 11 3.2 The strategic framework 50

3.2.1 The role of the strategic framework 50

1.3 The definition of a masterplan 13


3.2.2 Baseline information 53

1.3.1 A masterplan – the product 13


3.2.3 Urban design analysis and
1.3.2 The masterplanning process 15
characterisation 54

1.4 Masterplanning and design quality 16 3.2.4 The outline business case 57

1.5 Being a successful client 19 3.2.5 The vision 58

1.5.1 Identify the client 19 3.3 Identify the type


1.5.2 Success factors for of masterplanning process 60

masterplanning clients 20

3.4 Establish the client team and roles 61

3.4.1 A champion 62

3.4.2 The client or project sponsor 62

2 Masterplanning 3.4.3 A project manager 62

principles 27 3.4.4 Client steering group


3.4.5 The decision-making process
63

64

2.1 Masterplanning and the


planning system 27 3.5 Identify stakeholders 65

2.1.1 Masterplans and the development 3.6 Consult and communicate

plan process 27 with stakeholders 66

2.1.2 Masterplans and development control 30 3.6.1 The consultation strategy 66

2.1.3 Masterplans and creating sustainable 3.6.2 The consultation process 70

communities 30 3.6.3 Consultation outputs 71

2.2 Key aspects of a masterplan 32 3.7 The masterplanning team 72

2.2.1 Setting the framework and developing 3.7.1 Finding the right skills 72

the masterplan 32 3.7.2 Leading the masterplanning team 74

2.2.2 The spatial masterplan 33 3.7.3 The commissioning brief 74

2.2.3 Characteristics of masterplanning 33 3.7.4 Selecting a masterplanning team 75

2.3 Different contexts for 3.7.5 Official Journal of the European Union

masterplanning 34 procedures (OJEU) 77

2.3.1 Stimulate, channel or facilitate investment 34 3.7.6 Creating a positive working relationship 77

2.4 Stages of a masterplanning process 37 3.8 Next steps 78

2.4.1 Prepare 39

2.4.2 Design 39

2.4.3 Implementation 39

2.5 Different client approaches to

masterplanning 43

2.6 Next steps 45

4 Design 79
5 Implementation 95

4.1 The design process 81


5.1 An implementation strategy –

the heart of the process 97

4.2 What to expect in a masterplan 81

5.2 Adopting an implementation strategy 97

4.3 Evolving and testing

5.2.1 Timetable for staged implementation 99

the masterplan 83

5.2.2 Funding 100

4.4 A ‘vision’ and sense of place 84


5.2.3 Delivery vehicles 101

4.5 Functionality 85
5.2.4 Partners in local delivery structures 101

4.5.1 Urban design 85


5.2.5 Marketing 104

4.5.2 Site planning 85


5.2.6 Management and maintenance strategy 105

4.5.3 Infrastructure and connectivity 87


5.2.7 Risk analysis 105

4.5.4 Roads, servicing and car parking 89


5.3 Delivering design quality 106

4.6 Design quality and architecture 89


5.4 Design coding 108

4.6.1 Masterplanning and architecture 89


5.4.1 What is a design code? 108

4.6.2 Coherence, variety and uniformity 91


5.4.2 Design codes and masterplanning 108

4.6.3 Architectural heritage 91


5.4.3 Issues to consider 110

4.7 Viability 93
5.5 Establishing the masterplan in

4.7.1 Development capacity testing 93


the planning process 110

4.7.2 Plot testing 93

5.6 Moving towards delivery 112

4.8 Next steps 94

5.7 Monitoring the outcome 113

6 References,

contacts & glossary 115

6.1 References 115

6.2 Contacts 118

6.3 Glossary 122

6.4 Photography credits 136

7 Work sheets 137

1 Competitive selection 137

2 Selection using EU procedures 141

3 Masterplanning / developer

competitions 149

4 Getting the brief right 152

Boxes

Box 14: Stages and key outputs


of masterplanning 40
Introduction Page
Box 15: Factors that impact on the
Box 1: Main urban design and client role 44
masterplanning documents 12

Box 2: Situations where masterplanning Prepare


is valuable 15
Box 16: The process and outputs in the
Box 3: Good design principles for urban prepare stage 48
design and open space 18
Box 17: The main components of the
Box 4: The value of good urban design 18 strategic framework 50

Box 5: Client categories 19 Box 18: Topics to research for baseline


information 54
Box 6: Keys to being a successful
masterplanning client 20 Box 19: Factors that influence character 55

Box 7: Components of a successful Box 20: Issues to address in an outline


masterplan 26 business case 57

Box 21: Three types of ‘client’ 60


Masterplanning Principles
Box 22: Aims of a client management
Box 8: Local Development Frameworks/ structure 61
Supplementary Planning Documents 29
Box 23: A project sponsor 62
Box 9: What makes a sustainable
community? 30 Box 24: The project manager 63

Box 10: The main elements of a masterplan 32 Box 25: Potential masterplan stakeholders 65

Box 11: Masterplanning: a responsive Box 26: Consultation and communication


and proactive process 33 methods 68

Box 12: Triggers for a masterplan 35 Box 27: Questions for a consultation event 71

Box 13: Sample masterplanning scenarios 36 Box 28: The masterplanning team 72
Box 29: A masterplanner’s core skills 73 Work sheets

Box 30: Contents for a masterplanners’ Box 41: Typical pre-qualification


commissioning brief 75 information 138

Box 31: Key principles for your Box 42: EU thresholds for public sector
selection process 76 procurement (1 January 2002) 142

Box 32: Stages of the selection process 77 Box 43: Selection timescales 147

Box 44: A competition as a


Design creative process 151

Box 33: The process and outputs in the Box 45: Things to think about 153
design stage 80

Box 34: The contents of a spatial


masterplanning document 82

Box 35: Key tests for a masterplan 84

Box 36: Key questions for open spaces


and the public realm 87

Implementation

Box 37: The process and outputs in the


implementation stage 96

Box 38: Factors that can influence the


phasing of delivery 99

Box 39: Considerations for local


authorities when forming
delivery partnerships 103

Box 40: Mechanisms for delivering design


quality in masterplans 107
Illustrations Adopting mechanisms to aid in
consultation: Holbeck Urban Village, Leeds 67

Masterplanning that addresses the legacy Using different media for


of industrial decline: Glasgow Harbour 10 communication: Lewisham Gateway 69

Strategic thinking for urban areas: Dealing with different scenarios:


North Manchester 14 Lower Lea Valley, London 74

Putting design quality at the heart of the Thinking about identity:


process: Southey and Owlerton, Sheffield 17 Zuidas, Amsterdam 78

Delivering design quality on the ground: Establishing design principles for


Brindleyplace 21 neighbourhoods: Cherrywood,
Dun Laoghaire 86
Urban expansion and landscape:
Cambridge 24 Using tools to test masterplans:
South Bank 88
Rethinking a planned city:
Central Milton Keynes 28 Communicating design proposals to
stakeholders: Canon’s Marsh, Bristol 90
The creation of an urban village on
former industrial land: Llandarcy 31 Using modelling to test proposals:
Newquay 92
Presenting data to inform thinking:
Rotherham 38 City plot testing 94

Providing a masterplan to facilitate Setting out to deliver: Manchester


investment: Ipswich Town Centre 42 City Centre 98

‘Branding’ the environment to assist A flexible plan: Bermondsey Spa 100


regeneration: Corby 46
Establishing principles that will stand
Dealing with strategic issues: the test of time: King’s Cross Central 102
Swords, Dublin 51
Using design codes: Upton, Northampton 109

Establishing baseline data 52


Providing a framework for different

Characterisation as the starting point: designers and developers:

Gloucester 56 King’s Waterfront, Liverpool 111

Testing options at all scales: Almere Port 58 Creating value through landscape:

Poolbeg, Dublin 114

Creating a vision for the future: Blackpool 59


Contents 9

Introduction

Introduction
1.1 Why masterplan? developers and communities alike need to
think about physical change at a large scale.
We are in interesting times in the UK as,
perhaps more than ever before, we attempt to A masterplan addresses the multifaceted
improve our urban areas in a comprehensive aspects that make places successful:
way. Planning for change in the physical,
social and economic fabric of places is now • the quality of the buildings and spaces and
increasingly seen as a cohesive process, their management
which can be achieved through the input and
efforts of many professionals and local • the way these come together to
communities. People – residents, visitors and create unique places
ultimate users of the spaces and buildings
created – are at the heart of any masterplan. • built form in relation to history, culture
A successful masterplan will therefore set and landscape
out how to create and sustain excellent
places for living, work and play. • the provision of services

The issues that we are seeking to address • the engagement of local people and
in our town and city centres, on brownfield users in defining and being involved
sites, in housing market renewal and growth in the process of change
areas, are complex and sophisticated,
and the solutions need to match this • the economic and financial realities
sophistication. All those involved in
regeneration and development benefit from • the role of different agencies in delivering
adopting a clear strategy for the physical, investment and change.
economic and social transformation of
places. Masterplanning offers the method It is important to recognise at the outset that
for defining such a strategy. masterplans should not be seen as rigid
blueprints for development and design. Rather
Although the word ‘masterplan’ is not they set the context, within which individual
frequently used in government planning projects come forward. This document is
guidance, masterplanning has had a strong therefore about this strategic stage of thinking;
revival in recent years. The demand for but success will ultimately depend on the
strategic thinking about the process of urban delivery of great design at a more detailed
and rural change is growing rapidly, as local level. Therefore the process described here
authorities, regional development agencies, will help you develop your strategy, but there
urban regeneration companies, housing will be much for clients to do beyond the
market renewal pathfinders, private masterplanning stage.
10
Introduction Contents

Masterplanning embraces a wide range of • unlocking previously under-developed land


complex, sometimes conflicting, issues
and is a positive, proactive process that • engaging the local community in thinking
can bring significant benefits by: about their role in a development or
regeneration process
• helping shape the three-dimensional
physical form that responds to local • helping build consensus about the future
economic and social dynamics of an area and identify priorities for action

• helping identify the potential of an • increasing land values, and making


area or site for development more schemes viable

Masterplanning that addresses


the legacy of industrial decline:
Glasgow Harbour

The decline of shipbuilding and heavy


industries in Glasgow brought social
and economic problems and left behind
many inactive ‘brownfield’ sites. Along
the Clyde, Glasgow Harbour Ltd
commissioned a masterplan that
reconnects the riverside to Glasgow’s
West End, creating an accessible
destination for residents and visitors
and bringing new mixed developments –
residential, leisure and commercial –
along a major new linear park. The
client worked in partnership with the
masterplanners to ensure that the
framework encourages high design
quality through competition.

Project: Glasgow Harbour


Client: Glasgow Harbour Ltd.
Masterplanners: Kohn Pederson Fox
Images: Kohn Pederson Fox
Contents 11

1.2 This guide

Introduction
• attracting private sector investment
and identifying public and private
sector aspirations and roles Guidance outlining what should be included in
a spatial masterplan (the product) is already
• giving clarity to the roles and available in documents such as the Urban
responsibility of organisations involved design compendium, (English Partnerships and
in development or regeneration the Housing Corporation 2000) but little
has been written about the process of
• helping promote an area and market commissioning and preparing a masterplan.
its development or regeneration That is what this guide does: it is about process
and technicalities, identifying key client roles and
• helping to stitch new development interactions, and should be used as a reference
seamlessly into an existing community throughout masterplanning.
and heritage
It aims to help clients commissioning
• showing political leadership masterplans, especially those with limited
experience of the processes involved, working
• defining proposals that will deliver in an unfamiliar context, or using new team
high quality, sustainable buildings structures. It describes the different stages of
and public spaces thinking about physical change which culminate
in a masterplan that sets out proposals for
• helping coordinate the activities of buildings, spaces, transport and land use in three
different services in an area, eg dimensions. This then provides a framework
education, health and leisure within which designers and developers can bring
forward more detailed proposals. The sister
• celebrating the natural assets of a document to this guide, Creating excellent
place, for example the landscape, buildings: a guide for clients (CABE 2003),
topography and ecology. covers how to deliver these individual projects.

“The aim is to achieve a new


equilibrium between cities, society and
nature. We believe that such a goal is
both realistic and achievable”
Towards an urban renaissance,
Urban Task Force p47
12
Introduction Contents

The guide reflects the issues and frequently Images drawn from recent projects have
asked questions that have emerged from been included to illustrate the wide range of
CABE’s work with masterplanning clients tools and techniques available to formulate
through the Enabling and Design Review and communicate the varied aspects of
programmes. It aims to record current best masterplans. They are not comprehensive
practice and provide comprehensive case studies, but highlight the types of
guidance of relevance to any client, whether outputs that clients could receive during the
private sector developer, local authority or design phases of the masterplan and give
regeneration agency. Readers may find examples of key issues. Some cases are
some of the content obvious and some new. illustrated in more depth in Design reviewed
We hope it will help masterplanners, clients masterplans (CABE 2004) and on CABE’s
and their advisers adopt a common language digital library at www.cabe.org.uk/library.
and approach to creating successful places.

• The Introduction (section 1), defines a


masterplan and sets out how it can Box 1: Main urban design and
contribute to achieving better designed masterplanning documents
places, buildings and public spaces, and
includes the key factors that help clients
achieve their objectives through • Urban Task Force, Towards an
masterplanning. urban renaissance (ODPM 1999)
• Llewelyn Davies, EP, Housing Coporation,
• Section 2 considers the key principles Urban design compendium (2000)
of masterplanning and the role of • CABE, DETR, By Design, urban design
masterplans in the land use planning in the planning system: towards better
system in England; it sets the context practice (Thomas Telford 2000)
within which masterplans can be used; • CABE, DETR, By design, better places
and it outlines the role they play. This to live (Thomas Telford 2001)
section also provides an overview of the • DETR, Planning: delivering a fundamental
methodology for preparing masterplans. change (Planning Green Paper 2001)
• Urban Design Group, Urban design
• The main body of the guide presents the guidance (Thomas Telford 2002)
key steps in the masterplanning process, • ODPM, Sustainable communities:
from how clients prepare to commission delivering through planning (2002)
a masterplan (section 3) and key • ODPM, Sustainable communities:
considerations during the design phase building for the future (2003)
(section 4), to how to address • CABE et al, Building sustainable
implementation throughout the communities: actions for housing
process (section 5). market renewal (2003)
• CABE,Building sustainable communities:
• The latter sections provide reference the use of urban design codes (2003)
material (section 6), including a glossary, • ODPM, Planning and compulsory
and additional guidance in the form of purchase bill (2003)
worksheets (section 7).
Contents 13

Introduction
1.3 The definition of a • shows how the streets, squares and
open spaces of a neighbourhood are

masterplan to be connected

1.3.1 A masterplan – the product • defines the heights, massing and


Many terms can be used to describe bulk of buildings
strategies for the physical regeneration
of an area. Some of the most commonly • sets out suggested relationships
used are masterplan, development between buildings and public spaces
framework, regeneration strategy, urban
design framework, or vision. They are • determines the distribution of activities/
used interchangeably and can mean uses that will be allowed
different things to different people.
• identifies the network of movement
What we mean by a masterplan includes patterns for people moving by foot,

both the process by which organisations cycle, car or public transport, service

undertake analysis and prepare strategies, and refuse vehicles

and the proposals that are needed to plan


for major change in a defined physical • sets out the basis for provision of other
area. This document is concerned with infrastructure elements such as utilities
‘spatial masterplans’, which set out
proposals for buildings, spaces, movement • relates physical form to the
strategy and land use in three dimensions socio-economic and cultural context

and match these proposals to a delivery and stakeholder interests

strategy. This is the definition provided in


Towards an urban renaissance (Urban • allows an understanding of how well a
Task Force, ODPM 1999). For a new, urban neighbourhood is integrated

masterplan to be complete it must be with the surrounding urban context and

supported by financial, economic and natural environment.

social policy documents and delivery


mechanisms, without which the spatial Other strategies for physical regeneration
plan has little meaning or likelihood of at a different scale or to a different level
effective implementation. of detail may also be prepared. Some of
these will form part of the background or
Masterplans are only required where the strategic context for a masterplan – for
scale of change is significant and the example sub-regional strategies such as
area subject to change is more than a those for housing market renewal areas –
few buildings. 33 The spatial masterplan and some may follow on from a 77
can be described as a sophisticated masterplanning exercise to assist in Box 2
‘model’ that: delivery, for example a design brief
for a site or cluster of buildings.
14
Introduction Contents

Strategic thinking for urban


areas: North Manchester

This is an example of how to look at


a very large area of a city to record
baseline data that sets out the social,
physical and economic situation in
order to inform regeneration and the
targeting of investment, including
housing market renewal. Ultimately the
plan will be realised by a series of
smaller individual interventions, some
of which may require their own
bespoke plans. The Framework is
composed of themed and interrelated
strategies, which will guide
interventions and joined-up thinking in
the delivery of services. This approach
can generate market confidence in the
viability of the overall area through an
understanding that there will be
comprehensive provision of
infrastructure- and services-related
physical, social and economic issues.

Project: North Manchester Strategic


Regeneration Framework
Client: Manchester City Council
Masterplanner: EDAW
Images: EDAW
Contents 15

Introduction
Box 2: Situations where masterplanning is valuable

Masterplans are used to evaluate the 2 Development (greenfield


current context and propose physical or brownfield)
change in three main urban contexts: • large extensions to urban areas and
villages being developed to support
1 Regeneration housing needs or economic growth
• the closure of an industry that results and change
in large areas of brownfield and • a land owner wanting to establish the
redundant land being available for amount and quality of development
development, eg. steelworks, that is appropriate for their land
shipyards, docks, railway lands, • the creation of new towns
river and canal sides • exploration of the impact of
• the need for a city, urban or rural greenfield development on a
district to reinvigorate its economic particular planning context.
performance and bring in new
development 3 Opportunities
• the need to regenerate part of an urban • the end of a regeneration agency’s
area, often precipitated by the disposal life and the need to dispose of assets,
of publicly-owned holdings, some of often including the creation of a
which may have been acquired through legacy for agencies that will
compulsory purchase continue to operate
• a large housing estate failing due • developments in city centres that may
to the quality of the housing stock entail the amalgamation of sites and
and stigmatisation of the community, improvements in transport
leading to the need to redevelop large • the disposal of publicly-owned
areas of housing. land and buildings, for example
old utilities or institutional sites
• the creation of a major new
public investment, eg. Olympic
sports facilities.

1.3.2 The masterplanning process recognition that a masterplan is


It is important to understand key required and the moment when
characteristics of masterplanning: development happens on the ground.
This guide focuses on the up-front
• The social, economic and physical strategic thinking that a client should
context within which a masterplan is undertake in order to set out an
commissioned is unique. Years, even approach to development over the
decades, can elapse between the subsequent years.
16
Introduction Contents

• The planning context is the platform on 1.4 Masterplanning


which the masterplan stands and the
masterplan must therefore be designed and design quality
with a clear understanding of the goals of,
and interaction with, local plans and The rise to prominence of masterplanning
government policy. Whether it is prepared parallels the increasing recognition of the
by the private or public sector will affect its importance of urban design in promoting
relation to the planning context. It may good places to live and work. Current urban
take on formal status for elements which design acknowledges that the poor physical
are to be fixed for the long term, or environment of some of our towns and cities
advisory status where it is open to is a result of poor planning of buildings and
interpretation or may change over time. the spaces between them.
It may be used to inform planning policy
within the wider planning process, for The interface between the internal and
example in an area action plan or a external domain of buildings and public
planning application, or to assist specific spaces is an integral part of the spatial
strategic policies such as housing renewal experience of urban environments.
(eg. through pathfinder programmes), or Masterplanning is concerned with the
employment regeneration (eg. through integration and quality of buildings with the
enterprise zones). spaces created in-between: the hard and
soft landscape, the public spaces, the roads
• The client’s circumstances have an and car parks, the utilities infrastructure,
impact. Masterplanning is a fluid the street furniture and signage, many of
process, with many people contributing which are determined by the design,
over time to the initial proposals, as well massing and placement of buildings.
as to their ultimate delivery. For example, The quality of buildings themselves is
many clients may not be in a position to important, as is how they address the
prepare a masterplan as a single, functional, performance and aesthetic
unbroken exercise. Funding and politics requirements of users. Success comes
may mean that they do so in phases, with from the way physical proposals are
considerable time passing between each complemented by positive change in the
phase. Clients may come from social and economic well-being of places
a wide range of groups – public, and of the people who live or work there.
private, voluntary and the community –
with correspondingly varied aims.
Depending on their aims, the
masterplans will have different
emphasis. Particular clients may play a
part throughout or for a short stage only,
or their role may change during the “We need to avoid making
process. A client may be involved at everywhere like everywhere else,
different stages or play several roles rather than more like itself”
in the course of its development. Les Sparks, CABE Commissioner
Contents 17

Introduction
Putting design quality at the heart
of the process: Southey and
Owlerton, Sheffield

Southey and Owlerton Area


Regeneration (SOAR) is an SRB
Partnership set up to take forward the
renewal of a series of neighbourhoods in
Sheffield. The development of proposals
for the area has benefited from
significant inputs from local residents.
Proposals for the physical renewal of
the housing stock, infill developments,
provision of facilities in each
neighbourhood and improvement to
local parks were defined through the
community’s engagement in a
neighbourhood masterplanning exercise.

As the project moved into delivery it was


recognised that local residents and
SOAR team would benefit from some
additional assistance to ensure that their
aspirations for design quality were
delivered on the ground. A Design Panel
of four professionals was appointed to
provide independent, technical support
and advice. The Design Panel has helped
define the key design principles for the
main projects with the community,
assisted with the procurement of
designers and consultants and helped
set up study visits. Through this process,
design quality has been imbedded as a
key aspiration for all those involved and
people’s capacity to engage with the
design process has increased.

Project: Southey Owlerton Area


Regeneration (SOAR), Sheffield
Client: SOAR / Sheffield City Council
Images: CABE
18
Introduction Contents

Box 3: Good design principles for urban design and open space

A well designed place has the • legibility – a place that has a clear
following qualities: image and is easy to understand
• character – a place with its own identity • adaptability – a place that can
• continuity and enclosure – a place change easily
where public and private spaces are • diversity – a place with variety and choice
clearly distinguished • security – a place where the users feel
• quality of the public realm – a place with and are as safe as possible
attractive and successful outdoor areas • services – an appropriate and high
valued by people who use them quality services infrastructure
• ease of movement – a place that is
easy to reach and move through CABE, Design review (London 2002)

Box 4: The value of good urban design

Good design adds economic value by: And good design adds social and
• producing high returns on investments environmental value by:
(good rental returns and enhanced • creating well connected, inclusive and
capital values) accessible new places
• making new places more attractive than • delivering mixed-use environments with
the local competition at little cost a broad range of facilities and
• responding to occupier demand amenities available to all
• reducing management, maintenance, • delivering development sensitive
energy and security costs to context
• contributing to more contented and • enhancing the sense of safety and
productive workforces security within and beyond developments
• supporting the ‘life-giving’ mixed-use • returning inaccessible or run down areas
elements in developments and amenities to beneficial public use
• creating an urban regeneration and • boosting civic pride and enhancing
place-making market dividend civic image
• differentiating places and raising • creating more energy efficient and less
their prestige polluting development
• opening up investment opportunities, • revitalising urban heritage
raising confidence in development
opportunities and attracting grant monies Bartlett School of Planning, Value of urban
• providing opportunities for wealth design (CABE and DTLR, London 2002)
generation by inhabitants
• reducing the cost to the public purse of
rectifying urban design mistakes.
Contents 19

Introduction
1.5 Being a Box 5: Client categories

successful client
Public (and quasi-public)
1.5.1 Identify the client • local authorities responsible for
Through CABE’s work with clients, setting planning policy for an area of
it is clear that the client has to be at the change eg. urban extension,
heart of all building and masterplanning regeneration of a declining area, or
projects. However, the client often reuse of a brownfield site
changes during the creation of the • regional development agencies
masterplan. A public body such as a • regeneration agencies eg. English
local authority may initiate the process; Partnerships, project teams for Single
a private developer or a regeneration Regeneration Budget, New Deal for
agency may take it on as it moves Communities, Housing Market
towards implementation. Clients may be Renewal Pathfinder projects
public, private or voluntary bodies, with • national agencies with an
private or voluntary sector clients being interest in the physical change of an
more likely to stimulate or channel area eg. English Heritage,
investment than to facilitate it. Despite Environment Agency
the number of parties involved and • public and quasi-public land
potential changes in role, the client is owners eg. transport authorities,
pivotal in creating a successful place. utilities companies
• organisations managing a large
estate of land and properties, such as
hospital trusts or universities.

Private
“You must have a client, and it does • large landowners on their own land
not matter how expert that client is: • a consortium planning to develop
that client has to be single-minded, land purchased for the purpose
must be a patron, and must not be eg. a housing area, business park
a substitute or a committee – or a mixed development.
neither work. He or she has to be
the individual in the organisation Community/voluntary
who has the authority, the vision • local residents and tenants involved in
and the financial muscle to make housing renewal programmes, who
the project happen.” are part of the client group.
Peter Rogers, Chairman, Strategic
Forum and Constructing Excellence,
‘The client and the design team’, in
Spence, R et al Interdisciplinary design
in practice, Chapter 3, p26 (Thomas
Telford, London 2001)
20
Introduction Contents

1.5.2 Success factors for “If you do not take trouble at the
masterplanning clients beginning, you will most certainly
Each masterplanning project is unique, be given it before the end”
with special local conditions of site, use Sir Hugh Casson foreword to Courtney
patterns, social context and the various Blackmore, The client’s tale, RIBA
organisations involved. However, the key Publications, London 1990
factors outlined below are relevant in all
cases and help clients create a context
conducive to a successful outcome.
These factors revolve around people,
communication and timing and are
reflected in the process presented in more
detail in the later sections of this guide.

Box 6: Keys to being a successful masterplanning client

Provide strong client leadership and Respond to the context, physical,


a commitment to quality economic, cultural and social

Be clear about your aims and the Work with stakeholders


outputs you need

Understand that masterplanning


Learn from your own and other is a fluid process
successful projects

Work in a collaborative spirit


Give enough time at the right time

Put in place a strategy and structure


Find the right teams and for implementation
development partners
Contents 21

Introduction
Provide strong leadership and
commitment to quality
Leadership is about vision, good
decision-making and proper communication.
A successful project needs a clear vision
and a client able to give and receive the
right information at the right moments –
clear communication smoothes the
entire process. Projects generally
require leadership to be provided by a
few key individuals.
Delivering design quality on the Project: Brindleyplace,
ground: Brindleyplace Birmingham
Masterplanner: John Chatwin
Today, with over one million square feet of Client: Argent Group plc
Be clear about your aims and the offices in ten buildings set around three Images: Argent Group plc
outputs you need public squares, Brindleyplace is recognised
Success is measured against objectives that as a successful mixed use, city centre
must be understood and shared by everyone development that combines architectural
involved. An important part of the process is quality with commercial reality. The story of
to reconcile the many, possibly conflicting, its development illustrates the need for a
aims and create a way forward that is masterplan that sets out key priorities and
accepted by and beneficial to the wider quality levels, while providing sufficient
community. As a client you need to have flexibility to respond to changes in market
a clear set of aims describing the kind of requirements and levels of demand.
improvements and changes you are
seeking. Your vision should be set down at The earliest projects demonstrated the
the start to inspire participants, stakeholders, developer’s commitment to create an
your team and the masterplanning experts. environment of the highest quality and set a
A masterplan involves multi-layered benchmark for future phases. This helped
processes and outputs; it is therefore create market confidence. The early
important to be clear about what you are creation of the central public space provided
trying to achieve at different stages and the a context for future developments and the
outputs, advice and decisions you need to careful appointment of different architects
help you proceed to the next stage. for individual buildings gives Brindleyplace
a distinct character. A strong emphasis
is placed on the ongoing stewardship of
the development to manage the mix of uses
and ensure that Brindleyplace continues to
be a safe, clean and interesting place to
work and visit.
22
Introduction Contents

Learn from your own and other Find the right teams and partners
successful projects In the final analysis it is people with the
The most effective decisions are based right talents who deliver a great project.
on thorough knowledge. Each project is One of your most important tasks is to
unique but best practice examples can select the people for your own team
clarify your vision and act as benchmarks and your consultant and partner
to check how well you are doing. If you organisations. You must define what
have little experience of masterplanning, you expect of each and then manage
you can develop knowledge and your relationships with them so that they
understanding by carefully examining work effectively together and with you.
relevant examples. Visiting places and You need to put as much work into
talking to people with your masterplanning choosing the right people and creating
team and key stakeholders or potential and managing relationships as into
partners will help establish common discovering inspirational projects and
values and aspirations and demonstrate best practice benchmarks. Your team
how good design can add value. needs to be skilled at working with a
wide range of people and groups and
be able to understand and respond
appropriately. Often it is you, not they,
who must manage the relationships
Give enough time at the right time between your organisation and all
The value of the client putting in time when partners or stakeholders. Finding
it is needed during the project cannot be partners who are committed and able
overstated. You need time to explore to deliver development on the ground
options, collect baseline data, identify and is a critical part of the process,
communicate with stakeholders and to especially for public sector clients.
decide what expert help to seek. Reaching
a clear understanding of the potential in
the project and familiarising yourself with
the context all take time. Early decisions
have a major effect on how the project
develops. They need to be the right
decisions, which means that taking the
time to explore the background properly
at an early stage is essential.
Contents 23

Introduction
Work with the context: physical, Work with stakeholders
economic and social A masterplanning project has many
Your process must start with an stakeholders, whose concerns,
assessment of the context, including sometimes conflicting, are primarily
its most important characteristics social and economic. Some may be
and opportunities, and refer back unaware of design quality issues.
to this assessment throughout its Others, such as funders, local groups
development. The masterplan will or businesses, the local authority,
affect areas beyond its boundaries transport and utility companies, have a
and this wider context must also be direct interest. The different priorities of
considered. A diverse range of issues all stakeholders need to be taken into
needs to be explored, for example the account. For example, for commercial
economic and social patterns in the organisations you need to demonstrate
area, existing transport and built form, through best practice examples that
archaeology, ecology, arboriculture, commercial needs and urban design
historic buildings and landscape. principles can be reconciled in a positive
When this baseline data is developed way. Stakeholders may include national
into a framework for the masterplan, and regional bodies whose policies are
realistic possibilities for implementation relevant to your area. The needs of the
must be debated and this may lead to existing local community and future
additional research and negotiation users of the area must be considered
with potential partners. and appropriate representatives
must be included in the stakeholder
groups. Setting up the framework for
consultation will help guide the plan
and gain consensus. Communication
with stakeholders can involve
considerable time, cost and skills, for
which you should plan and budget.

“For places to be well-used and


well-loved, they must be safe,
comfortable, varied and attractive.
They also need to be distinctive and
offer variety, choice and fun.”
Urban design compendium, p14
24
Introduction Contents

Urban expansion and landscape:


Cambridge

The masterplan illustrated is informing


the expansion of Cambridge, which is
in a housing growth area. In order to
test the feasibility of the proposed
expansion, the capacity of the area
was investigated, including an
examination of incorporating sustainable
development principles.
The infrastructure and landscape
Project: Cambridge City Expansion framework are key elements in
Client: Cambridge City Council understanding future capacity for the
Masterplanning study: DEGW, area. In this context, the success of
Cambridge Landscape Architects the strategic plan relies on a parallel
Images: DEGW review of the design of built form
and the character of the landscape.
Contents 25

Introduction
Understand that masterplanning is Work in a collaborative spirit
a fluid process A multitude of people are involved in
The process of masterplanning goes delivering a masterplan. At the early
through several stages, during which stages, it is important that the process
the client may change a number of draws in the skills and commitment of a
times. How and why this happens wide range of people. Collaboration will
depends on the specific situation. therefore be critical. A critical partner
For example, a local authority may will be the local planning authority,
initiate the information gathering stage, as the plan should fit in with, or may
create a brief and then seek a private inform, local planning policy and will
developer to take over the development have to take into account other
of the physical masterplan, prior to developments in the area. A positive
implementation. Or the plan may relationship between you, your team and
continue to evolve over time, with new the local authority, involving mutual trust,
players entering as client at a later understanding and compromise, will
stage. As the client, you need to be help smooth implementation. The local
aware from the start of the overall shape authority may need to be flexible, as
of the process and who will have new concepts and changes for an area
responsibility for each stage or input. may not have been anticipated
Other factors could also impact on the in earlier statutory plans. All involved
delivery of the masterplan, for example must recognise that the right degree
the property market, available funding of control contributes positively to
and planning policy. It is important for quality of place.
the client to understand the aspects of
the masterplan that are essential to its There may be considerable time
success. Understanding where to be lags between putting together
prescriptive and where to be flexible and implementing a masterplan.
is a very important part of the client role. The outcome is more likely to be a
The ultimate objective is to create a success when the active client and
masterplan that can respond positively the local authority are jointly committed
to changes that add value, while keeping to carrying the vision through to
the essence of design quality and completion. Many large-scale
regeneration at its heart. masterplans, with extended delivery
periods, will see a change in key
stakeholders (and clients), so
commitment from a broad constituency
is necessary to ensure that the vision
is finally delivered.
26
Introduction Contents

Box 7: Components of a successful


masterplan
Put in place a strategy and
structure for implementation
The masterplanning process will be a A successful masterplan must be:
waste of time and energy if it results • visionary: it should raise aspirations
in a document that sits on a shelf. and provide a vehicle for consensus
It is therefore essential to prepare a building and implementation
realistic implementation strategy, which • deliverable: it should take into
is accepted by key partners and acted account likely implementation
upon. This involves decisions about and delivery routes
possible delivery mechanisms, whether • fully integrated into the land use
public or private, how to engage with planning system, while allowing
development partners, likely sources of new uses and market opportunities
funds, cash flow and return on to exploit the full development potential
investment and time frame. At each of a site
stage, action to make implementation • flexible, providing the basis for
possible must be clearly articulated. negotiation and dispute resolution
Clients need a structure in their • the result of a participatory process,
organisation that allows them to providing all the stakeholders with
support or manage the implementation the means of expressing their
process, to review it as it progresses needs and priorities
and realign it if there are significant • equally applicable to rethinking the
changes in the base data. role, function and form of existing
neighbourhoods as to creating new
neighbourhoods
Urban Task Force, Towards an urban
renaissance (ODPM, London 1999)
Masterplanning
principles 27

Masterplanning
principles
This section sets the context within planning process by providing for greater
which masterplans can be used, outlines certainty and acceptance amongst all
the role they play and introduces the stakeholders as to the type of development
methodology for the masterplan process that is required. Increasingly masterplans
and product. It also describes different are being used to inform the revision of local
client approaches. plans and may establish new policies by
becoming one of the Local Development
Documents within the new Local
2.1 Masterplanning Development Frameworks. The Planning
and the planning Framework within which masterplans
will operate is set out in the Planning
system and Compulsory Purchase Act and
accompanying guidance, as summarised
2.1.1 Masterplans and the in Box 8.
development plan process
Delivering better quality urban design is a
fundamental objective of the planning Since the original publication of this document in 2004,
system. This has been reinforced by the national planning policy has been updated to include clear
changes that followed the Planning Green references to the role of good design in planning and
Paper 2002 and which have resulted in sustainable development.
the strengthening of planning as a way of
improving design standards. How a ‘Planning authorities should prepare robust policies on

masterplan relates to the land use design and access… based on stated objectives for the

planning system is critical, as this is the future of the area and an understanding and evaluation

primary means of control, though for of its present defining characteristics.’

publicly-owned land additional control Planning policy statement 1: delivering sustainable

can be exercised. development (CLG, 2005), para 36

Masterplanning can promote proactive ‘Good design is fundamental to the development of high
planning by providing an opportunity to quality new housing, which contributes to the creation of
involve the community in emerging design sustainable, mixed communities.’
solutions based around a clear design Planning policy statement 3: housing (CLG, 2006), para 13
rationale. It can also speed up the
28
Masterplanning
principles

Rethinking a planned city:


Central Milton Keynes

The original masterplan for Milton


Keynes is coming to the end of the
period envisaged originally. New thinking
was wanted to take the city forward for
the next 20-30 years without radical
change. The framework has been put
forward in a way that does not suggest
specific architectural style but allows a
sense of place with some flexibility to
emerge so that a successful mix of uses
will be able to become established in a
more accessible and permeable walking
environment.

This plan rethinks the character of a


well-defined place through remodelling
the mix of uses and renewing elements
in the public realm, without destroying
the underlying existing structure.

Project: Central Milton Keynes


Client English Partnerships and Milton Keynes Council
Masterplanner: EDAW
Images: EDAW
Box 8: Local Development Frameworks/Supplementary Planning Documents

Local Development Frameworks (LDFs), • Area action plans (where needed) are
which replace unitary and local used to provide a planning framework
development plans, comprise a folder of for areas of change and of 29
Local Development Documents (LDDs). conservation. These are likely to
These documents are of two types: include areas of planned growth and

Masterplanning
Development Plan Documents (DPDs) where regeneration is to be

principles
and Supplementary Planning Documents stimulated. Drawing up masterplans
(SPDs). LDFs must also include a clearly indicating the nature, type and
Statement of Community Involvement, design of expected development
specifying how local planning authorities for these sites may speed up the
intend to involve communities and planning process.
stakeholders in the preparation of LDDs. • Site specific allocations of land.
• A proposals map (with inset maps,
1 Development Plan Documents where necessary).
(DPDs)
DPDs form part of the statutory 2 Supplementary Planning
Development Plan (along with the Documents (SPDs)
Regional Spatial Strategy), and are the DPDs are supported by SPDs, which are
starting point when considering planning included in the LDF. They form part of
applications for the development or use of the planning framework for the area and
land. The main components of DPDs are: could include masterplans. They are not
• A core strategy, setting out the vision subject to independent examination
and strategic objectives for the area, and do not form part of the statutory
along with a spatial strategy, a number Development Plan. However, they
of core policies and a monitoring and are subject to rigorous procedures of
implementation framework. These community engagement in accordance
will apply across the whole of the with the authority’s statement of
local planning authority’s area or to community involvement and carry
certain locations, but generally not to significant weight in the determination
individual sites – these are dealt with of planning applications.
under site-specific proposals. The core
strategy should help deliver the vision
and reflect the unique circumstances of
a particular area. The emphasis given to
design will be what is appropriate locally.
2.1.2 Masterplans and development Box 9: What makes a sustainable
control community?
A masterplan carries more weight if it has
been prepared in consultation with the
public, formally adopted by the local planning Some of the key requirements are:
30 authority and is consistent with national and • a flourishing local economy to provide
regional planning guidance. It should also be jobs and wealth
consistent with local plans already adopted. • strong leadership to respond positively
Masterplanning

Many masterplans are prepared by private to change


principles

sector interests, often in discussion with • effective engagement and participation


the planning authority, to test development by local people, groups and businesses,
proposals. Whilst design is a reserved especially in the planning, design and
matter under outline planning permission, long-term stewardship of their community,
masterplans are an effective way of and an active voluntary sector
ensuring that the local planning authority • a safe and healthy local environment with
has sufficient information on which to well-designed public and green space
make a decision on the key design • sufficient size, scale and density, and the
principles of a scheme. They also go some right layout to support basic amenities in
way to meeting requirements for an the neighbourhood and minimise use
Environmental Impact Assessment for of resources (including land)
large-scale developments where the full • good public transport and other
environmental effects must be identified. transport infrastructure both within the
community and linking it to urban, rural
2.1.3 Masterplans and creating and regional centres
sustainable communities • buildings, both individually and collectively,
A masterplanning process is the only way that can meet different needs over time,
to plan comprehensively for the scale and and that minimise the use of resources
nature of change proposed in Sustainable • an integrated mix of good homes of
communities – building for the future different types and tenures to support
(ODPM 2003). This applies in particular a range of household sizes, ages
to the development of major new and incomes
neighbourhoods in housing growth areas, • good quality local public services,
the restructuring and reinvigoration of including education and training
housing market renewal areas, reinvestment opportunities, health care and community
in public sector housing estates through facilities, especially for leisure
stock transfers and other mechanisms, and • a diverse, vibrant and creative local
the regeneration of our town and city culture, encouraging pride in the community
centres. As well as addressing the scale of and cohesion
change, masterplanning provides a means • the right links with the wider regional,
3 of delivering sustainable communities. 7 national and international community.
Box 9
Source: Sustainable communities: building
for the future (ODPM 2003)
The creation of an urban village on
former industrial land: Llandarcy

A masterplan was commissioned by


British Petroleum and the Welsh
Development Agency (WDA) on this 31
redundant refinery site. The WDA’s
interest is in ensuring that the

Masterplanning
redevelopment will act as a catalyst for

principles
regeneration for this area of South
Wales, providing new homes and
employment. The new development
adheres to urban design principles and
is linked to the surrounding towns,
landscape and topography.

Project: Llandarcy, Neath, Wales


Clients: BP, Welsh Development Agency
Masterplanner: Alan Baxter & Associates
Images: Alan Baxter & Associates and WDA
2.2 Key aspects of a same project, or sequentially and
separately. However, it is not possible
masterplan to prepare a spatial masterplan
without having a strategic framework
2.2.1 Setting the framework and appropriate to the scale of the project.
32 developing the masterplan As with any project, you cannot hope
A spatial masterplan goes through to get what you want at the end of the
three interlocking stages and has three process if you have not defined what
Masterplanning

main outputs that inform each other. you wanted at the outset and prepared
principles

a good brief. The implementation


The precise content of the three main plan should be integral to the
outputs is determined by the client’s preparation of the spatial masterplan;
objectives. The strategic framework one must inform the other.
and spatial masterplan can be
commissioned together within the

Box 10: The main elements of a masterplan

Key stage Key output

1 Strategic framework A statement of aims and objectives for the physical regeneration
of large areas of land or parts of the urban area. It may consider a
much wider area than the spatial masterplan. The strategic
framework functions as the brief for the spatial masterplan. It is
based on analysis of the baseline data and incorporates potential
implementation processes. The term ‘strategic framework’ is not
in common use but has been used in this guide to describe the
3 early stage of the masterplanning process. 7
Section 3.2

2 Spatial masterplan A three-dimensional proposal for development or


redevelopment affecting physical, economic and social factors.
It includes plans and written documents describing the
3 proposed design approach and development. 7
Sections 2.2.2 and 4.2

3 Implementation plan A written strategy including, where appropriate, cost and


programming or development and other proposals relating to
Section 5 the implementation of the masterplan. Even if actual work on
3 site is not imminent this stage must be started early. 7
In the case of large-scale development 2.2.3 Characteristics of
sites and regeneration initiatives covering a masterplanning
wide, complex geographical area, once a Masterplanning is a positive process that
strategic framework has been created, seeks to establish principles of how a
spatial masterplans may be commissioned place will change physically, economically
for different parts, each with its own brief and socially, and who will manage and 33
and team. Examples are a major extension deliver the process of change. As such,
to an urban area, housing market renewal, it is both responsive and proactive.

Masterplanning
or the preparation of spatial strategies

principles
proposed as a result of changes to the
planning system. Box 11: Masterplanning: a responsive
and proactive process
2.2.2 The spatial masterplan
Principles of a spatial masterplan are that it:
Responsiveness relies on:
• has an overall vision, captured in a • reflecting and making the most out of
combination of words and diagrams,
the site’s existing assets
plans and illustrations
• recognising and capitalising on the
potential of positive market trends
• establishes the principles of development • recognising the importance of
in three dimensions and sets down the stakeholders’ aspirations which, even
different layers of proposed physical when contradictory, are a major force
change – buildings, open spaces, streets, which cannot be ignored
public transport and other infrastructure • recognising the different uses and users
such as utilities, telecoms, drainage, that can or should be accommodated in
(these may complement other forms of the masterplan, for example residents,
social infrastructure eg. employment visitors, wildlife, ecology, etc.
programmes for local residents)
Proactiveness relies on:
• seeks to show how an area can exploit • a comprehensive vision which links to
its distinctive features to give it a
identifiable proposals and action
character of its own
• establishing principles for development
which clarify what is prescribed and what
• explores, addresses and reconciles remains flexible
different requirements of key
• identifying specific and feasible
stakeholders and interested groups,
development opportunities
which may have conflicting yet
• the capability to act as a marketing tool
legitimate concerns
strong enough to change current ‘trends’
and the baseline market or users’
• is based on an understanding of the perceptions
delivery mechanisms for implementing • being aspirational, yet realistic enough to
the masterplan in terms of programme, secure some funding or investment
costs, funding and organisation. immediately.
2.3 Different contexts
for masterplanning
2.3.1 Stimulate, channel or facilitate
34 investment
The reasons for preparing a masterplan
are particular to the context and
Masterplanning

understanding this context is vital to


principles

ensure that the masterplan is realistic.


Three triggers for masterplans are to
stimulate, channel or facilitate investment.
They differ in the focus of the process
An essential aspect of a masterplan is that it and the milestones at which decisions
provides a framework for development that will are taken. Their characteristics are
be delivered over time, incrementally. The described in Box 12:
traditional view of masterplanning was of a
‘blueprint’ setting out rigidly how to develop an The outputs a client may need from a
area. Given the potentially unpredictable, slow masterplan depend on:
or piecemeal nature of development, some
elements may only be delivered in part, or may • the physical context and type of
end up very different from the original plan. development being proposed
The masterplan must therefore be based on a
long-term vision that will work as a whole or in • the regeneration or development context
parts. Scenarios which can bring uncertainty
include development occurring in phases that • the role that the public and private
are not continuous, phases being developed sectors are to play in implementing
and designed by different people, land the development
ownership changing hands, a change in
funding availability and requirements, and a • the degree of certainty about private
change in economic conditions. or public finance for implementation.

In many contexts, masterplans also have to be


aspirational as they seek to alter or shape the
nature of demand in a location by changing the
perceptions of different stakeholders who can
help bring about positive change: developers,
investors, tenants, residents, and users.

Masterplans must therefore be capable of


setting the appropriate level of prescription
and standards while providing for a degree of
flexibility in the face of an unpredictable future.
Box 12: Triggers for a masterplan

Scenario Primary aim Particular issues

Stimulate investment To initiate and • U


sually dealing with multifaceted issues and 35
– in marginal or low stimulate change therefore likely to be complex
demand areas where there is a lack • Needs strong emphasis on economic

Masterplanning
of market interest modelling of business requirements
and opportunities

principles
• Delivering development on the ground may
take longer and be incremental, therefore
there may be many milestones
• Testing decisions at key stages will
be particularly beneficial
• A great deal of consultation is often required

Channel investment To manage, channel • T


he primary emphasis needs to be on
– in medium to high and sometimes design quality
demand areas control change • Early thinking to set out key principles
proactively in may have to be hastened to cope with
situations where pressure of development
there is pressure for • Lobbying is needed to stimulate
development developer interest in investing in design
and implementation
• Development control process has to be
proactive rather than reactive
• Potential for multiple landowners, each
with their own agenda
• Need to coordinate a number of
proposals and ensure they deliver a
coherent sense of place

Facilitate investment To facilitate change • O


ften working collaboratively with
– in areas of emerging by clarifying and development interests with shared objectives
or established demand communicating for regeneration and design quality
collective objectives • A process to capture opportunities and make
and interests things happen by achieving consensus
• Usually fairly specific and site-based
• Needs a balance of emphasis on design
and economic modelling
• Requires a combination of lobbying
and consultation.
Box 13: Sample masterplanning scenarios

Scenario 1 Scenario 4
A site owner develops a masterplan Masterplans are often prepared as part
36 in order to set the principles of of competitive processes, during which
development for a site. The main a public agency markets a site and
purpose is to establish the scale of teams compete to become the preferred
Masterplanning

development and therefore the value developer and perhaps the owner.
principles

that can be achieved and to set a The proposals of competing developers


framework for development that can are presented as masterplans with,
be agreed with the relevant authorities if applicable, financial offer for the
and stakeholders. purchase of the site. Prior to the
competitive process the public agency
Scenario 2 will have established, as a minimum,
If a site is publicly owned, a masterplan urban design and planning principles for
may be used to market the site to the site. Quality of design needs to form
private developers, or to establish part of any selection process, with
planning policies for development. If the suitable weighting where appropriate,
site is privately owned, the masterplan with a view to achieving the overall
may be used in negotiations with the best value for all concerned. The
planning authority. winning team (which will often include
developers and designers) sometimes
Scenario 3 acquires the site or enters into a
For large housing renewal projects development agreement with the
some strategic masterplan work is public agency or private owner. In
often carried out to test the feasibility this scenario the masterplan plays
of different regeneration options. an important role in establishing
The costs and benefits of complete the value of the land and can be an
redevelopment versus refurbishment important part of legal agreements.
or ‘do nothing’ options are often
assessed. The process often includes Scenario 5
consultations with local residents Masterplans can be used to facilitate a
about the change process and to process of consultation and to establish
discuss options. principles of development. This is often
the case for urban extensions and
neighbourhood renewal projects
where the extent of change can have
a significant impact on existing
communities and the interests and views
of local residents need to be engaged.
2.4 Stages of a resources available to the client’s
in-house team. The team carrying out
masterplanning the preparation stage may be internal
process and/or external professionals and/or
partners. The overall process may be
This section sets out how to commission broken down into several stages that 37
and prepare a masterplan, a process progress as separate commissions.
which is fluid and during which the client

Masterplanning
may change and the time between It is important to understand that the

principles
stages in some cases extends to years. stages are not carried out in sequence
– each needs to be tested against the
The process must follow a sequence, options and ideas in the other stages.
although the way different activities and There is significant overlap between
key players relate to each other varies, the thinking developed in each phase
and so the sequence may change. The of the process. In particular the design
various stages, described and illustrated draws on and tests the strategic
below, can be grouped into three basic framework, before developing a spatial
phases – prepare, design and implement masterplan and, very importantly,
– within and between which ideas implementation issues should be
develop and interact. considered from the preparatory
stage and continually tested through
How, by whom and when the different the design process. The main
stages are carried out depends on a activities involved in each stage
number of factors, including the are outlined in Box 14.

PREPARE

DESIGN

IMPLEMENTATION

DELIVERING PROJECTS
Presenting data to inform thinking:
Rotherham

This material was prepared as part of the


thinking for the future development of
38 Rotherham. Yorkshire Forward’s Urban
Renaissance programme is working with
a town team made up of all the key
Masterplanning

public, private and voluntary players who


principles

have created a town charter intended to


stimulate and then channel investment.

The aspirations for design quality are


presented in a clear, legible and
interesting way to prompt discussion and
improve communication. Data needs to
be presented in a form that is memorable
and readily usable by all concerned with
helping to formulate decisions.

Project: Rotherham Renaissance


Client: Yorkshire Forward
Masterplanner: Landscape Design Associates
Images: Landscape Design Associates
2.4.1 Prepare 2.4.3 Implementation
During the prepare stage the client It is essential to the success of the plan
carries out or commissions work to to bear in mind the process and strategy
understand the context and set the for implementation right from the start.
strategic framework for the masterplan There is therefore significant overlap
(unless one already exists). The client between this phase and the earlier 39
must establish aspirations for the area prepare and design stages. For example,
and objectives for the plan. Having done the social, commercial, political and

Masterplanning
this, the scope of work for the spatial economic realities that will drive change

principles
masterplan will be established and and development should be assessed
resources identified. During this phase when preparing the strategic framework.
the client sets up in-house teams, These factors must be borne in mind
determining roles and responsibilities, constantly, from the outset through to the
and must establish relationships with creation of the vision and the three-
key partners and stakeholders. dimensional proposals, and refined as
A masterplanning team will be appointed, more information becomes available.
if required, to produce the strategic Once the spatial masterplan is emerging,
framework and it is important to use the implementation addresses how
most appropriate selection process. 33 development will actually happen, putting 77
The client role during this stage is to strategies and processes in place to Work sheets
provide leadership and vision, as well as ensure successful delivery. Masterplan
deal with the practical issues of securing clients also need to have a structure in
resources to carry out work, working in place within their organisation to
collaboration with partners and sourcing facilitate and review implementation and
background information. ensure that the aspirations of the plan
are met. If baseline conditions change,
2.4.2 Design the masterplan should be amended.
During the design stage a
masterplanning team evolves the spatial
masterplan by thorough analysis,
consultations, testing and refinement.
At the end of this stage there will be a
three-dimensional plan, which presents
proposals or aspirations for the
development of buildings, street blocks,
public spaces, streets and landscape,
but which does not design buildings.
The plan defines massing, heights,
densities, orientations, grids and blocks,
movement routes (both pedestrian and
vehicular), landscape, which existing
elements to respect, and other aspects
of relevance to the site.
Box 14: Stages and key outputs of masterplanning

Main stage Prepare


40
Processes / outputs Identify provisional aims and objectives
Masterplanning

5
Set down the strategic framework
principles

(the masterplanning brief)


• collect and analyse baseline information
• carry out urban design analysis and
characterisation
• create outline business case, including
delivery issues
• develop the vision – state and
communicate aspirations
5
Outline the masterplanning process and
how to work with partners and consultants
– get agreement from all concerned
5
Set up the in-house team
5
Identify the main stakeholders
5
Prepare consultation and communication
strategy for stakeholders
5
Select the masterplan design team
Design Implementation
41
Test strategic framework Prepare implementation strategy, start
• Collect any further baseline information during preparation stage

Masterplanning
• Test and develop the business case • timetable

principles
• Review and expand vision • funding
5 • delivery vehicles or agency
Prepare and test land use and plan • partners in local delivery
layout options • marketing
5 • management and maintenance strategy
Test against potential implementation • risk analysis
models and options 5
5 Where appropriate establish principles
Consultation – stakeholder consultation in policy
and feedback 5
5 Establish mechanisms for delivering
Prepare draft spatial masterplan including design quality in projects eg.
three dimensional urban design proposals • design briefs
5 • design guidelines
Development capacity analysis and testing • design codes
5 • team of architects and designers
Urban design refinement • competitions
5 • design advisory panel
Finalise spatial masterplan and report, 5
including implementation mechanisms Market the development opportunities /
find development partners
5
Delivering Projects
5
Monitor proposals against masterplanning
key principles
5
Review and amend if baseline
conditions change
Providing a masterplan
to facilitate investment:
Ipswich Town Centre

This Area Action Plan used the


42 strategic linkage of critical nodes
to encourage collaboration and
effective implementation of an
Masterplanning

urban renaissance plan by the


principles

clients and their public and private


sector partners.

Four overarching projects were


identified, linking the historic town
centre core to its surroundings. They
include a mixed use Waterfront, a new
commercial centre in Ipswich Village
and an education quarter, focused on
Suffolk College, delivering a new
university campus. A sustainable,
integrated transport package and
single bus interchange underpin the
proposals and renew and enhance
the urban grain of the town.

Project: Ipswich Town Centre


Clients: Ipswich Borough Council, Suffolk County
Council, East of England Development Agency
Masterplanner: Urban Initiatives
Images: Urban Initiatives, Richard Carman
2.5 Different client Client scenario 2 –
controlling client
approaches to This scenario usually involves public
masterplanning sector clients who may own some land,
but do not have sufficient in-house
Masterplanners are appointed at different resources to prepare a masterplan. 43
stages depending on the nature of the Their aim is to prepare a masterplan
client and the point at which a particular which will provide a framework for

Masterplanning
client enters the process. In some instances others who will come forward with

principles
a client carries out the preparation stage detailed proposals. Controlling the
work themselves, in others they commission quality of the final proposal is a primary
consultants to do it. Other parties may carry concern, whether to support ambitious
out the design and implementation stages, aspirations, to change the perceptions
for example potential developers as part of and quality of an area, or in some cases
a competition. How and when external because of a poor track record in
professional expertise is sought, or delivering quality in the past. They are
negotiation and consultation take often in a position to exercise control
place, or an implementation partner is through the planning process as well
brought on board, is affected by the as through land ownership.
nature of the client.
The client is likely to appoint a
There are three generic scenarios, masterplanning team to prepare the
depending on whether a client is itself a strategic framework as a separate
developer, controls development exercise, or as a defined preliminary
(for example, as a local authority), stage to the preparation of the spatial
or is in partnership with a developer masterplan. Once the strategic
to encourage development of the framework is agreed, the client appoints
type they believe suitable. a masterplanning team to take the
design phase through to an
Client scenario 1 – developer client implementation strategy. The public
The land is predominantly in the control of sector accounts for the greatest number
a single body and is usually in private of such masterplans and exercises
ownership. In this scenario the client has a control primarily through the planning
great deal of control over the process from process, but sometimes as landowner,
preparation through to implementation and funder or development manager,
may be the developer for all or part of the eg. in a development agency.
land. The client is likely to buy in expertise
from a range of professionals and appoint
masterplanners early on in the preparation
stage. In-house professionals may prepare
the strategic framework, but their skills are
unlikely to include all those necessary to
achieve design quality, for which the client
may buy in external help.
Client scenario 3 – to appoint a developer partner. Developers
client in partnership may be asked to prepare masterplans as
This situation is similar to scenario 2. part of the competitive process, and they
In this instance the public sector client will therefore also have to appoint
body is confident that there is market masterplanning teams. For guidance on
44 demand and that private sector partners this process see Work sheet 3.
will be able to deliver quality, so it seeks
a private sector partner to deliver the The preferred developer works alongside the
Masterplanning

development. In this scenario the client to refine the proposals. Ultimately the
principles

public sector client commissions public and private sector organisations may
masterplanners to prepare a strategic enter into a joint venture to deliver the
framework that will then be used to proposals, under which the public sector may
develop a brief for a competitive process well contribute land assets and funding and
take a share of the development profits.

Box 15: Factors that impact on the client role

The stages of the masterplanning process • the internal and external funds available
outlined in section 2.4 are explored in more for preparing the masterplan
detail in the following sections. The • the local property market and strength
client role in each depends on a number or weakness of local demand
of issues, including: • options available in terms of delivery,
• how much design skill and experience for example reliance on private
there is in-house sector investment
• what time is available from in-house • whether the development is
people controversial
• whether the client is using the process • how closely the process needs to be
to develop general principles and controlled in terms of planning policy
development policies and the quality of the final development
• the pattern of land ownership including • the consultation and negotiation
potential for a compulsory purchase skills needed
order (CPO) • how easily the site can be developed in
• the role and power of local residents in phases, thus facilitating changes of
the decision-making process client during the process.
Variations on this model: 2.6 Next steps
• Some clients appoint developer This section has explained the principles
partners on the basis of their financial of masterplans and illustrates how
standing and record. Once the particular situations will create different
preferred developer is identified, the relationships and needs for clients. The 45
client and developer jointly appoint next sections look at the three stages
a masterplanner. This model should or components of masterplanning:

Masterplanning
only be used where the development preparation, design and implementation.

principles
is relatively straightforward, for The preparations stage makes
example a site which will be cleared, everything ready for design to take
and where the development place; while the design stage provides
parameters and quality aspirations the framework within which
are clearly identified. implementation will bring about the
desired changes to the physical, social
• In some instances it is appropriate and economic character of the area.
for the client to go beyond the
strategic framework stage and move
into the design of a three-dimensional
plan before selecting development
partners. This is the case, for instance,
where there are significant site
constraints, a complex mix of
proposed uses, a need to define the
key outputs and requirements more
closely, or where the buy-in of
local residents is of paramount
importance, for example in housing
stock transfer schemes.
‘Branding’ the environment to
assist regeneration: Corby

This plan for Corby proposes


significant expansion, and introduction
46 of civic amenities and services, to
sustain the balance of economic and
population growth needed to enable
Masterplanning

Corby to meet the challenges of today


principles

and the future. This plan illustrates


how perception of areas can be
altered by identifying the dominant
character within an existing
neighbourhood and thereby making it
possible to tailor future intervention.

Project: Corby Regeneration Framework


Client: Catalyst Corby, the Urban Regeneration
Company for Corby
Masterplanner: EDAW
Image: EDAW
Prepare

This section considers the preparation The full masterplanning process involves a
stage, when the client identifies its aims number of stages which may overlap to a
and how to achieve them, selects the greater or lesser extent and be carried out
people and groups who will be involved, by a range of different teams.
the client team, the masterplanning team
and the stakeholders, and creates the
strategic framework or brief which will be 47
used as the basis of the three-dimensional
spatial masterplan.

Prepare
PREPARE

DESIGN

IMPLEMENTATION

DELIVERING PROJECTS
Box 16: The process and outputs in the prepare stage

Prepare Identify provisional aims and objectives


5
Set down the strategic framework
(the masterplanning brief)
• collect and analyse baseline information
• carry out urban design analysis and characterisation
• create outline business case, including delivery issues
• develop the vision – state and communicate

aspirations
48 5
Outline the masterplanning process and how to
work with partners and consultants – get agreement
from all concerned
Prepare

5
Set up in-house team
5
Identify the main stakeholders
5
Prepare consultation and communication strategy
for stakeholders
5
Select the masterplan design team
3.1 Identify aims and
objectives
The need for a masterplan is likely to
have been triggered for the reasons
outlined in section 2.3. Before embarking
on a masterplanning exercise the
client has to

• establish why one is required

• set the broad aims of the process and


desired output 49
• define the physical boundaries of the
area under review.

It is important to recognise at the outset

Prepare
that the delivery of the masterplan will
depend on a range of parties who may
start with varying and sometimes
conflicting aims. For example, the public
agency may want to foster the welfare of
people within their jurisdiction, local
residents will be seeking an
improvement in their quality of life and
private developers may seek to optimise
an opportunity to make profits or improve
their assets. These different objectives
may well converge to bring about
change, so several needs and aims
may be defined simultaneously.

“By good design we mean design that


is fit for purpose, sustainable,
efficient, coherent, flexible,
responsive to context, good looking
and a clear expression of the
requirements of the brief”
Design review, Introduction –
Paul Finch
3.2 The strategic context and states clear objectives
agreed between the key stakeholders.
framework The first stage is to record baseline
information and its analysis, which
Strategic thinking and research has to should address the topics outlined in
be carried out, often by the client, to section 3.2.2.
define needs, objectives and the key
parameters that will inform the It is important to start the process on a
preparation of a spatial masterplan. sure footing, based on realistic
This is referred to as the strategic assumptions about market demand and
framework and provides vital background deliverability. The initial thinking can help
information for the design stage of the decide how to generate political support
masterplan. Key tasks that should be and, if the process is to succeed, it may
50 completed as part of the strategic include making tough, crucial political
framework include: decisions. It is particularly important to
put in the early thinking to avoid wasting
• collecting and analysing baseline time and money for all involved later on,
information even though this early work will need to
be adapted if circumstances change.
Prepare

• carrying out urban design analysis and


characterisation

• creating outline business case, Box 17: The main components of


including delivery the strategic framework

• developing the vision – state and


communicate aspirations. • physical parameters of the project:
condition, constraints, opportunities,
Often an in-house team will be able to base data
start the research and prepare much of • vision and its rationale – what kind
the strategic framework, with some of place and why
specialist input. • analysis of the potential catalysts
for change
3.2.1 The role of the strategic • outline business case
framework • identification of strategic delivery
The strategic framework is the basis issues and options
for the brief for the three-dimensional • identification of key stakeholders –
design – the spatial masterplan. roles and responsibilities
Preparing this framework is a significant • how the framework will inform design
project in its own right. It draws together
the client team and makes explicit the
collective vision. It includes an overview
that establishes and analyses the
Dealing with strategic issues:
Swords, Dublin

Swords is a growing town in the


Greater Dublin area. While it has an
attractive historic high street and town
centre, it lacks high quality amenity
and retail. Key issues that were
addressed from the start included
transport, character, the planning
context and the competition from
other centres. A potential metro line
connection to the site was identified
and evaluated, and an appropriate 51
mix of functions and range of
accommodation planned, including
larger scale social amenity facilities
and medium density housing.

Prepare
A strategic brief derived the vision
and land use plan for a 70 acre site
adjacent to the town centre, by
placing the site in its geographical,
transport and planning context at
a regional scale.

Project: Swords Barrysparks, Dublin


Client: Bovale Ltd
Masterplanner: DEGW
Images: DEGW
52
Prepare

Establishing baseline data Source: Bendiks S, Degros A, Bierl S, ‘Artgineering -


concepting and the city Utrecht and Groningen’ in
The information in these grids is drawn City branding: image building and building images
from statistical data about Utrecht NAI Uitgevers, Rotterdam 2002
and Groningen in the Netherlands.
It describes the cities’ character in terms
of quantifiable data. This provides a rich
information base or understanding of
the context for a plan and the baseline
for proposals. Such information may
also be a useful adjunct to other
communication tools.
3.2.2 Baseline information This information becomes a valuable
The baseline information provides facts resource that can be amplified as the
about the current situation – physical, project progresses. It should be filed
social and economic. This states the and managed for easy access.
physical parameters of the project, A dedicated website accessible
setting its constraints and opportunities to members of the masterplan
within the wider context. It is vital that any team could be considered.
regeneration context for the masterplan
is understood, particularly where some Input from local stakeholders can
regeneration principles are already bring greater depth to the baseline
established, eg. through the local plan, information: for example, an
design briefs, conservation area plans, appreciation of the history, perceptions
Single Regeneration Budget (SRB), EU and associations with the place.
Structural Funds, housing market Information on stakeholder aspirations 53
renewal, housing expansion area or New should be part of this baseline data.
Deal for Communities (NDC) Even at this early stage it is important
programmes. The area may also have to be clear to stakeholders about the
been the subject of previous masterplans broad parameters for change and
that are now out of date, though the to consider potential incompatible

Prepare
background material may still be relevant. needs and opinions.

Collecting information is time-consuming


and should be done in stages. Start with
information readily available in-house,
and public information from English
Heritage, ODPM, the Office for National
Statistics, survey and plan data, local
history sources, websites and other
sources. Then commission technical
surveys as required, such as:

• location and capacity of utilities


infrastructure

• resident and stakeholder opinion

• land use and property ownership


and condition
“Masterplanning is rather like
• traffic modelling. practising medicine, you have to
start with the individual symptoms
of the patient – the place.”
John Nichols, Leicester URC
Box 18: Topics to research for 3.2.3 Urban design analysis and
baseline information characterisation
Initial urban design analysis is likely
to be carried out when preparing the
• planning framework: local, strategic framework. It is likely to be
regional, national broad and should help identify key
• land use patterns: buildings and issues for consideration. It should
open space include the collection and evaluation of
• physical condition: ground, air, information about the development of
water, buildings, topography, aspect the area over time.
• infrastructure: subsurface and surface
routes of drainage, water, power A useful method of analysis is
and telecommunications ‘Characterisation’, developed by
54 • heritage: buildings, archaeology, English Heritage and local authorities as
cultural, landscape a means of understanding the overall
• movement: traffic, public transport, character of an area, rather than
pedestrians, cyclists focusing just on the quality of one or two
• demography: social and economic special buildings or places within it. It is
• people: community, accessibility, designed to help inform the strategic
Prepare

amenity, diversity framework as well as the spatial


• ownership masterplan. Characterisation needs to
• legal constraints start in the preparation stage, though it
• property market: demand and supply may also be developed
• ecology and nature conservation, during the design stage.
environmental assets
• cultural provision and identity
• proposals: planning permissions
and proposals

Adapted from Urban design


compendium p27 (London 2000)

“The design process should not just


consider what we experience and
see with our eyes, we should be
thinking about the whole human
response to place, including its
culture, memory and history.”
Michael Freeman, Argent Group plc
Box 19: Factors that influence Using a range of techniques including
character review of historical maps, aerial photos,
field survey and engagement with local
communities, a ‘picture’ is built up of
The character of a place is influenced the urban character of an area. An
by many factors, including: assessment process follows to analyse
• the way the built form relates to the historic fabric and attribute ‘values’
the topography and the natural or significance to the different layers.
features around which the settlement Judgements can then be made about
has grown what is historically or culturally
• the historic structure and layers of significant, vulnerable to change or
development which have influenced in need of protection, enhancement
the built form of an area, or celebration.
• the landmark buildings, and 55
traditional building types, including To be effective, characterisation
‘ordinary’ buildings should be seen as an integral part of
• the green spaces and landscape masterplanning, offering a systematic
framework approach to understanding the context
• the nature of the streets and spaces of proposed changes. However, it is not

Prepare
and the relationships between the meant to regulate activity and, if carried
public and private realm. out thoroughly, may actually reduce the
need for regulation.

Understanding the character of a


place is a crucial component of
masterplanning. It can help in
understanding the way social, cultural
and economic factors have influenced
its evolution, and it can be used as a
basis to make informed decisions on
how the area should continue to change
and respond to the conditions of today –
and tomorrow – and reinforce the
uniqueness of the place.
Characterisation as the
starting point: Gloucester

Images from a characterisation study


for Gloucester City Centre show the
city’s historic development. Through
an analysis of different aspects of
heritage and the physical attributes
of the city, character areas are
identified which can act as the
starting point for any design process.

Project: Gloucester - Rapid Characterisation


and Scoping Report
56
Clients: South West Regional Development Agency
Report: Alan Baxter & Associates
Images: Alan Baxter & Associates
Prepare
3.2.4 The outline business case The outline business case may examine
The baseline information should inform a wider context than the immediate
the outline business case, which tests masterplan area, for example the regional
feasibility. 33 An initial assessment should economy. If a change in the perception of 77
be made to address the issues outlined in an area is wanted, or a significant urban Section 3.2.2
Box 20, although they are not necessarily extension or new neighbourhood is
dealt with definitively at this early stage. proposed, the effect on the end consumer
should be explored. Issues affecting
individual investors or local residents,
such as the aspirations of potential
Box 20: Issues to address in an outline homeowners, are relevant.
business case
Implementation options must be
considered from this early stage 57
• how to position the proposed onwards. They should be at the heart of
development in the regional, sub-regional the testing and review of the masterplan
and local economy during the design phase and followed
• how proposals should address issues through after the plan is completed.
of demand and supply in the property The option chosen depends on the

Prepare
market and the potential financial benefits masterplanning route and context
to investors, public agencies or the within which the client is working. 3 7
local community Section 2.5 & 3.3
• how the masterplan and resulting Clients need to be realistic about the
development can contribute to meeting time, cost and effort it will take for
policy objectives, particularly where a consultants to prepare a masterplan.
public agency is leading the process and Generally the minimum expenditure is
seeking to regenerate the area between £50,000 and £100,000. This
• a risk assessment to review risks and fee may suffice for projects which are
constraints, whether financial, legal relatively straightforward, where there
or political, that could prevent is comprehensive baseline data, where
implementation of the masterplan, much of the detailed technical input
and how to manage them is to be provided from outside the
• potential catalysts for change in the masterplanning team (eg. traffic
economic base of the area or the nature modelling), where the design outputs (3D
of the site models, number of public consultations)
• practical aspects of how the masterplan, its are not over-ambitious and where the Section 4
design 33 and the implementation strategy masterplanning programme will progress 77
33 will be carried out, including identifying quite quickly (up to six months). For more 77
an appropriate budget and programme complex or larger masterplans, requiring Section 5
• consideration of broad issues and options a wider range of skills and more detailed
related to the implementation of outputs, the cost is more likely to be
development and delivery mechanisms. between £100,000 and £500,000.
Testing options at all scales: 3.2.5 The vision
Almere Port A vision for the area forms the foundation
of the masterplan. It describes, in words,
These diagrams show the use of generic images and diagrams (but not designs):
modelling to illustrate the impact of a mix
of uses at the scale of the building, block • the kind of place the area
and the city area. Such analysis can help should become
to consider the impact of different
development options on city character, • how much change is needed, of
building design and development what type and over what time
economics. Investigations of this sort are
needed to test the viability of proposals • realistic objectives for development
and ensure that they are fully understood.
58 • what is needed physically, economically
Project: Almere Port, Netherlands and socially in the area.
Client: Almere Municipality
Masterplan briefing: DEGW Some clients write a vision statement at
Image: DEGW the start of the preparatory stage and
include it in the outline brief. If a specific
Prepare

City Scale Block Scale Building Scale vision cannot be articulated from the start,
it may state simply a general preferred
outcome, for example regeneration of the
local area. Or it may look at specific issues
such as finding a positive use for
redundant land. The vision will be tested
and expanded through the ‘prepare’ and
‘design’ stages, particularly as the needs
of stakeholders and partners are
understood with increasing clarity.

In complex regeneration projects, with


conflicting community wishes or a need
to stimulate community interest,
masterplanners may be employed at an
early stage to carry out consultation, test
community views and establish a range
of options before a vision for the area
can be articulated clearly.
Creating a vision for the future:
Blackpool

Blackpool, once one of England’s


most popular seaside resorts, has
been in decline for some time. The
local council wanted a dramatic new
vision to upgrade the town and bring
new economic opportunity. A
framework of distinct neighbourhoods
has been created which will allow
appropriate local development to
improve what is offered to tourists, the
development of year-round 59
attractions to combat seasonal
economic weaknesses, and the
upgrading of living and working
environments. The images show a
comprehensive plan with emphasis on

Prepare
integrating its components with the
existing context and taking advantage
of the local assets.

Project: Blackpool Waterfront


Client: Blackpool Borough Council
Masterplanners: EDAW and The Jerde Partnership
Images: EDAW
3.3 Identify the type Box 21: Three types of ‘client’
of masterplanning
process Organisations commissioning and
committing funds for the preparation
The process to be adopted, decisions about of the masterplan may be:
how much expertise to buy from outside and • organisations with an interest in the
how to choose development partners must delivery of the masterplan because it
all be considered at this point. The different impacts on their assets or investments
Section 2.3 contexts in which the masterplan is being – for example the local education
3 proposed 7 and the differences between authority or landowner
3 client types 7 mean that each situation • the community that will be affected
Section 2.5 requires a process tailored to its context. by the physical, economic and social
60 changes that will be realised through
Masterplans, especially those prepared for the masterplan
the public sector, often have a ‘client’ made • organisations which will ultimately be
up of several organisations and/or charged with delivering the masterplan,
stakeholders, which change during the but which may not be known during the
process. It is helpful to think about ‘the client’ preparation and design stages of the
Prepare

– the entity undertaking the tasks outlined masterplanning process.


in this guide – as falling in to one of three
categories, sometimes combined in a
single client body.
The internal client team, stakeholders,
the masterplanning team and delivery
partners identified throughout the
preparation stage must be made aware
of the type of process that is proposed
and the basis on which it has been
chosen. Everyone needs to understand
this process and their agreement to work
within it must be sought. If assumptions
change, or different implementation
routes evolve, then the new situation
must be explained to relevant parties.
3.4 Establish the client • holds only essential meetings –
efficiently chaired and minuted
team and roles
• is generous with praise
Creating the right client team and
managing the multiple relationships • avoids ‘contractual’ or adversarial,
well is essential for the success of the language
masterplan. The client committing funds
for the creation of the plan must gain • criticises constructively, in private
and keep the involvement, support and
perhaps assistance from other bodies. • always keeps the ‘big picture’ in view.
A positive relationship between the
client team and the specialist
masterplanning team is essential to 61
the success of the project. Box 22: Aims of a client
management structure
The knowledge and expertise available in
client organisations vary and must be
taken into account when planning the The client management structure should:

Prepare
process. For instance, major landowners • identify the client team roles and who
usually have an experienced estates will fill them
team and local authorities employ • allow for other roles to develop as
planning professionals. Specialists need the project progresses
to be co-opted for the duration of the • set out objectives for each role drawn
project to complement skills not available from the project vision
within the client organisation. They may • define the facts needed at each stage
be appointed to assist in the early stages before decisions can be made
of the project, for example the • make clear who decides the brief,
preparation of the outline business case, the budget and, how to allocate
and may be retained to provide support to costs and time
the client throughout the process. • state thresholds for delegating
decisions
It is important that the leader of the client • provide for record-keeping, make
team, the project sponsor, 33 maintains a records of decisions 77
productive team by instilling a team • set project milestones, agree key Section 3.4.2
culture that: ‘sign-off’ stages
• have a process for testing and
• encourages and enthuses team evaluating decisions
members • specify a process for resolving conflicts
• plan for any feedback to client or
• helps keep the project on track – stakeholders that will be needed.
managing the budget, monitoring
time and quality
3.4.1 A champion Box 23: A project sponsor
A person in the client team should be
appointed as the guardian of the overall
aims and quality of the outcome, to A project sponsor should:
inspire the team to provide a high • understand the overall vision
quality result. This person champions • lead and motivate the team
the project, raising awareness of and • identify and support the skills of other
expectations for it, and has a particularly team members
important role in negotiating • communicate well within and outside
controversial situations, for example the organisation
if changes are required in local plans or • understand value and risk –
in people’s perceptions. The champion sometimes with professional advice
must be committed to the aims of the • know when a decision is needed
62 project and to the quality of the • know when a good decision has
outcome, and needs political and been reached
negotiating skills. The project champion • be tenacious in attention to both the
within a local authority could be big picture and the details
the Director of Environment or • have an appropriate level of authority
Regeneration, an elected member to take strategic decisions as required.
Prepare

or the CEO, and in the case of a private


company, charity or community group,
the CEO, a non-executive director
or a trustee. 3.4.3 A project manager
The project manager co-ordinates and
3.4.2 The client or project sponsor manages the project from day to day and
The immediate client, or project sponsor, can be recruited from outside the client
is responsible for delivering the organisation, or may already be part of
masterplan and for seeing that the the in-house team. This person is
vital client tasks, including consulting needed early on if the in-house
with stakeholders, preparing the brief management has limited experience of
and selecting the technical team, masterplanning and can continue into
are carried out. implementation phases. The project
manager needs to have a strong
personality and must either be given
powers to make decisions or have direct
access to the project sponsor and
project champion.
Box 24: The project manager 3.4.4 Client steering group
The steering group may consist of
representatives of the main stakeholder
• handles project administration and organisations. Its members should
may provide a project procedure provide direction, but not operate as a
manual multi-headed decision-making body. It
• clarifies the work scope, should be chaired by the client, in the
responsibilities and relationships person of either the project sponsor or
• ensures appropriate information is project manager. The chair must interpret
available – or causes it to be collected the consensus, define the direction to be
• transmits information between the taken and obtain ratification so that the
client and the rest of the team in professional masterplanning team is clear
both directions about what is required. The views of the
• has responsibility for day-to-day different members must be carefully 63
decisions and ensures they co-ordinated to ensure that there is no
are smooth danger of contradictory instructions
• monitors progress of all aspects of being given.
the project
• acts as a single point of contact A relevant and deliverable masterplan

Prepare
co-ordinating all the threads of will be achieved by making sure that the
the project knowledge and expertise of stakeholders
• controls and works within budgets is incorporated into the process.
• manages scope and change Sometimes many agencies and
control process organisations expect, and are entitled,
• monitors resource availability, to have a say in particular spheres, so
performance quality and document/ joint agreements are needed to get
data transfer consensus on the guiding concepts. The
• checks external team members’ steering group should help this process,
details (such as indemnity insurance) and ensure that key agencies able to
• arranges to document the project assist with the delivery of the masterplan,
properly to take it through to handover have had input at the early stages and
at the delivery stage. therefore are committed to making the
project a success.

It may be useful for the steering group to


include masterplanning experts who are
not directly involved in the project, but
who can provide additional technical
vetting of proposals. Alternatively,
proposals can be submitted to CABE’s
Design Review programme.
3.4.5 The decision-making process
The roles of project sponsor and project
manager can be combined. When they are
carried out by different individuals the
responsibility for taking decisions must be
very clear. The project sponsor has the
main responsibility and the project
manager only takes specifically delegated
decisions related to the administration of
the project. Involving the right people at
the right time needs careful planning from
the start. It is also important to clarify
communication channels with elected
64 local authority members to ensure that
they are consulted at key stages.
Prepare
3.5 Identify
stakeholders
Stakeholders may be from political and
statutory authorities, from the investor
community and private interests, or from
public bodies and the community.
Reconciling their diverse needs may be
one of the prime reasons for proposing a
masterplan. Some stakeholder groups
may only come into being through the
masterplanning process. Others may
form alliances. Early contact with, and 65
information from, as many stakeholders
as possible is essential.

Box 25: Potential masterplan stakeholders

Prepare
Public interests – political and Private interests
statutory bodies • landowners
• planning authorities • funders (short-term)
• highway authorities • investors (long-term)
• fire and emergency services and • developers
police authorities • management agents
• building control departments • occupiers
• statutory consultees and agencies, • utilities companies
eg. CABE, English Heritage • transport providers.
• public funders, eg. Regional
Development Agencies, English Community interests
Partnerships • local resident bodies
• local service providers, eg. the Local • local businesses and chambers of
Education Authority, Primary Care Trust, commerce
housing associations. • local employers and employees
• amenity groups
• local communities
• local politicians
• future residents and users
• visitors to the area
• children (who will probably be adults by
the time development is complete).
3.6 Consult and The client should prepare a consultation
strategy early on. It is easy to confuse
communicate with consultation with communication,
stakeholders publicity or marketing, thereby
raising false expectations, so processes
Stakeholder communication needs to be must be carefully planned. Consultation
carried out by someone experienced so is about an exchange of ideas;
that appropriate information is collected communication is about a one-way
without raising false expectations. Time provision of information.
should be given to consultation but not
so much that the project is submerged The consultation strategy should set out:
by it. The right amount of information is
needed at the right time. Input of the • who will be in charge of the process
66 wrong level offered at the wrong time
results in unnecessary frustration and • the aims, anticipated benefits and risks
delay for everyone. associated with the consultation

Precise communication routes, timings • who should be consulted, who


and people involved vary according to the communicated with
Prepare

project. Stakeholders may need to be


contacted by the client, the project • stages at which it will be carried out
champion, the project manager, the
leader of the masterplanning team or • types of processes to be used
specialists. The vision needs to be
communicated, stakeholder knowledge • how this would relate to a parallel
tapped and their concerns understood so communication/publicity or
that the masterplanning team can marketing strategy
incorporate their views and knowledge
into the design process. The amount, type and timing of
consultation depends on the context.
3.6.1 The consultation strategy For example, a project with competing,
Consultation is about establishing and varied developer interests and many
reconciling values and conflicting existing local organisations with their
objectives and dealing with sensitive own agendas needs to be handled
issues. The consultation process is vitally differently from one where local interest
important where there is a desire to see has to be generated before any plan
the masterplan inform local planning can take shape. Some official bodies
policy, particularly given the need for are entitled to representation and
local planning authorities to prepare a must be consulted.
Statement of Community Involvement
Section 2.1 & Box 8 as part of the preparation of the
3 Development Plan Documents. 7
Adopting mechanisms to
aid in consultation:
Holbeck Urban Village, Leeds

Large-scale models, and clear images


recording ideas, are important tools to
facilitate ongoing discussions. This is
particularly relevant when the process
takes many years, as was the case in the
‘loose fit’ masterplan for Holbeck Village
in Leeds, where a consensus on
directions for the future is emerging
after a long period of consultation.
67
Those who will initiate and control the
change and those who will be affected
by it – landowners, developers, agencies,
institutions, funders and the local
authority – are developing a strong

Prepare
sense of ownership through consultation
and discussion. This process is organic
and flexible and needs sufficient time
for the right decisions to be made, to
create the right partnerships and to be
sufficiently flexible to accommodate
ever-changing political, social and
cultural scenarios.

Project: Holbeck Urban Village, Leeds


Clients: Leeds City Council, Yorkshire Forward
Consultants for Strategic Framework: Bauman Lyons,
Martin Stockley Associates, Estell Warren
Landscape Architects
Images: Leeds City Council
Everyone consulted must realise that the Box 26: Consultation and
design process is about reconciling communication methods
differing objectives and that it is therefore
seldom possible to give everyone
everything they want. Experts and lay A wide range of methods have been
people should be encouraged to challenge developed to consult or communicate
each other’s assumptions. The design with stakeholders, many of which can
team must recognise the valuable be used in combination or at different
contribution that local knowledge brings points in the process. Some are clearly
to a project and should be prepared to consultative in their methods and
tap into it through early consultation, aims, others are about one-way
to avoid pursuing impractical or less communication or marketing. It is
effective solutions. important that the appropriate methods
68 are used, depending on the audience,
Many forms of consultation may be the client’s objectives and the stage
needed, including role-play, public reached in the process. Methods include:
participation exercises and design • design workshops
workshops, before shared objectives are • open days
agreed. These should not be treated • exhibitions
Prepare

as opportunities for ‘design by committee’. • study tours


Well-tried mechanisms for consultation • walkabouts
such as ‘Planning for Real’ or Enquiry by • focus groups
Design (as developed by English • community meetings
Partnerships) may usefully be employed. • questionnaires
The process, which may take several days, • formal committees/meetings
needs careful preparation and should • Urban Design Action Teams (UDATs)
be managed by people familiar with the • Enquiry by Design (developed by
techniques. Where local authority or English Partnerships)
other public resources are needed to • Placecheck (developed by the Urban
create and implement the masterplan, Design Alliance)
political backing is critical, especially as • Planning for Real
tough political decisions may have to • projects with a local architecture and
be taken. Early liaison can help gain built environment centre
political support. • initiatives with local teachers and
children, linked to curricula
Sometimes simple communication of • website
information is needed, for instance to • newsletters
gain the support of stakeholders at • local press articles
different stages, or to ‘market’ the ideas
to potential investors or funders and to For more information see Nick Wates,
engage them in the process. Community consultation handbook
(Earthscan, London 2002)
Using different media
for communication:
Lewisham Gateway

The regeneration of central Lewisham seeks


to solve the problem of the town centre being
separated from its rail and bus stations, at the
same time as creating a new public space
and facilitating a substantial amount of new
commercial, retail and residential development.
Options for the Lewisham Gateway project
are shown on drawings, which illustrate the
three-dimensional spatial plan.
69
Different media can communicate different
ideas. Using a variety of illustrative materials
to present a design can be helpful in
communicating with different types of
stakeholder. Computer modelling allows a

Prepare
variety of three-dimensional impressions;
Drawing allows expressive annotation
about possible uses or other details.

Project: Lewisham Gateway, London


Clients: London Borough of Lewisham (on behalf of
the 'Urban Renaissance in Lewisham' SRB Board),
London Development Agency, Transport for London,
London Bus Services Ltd
Consultants: Chesterton International,
Jon Rowland Urban Design, Colin Buchanan and Partners
Images: Jon Rowland Urban Design
3.6.2 The consultation process Many large-scale masterplan sites have
Public consultation and dealing with been reviewed several times and the key
discussion of conflicting aspirations and stakeholders may be suffering from
needs is an area of special expertise. ‘consultation burn-out’. To overcome any
Elements that are fixed and cannot be negative response, the masterplan must
open to debate must be made clear. identify early wins and reinforce the
Approved local and central government importance of a deliverable scheme with
plans and development frameworks, a realistic timetable for implementation.
their status and relevance to the
masterplan, must be set down and In some cases, particularly in housing
explained before consultation starts. redevelopment schemes, appointing
As far as possible those consulted separate consultants to work with and
must agree to aim for decisions represent local residents improves the
70 everyone can accept. Formal approval process. These independent advisers
processes must be explained and should act as advocates for the
opportunities identified to feed back community and, where necessary,
decisions on design and approvals. support direct community involvement.
There may also be opportunities to use
Effective consultation needs to show the consultation process to develop
Prepare

the public and interest groups that the skills and improve the capabilities of
masterplan team is actively involved in community representatives.
considering their area and concerns in a
thorough way, not simply tinkering at the
edges, even if solving the larger problem
will take time. The downside lies in
raising expectations that take years to
fulfil. Programme and costs need to be
dealt with frankly and realistically; but it
is good to bear in mind the confidence-
building effect of seeing something
happening sooner rather than later.
Box 27: Questions for a consultation event

Preparation Costs
What are the objectives and purpose What will be the cost of the event,
of the event? including preparation and follow-up?
Who will write the agenda? Who will sponsor the event?
How does the event relate to the planning
and design process? Professional support
Which stakeholders will be invited and how Will an independent facilitator be needed?
will they be contacted? What will be the role of other professionals?
How to time the meeting for maximum Should limitations be put on participating
convenience? professionals accepting related
How to reach people who cannot attend? consultancy work? 71
How will participants be briefed?
Organisation
Who will organise the event? Follow-up
How long will it last? How will feedback be used?
What equipment or specialised services How will the event be presented to the media?

Prepare
are needed? What sort of report(s) and/or drawing(s)
What sort of venue should be used? will be produced?
What facilities, such as refreshments or a How will the event be followed-up?
crèche, will be provided? Who will take responsibility for incorporating
ideas and giving feedback after the event?

3.6.3 Consultation outputs


The process delivers information from
those consulted – hard data, opinions and
preferences – which can be fed into the
strategic framework and the design. To
capture the benefits of communication
at every level, the process needs to be
carefully documented and the outputs
clearly described. Those consulted should
have the opportunity to give feedback so
that trust and collaboration can be built up:
crucial when the time comes to implement
the masterplan. The process can become
part of the change management that is
needed as the area is transformed.
3.7 The masterplanning Box 28: The masterplanning team

team
Core specialisms
3.7.1 Finding the right skills • masterplanning
The range of skills needed in a • urban design
masterplanning team is wide and varies • town planning
from project to project. Selecting • architecture
appropriate specialists can be time- • landscape design
consuming but is very important. • traffic and movement analysis
Competitive selection should follow and planning
processes similar to those for any • economic development and
design project and be based on quality property demand
72 3 and value, not on cost alone. 7 • regeneration funding and delivery
Work sheet 1
Although many different specialisms Additional skills
may be needed in the course of a project, • project management
the central skills are those of urban • structural, civil and highways
design/masterplanning, economic, engineering
Prepare

3 transport and landscape planning. Others 7 • construction management


Box 28 may be needed at specific moments, for • acoustic engineering
specialised data reports or to tackle • cost planning/quantity surveyor
particular issues. The client may well • property market analysis
have most of the necessary skills in-house, • urban sociologists and crime
and only need to buy in a few additional consultants
ones. Alternatively, a consultant • community development and
masterplanning team may cover all consultation
the areas, or co-ordinate a wider • event organisation and promotion
network of specialists. • market research
• identity and branding
• environmental specialists,
eg. ecologists, waterways
• archaeology/heritage
• conservation and listed building
specialists, urban historian
• industry sector consultants,
eg. cultural or leisure industry
• artists and arts professionals
There is no professional qualification in Box 29: A masterplanner’s core skills
masterplanning; masterplanners are
often urban designers, town planners,
architects or landscape architects who A masterplanner should have the ability to:
have learnt through experience the • coordinate a diverse range of technical
additional skills required for inputs and evaluate the relative
masterplanning. Some multi-disciplinary importance of different elements
practices offer urban design, landscape • think holistically about an urban area
architecture, economic regeneration • prepare urban design proposals
and architectural skills under one roof. • present research, evaluation and
It is not essential for the team to have proposals clearly to a wide range of
all the specialisms in-house, provided audiences
the firm is familiar with working with • communicate ideas and proposals
the other professional skills required. clearly and succinctly through words, 73
Architects can play a vital role in diagrams and three-dimensional
these projects, bringing depth to the illustrations – usually with input from an
design thinking. But masterplanning urban designer
is not simply architecture at a bigger • address how proposals are going to
scale and masterplanning requires be delivered

Prepare
an additional set of skills to those • explain design decisions to a wide
needed for the design of a building audience/key stakeholders
or group of buildings. • manage the team, client input, budget
and programme effectively
• bring together key stakeholders
interests into a coherent whole.
3.7.2 Leading the masterplanning Dealing with different scenarios:
team Lower Lea Valley, London
The client must ensure that the team is led
by a strong individual experienced in A masterplan sometimes needs to play
masterplanning and able to co-ordinate several roles. The masterplan exercise for
the sometimes contradictory professional the Lower Lea Valley has dealt with three
approaches. The main criteria for assessing potential scenarios: with the Olympics, after
masterplanning skills are experience and the Olympics and without the Games. It must
references, which must be carefully both organise activities in space for a major
considered during the selection process. international event, and also use the
The lead masterplanner in the technical team opportunity to capture the maximum
draws together the policies and proposals put regeneration benefit for London. It sets out
forward by specialists into a single plan how the Olympic provision could leave a
74 focused on the original vision. The integration legacy of regenerated land and new facilities,
of landscape design and urban design is create new neighbourhoods, parks and
particularly critical in achieving this coherence. waterways and generate economic
In some situations the client’s project activity for London.
manager may be used to manage the
interaction between the client and the Project: Lower Lea Valley / London Olympics 2012 -
Prepare

masterplanning teams. The Legacy Masterplan


Client: London Development Agency
3.7.3 The commissioning brief Masterplanner: EDAW, Allies and Morrison,
For a masterplanning team to tender for a Foreign Office Architects, HOK
project or to say how they will approach it, they Image: EDAW
require a commissioning brief. The quality of
the final masterplan depends to a great extent
on the quality of this brief. It should refer to the
baseline data and the client’s initial aims and
vision, as set out in the strategic framework,
and must include information about the
tendering process. Some clients are in a
position to prepare very complete information,
others not, but all should have done some
work on the strategic framework before
appointing a masterplanner. The consultant
team for a masterplan will refine the initial
brief in an inception report. This may
re-balance priorities and must be agreed with
the client as the framework for the plan.

Box 30 outlines the type of information that a


masterplanning team needs to receive in a
commissioning brief to be able to prepare a
tender. This is expanded in Worksheet 4.
Box 30: Contents for 3.7.4 Selecting a
a masterplanners’ masterplanning team
commissioning brief Reputation and previous knowledge are
the starting point for selecting a team.
However, a competitive selection is
The commissioning brief should include, often required, as is compliance with
or be appended, with as much information European Regulations 3. There are two 7
as possible about the: main types of competitive process: Work sheet 2
• vision
• primary objectives for development: • an invited shortlist
physical, economic and social
• lead client organisations • an open process where anyone
• steering group and relationship to can apply.
other stakeholders 75
• masterplan site area One method likely to produce a skilled
• baseline information and further work and compatible team is a staged
required on baseline information competitive selection 3. At stage one 7
• outline business case and what requires several organisations pre-qualify by Work sheet 1
further investigation sending details of their skills and

Prepare
• things the masterplan is trying to define experience. Depending on the type of
and what will be left open skills needed, the RTPI, the RIBA, UDG
• current policies for the area and where or other organisations may be able to
they are subject to revision provide names for a long list 3. A short 7
• preliminary options for financing the list of three or four teams is then Section 6
partnership with the private sector or identified. These firms are asked to
a public agency prepare a more detailed submission for
• how the team will be selected: selection stage two and to attend an interview.
criteria, selection programme, Stage two submissions may request
submission requirements initial ideas about the methodology
• skills required of preparing the masterplan and
• outputs required from the selected identification of issues particular to
team, including client meetings, the locality. The client may set a fixed
consultations, reports (numbers level of budget and compare what each team
detail), presentations offers within that budget, or allow the
• programme for the masterplanning teams to propose their methods and
process their budgets.
• budget: this may be fixed in advance
or left to the competing teams
to determine.
The client must set aside time to provide Box 31: Key principles for your
information for the competing teams, selection process
and offering honoraria to cover some the
costs may encourage well thought-out
submissions. When making the final • candidates are treated equally
choice, it is important to consider the and fairly
amount of time that will be spent on the • the process is transparent and
project by the senior, experienced well-run
members of their team and the • there is a genuine intention to proceed
experience of the proposed team leader. • every candidate has adequate time
to participate
Occasionally clients consider appointing • the information required for the ‘pre-
masterplanners through a design qualification’ stage is not too onerous
76 competition. This approach is not • all candidates are told the selection
appropriate in most circumstances as criteria at each stage
it is generally premature for competing • all candidates have the same and the
teams to submit developed design ideas. most up-to-date information
Rather they should be appointed on the • all candidates are told all the
basis of a sound methodology, design necessary procedures
Prepare

skills, capacity to work alongside the • information from candidates is treated


client and their appreciation of the in confidence
potential of the place. Design • the process is open to scrutiny
competitions are costly in terms of • the reasons for the final choice
time and energy for the client and are justifiable
the competing teams. • unsuccessful candidates are
given feedback.
However, there are circumstances
where a design competition may be
appropriate, for example when the
strategic framework for the project is
well established and the competition
process is used as part of the selection
3 of development partners. 7
Section 2.3 &
Work sheet 3
Box 32: Stages of the selection process

Any selection process must be expertise may be needed to help create


transparent, accountable and fair the short list. Short-listed teams prepare
a more detailed submission.
Stage one: pre-qualification
In order to demonstrate suitability, Selection from the short list
organisations are often asked to pre- The selection committee needs a diversity
qualify. Conditions must be defined by the of skills to evaluate the quality of the
client and cover the main qualities needed various inputs, from project management,
in the team, such as intellectual, technical, to technical considerations and design
physical and financial resources. A ‘long flair. Selection on the basis of fees alone is
list’ of firms that fulfil the pre-qualification not recommended – it is unsuitable for the 77
criteria is drawn up. The quality of what a procurement of intellectual or creative
team has achieved should be considered, services. Where price is one of the criteria,
as well as the quantity. Preparation of a balance must be sought that gives
plans that have been successfully appropriate weightings to both the quality
implemented is an important of the proposal and the fees tendered.

Prepare
qualification factor.
Appointment
Stage two: A short list As soon as a choice has been made, the
This is narrowed down to a short list masterplanning team is appointed.
from which the final selection is made. A Contractual arrangements must be
professional adviser with masterplanning finalised and the timetable agreed. 3 7
Work sheet 1

3.7.5 Official Journal of the 3.7.6 Creating a positive working


European Union procedures relationship
(OJEU) The relationship between client and
EU procurement regulations for ‘services’ consultants is one of the keys to success.
apply to masterplan projects for public The parties should respect each other, and
clients 33 Neither EU regulations nor other neither should dominate – the consultants 77
competitive selection processes prohibit must feel free to challenge the brief and Work sheet 2
contact with the prospective tenderers. the client to challenge the consultants’
Direct interaction by tenderers with a senior ideas. The roles of individuals on both the
person on the client team, such as the internal and external teams need to be
project manager, can lead to more made clear to all parties and the client
thoughtful proposals, especially where should develop a structure to manage
the context of the plan is still to be clarified. the process and relationship.
It can also offer clients a clearer indication
of which team will work most effectively
with them.
Thinking about identity:
Zuidas, Amsterdam

There is a 25 year programme for


developing the Zuidas area of
Amsterdam. This is an illustration from a
strategic framework or brief for the
masterplan. It communicates issues of
image, branding, culture, identity or
character across part of the Zuidas
plan. The Municipality has proposed an
overall masterplan which subdivides the
area into smaller zones. Each of these
78 neighbourhoods has its own
components, accommodation needs,
atmosphere and scale. This information
forms part of the brief for the
masterplanning design process.
Prepare

Project: Amsterdam Zuidas, Netherlands


Client: ING Real Estate
Masterplan briefing: DEGW
Images: DEGW

3.8 Next steps stage the process for implementation


should have been considered. In some
Once the prepare stage is complete projects there may be a gap in time
the strategic framework will act as the between the prepare and design stages,
brief for the spatial masterplan, and a while funding or early implementation
masterplanning design team will be in issues are resolved. In these cases it will
place. It is now possible to move to the be important to ensure that as time passes
design stage. During the preparation the strategic framework is kept up to date.
Design
During the design stage, the client has • contributing to the evolution and
important roles that are likely to focus on: testing of proposals

• providing technical background to the • starting to get commitment from


masterplanning team key stakeholders who will help take
the masterplan forward, including
• providing leadership, helping coordinate political backing
the input and interests of many

stakeholders
• providing realism about funding,
phasing and delivery
• ensuring clarity is given about the priority
of certain objectives • communicating what is happening
to a wider audience.
• providing strategic direction to the team
when required
79

PREPARE

Design
DESIGN

IMPLEMENTATION

DELIVERING PROJECTS
Box 33: The process and outputs in the design stage

Design Test strategic framework


• collect any further baseline information
• test and develop the business case
• review and expand vision
5
Prepare and test land use and plan layout options
5
Test against potential implementation
models and options
5
Consultation – stakeholder consultation and feedback
5
Prepare draft spatial masterplan including three
dimensional urban design proposals

80 5
Development capacity analysis and testing
5
Urban design refinement
Design

5
Finalise spatial masterplan and report, including
implementation mechanisms
4.1 The design • what to expect in a masterplan

process • how to evaluate a masterplan

The table opposite outlines the steps • the importance of continuing to engage
that need to be taken during the design stakeholders in the masterplan
of the masterplan. This involves testing
the strategic framework, evolving • how to ensure that the masterplan Section 5
physical proposals and defining outline addresses issues of delivery. 3 7
implementation possibilities, to ensure
that they form a coherent and realistic
way to bring about beneficial changes.

In the early stages the proposals


establish the principles of land use
for the area, which are then elaborated
in three dimensions, showing the key
urban design principles for development.
These three-dimensional proposals
can be tested by quantifying the amount
of development that is likely to result
and therefore the likely costs and
values. This will help inform the 81
implementation stage.

Several documents provide detailed and


thorough descriptions of the issues that
masterplanners should address during

Design
the design stage, most notably the
Urban design compendium, (English
Partnerships and Housing Corporation,
London 2000) and Urban design 4.2 What to expect in a
guidance (Urban Design Group, London
2002) and these should form part of the
masterplan
masterplanners’ library.
From appointing the consultant team to final
Once the masterplanning team is in masterplan is unlikely to take less than six
place and the design process underway, months and, depending on the size of the
clients need to be aware of: project, may take a year or longer. Key
milestones, consultations and decision-
• the iterative nature of the process, making points should be set, when the plan
with constant testing should be reviewed against the vision and
objectives before proceeding.
Box 34: The contents of a spatial masterplanning document

Three-dimensional urban relating to land use, urban design,


design proposals architecture, open space / landscape,
• the proposed massing, height, densities, movement, infrastructure, etc
orientation, grids and blocks, (without • policies that should be adopted to
architectural or style details) inform the more detailed stage of
• movement routes (both pedestrian design for individual buildings and
and vehicular) spaces, for example, quality of key
• the location and role of open space. spaces or sustainable design
principles for buildings
The written part of a masterplan may cover
the following: Indicative design concepts
and proposals
Vision statement • aspects of the masterplan that are
• the vision for the area, which will definitive and vital to the creation of a
have evolved and expanded through successful place and those where more
3 the process 7 flexibility can be applied
Section 3.2.5 • aims and objectives – what the
masterplan is trying to achieve Details of the proposed development
process or delivery strategy
82 Site and context appraisal • the mechanism for assessing detailed
• the existing context and summary proposals against the masterplan as
3
of baseline information 7 they come forward
Section 4.2.2 • the mechanism for changing the
Policy review masterplan if circumstances change
• the policy context and the need for • the delivery strategy, eg. costs, phasing,
Design

aspects of the masterplan to be adopted funding, timing and delivery organisations


as policy, eg. through supplementary • the key partners in the development and
planning guidance or design briefs their respective roles: regeneration
agencies, developers, funders, designers,
Feasibility appraisals the community, tenants, transport
Section 3.2.4 • the business plan, including feasibility and providers, the local planning authority, etc.
3
option appraisal 7 • the key steps required for
33
implementation. 77
Section 5
Planning and design principles
• a description of the different elements of Some of these topics form part of the
the masterplan: the physical, economic commissioning brief when choosing a
and social masterplanning team. They should be
• the different physical elements / layers checked and reviewed as they are
that as a whole will create a successful extended or elaborated during the
place – often presented as strategies design process.
4.3 Evolving and
testing the
masterplan
During the evolution of the design, many
factors will have to be considered and
addressed. A key role for the client during
the design stage is to test how the
masterplan deals with these factors.
Testing will not happen at a single point in
the process, but will be iterative. It should
refer back to the original objectives and
vision set within the strategic framework.

Testing should answer five fundamental


questions about the masterplan:

• Will it deliver the vision established for


the place, based on its unique qualities?

• Does it set out proposals and principles


that will create a place that will function 83
well in terms of its urban design: streets,
blocks, spaces, movement, landscape,
and infrastructure?

• Does it provide the basis to create great

Design
architecture, buildings and public spaces design, architecture, design quality
in terms of design quality, set the and viability identified above. Part of the
standards to be achieved and provide process of testing the plan takes the
the framework for testing proposals? form of continued consultation and
communication with the stakeholders.
• Are the proposals viable in economic Much of the work described in sections
and market terms? 3.6 and 3.7 takes place during the
design stage, although it starts in
• Is the plan deliverable? What are the the prepare stage.
mechanisms to ensure delivery? 33 77
Some masterplans may not pass all the Section 5
Tests for the emerging proposals are tests. However, a basic CABE tenet for
outlined below. They relate to the key buildings also applies to masterplans:
components of vision, function, urban does it bring more to the world than
it takes away?
Box 35: Key tests for a masterplan 4.4 A ‘vision’ and
sense of place
The experience of CABE’s Design
Review Committee in evaluating a large A masterplan sets out principles that
number of masterplan proposals can be applied with a degree of
suggests the following tests. Does it: flexibility. A good masterplan has a
• reconcile economic goals and other ‘vision’ that helps shape what happens
public aspirations? on the site, giving it coherence and a
• provide an urban structure which is real sense of identity and place. Some
easy to explain and use; and robust sites might call for visionary design
enough for future cycles of quality, and some masterplans might
redevelopment? achieve it, but this is not true of the
• allow phased implementation? majority. Rather, a vision is likely to
• provide value if only executed in part? derive from an understanding of the
• provide a flexible and open-ended characteristics of a site, its history and
framework, able to respond to geography, to suggest how a sense of
change in demand? place can be created and related to
• achieve a sense of place and distinct what is there already. It is important that
local identity? the vision is not lost during the
• achieve something overarching – development of the design, so as it
the quality of the public develops, the plan must be constantly
84 realm/landscaping? checked against the original vision.
• integrate with surroundings so that
the area being developed and the Some aspects of the vision may go
surrounding area benefit from beyond the physical and change
each other? people’s perceptions of a place or alter
aspirations and expectations of local
Design

people and investors. A vision need


not arise from a design objective: it
may be generated by other aspects
of masterplanning, such as the
“It is important that when designing business plan or innovative funding
a masterplan we design in cross arrangements.
section as well as in plan to address
issues of topography.”
Michael Freeman, Argent Group plc

“It is important that the client stops the


designers from starting to design on
day one. Instead they must spend time
studying and understanding the place.”
Alan Baxter, Alan Baxter & Associates
4.5 Functionality • the existing patterns of built form on
the site and around it, including
heritage issues and characteristics
4.5.1 Urban design that make it a unique place
Every masterplan responds to unique
circumstances. However, tried and • the site topography, hard and soft
tested urban design principles can be landscape and ecology.
used to evaluate its quality. By design:
urban design in the planning system: 4.5.2 Site planning
towards a better approach Successful site planning balances
(CABE/DETR 2000) indicates key routes, spaces and buildings.
questions to ask when evaluating the Developing the plan is an iterative
design quality of proposals and the process that constantly checks that all
extent to which they will secure well important aspects are covered. The
designed projects during shapes of building plots and buildings
implementation. must not be the only focus of the
design; open space must have a
Design review (CABE, London 2002) purpose and not simply be ‘space left
explains how CABE evaluates quality in over after planning’. But the converse
design and stresses the importance of may be dangerous too; shaping blocks
urban design analysis. People evaluating and building plots to define open space
masterplans need to balance idealism must not result in arbitrary building
with pragmatism. A good masterplan forms difficult to turn into good 85
must be based on understanding the architecture. Site layouts should take
nature of a place before starting to account of the topography – very few
design for it, and must include a written masterplans are on flat sites – and can
and drawn urban design analysis. This create great opportunities. Not thinking
understanding can also be strengthened this through can result in disasters.

Design
through the process of characterisation
described in section 3.2.3. An urban Site planning should, from the
design analysis takes into account: beginning, include thinking about hard
and soft landscape design. Open
• the nature of the surroundings spaces are often a significant part of
beyond the site urban masterplan design. The more
flexibility required in future patterns of
• connections and desire lines built form, the more it will be landscape
between site and surroundings and design that gives coherence. Criteria
the patterns of movement of for well-designed open spaces must be
pedestrians and vehicles carefully thought through.
Establishing design principles
for neighbourhoods:
Cherrywood, Dun Laoghaire

The masterplan sets out the


framework for a new urban settlement
on a 150 ha suburban site to the south
of Dublin. A long term development
framework outlines the scale and type
of development, also outlining key
principles of character and mixed uses
for different parcels.

This plan illustrates six approaches to


different locations, and states the key
principles that are to be followed when
designing them, such as building
height, landscaping types, and
predominant uses. Architectural
design styles are not prescribed,
but the brief for each type of area
is clear. This definition provides an
86 inbuilt flexibility to enable phased
implementation through individual
planning permissions.

Project: Cherrywood, Dun Laoghaire, Ireland


Design

Clients: Dunloe Ewart Plc and British Land


Developments Ltd
Masterplanners: DEGW, Landscape Design Associates
Images: DEGW, Landscape Design Associates
Box 36: Key questions for open 4.5.3 Infrastructure and
spaces and the public realm connectivity
Balancing the needs of access and
movement with creating a high quality
Function development often takes a great deal of
• What is the space for – can ingenuity and creativity on the part of
exceptional events be catered for? the masterplanning team and client. It
• Is the location right for its intended is important that the needs of the car
use. eg. is it meant to be a focal are not the only ones considered in
set-piece space or a quiet, out of determining site access, layout or roads.
the way place?
The existing context and opportunities
Design for infrastructure and connectivity
• Will it provide local identity, character should be the starting point when
and delight? planning a pattern of development. Good
• What scale should it be? places are well-connected. It is essential
• How can it respond to and reinforce to look beyond the ‘red line’ of the site
the topography, microclimate, views boundary and consider how the site
and landmarks? connects with its surroundings for all
• Are the edges places of activity? relevant types of movement. Brownfield
regeneration sites have often remained
Users undeveloped or under-developed
• Who will use it and at what hours of precisely because of lack of connectivity. 87
the day? On such difficult sites, it sometimes
• Is it as safe as possible for all who happens that fundamental infrastructure
will use it? problems (for example, the need for a
• Does it address the needs of users? new bridge across a river) are passed
• Is it overlooked, what activities are over as too hard or too expensive to

Design
affected by this? solve. Poor connectivity may limit the
• Does it provide for vehicles success of the plan, whatever the quality
effectively eg. for maintenance, or of the subsequent design.
accessibility?
• Will it be sustainable, who will own Infrastructure and site conditions
and maintain it, and how will should be considered at the same
maintenance be paid for? time as above-ground connections.
They sometimes pose costly constraints
that need to be understood from the
outset, for example utilities connections
or diversions, ground contamination
and remediation or flood defence
requirements.
Using tools to test masterplans:
South Bank

There are various tools available to help


establish the baseline and test proposals.
For example, Space Syntax use a set of
techniques for robustly forecasting the
effects of masterplan design decisions on
social and economic outcomes such as
pedestrian movement flows, crime
patterns and land values. The analysis is
particular to the context and helps deals
with masterplan issues including layout,
permeability, spatial accessibility and
land use allocation.

Project: South Bank Analysis


Client: South Bank Centre
Consultant: Space Syntax
Image: Space Syntax

88
Design
4.5.4 Roads, servicing and 4.6 Design quality
car parking
Accommodating the car has the single and architecture
largest impact on urban form and the
proportion of land dedicated to vehicles 4.6.1 Masterplanning and
can be large. Issues such as road design, architecture
vehicle access to plots and buildings, Masterplans usually define an urban
vehicle parking and public transport design vision, but should not define
contribute to the ‘anatomy’ of site architectural styles as this is best left to
planning and should be assessed at individual architects and developers
early stages of the development of the during implementation. However, the
plan. In a well-designed masterplan, masterplan should establish the aim of
a realistic attitude to vehicular design quality in architecture, and create
management is integrated with thinking a framework within which good quality
about landscape design. It should architecture can flourish. For some
not be regarded as a technical matter aspects of the masterplan it may be
to be dealt with only by traffic appropriate to give guidance as to the
engineers. Schemes that ‘wish away’ architectural approach, for example the
the problems of traffic may fail to relationship to a listed building.
reconcile the conflicts between Methodologies and tools to assist in the
vehicles and pedestrians. pursuit of design quality in buildings, for
example the use of design codes, are
Car parking is land-hungry and considered in section 5.4. 89
particularly hard to accommodate as
development densities increase. It is Many masterplanning teams include
therefore essential to address this issue people with architectural skills to provide
at the beginning of planning the site and wide aerial perspectives or indicative
not as an afterthought. Car parks can be ‘cameo’ views of what places or

Design
considered as public space in many buildings will look like. Pitching these
instances and designed as such to illustrations at the right level is an art in
contribute to positive amenity, with good itself. In the public consultation exercise,
landscaping and surface treatment, the presentation of architectural imagery
rather than being designed as a acts as a lightning conductor, for good or
necessary evil with minimum visibility. ill. At best, such an approach generates
far more memorable images than can
ever be achieved by a plan. At worst, it
can distract attention from more
strategic issues.
Communicating design
proposals to stakeholders:
Canon’s Marsh, Bristol

Canon’s Marsh is a major brownfield


site in the heart of Bristol, marred by a
derelict gas works dating back to
1823. Three landowners own the site.
After many years of unsuccessful
attempts to redevelop the site, the key
to unlocking its potential was a
rigorous process of public consultation
that established a set of ‘public criteria’
from a series of stakeholder and
community focus groups. These,
combined with a commercial brief from
the developer client, enabled the
masterplanners to produce a scheme
that could be evaluated by the same
groups. The image shows how the
urban design and architectural quality
of a plan can be communicated to
90 a wide audience.

Project: Canon's Marsh, Bristol Harbourside


Client: Crest Nicholson (SW) Ltd
Masterplanner: Edward Cullinan Architects
Design

Image: Richard Carman

“The masterplanner will set down the “Until the 20th century, architectural
fundamental principles for a place, coherence came for free, due to the
but they shouldn’t be the architects need to use local materials. Now we
of the whole lot.” have to work harder to get it.”
Alan Baxter, Alan Baxter & Associates Michael Freeman, Argent Group plc
4.6.2 Coherence, variety and The strength of the masterplan lies in its
uniformity ability to accommodate change. Setting
A sense of place and coherence come standards by delivering high quality
primarily from the following qualities of projects early is important and will benefit
buildings and spaces: later projects and create benchmarks
against which they can be judged.
• scale For more information about
commissioning building projects
• compositional rules for building design see Creating excellent buildings:
a guide for clients (CABE 2003).
• grain of built form
4.6.3 Architectural heritage
• balance of diversity or uniformity. Many masterplans include buildings or
areas of historic value, whether statutorily
A Nash terrace and medieval streets are protected or not. The built heritage often
examples where these features can be offers important clues to achieving a sense
clearly differentiated. Until the twentieth of place – something which is much harder
century, coherence came easily, to do with a cleared site – and should be
as buildings, whether high status seen as an asset, not a liability. This applies
architecture or vernacular, conformed to to large and small elements, from whole
well-understood patterns that evolved buildings or structures down to fine details,
gradually and used a limited range of for example paving or street furniture.
largely local materials and a local skills A successful masterplan recognises the 91
base. Clearly this is no longer so and in the value of these assets and finds ways of
21st century the challenge is sometimes celebrating them by investing in their
to reign in the huge variety of possible setting. The plan should ensure that new
forms and materials. development does not make a weak
attempt to emulate the past, but instead

Design
The masterplan should set down the presents a positive view of contemporary
extent to which it is attempting to impose urban design in a historic setting. Building
coherence or uniformity on future in context (CABE 2001) provides some
architectural development. A specialist examples of projects that succeed in
advisor may be needed to help understand addressing this issue.
the physical impact of the architecture
when the plan is developed. The
masterplan should permit variety and
individuality without creating an
incoherent, ‘placeless’ environment.
The key to success is often simplicity.
Using modelling to test
proposals: Newquay

Newquay, like other English seaside


towns, has experienced a cycle of
economic decline in recent years. In
order to drive regeneration in the
town, key agencies commissioned a
masterplan to provide a shared vision
to inform development for the next
20-25 years which looks at physical,
social and economic issues and how
to implement change in accordance
with this vision. Using a three-
dimensional block plan provides a
vivid illustration of large scale
intervention in an existing place.

Project: Newquay Action Framework Plan


Clients: South West Regional Development Agency,
The Newquay Core Group
Masterplanner: Landscape Design Associates
92 Images: Landscape Design Associates
Design
4.7 Viability 4.7.2 Plot testing
A masterplan normally makes specific
proposals about urban blocks and building
4.7.1 Development capacity testing plots. These need to be tested in a number
The financial viability of the proposals in of ways, including:
relation to possible development patterns
needs to be reviewed early on. The • Does the plot make sense in relation to
process is similar to an option appraisal: likely sizes, shapes and uses of
the amount of space being provided, the buildings? For example, some plots are
types of building plots and different too big for a single solid building and too
density assumptions need to be reviewed small for a form incorporating useful
in relation to various options for delivery. open space. This can be assessed by
Several scenarios may be explored that drawings at the appropriate scale, in
give different values depending, for section and plan. The appropriate block
example, on the proposed form of the size depends on the proposed land use,
development or overall changes in market the likely scale of buildings and the need
value. This material is carefully cross- for amenity and services at block level.
referenced to establish under what
circumstances there may be a funding • In cases where there is not yet a
shortfall, or how much incentive will be developer, will the blocks, plots and
needed. The minimum capacity and use buildings implied in the masterplan
required to achieve a sense of place needs correspond to what developers will
to be defined, as do any services requiring want to build? 93
a minimum catchment to become viable.
The scenarios considered in this capacity • What levels of permeability are provided
testing should also assess the impact of for vehicles and pedestrians? Are
potential changes in market demand and pedestrians given appropriate priority?
that the masterplan and its implementation As block sizes reduce do choices for

Design
may generate. pedestrian permeability increase?

Often, the private sector undertakes a • How will the built form affect sunlight,
large part of the implementation. In this wind patterns and views?
case it may be advisable to talk to potential
developer partners early on, without
prejudice, in order to ensure that the
masterplan meets their investment criteria.
4.8 Next steps the quality of the implementation when
it takes place. The plan is not complete
When the design stage is complete there without an implementation strategy
will be both a drawn spatial masterplan being thought through and adopted.
and a written report that sets out the Many implementation issues may have
strategic concepts behind the design been considered earlier or during the
proposal, the background and basis for Design stage, but for clarity they are
these and any guidance or design described in the next section.
principles that can be used to control

City plot testing

This diagram illustrates the wide range of


ways in which a particular plot could be
used, in terms of the mix of uses. It forms
part of a masterplan assessment in which
the block was tested for uses as diverse
as a football pitch and a corner shop.
Such analysis could be used to test
the flexibility of a masterplan, the urban
94 design implications of different options
or the cost implications.

Image: Maxwan Architects, DEGW


Design
Implementation

This section explores the aspects of an


implementation strategy that must be
considered before a masterplan can be
adopted. They relate to the background
data, analysis, consultation with
stakeholders and the development
requirements incorporated into the
three-dimensional plans.

& STRATE GY F OR
E SS IM
OC PL
PR EM
E
N
TA
TI
ON

PREPARE

DESIGN

IMPLEMENTATION
95
DELIVERING PROJECTS

Implementation
Box 37: The process and outputs in the implementation stage

Implementation Prepare implementation strategy, start during


preparation stage
• Timetable
• Funding
• Delivery vehicles or agency
• Partners in local delivery
• Marketing
• Management and maintenance strategy
• Risk analysis
5
Where appropriate establish principles in policy
5
Establish mechanisms for delivering design
quality in projects eg.
• Design briefs
• Design guidelines
• Design codes
• Team of architects and designers
• Competitions
• Design advisory panel
5
Market the development opportunities /
find development partners
5
96 Delivering Monitor proposals against masterplanning key principles
projects
5
Implementation

Review and amend if baseline conditions change


5.1 An implementation 5.2 Adopting an
strategy – the heart implementation
of the process strategy
To ensure that the masterplan does not Masterplans should be simple, sophisticated
become yet another study, implementation documents. They must communicate clearly
must be considered from the start and the aspirations for development in an area
throughout the masterplanning process. and a certain amount of prescription is
Preparing an implementation strategy appropriate. Yet they also have to provide
involves legal, financial and political issues, flexibility, as much of the physical change
for which the client and masterplanning team will take years, sometimes decades, to be
will usually require specialist advice. The role delivered. As a result, the pursuit of a
and remit of various public agencies, costs particular implementation strategy, or
and potential funding sources, land limitations in possible implementation
ownership, phasing and long-term routes, may have an impact on the spatial
management, as well as the legislative masterplan itself.
context are all relevant. The potential
development organisations, and whether The implementation or delivery strategy
they will become partners of the initial should evolve through analysis and discussion
masterplanning client or take over as the during the course of the masterplanning
client themselves, must be identified. process. The masterplanning client must
have both a strategy and a supporting
Clarifying and understanding realistic organisational structure to see that it is
delivery strategies is an essential part of carried through or adjusted as necessary
masterplanning and one which must start along the way. The delivery strategy records
early. What the options are and how they how to progress from strategy to projects
will be encouraged and controlled, are as happening on the ground. It should cover
important as the three-dimensional designs. the following issues:

It is important to recognise at the outset that • timetable


masterplans should not been seen as rigid 97
blueprints for development and design. • funding sources

Implementation
Rather they set the context within which
individual projects come forward. Success • partners
will ultimately depend on the delivery of
great design at a more detailed level. • delivery vehicles or agency
There will be much for clients to do
beyond the masterplanning stage. • marketing

• management and maintenance strategy

• risk analysis
Setting out to deliver:
Manchester City Centre

Manchester City Centre has gone through


a process of significant renewal over the
last ten years. The first phase was
precipitated by the damage caused by the
IRA bomb in 1996. In order to spearhead
the rebuilding programme, a
masterplanning competition was held and
team appointed. The robustness of the
masterplan was proven over time with
different developers, architects and
designers delivering individual buildings
and public spaces which all added value to
the principles set out in the masterplan.

The delivery mechanism for the rebuilding


programme also provided a model, which
was subsequently replicated in the
establishment of urban regeneration
companies (URCs). Manchester
Millennium Limited was set up with a
Project: Manchester City Centre dedicated team of professionals and acted
Clients: Manchester Millennium as a one-stop-shop for all issues related to
Limited and Manchester the renewal programme. Its effectiveness
City Council was guaranteed through the multi­
Masterplanner: EDAW disciplinary skills of the team, the
Images: EDAW (2002) / leadership provided and the close working
Dixi Carrillo relationship with the key partners, most
importantly Manchester City Council.
98
Implementation

“Great projects need great


leadership to inspire a great team
to a great performance.”
Creating excellent buildings:
a guide for clients Summary p4
5.2.1 Timetable for staged Box 38: Factors that can influence
implementation the phasing of delivery
The likely and optimum phasing of or
timetable for development should be
established. This will be influenced by • Property market – likely demand,
the issues outlined in Box 38. The anticipated changes in demand due to
phasing strategy is often accompanied the masterplan, impact of downturns
by a development capacity and financial and upturns in the property market
model, which can be used to test the and the level of flexibility required, the
impact of different assumptions or need for public subsidy, issues with
scenarios. 33 developer negotiations eg. potential 77
for planning gain, profit sharing and Section 4.7.1
Projects that can be delivered early payment of dividends from profits
should be identified. Such projects, no • Movement issues – transport
matter how small, if delivered to a high infrastructure, potential changes over
quality, can help create investor and time, timescale for public transport
community confidence, change improvements, eg. a new river
perceptions of an area and set a crossing, the impact of car usage and
benchmark for design quality. However, car parking requirements
if roads, open spaces and infrastructure • Land ownership – the availability of
are to be developed early on, maybe in land for development and issues
advance of buildings, the masterplan related to acquisition and potential for
must have been tested rigorously to compulsory purchase of some plots
ensure that they provide a good • Funding availability 3 7
framework and do not limit flexibility as • Planning process – the timing and Section 5.2.2
the development progresses. The desire impact of planning applications or
to complete such large-scale public permissions, or the adoption of the
realm or infrastructure projects early, masterplan principles into policy
perhaps because they depend on a slow • Utilities infrastructure (including
rolling programme of investment, should information technology) – with long-
be treated with caution. term masterplans the impacts of new
infrastructure requirements or 99
technological developments should

Implementation
be considered.
A flexible plan: Bermondsey Spa 5.2.2 Funding
The availability of funding obviously has
This area has suffered from loss of a significant impact on the delivery of
traditional industries related to the docks. the masterplan. The funding strategy
The masterplan for Bermondsey Spa should address existing and potential
Regeneration Area identifies sites in sources of funds, how they will be
Southwark’s ownership within the area for secured and over what timescale.
development. These were put out to Where land is in public ownership
competition seeking sustainable mixed consideration will have to be given to
tenure, high quality and innovative urban the likely receipts, the sale of land for
design and efficient, environmentally lower values to facilitate investment, the
friendly buildings. suitable use of planning gain and the
potential for the public sector to benefit
The flexibility of the initial plan allowed a from future profits.
new implementation team to put forward
Project: Bermondsey Spa, proposals that accommodate blocks The delivery of many publicly promoted
London which, while designed in a different way, masterplans is funded from a number of
Client: Hyde Housing have a similar capacity and scale. This sources, such as European, regional,
Association meant that proposals were developed local authority and lottery. Co-ordinating
Design team: Levitt Bernstein without having to revisit the principles them can be complex and needs an
Image: Levitt Bernstein agreed to in the early phase. experienced person. Public sector
bodies may provide funds, in which case
you must make sure that you have the
mechanisms in place to draw down the
funds when required. The public sector
may facilitate the project indirectly, for
example by providing land or support
from experts employed by them. Where
only limited funding is available, it
should be used as ‘seed-corn’ to
stimulate additional funding.
100
The funding of other local or strategic
Implementation

improvements to the physical


environment or regeneration
programmes, may offer opportunities
for integration, for example, street or
park maintenance programmes, schools
building or CCTV investments. These
should be explored by the funding
strategy for the masterplan to ensure
that these programmes add value to the
overall objectives.
5.2.3 Delivery vehicles Council and private land owner/developer.
From the start of the project someone should A number of models for local delivery
focus on how the plan can eventually be structures are available, including joint venture
delivered. This may entail setting up a new partnership, company limited/unlimited by
team or agency with a remit to focus on the guarantee and hybrid structures, each with
delivery. In other cases, people with the particular benefits and limitations, and
appropriate skills are brought together to form appropriate for different circumstances.
a team within the existing public agency or
client organisation. The skills required for • Single client / site owner or consortia
implementation are different from those for that is likely to undertake the majority of

the earlier masterplanning phase, and new the development or bring in other

people with different technical backgrounds investors / developers.

may need to be brought in. The team must


have appropriate powers and reporting Parts of the plan may be the subject of
structures, with a single point of contact for all developer competitions. 3 7
interests, to ensure that it can work effectively. Work sheet 3
It may be advisable to prepare an organisation 5.2.4 Partners in local delivery
diagram of a delivery vehicle, together with an structures
indicative revenue budget for setting up and Masterplans can only be implemented where
running the organisation. the overall objectives and vision for a project are
widely understood and supported. More often
Possible mechanisms for implementing a than not, delivery relies on a number of different
masterplan include: partners from the public and private sectors. The
delivery strategy should be clear about how to
• Statutory agencies (such as Urban engage with these partners, whether through
Development Corporations) set up with parcelling up the land for disposal, engaging a
central government approval using specific masterplan developer or consortia or carrying
legislative procedures. They can be vested out a developer competition. Development
with significant powers in respect of land partners should be selected with the same
assembly and the promotion of development rigour as any other competitive process. 3 7
within an area and are often set up where It is important that the commitment of Section 3.7.4 &
two or more organisations come together to potential development partners to the Work sheets 1 & 3
101
deliver the project, or the scale is such that it objectives of the masterplan and design

Implementation
is warranted. They are most effective when quality is tested during selection.
closely allied to the local authority and
regional development agencies. In some instances a joint venture (JV) vehicle
may be established between the public agency
• Local delivery structures established to that owns the site and a private developer, which
deliver or oversee a masterplan. Whether may have an impact on the delivery vehicle. For
the organisation operates as a legal entity example, JV agreements can include the
depends on the circumstances of the sharing of profits from the development, or
project and the client’s resources and commitments for public sector investment in
capabilities. Typically it involves some form land acquisition or site remediation.
of partnership arrangement between the
Project: King’s Cross Central Establishing principles that will stand expectations; the nature of high density
Client: Argent St George the test of time: King’s Cross Central mixed-use development; regeneration
Masterplanner: EDAW / objectives; heritage and environmental
Allies and Morrison The proposals for King’s Cross Central resources; transport infrastructure; and
Images: Argent St George have evolved through three years of work services and utilities. Ideas about how to
which have culminated in an imaginative physically reshape King’s Cross then
framework of proposals. These are followed in ‘a framework for regeneration’.
financially viable, adaptable and deliverable, The framework has benefited from a
on a phased basis, in a range of market number of studies in which over twenty
The ten ‘Principles for a conditions, over at least one full economic architectural practices have been invited to
Human City’ for King’s Cross cycle. The developer, Argent St George, has explore how various development zones and
Central are: followed a clear, step-by-step process, with plots might be built out as offices, housing
• a robust urban framework widespread public consultation and the and other land uses, and how the framework
• a lasting new place transparent provision of information at might be further reviewed.
102 • promote accessibility every stage.
• a vibrant mix of uses The results will be submitted alongside the
Implementation

• harness the value In July 2001, ten ‘principles for a human city’ planning applications as an Urban Design
of heritage were published by the developer, with inputs Statement and Urban Design Guidelines
• work for King’s Cross, from the local planning authority and English which, if approved, will be used as reference
work for London Heritage. The intention is to test emerging documents throughout the design process.
• commit to long-term ideas against the ten principles at each In addition, Argent St George will maintain,
success stage of the project. Following on from this, and keep up to date, an illustrative build-out
• engage and inspire the developer published ‘parameters for plan at each key stage of the project. This
• secure delivery regeneration’, covering issues that would is intended to help the local planning
• communicate clearly impact on the plan including: land ownership authorities and others understand how each
and openly and other boundaries; planning policy phase of development might shape the next.
Box 39: Considerations for local authorities when forming
delivery partnerships

When identifying a preferred delivery Procedural:


option involving a local authority and • implications of comprehensive rather
developer(s) and/or landowner(s) a than ad-hoc development and how
number of considerations will need to be and where CPO powers will be used –
taken into account including: this is related to the phasing of the
overall development and delivery of
Legal/financial: individual elements
• the local authority’s legal ability to be a • ability of the local authority to defend
party to particular types of delivery any challenge made by landowners
bodies, which involves considerations and other third parties – this relates
related to local government finance to the weight to be attached to
• mechanisms to ensure separation of the existing planning permissions and
role of the local authority as an active applications, emerging local planning
participant in the delivery body and its proposals, supplementary planning
role as planning authority guidance, and other policy documents
• the number of parties involved in • mechanisms for achieving control over
delivering the masterplan, including design and build specifications and
landowners and others with established quality of construction.
and vested interests in sites or generally
in the development area
• arrangements and responsibilities for
undertaking public sector/infrastructure
works and delivering local authority
objectives that will impact on the
profitability of the project.

103

Implementation
There are a number of practical issues though this raises issues about the legal
to consider about how the delivery body process and responsibilities of parties.
functions. For example, in the case of a When evaluating and deciding on the most
joint venture partnership: appropriate structure/organisation to take
forward the masterplan, it is recommended
• a commonality of interest and a high level that specialist legal, property and funding
of trust between the parties is needed advice be sought.
and must be maintained throughout
the relationship 5.2.5 Marketing
A marketing and communications strategy
• the parties must be prepared to tolerate a needs to be planned and reviewed at each
degree of ‘give and take’ and ‘take the
stage, focusing on different audiences.
rough with the smooth’
The plan will be easier to implement if the
local community is involved. Interest from
• where a number of parties’ interests need developers must be stimulated in order to
to be involved (usually represented by
have a basis for the development activities.
lawyers and other external advisers)
Public bodies, which may have access to
the process of reviewing, negotiating
sources of funding, are also important
and agreeing the JV agreement can
targets. The documentation for these
be very prolonged
different audiences varies. Architectural
imagery can be powerful in this context.
• progress will be determined by the pace of However, expectations must also be
the slowest and the longer the processes carefully managed as pictures of
continue, the greater the possibility that apparently real outcomes that may
one or more of the parameters or variables never come about can distract or
which need to be factored in each party’s create false expectations.
calculations will change, extending the
negotiation process further

• each party will be required to pay its own


costs as well as contribute to a range of
104 shared costs
Implementation

• valuing the various parcels of land involved


in the masterplan and how to equate the
disparity in values between, for instance,
a public road and land for prestige
development is a continuing issue
throughout the process.

These considerations may lead to the


conclusion that a formal corporate
structure/company is more appropriate,
5.2.6 Management and Where public facilities form part of the
maintenance strategy masterplan, for example an arts complex
A key aspect in any major new or new primary school, their funding,
development is how to manage the delivery and ongoing revenue
finished buildings and the public realm implications, should be considered in
in the longer term. This is as relevant to consultation with key partners, for
a business park as it is to a new housing instance the local education authority.
development. The implementation
strategy should consider management 5.2.7 Risk analysis
of the construction phase, the letting The implementation strategy will be
process, and the management and more robust if the potential risks and
maintenance of the completed pitfalls have been analysed. The risk
buildings and open spaces. analysis should also record issues
completely outside the control of the key
A strategy should be developed to partners, eg. economic recession. The
consider the management and key agencies involved in ensuring that
maintenance of the finished the scheme happens must know at the
development, particularly of public outset what they need to do and the
areas, and how this will be funded. implications of failure. The process
Outline principles should be established helps test the masterplan and the
about how issues of maintenance, assumptions in the delivery strategy.
cleaning and security are to be
addressed and who is to be responsible.
The way in which management can be
organised depends on the tenure
arrangement for the places that are
created, or in the case of public realm,
whether roads and spaces are adopted
by the local authority. Management
is sometimes undertaken by
the developer, who may form
a management company for this 105
purpose and charge ground rent

Implementation
to tenants. Where maintenance
of the public realm falls to the local
authority it is important that the
revenue implications are considered.
5.3 Delivering design Within the masterplan document
should be a record of the core aspects
quality of the site’s physical development that
will contribute to a place of quality.
The delivery of a masterplan can At the basic level it will set down
take years. Client commitment and urban design principles for quarters
leadership during the process is vital to and, potentially, individual plots of
ensuring the project’s success. The development, or for open spaces and
commitment to design quality is even streetscape. In some instances it is
more pressing, as delivery will inevitably appropriate to go to the next level of
be fraught with periods of uncertainty detail in defining what is meant by
and involve hard decisions, tough design quality and engage designers
negotiations and dealing with political to demonstrate this. The client
pressures. The client’s commitment to organisation should address
design quality, its ability to judge when mechanisms for delivering design
design quality may be compromised, quality that will impact on how it
33 and its leadership to safeguard it, are of implements the masterplan. 77
Section 3.7 paramount importance.

106
Implementation
Box 40: Mechanisms for delivering design quality in masterplans

Design briefs – In some instances more benefit from the engagement of a number
detailed design briefs for key sites, clusters of designers, each of whom can bring
of buildings and open spaces are required. something unique and distinctive to the
These documents may need to be adopted project. Once the core principles of a
as supplementary planning guidance. masterplan are established, it should
provide a framework within which architects
Design guidelines – Some aspects of the and landscape architects can design
masterplan may benefit from further policy buildings and public spaces. Clients could
development, which may result in design consider selecting a panel of designers.
guidelines being established. This could
include a ‘palette’ for materials and street Competitive interviews and
furniture for the public spaces, or design competitions – The design of key
and space standards for housing units. The buildings and open spaces may also benefit
type of guidance depends on the from the appointment of designers through
aspirations for a particular character, as well competition. This may take the form of a
as whether the development is being carried competitive interview, where an approach
out as a single project or in separate is put forward by the design teams, or a
parcels. The guidance may be broad and structured competition with a level of
strategic or more specific. for example design output. Competitions can engage
design codes. 33 However, extensive the interests of designers who would not 77

guidelines or prescriptive design codes normally put themselves forward for such Section 5.4
alone do not necessarily result in good work but who can bring additional flair and
design. Appropriate interpretation of the innovation to a project. Clear assessment
guidance depends on the appointment of criteria are required. However, full design
good designers. competitions should be used sparingly and
help bring extra focus on important projects.
Design guidelines are particularly important More information on running design
on large-scale masterplans with long-term competitions is available in Creating
implementation strategies where the client excellent buildings: a guide for clients 107
body and/or the key personnel are likely to (CABE 2003).

Implementation
change. The guidelines should be used to
ensure high quality design consistency in Design advisory panel – Some client
a format that still allows for freedom of organisations set up an advisory panel to
design expression. vet the quality of schemes designed within
the context of a masterplan. This is similar
Team of architects and designers – to the design panels outlined in Better civic
Both variety and uniformity in the urban buildings (CABE, London 2002), except
environment can contribute to the quality of their remit is focused on a masterplan
a place. As a masterplan involves many area. Such a panel can also play a useful
buildings and public spaces, often with role in preparing design briefs and judging
multiple uses, its implementation can design competitions.
5.4 Design coding 5.4.2 Design codes and
masterplanning
5.4.1 What is a design code? There are four potential scenarios,
A methodology that is currently being mainly relating to major housing
tested and piloted in the UK is design developments or large urban
codes, a form of design guidance that is extensions, where design coding
more detailed than that used in the last may be considered:
few decades. The methodology has
been applied in a range of projects • projects where there are risks that the
overseas, notably in the USA. It is not a design ambitions of the masterplan
wholly new concept to the UK – will not be realised due to the
English Partnerships recently defined expected design approach of
design codes for some major urban developers, and therefore more
extension projects and the Millennium detailed guidance could provide
Communities. In fact design codes were greater control over the design
applied in many of the UK’s most and development of buildings and
successful, historic housing areas, for public spaces
example Georgian London.
• where it is important to deliver
The use of design codes is only possible development quickly, a design code
when a series of principles of good can provide a greater degree of
urban design can be applied that go certainty to the planning authority,
some way to creating a successful developers and the local community,
place: local distinctiveness based on thus potentially speeding up the
historic character, ease of movement, design and planning process
legibility, quality of public space,
continuity and enclosure and • In particularly sensitive locations or
3 adaptability. 7 But codes are only a where challenging forms of
Box 3 means to an end; in the hands of the development are proposed, for
right designers they help define and example for reasons of heritage or
deliver quality. density, establishing more detailed
108 design criteria could help ensure
In the UK, codes are defined as detailed appropriate development
Implementation

design guidance, which is stricter and


more exact than other guidance used • In the phasing of major projects where
recently. Where possible, compliance a number of parties are involved in
with the code will form part of the implementing the masterplan and
legal agreements governing what and there is a need to maintain
how development occurs in the area consistency in design quality.
covered by the code.
Using design codes:
Upton, Northampton

The level of detail to which a masterplan


will be developed will depend on the way
it will be used in the development
process. On the Upton project, a design
code has been developed, following
a process of consultations and
engagement with local stakeholders,
using the method of ‘Enquiry by Design’.
The design code sets out design
principles and helps give clarity to the
local planning authority and development
partners, thus potentially speeding up the
planning process and ensuring design
quality is delivered on the ground.

Project: Upton, Northampton


Client: English Partnerships
Masterplan: EDAW and Alan Baxter & Associates
Image: Alan Baxter & Associates

The code is based on the urban design • going beyond simple massing principles
principles established in the spatial to define the relationship of the facades
masterplan. It identifies key areas, of individual buildings to the public realm
elements or aspects of the plan which 109
require more detailed guidance than • identifying appropriate materials for use

Implementation
would normally be included in a in the design and construction of
masterplan but should stop short of buildings and public spaces
defining architectural style.
• setting guidelines for the design
The elements for which detailed of streets and public spaces, for example
guidance is given and whether they home zone design guidelines
are recommendations, options or
fixed requirements varies. Examples • identifying environmental design and
of guidance include: operational standards of housing, for www.buildingforlife.org.uk
example the Building for Life Standard. 3 7
5.4.3 Issues to consider 5.5 Establishing the
Clients thinking about using design
codes in the implementation of a
masterplan in the
masterplan should consider: planning process
• The preparation of design codes Placing a masterplan in the context of the
should be an extension of the planning process is vital if its tenets are to
masterplanning design and be safeguarded. The policy framework
implementation processes. creates the opportunity for masterplans to
have a considerable influence in shaping
• The codes should leave room the development of an area. This is
for architectural and landscape particularly so where it is drawn up as part
design creativity. of an Area Action Plan within the local
planning authority’s Development Plan
• They should be flexible, so that Documents, and backed up by a policy
33 standards can be improved and can within the authority’s core strategy. 77
Section 2.1 build on existing and new design and Masterplans can be part of Supplementary
environmental standards eg. CABE’s Planning Documents. This enables
Building for Life standard. the local planning authority to place
significant weighting on the masterplan
• Different levels of prescription apply in in determining individual planning
different contexts. For example, where applications. However, masterplans
a developer is committed to design can also be used as a support document
quality and has a proven track record of to individual planning applications or
using good architects, a prescriptive as a planning condition for individual
code may not be required. Where applications.
the design track record is poor,
a code can bring clarity and establish The masterplan (accompanied, where
a benchmark for quality. relevant, by appropriate supporting
documents such as an Environmental
These, and a more general review of Statement) may form the basis of an
110 matters relating to design codes, are set outline planning application. This may
out in Building sustainable relate to the entire masterplan area, or part
Implementation

communities: the use of urban of the area, in which case the masterplan
design codes (CABE, London 2003). will provide the strategic context for the
application. In these circumstances the
masterplan will need to provide sufficient
certainty and ‘fix’ on the principles of
development both for the purposes of
assessment under the environmental
impact assessment regulations, and in
order to enable the local authority (and
consultees on the application) to
Providing a framework for different
designers and developers:
King’s Waterfront, Liverpool

Key partners have inputted into the plan for the


redevelopment of this prime site on Liverpool’s
waterfront. The masterplan provides a
framework for individual schemes, which are put
out to design competitions, and defines land
parcels that can be marketed to developers.
The plan aims to create a major attraction of 111
international significance and a centrepiece for

Implementation
the European Capital of Culture 2008 festivities.
The options for development of the site have
been tested in plan form and, with a preferred
layout identified, are illustrated through three-
dimensional pictures of key spaces.

Project: King’s Waterfront, Liverpool


Client: Liverpool Vision
Masterplanner: EDAW
Images: EDAW
understand and assess the acceptability
of the proposals. There is increasing
5.6 Moving towards
recognition of the need to support outline delivery
planning applications with a statement
setting out the proposed design principles, Clients should recognise that, with a
as well as illustrative material in plan and masterplan in place, they will now
elevation showing further details of move into a phase of delivering
proposals. Importantly, statements on projects on the ground. During this
design principles enable the local authority phase, the client commitment to design
to begin to address issues of design quality will have to be maintained. But
quality from the outset of the decision- before signing off the masterplan
making process, rather than leaving documents, the client should review
the principles (as well as the details) whether all the tasks have been carried
to subsequent reserved matters or out and properly finished, and a realistic
detailed applications. way forward identified:

• Has the design been tested against


the vision?

• Has the design been reviewed for


design quality?

• Are the economic assumptions


still relevant?

• Have all the professional inputs been


co-ordinated?

• Has the plan been accepted by the


stakeholders?
112 • Is the local authority in agreement with
the plan – will implementation proposals
Implementation

receive permission?

“An assessment of the roles and


relationships of the area or site to its
strategic context, together with an
appreciation of the individual
characteristics of form and the way a
place is used, will lay the foundations
for a unique design response.”
Urban design compendium p22
• Is the plan being incorporated into the 5.7 Monitoring the
local area development framework?
outcome
• Are other relevant authorities satisfied,
eg. the highways department? As individual projects come forward,
clients should ensure that they are
• Is there a strategy for communicating working with designers and development
the outcome to a wider public? partners who can deliver design quality.
As individual sites are developed, building
• Is it clear who is going to take forward evaluation needs to be carried out. This
the delivery strategy and do they have includes monitoring that the development
the capacity to do so? proposals are in line with the masterplan.
In addition they need to be assessed in
• Has a development partner(s) been their own right to evaluate the quality of
brought into the process, or is a strategy design. Design review (CABE, London
in place for doing so? 2002) covers questions that should be
considered and the Design Quality
• Are the first key projects underway, Indicators (DQIs) developed by the
to get early wins? Construction Industry Council and CABE 3 7
can be used. Creating excellent buildings: www.cic.org.uk
• Has phasing been planned? a guide for clients (CABE, London 2003)
contains references and checklists for
• Have the next key steps been identified? evaluating detailed design proposals for
individual buildings and sites.
• Are more detailed design guidelines
needed?

113

Implementation
Creating value through landscape:
Poolbeg, Dublin

The masterplan for Poolbeg attempts to


accommodate difficult uses – such as
remaining utilities and port facilities –
while creating new high value
development in this dockside area
adjacent to Dublin city centre.

A strong three-dimensional hard and


soft landscape design concept aims at
creating an environmental context within
which conflicting uses can co-exist. High
value residential, a commercial quarter,
cultural facilities, leisure, and a wildlife
park sit side by side with non-intrusive
industrial sites and clean utility
installations (power station, sewer
and recycling plant), screened and
integrated at the same time by three
strategic landscape components.
A comprehensive implementation plan
aims to deliver components of the
landscape to complement development
parcels coming forward.

Project: Poolbeg Peninsula, Dublin


Client: Dublin City Council
Masterplanners: DEGW, Camlin Lonsdale
Images: DEGW, Camlin Lonsdale
114
Implementation
References,

contacts &

glossary

6.1 References CABE & OGC, Improving standards of


design in the procurement of public
Additional references to construction buildings, CABE/OGC, London 2002
generally and to specific building types can
be found in CABE, Creating excellent CABE, Better civic buildings and spaces,
buildings: a guide for clients, CABE, CABE, London 2002
London 2003
CABE, Building in context – new
Billingham J and Cole R, The good place development in historic areas, English
guide – urban design in Britain and Ireland, Heritage/CABE, London 2001
Batsford, London 2002
CABE, Building for life manifesto, CABE,
CABE, Department of Environment, Transport, London 2002
and Regions (DETR) By design, urban
design in the planning system: towards CABE, Building for life standards, CABE,
better practice, Thomas Telford Ltd, London 2002
London 2000
CABE, Building sustainable communities:
CABE, Department of Environment, Transport, actions for housing market renewal, CABE,
and Regions (DETR), Better places to live by London 2003
design: a companion guide to PPG3,
Thomas Telford Ltd, London 2001 CABE, Building sustainable communities:
developing the skills we need, CABE,
CABE, University College London (UCL) and London 2003
Department of Environment, Transport, and
Regions (DETR), The value of urban design, CABE, Building sustainable communities: 115
Thomas Telford, London 2001 the use of urban design codes, CABE,
London 2003
References,
contacts &
glossary
CABE, Creating excellent buildings. Carmona Matthew, Punter John, Chapman
a guide for clients, CABE, London 2003 David, From design policy to design quality:
the treatment of design in community
CABE, Design review, CABE, strategies, local development frameworks
London 2002 and action plans, Thomas Telford, London
2002
CABE, Design reviewed masterplans,
CABE, London 2004 Department for Transport, Local
Government and the Regions, Green
CABE, Design reviewed town centre retail, spaces better places: final report of the
CABE, London 2004 urban green spaces taskforce, DTLR,
London 2002
CABE, Design reviewed urban housing,
CABE, London 2004 European Commission – Expert Group
on the Urban Environment, European
CABE, Paving the way: how we achieve sustainable cities – report of the European
clean, safe and attractive streets, Thomas group on the urban environment, Office for
Telford, London 2002 Official Publications of the European
Commission, Luxembourg 1996
CABE, Protecting design quality in
planning, CABE, London 2003 Gehl J, Life between buildings,
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company,
CABE, Summary: creating excellent New York 1987
buildings. a guide for clients, CABE,
London 2003 Government Construction Clients’ Panel,
Achieving excellence: constructing
CABE, The councillor’s guide to urban the best government client, OGC,
design, CABE, London 2003 Norwich 1999

CABE, The value of good design, CABE, Greater London Authority, Housing for a
London 2002 compact city, GLA, London 2003

CABE / Rethinking Construction, Llewelyn Davies, Urban design


Celebrating innovation, CABE / Rethinking compendium, English Partnerships, The
Construction, London 2001 Housing Corporation, London 2000

CABE Space, Manifesto for better public OGC, Achieving excellence in


space, CABE Space, London 2004 construction: building on success,
OGC, London 2003
116 CABE Space, Value of public space, CABE
Space, London 2004 OGC, Gateway review pack, Crown
copyright 2001
References,
contacts &
glossary
Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Wates, Nick, The community planning
Sustainable communities: building for handbook: how people can shape their
the future, ODPM, London 2003 cities, towns and villages in any part of the
world, Earthscan, London 2000
Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Creating
sustainable communities: making it happen: Whyte W, The social life of small urban
Thames Gateway and the growth areas, spaces, The Conservation Foundation,
ODPM, London 2003 Washington DC 1980

Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Creating Web-based resources


sustainable communities: making it happen:
the northern way, ODPM, London 2004 Building for Life: www.buildingforlife.org
(This site includes extensive downloadable
Neal, Peter, ed., Urban villages and the resources based on volume
making of communities, SPON Press, housebuilding best practice workshops at
London & New York 2003 www.buildingforlife.org/resources.html)

Public Arts, Making places – working CABE case studies: www.cabe.org.uk/


with art in the public sector, Public Arts, casestudies
Wakefield 2001
English Partnerships: www.
Rogers, Richard (Lord Rogers of Riverside) englishpartnerships.co.uk
& Office of the Deputy Prime Minister,
Towards an urban renaissance, Joseph Rowntree Foundation: www.jrf.org.uk
ODPM, London 1999
Communities and Local Government
Royal Town Planning Institute, Working www.communities.gov.uk
together: a guide for planners and housing
providers, Thomas Telford Ltd/RTPI, Renewal.net (resource for neighbourhood
London 2001 renewal): www.renewal.net

Urban Design Group Urban design RUDI (Resource for Urban Design
guidance: urban design frameworks, Information): www.rudi.net
development briefs and masterplans,
Thomas Telford, London 2002 Urban Regeneration Companies website:
www.urcs-online.co.uk
Urban Design Skills Working Group, Report to
the minister for housing, planning and
regeneration, DTLR, CABE, London 2001
117

References,
contacts &
glossary
6.2 Contacts The Coalfields Regeneration Trust
Silkstone House
Architecture Centre Network (ACN) Pioneer Close
70 Cowcross Street Manvers Way
London EC1M 6EJ Wath Upon Dearne
T 020 7253 5199 Rotherham
www.architecturecentre.net S63 7JZ
Contact for details of regional T 0800 064 8560
architecture centres F 01709 765599
info@coalfields-regen.org.uk
British Urban Regeneration www.coalfields-regen.org.uk
Association (BURA)
63-66 Hatton Garden Commission for Architecture and the
London EC1N 8LE Built Environment (CABE)
T 0800 018 1260 or 020 7539 4030 1 Kemble Street
F 020 7539 9614 London
info@bura.org.uk WC2B 4AN
www.bura.org.uk T 020 7070 6700
F 020 7070 6777
Campaign to Protect Rural England enquiries@cabe.org.uk
(CPRE) www.cabe.org.uk
CPRE National Office
128 Southwark Street Communities and Local Government
London SE1 0SW (CLG)
T 020 7981 2800 Eland House
F 020 7981 2899 Bressenden Place
info@cpre.org.uk London SW1E 5DU
www.cpre.org.uk T 020 7944 4400
F 020 7944 4101
contactus@communities.gsi.gov.uk
www.communities.gov.uk

Department for Culture Media and


Sport (DCMS)
2-4 Cockspur Street
London SW1Y 5DH
T 020 7211 6000
enquiries@culture.gov.uk
www.culture.gov.uk
118
References,
contacts &
glossary
Department of the Environment, Fields in Trust (formerly the National
Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) Playing Fields Association)
Room 320, Nobel House 2d Woodstock Studios
17 Smith Square 36 Woodstock Grove
London SW1P 3JR London W12 8LE
T 08459 33 55 77 T 020 8735 3380
F 020 7238 6609 F 020 8735 3397
helpline@defra.gsi.gov.uk info@fieldsintrust.org
www.defra.gov.uk www.fieldsintrust.org

English Heritage Forestry Commission


1 Waterhouse Square Head office:
138-142 Holborn Silvan House, 231 Costorphine Road
London EC1N 2ST Edinburgh EH12 7AT
T 020 7973 3000 T 0131 334 0303
T 0870 333 1181 F 0131 334 3047
F 01793 414 926 enquiries@forestry.gsi.gov.uk
www.english-heritage.org.uk www.forestry.gov.uk
Contact for details of ten regional offices
The Glass-House Trust
English Partnerships 2a Kingsway Place
Corporate Headquarters: Sans Walk
110 Buckingham Palace Road London EC1R 0LS
London SW1W 9SA T 020 7490 4583
T 020 7881 1600 F 020 7253 3335
F 020 7730 9162 www.theglasshouse.org.uk
www.englishpartnerships.co.uk
Green Space (formerly the
English Partnerships: National Urban Parks Forum)
Consultancy Unit Caversham Court, Church Road
Central Business Exchange II Reading RG4 7AD
414-428 Midsummer Boulevard T 0118 946 9060
Central Milton Keynes MK9 2EA F 0118 946 9061
T 01908 692 692 info@green-space.org.uk
F 01908 691 333 www.green-space.org.uk

Environment Agency Groundwork UK


Contact for details of local offices Lockside
T 08708 506 506 5 Scotland Street
enquiries@environment-agency.gov.uk Birmingham B1 2RR 119
www.environment-agency.gov.uk T 0121 236 8565
F 0121 236 7356
info@groundwork.org.uk References,
www.groundwork.org.uk contacts &
glossary
Housing Corporation The Local Government Task Force
Corporate Office: T 020 7837 8286
Maple House, 149 Tottenham Court Road F 020 7813 3060
London WC1T 7BN info@lgtf.org.uk
T 020 7393 2000 www.lgtf.org.uk
F 020 7393 2111
enquiries@housingcorp.gsx.gov.uk Natural England (formerly the
www.housingcorp.gov.uk Countryside Agency)
Contact for details of local offices 1 East Parade
Sheffield S1 2ET
Institute for Sport, Parks and Leisure T 0114 241 8920
The Grotto House F 0114 241 8921
Lower Basildon enquiries@naturalengland.org.uk
Reading RG8 9NE www.naturalengland.org.uk
T 0845 603 8734
info@ispal.org.uk Neighbourhood Renewal Unit
www.ispal.org.uk Contact through regional Government
Offices
Institute of Public Policy Research T 020 7944 4400
(IPPR) www.neighbourhood.gov.uk
30–32 Southampton Street
Covent Garden Office of Government Commerce
London WC2E 7RA (OGC)
T 020 7470 6100 Rosebery Court
F 020 7470 6111 St Andrew’s Business Park
www.ippr.org.uk Norwich, Norfolk
NR7 0HS
The Landscape Institute T 0845 000 4999
33 Great Portland Street servicedesk@ogc.gsi.gov.uk
London W1W 8QG www.ogc.gov.uk
T 020 7299 4500
F 020 7299 4501 Open Spaces Society
mail@landscapeinstitute.org 25a Bell Street
www.landscapeinstitute.org Henley-on-Thames
Oxfordshire RG9 2BA
Learning Through Landscapes T 01491 573535
3rd Floor, Southside Offices F 01491 573051
The Law Courts hq@oss.org.uk
Winchester SO23 9DL www.oss.org.uk
120 T 01962 846258
schoolgrounds-uk@ltl.org.uk
www.ltl.org.uk
References,
contacts &
glossary
Prince’s Foundation Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI)
19–22 Charlotte Road 41 Botolph Lane
London EC2A 3SG London EC3R 8DL
T 020 7613 8500 T 020 7929 9494
F 020 7613 8599 F 020 7929 9490
enquiry@princes-foundation.org www.rtpi.org.uk
www.princes-foundation.org
Sustainable Development
Royal Institute of British Architects Commission
(RIBA) Defra, 1C, Nobel House
66 Portland Place 17 Smith Square
London W1B 1AD London SW1P 3JR
T 020 7580 5533 T 020 7238 4695
F 020 7255 1541 sdudiv@defra.gsi.gov.uk
info@inst.riba.org www.sustainable-development.gov.uk
cs@inst.riba.org.uk
www.architecture.com Town and Country Planning
Association (TCPA)
Royal Institute of Chartered 17 Carlton House Terrace
Surveyors (RICS) London SW1Y 5AS
12 Great George Street T 020 7930 8903
Parliament Square F 020 7930 3280
London SW1P 3AD tcpa@tcpa.org.uk
T 020 7222 7000 www.tcpa.org.uk
General Enquiries
T 0870 333 1600 Urban Design Alliance (UDAL)
contactrics@rics.org.uk 70 Cowcross Street
www.rics.org.uk London EC1M 6EJ
T 020 7251 5529
Royal Society for the encouragement F 020 7250 0872
of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce info@udal.org.uk
(RSA) www.udal.org.uk
8 John Adam Street
London WC2N 6EZ Urban Design Group
T 020 7930 5115 70 Cowcross Street
general@rsa.org.uk London EC1M 6DG
www.rsa.afa.org.uk T 020 7250 0892
F 020 7250 0872
admin@udg.org.uk
www.udg.org.uk 121

References,
contacts &
glossary
Urban Land Institute 6.3 Glossary
ULI Europe
29 Gloucester Place This glossary covers some terms that have not
London W1U 8HX been used in this guide but are relevant to
masterplanning. It has been put together
T 0207 487 9577
principally from the following sources:
F 0207 486 8652 Cowan, Robert, The dictionary of urbanism,
ulieurope@uli.org Streetwise Press, London 2004
www.europe.uli.org CABE, The councillor’s guide to urban design,
CABE, London 2003
The Wildlife Trusts Partnership CABE, Creating excellent buildings: a guide
The Kiln, Waterside for clients, CABE, London, 2003
Urban design group urban design guidance:
Mather Road urban design frameworks, development briefs
Newark and masterplans, Thomas Telford London, 2002
Nottinghamshire NG24 1WT www.renewal.net/JargonBuster.asp
T 0870 0367711
F 0870 0360101 Some concepts, such as those relating to
enquiry@wildlifetrusts.org the 2003 Planning Bill, may change once
www.wildlifetrusts.org the planning system is in operation. More
substantial definitions for most of these terms, and
information on new terms and changing uses, may
be found in Robert Cowan’s Dictionary or on the
dictionary’s website www.urbanwords.info

Agenda 21 action plan


A means by which local authorities set out and
promote sustainable development, based on
local consultation about the likely impact of
development on the social, economic and
environmental conditions of people in the future
and in other places.

Architecture and Built Environment Centre


An organisation, funded by CABE, that provides a
local or regional focus for a range of activities and
services relating to design and planning (such as
discussions, information, exhibitions, training,
collaboration and professional services).

area action plan


Under the Planning and Compulsory
Purchase Bill 2003 these will form part of the
122 development plan documents to provide a
planning framework for areas of change and areas
of conservation. They will deal with specific parts
of the local authority’s area and with specific
References,
contacts &
glossary
requirements such as the redevelopment of best value
an area of derelict land and buildings or From 1998, the term given to the process through
the enhancement of an area of historic which local authorities work for continuous
or architectural interest. improvement in the services they provide. The aim
is to ensure that the cost and quality of services
area appraisal are of a level acceptable to their electorate.
An assessment of an area’s land uses, built and Councils are also subject to independent best
natural environment, and social, economic and value audits by the Best Value Inspectorate, an
physical characteristics. offshoot of the Audit Commission.

area based regeneration brownfield land


An initiative in which a range of partners work Land that has been previously developed, as
together, coordinating and targeting their opposed to ‘greenfield’ (land that has not been
resources to improve the quality of life in areas developed). A brownfield site may well be green,
experiencing problems of economic, social and not brown, if its buildings have been demolished
environmental decline. and vegetation has taken over: many ‘brownfield’
sites are actually biological oases with far greater
area development framework (ADF) species diversity than local ‘greenfield’ sites.
Documents accompanying housing market
renewal prospectuses prepared by the relevant building line
Pathfinder body and setting out their vision and The line formed by the frontages of buildings
funded programme for achieving housing market along a street.
renewal in their area. The ADFs translate
the overall strategy into actions at the local business case or business plan
authority level. An expression of the underlying purpose of a
project within the mission, aims and objectives of
arm’s length management organisation an organisation. It should be based on detailed
(ALMO) current and projected financial information, related
An organisation that manages a council’s to anticipated costs and returns of a project. It can
former stock of council housing at arm’s length also include a rationale for the evaluation of non­
from the council. financial aspects of a project.

Assisted Areas business improvement district (BID)


Those areas where regional aid may be granted An area defined by local authorities jointly with
under EU law. Regional Selective Assistance local business, in which additional services and
(RSA) is the main form of such aid in Great Britain. improvements are funded by an additional levy on
It is a discretionary grant, awarded to secure the business rate. The details of each BID
employment opportunities and increase regional scheme, including the nature of the improvements
competitiveness and prosperity. and the size of the addition to the rates, will be
for the businesses affected to agree and vote
B upon in a referendum.

baseline, baseline indicator business planning zones (BPZ)


A measure of conditions at the outset, against See simplified planning zones (SPZ).
which subsequent progress can be measured -
often in the form of a baseline study.
123

References,
contacts &
glossary
C capital project
A project requiring expenditure outside the
CABE – Commission for Architecture and normal operational budget of an organisation
the Built Environment (the revenue budget). Special funds usually
CABE champions the creation of great buildings need to be identified, agreed and obtained.
and public spaces. It is a non-departmental public
body set up by the Government in 1999. Through character appraisal
public campaigns and support to professionals, Techniques (particularly as developed by
CABE encourages the development of well- English Heritage) for assessing the qualities
designed homes, streets, parks, offices, schools, of conservation areas.
hospitals and other public buildings.
character area
CABE Design Review An area designated for its distinct character,
A programme offering free advice to planning identified as such through urban design analysis,
authorities and others on the design of selected so that it can be protected or enhanced by
development projects in England. planning policy or intervention.

33 CABE Enabling characterisation 77


Section 3.2.3 & Box 19 A programme offering advice to clients who aspire 1 Defining and understanding the characteristics
to quality but would welcome technical assistance of a place; see also character appraisal.
on matters such as brief development, selection of 2 The product of such a process.
architects or choice of procurement route.
charette
CABE/English Heritage Urban Panel See design workshop.
Established in 2000 in order to offer guidance on
the evolution of English Heritage’s urban strategy City Challenge
and to advise on major schemes of urban A five-year programme, launched in 1991,
regeneration. The Panel’s membership is drawn under which local partnerships were able to
from practitioners experienced in the urban field bid competitively for government funding
and includes leading architects, historians, to regenerate a specific deprived area
engineers and planners and representatives using a comprehensive approach.
of CABE. The Panel works by making dedicated
visits, by invitation, to see regeneration commissioning brief
proposals at first hand. The brief prepared by the client for the
appointment of a consultant team setting out the
capacity building scope of the project, outputs and programme on
Development work that strengthens the ability of which a masterplanning team is able to prepare
individuals and community organisations to build tender.
the structures, systems, networks and skills
needed to take part effectively in managing community planning
processes of change. 1 The process by which a local authority and
other organisations come together to promote,
capital funding plan and provide for the well-being of the
Money spent on the purchase or improvement communities they serve.
of fixed assets such as buildings, roads 2 Planning by, for or with local community
and equipment. organisations.
124 3 A process of involving a wide range of local
people in planning a particular area in an event
held over a few days, usually with the help of
specialists and facilitators.
References,
contacts &
glossary
community strategy context (or site and area) appraisal
A strategy, which a local authority has a duty to See area appraisal.
prepare, setting out a long-term vision that has been
agreed with all the main local stakeholders, countryside design summary
including public, private and community sector A descriptive analysis explaining the essential
organisations, through a local strategic partnership. design relationship between the landscape,
Community strategies should promote the economic, settlement patterns and buildings. It sets out the
social and environmental well-being of their areas implications of the choices open to designers.
and contribute to the achievement of sustainable It can be adopted as SPG or used as the context
development. for individual communities to prepare village
design statements.
competitive interview 33 77
A process to select consultancy teams, or a member critical path Work sheet 1
of the team, on the basis of performance at an The shortest sequence of activities needed to
interview. Selection depends on track record, complete a project. A delay in any activity on the
credentials and proposed approach. critical path will delay the overall timetable. Typical
activities on the critical path prior to construction
compulsory purchase order (CPO) include raising funds, receiving planning approval
Mechanism for an acquiring authority to expropriate and producing information.
land and/or buildings in accordance with a power
conferred by an enactment. Section 226(1) of the D
Town and Country Planning Act 1990 provides one
such power by which a county, district or London design advisory panel
borough council, joint planning board or national park A group of professionals, often with specialist
authority can compulsorily acquire land for planning knowledge on design issues, which advise
purposes, including to facilitate development, local authorities or other organisations on the
re-development or improvement, subject to design merits of planning applications or
authorisation by the First Secretary of State (Deputy other design proposals and issues. See also
Prime Minister). ODPM has published guidance on CABE Design Review.
the use of the power at Appendix A to ODPM
Circular 02/2003 ‘Compulsory Purchase Orders’. design and build (D&B)
The Planning and Compulsory Purchase Bill A term for methods of procurement contracts in
2003 proposes a revision to this power which will which the building contractor is partly or entirely
enable the acquiring authority to justify compulsory responsible for design development and quality, as
acquisition on the basis that it will facilitate the well as for delivery of a building. Variants include:
carrying out of development, redevelopment or Design, Build, Own and Manage (DBO&M), which
improvement which they think will be of economic, is frequently the scope of a project, handled under
social or environmental benefit to their area. The Bill PFI, and Design, Build, Finance and Operate
also provides for a new loss payments scheme to (DBFO). D&B gives private financial partners
enhance compensation paid to owners of property responsibility to design, build and manage and/or
which is not their home, on the basis that this should operate the completed facility for many years,
encourage quicker compensation settlements. usually 20-30, after which management and
operation revert to the client.
conservation area
An area designated by a local authority under the
Town and Country Planning (Listed Building and
Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as possessing special 125
architectural or historical interest. The local authority
will seek to preserve or enhance the character and
appearance of such areas. References,
contacts &
glossary
design coding development/planning brief
A system whereby the key components of the A document providing guidance on how a specific
design of new developments are established up site of significant size or sensitivity should be
front and, through legal requirement, any developed in line with the relevant planning and
developers subsequently wanting to build in the design policies, including site capacities. It will
area are required to abide by the code. A design usually contain some indicative, but flexible, vision
code may be included as a part of an urban of future development form. Whereas a planning
design framework, a development brief or brief may provide the policy and land-use context
a masterplan when a degree of detail and and vision for the site, a development brief is likely
prescription is appropriate. to have been market-tested to ensure the scheme
is feasible and viable.
design guidance
A generic term for prescriptions contained in development capacity analysis/testing
masterplanning documents providing guidance A method of exploring, or testing, how much
on how development can be carried out in development a place is likely to accommodate.
accordance with the planning and design
policies and objectives of a local authority or development framework
other relevant organisation. A document that provides an overall development
strategy for an area, and which might include a
design guide number of individual masterplans and/or site
A document providing guidance on how development briefs.
development can be carried out in accordance
33 with the design policies of a local authority or development plan 77
Section 2.1.1 & Box 8 other organisation such as district and unitary 1 Generic term for the statutory plans prepared by
authorities. A design guide can be given weight by planning authorities setting out policies and
being subject to public consultation and by being proposals for land use and development in their
approved by a council as SPG. area. Decisions on planning applications should be
in accordance with the development plan taking
design quality indicators (DQIs) account of any other material considerations.
1 Qualitative measures for assessing the design Depending on the structure of local government,
quality of buildings. any given area is covered either by a UDP or by a
2 A specific method developed by the combination of structure plan and local plan.
Construction Industry Council, consisting of 2 Under the Planning and Compulsory
a non-technical questionnaire which can be Purchase Bill 2003, the existing development
filled in online (at www.dqi.org.uk) by any plan system will be replaced by a regional
stakeholder and addressing quality in terms spatial strategy (RSS) and local
of functionality, build quality and impact. development plan documents (DPD).
It can help to make assessment a participatory
and interactive process. development plan documents (DPD)
A suite of documents proposed under the
design statement Planning and Compulsory Purchase Bill
In the context of a planning application, a 2003 which will form part of the local
written statement to a local authority prepared development framework and overall
by an applicant setting out the design principles development plan under the new system. They
adopted in relation to a proposed design for a may comprise: a core strategy (which will set out
site and its wider context. This practice is the vision for the authority and the primary policies
126 encouraged in PPG1. for meeting that vision); site allocations
(identifying the sites which are proposed for
development to meet the authority’s vision and
core strategy); area action plans (providing a
References,
contacts &
glossary
planning framework for areas of change and enterprise zone
areas of conservation); proposals map (illustrating A zone in which development is encouraged by
on an ordnance survey map the policies in the exempting industrial and commercial property
development plan); general policies for the control from rates, simplifying planning procedures
of development (covering, amongst other things, through zoning, and providing 100 per cent tax
the protection of the natural, visual and residential allowances for capital spending, introduced in the
environment, highway safety, design etc); and a Local Government, Planning and Land Act 1980.
statement of community involvement. More than 30 zones were designated, each with a
10-year life. The last will expire in 2006.
development trust
A community-led enterprise organisation combining environmental impact assessment
community-led action with business expertise which A tool used for decision-making regarding
seeks to move beyond provision of welfare services developments, identifying the environmental,
by setting up enterprises (social businesses) which social and economic impacts of a proposed
encourage self-help and reduce dependency. As development and specifying mitigation measures
community based, not-for-profit organisations they to ameliorate those impacts. Required by law
work alongside the local voluntary sector and the under conditions set out The Town and Country
local authority, sharing the values of public service Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment)
and community benefit. (England and Wales) Regulations 1999.
The information gathered is presented in
E an Environmental Statement and should
accompany the planning application.
Economic and Social Research Council
(ESRC) European Objective 1 funding
A national body which supports and represents A programme to target EU structural funds on
research and skills in social sciences. Its strategic areas which have a per capita GDP less than 75%
objectives include focusing social sciences of the EU average for wealth creation. Merseyside,
research on national priorities, increasing the South Yorkshire, West Wales & the Valleys and
impact of research on policy and practice and Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly all qualify for
enhancing the capacity for highest quality in Objective 1 funding.
social science research.
European Objective 2 funding
English Cities Fund (ECF) A programme to target EU structural funds on
Government funding to support the regeneration of areas that have suffered through the decline of a
brownfield sites on the edges of town and city major industry. The overall aim is to support
centres. ECF is a partnership between English economic regeneration.
Partnerships, developer AMEC and investors
Legal & General. European Objective 3 funding
A programme to target EU structural funds
English Partnerships towards developing lifelong learning, supporting
The key delivery agency in the government’s new those at risk from exclusion in the workplace,
‘living communities’ agenda to regenerate our towns, promoting the role of women in the workforce
cities and rural areas, with responsibility for initiatives and promoting adaptability and entrepreneurship.
such as Millennium Communities, URCs and It applies in all areas of Great Britain that do not
the National Coalfields Programme. It was have Objective 1 status.
created in 1994 to support land reclamation,
property development and ‘the creation of strategic 127
development packages for employment, housing,
recreation and green space’, particularly by working
with local authorities. Its regional offices were References,
incorporated into the new RDAs in 1999. contacts &
glossary
European Regional Development Fund G
(ERDF)
A fund for regeneration initiatives. The Objective gap funding
2 Programme provides ERDF grant funding to Use of public investment in high-risk projects
support projects that encourage and facilitate to make up the difference between the extra
industrial regeneration and revival in areas where cost of developing difficult sites and possible
the decline of traditional industries has caused market values if the projects are unsuccessful.
serious economic and social problems, as well as It is the main vehicle by which the government
rural areas needing economic development. hopes to encourage developers to build on
brownfield sites.
European Social Fund (ESF)
Support from the EU for economic and social H
development. This includes activities that develop
employability and human resources in five key Housing Corporation
areas: active labour market policies; equal A non-departmental public body, created in
opportunities; improving training and education 1964 and sponsored by the Office of the
and promoting lifelong learning; adaptability and Deputy Prime Minister, whose role is to fund and
entrepreneurship; and improving the participation regulate housing associations in England. Other
of women in the labour market. bodies perform similar roles in Northern Ireland,
Scotland and Wales.
European Spatial Development Perspective
(ESDP) Housing Growth Areas
A non-statutory document produced by the Four areas identified in the Regional Planning
Informal Council of Ministers in 1999, setting out Guidance for the South East (RPG9, March
principles for the spatial development of the EU. 2001): Thames Gateway, Milton Keynes/South
Midlands, Ashford and London-Stansted-
EU structural funds Cambridge (M11 Corridor). The Government
EU funding which includes the ESF, the ERDF announced in the Sustainable Communities
and other funds supporting a wide range of Plan (February 2003) that these areas would be
economic development and social programmes the focus for significant, sustainable housing
and projects. development to meet the current and projected
housing shortage in the South East. In Creating
F sustainable communities: making it happen:
Thames Gateway and the Growth Areas (July
feasibility study 2003), the Deputy Prime Minister provided further
A review carried out objectively and early in a detail on proposals for sustainable growth in the
development process to check whether a set of wider South East over the next 15 years, and an
proposals is likely to be achieved on the basis of overview of Government action, with partners, to
the organisation’s objectives and whether the help deliver that growth.
chosen site is suitable for the intended building, as
well as reviewing the financial aspects of a Housing Market Renewal Pathfinders
development and its likely implications in terms of Partnerships bringing together local authorities and
planning, risk and environmental impact. other key local agencies to implement that part of
the Sustainable Communities Plan directed at
areas of low housing demand. The Market Renewal
Fund makes available £500 million to the nine
128 Pathfinders over three years from 2003:
Birmingham-Sandwell, East Lancashire, Hull & East
Riding of Yorkshire, Manchester-Salford,
Merseyside, North Staffordshire, Newcastle-
References,

Gateshead, Oldham-Rochdale and South Yorkshire.


contacts &
glossary
J local development schemes (LDS)
Strategic planning documentation proposed under
joint venture (JV) the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Bill
A development project involving a collaboration 2003 in which a local planning authority outlines
between two or more parties that share the risks the local development documents it intends
and rewards. The joint venture might be a limited to produce, following a survey of the local area.
liability company, a partnership or a partnership The LDS will set out: what development plan
arrangement with profit division. documents and supplementary planning
documents the LPA propose to prepare over a
L three-year period and the timetable for their
preparation; the policies which the authority wish
local design statement to save from their existing local plan or UDP
A design statement prepared in consultation until these are superseded by new development
with the public for potential approval by a local plan documents and the timetable for the
authority as SPG. Types include village design preparation of the statement of community
statements and placechecks. involvement.

local development documents (LDD) 33 local education authority (LEA) 77


Documents proposed under the Planning and Local authority departments which have Box 8
Compulsory Purchase Bill 2003 to replace responsibility for primary education provision in
area-wide local plans or UDPs. It is likely that their area and for promoting high standards of
they will include a core policy document and a education. An LEA must ensure that there are
proposals map together with action plans enough primary and secondary places with
concentrating on particular areas or topics (such adequate facilities to meet the needs of children
as housing), rather than one district-wide plan as living in the area.
at present. LDDs may take the form of
development plan documents or local investment finance trust (LIFT)
supplementary planning documents. A public private partnership between the local
healthcare trust and private sector partners with
local development framework (LDF) the purpose of improving the primary healthcare
As proposed in the Planning and Compulsory facilities within a defined geographic area for a
Purchase Bill 2003, a portfolio of local minimum of twenty years. The remit of the
development documents which will provide the partnership is to procure, maintain and refurbish
local planning authority’s policies for meeting the the primary care buildings within the designated
community’s economic, environmental and social geographic area.
aims for the future of their area where this affects
the development and use of land. local plan
The detailed, local element of what, with a
local development order (LDO) structure plan, constitutes the development
An instrument proposed under the Planning and plan for an area. Local plans are the means by
Compulsory Purchase Bill 2003 to allow a which local authorities set out policies and
local planning authority to expand permitted proposals for the development and use of land.
development rights for specific areas. An LDO A local plan comprises a written statement and
can encompass anything from all of the land proposals map. Under the Planning and
covered by a local planning authority to a specific Compulsory Purchase Bill 2003, local plans
site, and can grant permission for any physical will be superseded by local development
development or change of use specified in the frameworks. 129
order. Development permitted can be either
unconditional or subject to reasonable
conditions or limitations. References,
contacts &
glossary
M aim of bridging the gap between these
neighbourhoods and the rest of England. It
3 masterplan 7 supports intensive regeneration schemes that deal
Section 1.3.1 The term is used in this guide to describe a ‘spatial with problems such as poor educational standards,
masterplan’, which sets out proposals for buildings, unemployment, crime and poor standards of health.
spaces, movement strategy and land use in Approximately £2bn has so far been committed to
three dimensions and match these proposals the 39 partnerships.
to a delivery strategy.
New Opportunities Fund (NOF)
Millennium Communities A Lottery Distributor created in 1998 to award
A programme, run by English Partnerships, grants to education, health and environment
which aims to deliver around 5-6,000 dwellings projects throughout the UK. Many of the grant
over the course of 7-10 years on a range of programmes focus on those in society who are
selected sites according to a number of specific most disadvantaged.
objectives. These place an emphasis on design
quality, sustainability, specific environmental O
performance standards, innovative construction,
social inclusion and long-term economic viability. Office of Government Commerce (OGC)
The programme was initiated in 1997 with the A central government department, part of the
launch of the development competition for Treasury, which advises all government institutions
Greenwich Millennium Village. on best practice in procurement of goods and
services including construction projects.
N
Official Journal of the European Union
33 National Coalfields Programme (OJEU) 77
Work sheet 2 An initiative begun in 1996 and managed by Daily journal advertising the service requirements of
English Partnerships, the RDAs, the Coalfields all public procurement, including construction
Communities Campaign (CCC) and other key local projects. Publicly funded projects over a certain size
partners, on behalf of the Office of the Deputy must advertise here both for professional teams
Prime Minister. The aim is to address economic, and builders.
environmental and social issues in the former
coalfield communities of England, where huge job output specification
losses, contamination and dereliction followed the The form in which briefs for PFI projects are stated.
widespread pit closures of the 1980s and 1990s. It requests the provision of the service that the
building will provide.
Neighbourhood Renewal Fund (NRF)
Government grants initiated in 2000 to support P

local services in deprived areas in association with


local strategic partnerships. It provides public pathfinder

services and communities in the 88 poorest local See Housing Market Renewal Pathfinders.

authority districts with extra funds to tackle


deprivation. The original £900 million pot has been performance criterion

extended for a further three years and has been A means of defining the extent to which a
increased by a further £975 million. development must achieve a particular functional
requirement (such as maintaining privacy), without
New Deal for Communities (NDC) having to set out precise physical standards (which
130 A government programme announced in 1998 as specify more precisely how one aspect
part of the Government’s National Strategy for of a development is to be designed). Unlike
Neighbourhood Renewal to help deprived standards, performance criteria make no prior
neighbourhoods tackle social exclusion, with the assumptions about the means of achieving a
References,

balance in urban design.


contacts &
glossary
permitted development Planning Green Paper (2002) 3 7
Small scale, often domestic, development which The Government’s Green Paper, ‘Planning: Section 2.1.1 & Box 8
does not require formal planning permission Delivering a Fundamental Change’, with three
provided it complies with criteria set out in associated daughter documents covering major
Government legislation. infrastructure projects, planning obligations
(section 106 agreements) and compulsory
placecheck method purchase orders. Many of the provisions are
A tool (developed by the Urban Design Alliance) being taken forward in the Planning and
for assessing the qualities of a place, showing Compulsory Purchase Bill 2003.
what improvements are needed, and focusing
people on working together to achieve them. A planning obligation
Placecheck can cover a street (or part of one), a See section 106 agreement.
neighbourhood, a town centre, or a whole district
or city. The Placecheck User’s Guide can be planning policy guidance (PPGs)
downloaded from www.placecheck.com. Government national land use planning policies
for England. Prepared on general and specific
Planning and Compulsory Purchase aspects of planning policy that local authorities
Bill 2003 33 must take into account in formulating plans (see 77
Draft legislation aimed at making the planning structure plan, local plan, area action plan, Section 2.1.1 & Box 8
system ‘clearer, faster and more certain’. At a UDP) and in making planning decisions. PPGs
strategic/regional level, regional spatial are being replaced by planning policy
strategies will incorporate and replace regional statements.
planning guidance and replace structure
plans. At a local level, local plans and UDPs will planning policy statements (PPS)
be replaced by local development documents. A Guidance issued by Government, in place
number of changes are proposed to reduce delay of PPGs.
and speed up decision-making in the development
control process. In addition, local planning pre-qualification 3 7
authorities will have wider compulsory The process by which a contractor or Work sheet 1
purchase powers and compensation will be design team demonstrates competency in order
available to occupiers as well as owners. to be placed on a short list for possible selection
for a project. Conditions for suitability should
planning brief include assessment of competence as indicated
See development brief. by track record, size, staff qualifications and
financial record.
planning gain
Benefits for the community at large secured prior indicative notice (PIN) 3 7
by a local authority through a section 106 The notification that must be sent to the OJEU Work sheet 2
agreement. The official name for these benefits announcing that suppliers will be sought for
is now ‘planning obligations’. The term publicly-funded projects or services above
planning gain, though widely used, is frowned specific values.
on officially, being thought to be associated
with suspicions that developers use the system
to buy planning consents.

131

References,
contacts &
glossary
private finance initiative (PFI) future the method of allocating housing capital
A procurement route in which a private sector resources will be changed so that resources can
supplier takes over the design, construction and be directed to regionally identified priorities.
management of a building for use by the public Boards comprise senior officials from
sector. The typical operating period is 20-30 Government, the Housing Corporation’s
years. Outputs that the service is intended to regional offices, the proposed regional
provide must be clearly defined. At the end of assembly, the RDAs and English
the operating period, ownership of the building Partnerships.
reverts to the public sector.
regional planning bodies (RPB)
public private partnerships (PPP) Bodies which, as part of existing regional
Procurement methods that involve working in assemblies, prepare RPG. Under the proposals of
partnership with private finance. They usually the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Bill
involve versions of Design and Build, 2003, they would prepare and administer
including Prime Contracting. Prime contractor regional spatial strategies.
relationships are being used on Design,
Build, Finance and Operate (DBFO) rolling regional planning guidance (RPG)
programmes so that many smaller projects Planning guidance related to regional policy,
may be undertaken by a team led by the prepared by the regional planning bodies in
prime contractor, but not all are defined or partnership with regional stakeholders, and
let on day one. issued by the Government. Under the Planning
and Compulsory Purchase Bill 2003, this will
R be superseded by regional spatial strategies.

regeneration regional spatial strategies (RSS)


See urban regeneration. Regional planning policy and guidance which
regional planning bodies (RPB) will be
regional assembly required to prepare and monitor under the
Existing regional bodies, based on the same provisions of the Planning and Compulsory
regional boundaries as the RDAs, which would Purchase Bill 2003. RSS will relate not only to
operate between central and local government, planning matters but also other strategic land use
and would have a number of specific and development matters. Initially, the Secretary of
responsibilities relating to planning and State will be able to prescribe the relevant current
regeneration, such as the preparation of RPG as RSS.
regional spatial strategies.
registered social landlord (RSL)
regional development agency (RDA) A housing association, housing trust, housing
An agency created in England in 1999 cooperative or housing company that provides
(under the Regional Development Agencies social housing and is registered with the
Act 1998) to coordinate regional economic Housing Corporation.
development and regeneration, improve the
regions’ relative competitiveness and reduce Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)
regional imbalances. A professional organisation, with around 30,000
members, which exists to advance architecture
regional housing boards and promote excellence in the profession. It
Bodies established to strengthen the conducts lectures, exhibitions, events, works in
132 integration of the various strategic/planning schools, and community architecture schemes.
processes relating to the provision of affordable
housing and to co-ordinate the arrangements
for establishing regional housing priorities. In
References,
contacts &
glossary
Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors Under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase
(RICS) Bill 2003, it is proposed that an SPZ (referred to as
A global professional body that represents, BPZ in the Green Paper 2002) can be identified
regulates and promotes chartered surveyors and by a local planning authority, or designated by the
technical surveyors. It has 110,000 members and Secretary of State, in an area identified for such an
addresses all aspects of land, property, approach in the regional spatial strategy. These
construction and associated environmental issues. new-style SPZs are intended to provide strategic
flagship sites for high-quality low-impact
Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) development in a region, and to help to get inward
A membership organisation, consisting of fully investment in the right place, allow new innovative
qualified professional planners, planning officers development to set up quickly, and promote high-
of local councils, central government employees, tech clusters. It is intended that each region will
property developers, consultants, and teachers have only one or two SPZs.
and researchers in universities. The RTPI’s
mandate is to advance the science and art of single pot
town planning for the benefit of the public. The regeneration funds available for distribution
by the RDAs.
S
Single Regeneration Budget (SRB)
Section 106 agreements (section 75 A UK government funding programme launched in
in Scotland) 1994 by bringing together 20 existing regeneration
An agreement or instrument, with statutory basis and economic development programmes. SRB
under section 106 of the Town and Country funds were allocated on the basis of competitive
Planning Act 1990, entered into by a person with bids by local partnerships. In the years after 1994
an interest in a piece of land, either with the local there were six rounds of competition for the budget.
planning authority or unilaterally, normally before
the grant of planning permission. The agreement social exclusion
may restrict the development or use of the land in Poverty. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation defines
a specified way; require specific operations or social exclusion as ‘the process by which some
activities to be carried out in, on, under or over the forms of disadvantage, including unemployment,
land; require the land to be used in a specified poor skills and poverty, can interact to push people
way; or provide for a specific payment to the local out of mainstream society, and the effect that lack
authority or other public body to secure benefits to of income and lack of work have on people’s ability
the community. Government policy (Circular 1/97) to participate in society’.
requires that such planning obligations must be
necessary, relevant to planning, directly related to spatial masterplan 3 7
the proposed development, fairly and reasonably See masterplan Section 1.3.1
related in scale and kind to the proposed
development, and reasonable in all other respects. stakeholder
1 A person or organisation with an interest in or
sensitivity analysis concern for a particular place; one who affects or is
An examination of the effects on an affected by the processes of urban change.
appraisal of varying the projected values 2 A person or organisation with a specific financial
of important variables. or legal interest (owning property or running a
business, for example) in a particular site or area.
simplified planning zone (SPZ) or business This second meaning is less often used in relation
planning zone (BPZ) to urbanism and regeneration, but the existence of 133
A zone in which local planning authorities may two meanings makes stakeholder a somewhat
relax planning policies and negate the need for ambiguous term.
permission for certain types of development. References,
contacts &
glossary
statement of community involvement forthcoming legislation contained in the Planning

A statement setting out a consultation strategy for and Compulsory Purchase Bill 2003,

the local planning process, to be presented as part structure plans will be superseded by regional

of the development plan documents under spatial strategies.

the proposals of the Planning and Compulsory


Purchase Bill 2003. sub-regional framework or

sub-regional strategy

statement of development principles Part of regional spatial strategy under the

(SoDP) legislation proposed in the Planning and

Proposed under the Planning and Compulsory Compulsory Purchase Bill 2003, this

Purchase Bill 2003, a SoDP enables a addresses issues for parts of a region, or areas

developer to obtain an indication from a local that cut across regional boundaries, and enables

planning authority as to whether a proposed consideration of the sub-regional implications of

development would be acceptable in principle. The local development documents and other

local planning authority will issue a SoDP which major development proposals.

will set out whether the authority agrees with the


principle of all or part of the development and give supplementary planning documents (SPD)
reasons for doing so. The statement would be a Documents produced by the local planning
material consideration in the determination of authority as part of its local development
future applications. framework. These are not subject to
independent examination but the matters they
stock transfer cover must be directly related to a policy or
In housing terms, the process of transferring the policies in a development plan document.
ownership and management of a local authority’s Local planning authorities may use SPDs as
housing to a not-for-profit registered social additional guidance to cover a whole range of
landlord. Transfer cannot take place unless a issues which elaborate upon a development
majority of tenants vote in favour of the process in plan document but do not need to be subject to
an independently-run ballot and approval is independent examination.
received from the Secretary of State. It is often
preceeded by an ‘options appraisal’, in which a supplementary planning guidance (SPG)
local authority explores the most appropriate Additional advice provided by a local authority on
management, ownership and investment a particular topic, elucidating and exemplifying
arrangements for their housing stock in order to policies in a development plan. SPG includes
bring them up to minimum standards of decency. urban design frameworks, development
briefs, design guides and village design
3 strategic framework 7 statements. It must be consistent with the local
Section 2.2.1 An expression of the basis on which an area plan and should be prepared in consultation with
should be planned, giving the reasoning and the public, and formally approved by the council in
necessary background. It acts as the brief for the order to give SPG additional weight as a ‘material
masterplan and may be carried out as a separate consideration’ in the planning process.
project by a different team. It is not an official,
widely-understood and well-defined term, but sustainability appraisals (SA)
indicates a statement of aims and objectives for These would be mandatory under proposals in the
regeneration. Planning and Compulsory Purchase Bill
2003 for RSS and LDDs. The process, which is
structure plan integral to the preparation of RSS and LDDs,
134 Development plan prepared by county appraises the potential economic, environmental
authorities setting out strategic policies for an and social impacts of options for development to
area. It does not contain site specific proposals but help decisions to be made in accord with the
will identify broad areas for development. Under objectives of sustainable development. The
References,
contacts &
glossary
ODPM has commissioned guidance on SA of T
RSS and LDDs, which will be published in the
summer of 2004. tender process
The process of inviting organisations to submit a
Sustainable Communities Plan or proposal, with costs, to carry out a piece of work. It
Communities Plan covers the preliminary invitation to tender, formal
The long term programme of action launched by invitation to tender and the actual form of tender.
the Deputy Prime Minister on 5 February 2003
and documented in Sustainable communities: U
building for the future. It sets out the action being
taken to deliver thriving, inclusive communities unitary development plan (UDP)
across England in both urban and rural areas. The combined equivalent of a structure plan and
Amongst other things, it aims to: tackle housing local plan for unitary authorities. The development
supply issues in the wider south east (see plan for metropolitan authorities.
Housing Growth Areas); address low demand
and abandonment in parts of the North and the urban design action team (UDAT)
Midlands (see Housing Market Renewal); Part of a process of consultation, UDATs involve
improve the quality of our streets, parks and other collaboration between local people and an invited
public spaces (or ‘liveability’); improve the quality team of professionals (often over several days) to
of housing stock; and promote good design. explore design ideas for a particular area.

sustainable development urban design framework


1 ‘Development that meets the needs of the 1 A document describing and illustrating how planning
present without compromising the ability of future and design policies and principles should be
generations to meet their own needs’ (as defined implemented in an area where there is a need to
in Our common future by the World Commission control, guide and promote change. It includes a
on Environment and Development or Brundtland two-dimensional vision of future infrastructure
Commission, 1987). The report of the UN ‘Earth requirements and can specify development in phases
Summit’ in 1992 suggested that economic, social or cover an area only part of which is likely to be
and environmental considerations had to be developed in the near future. Urban design
integrated to address issues of poverty, equity, frameworks may be used to coordinate more detailed
quality of life, and global environmental protection. development briefs. They are sometimes referred
These principles were adopted and incorporated to as ‘urban design strategy’ and ‘planning and urban
into agenda 21, a comprehensive set of design framework’.
principles to assist governments and other 2 In looser terms, any set of principles that shapes the
institutions to implement sustainable physical form of urban development.
development policies and programmes in
the twenty first century. urban development corporation (UDC)
2 More generally, a benchmark for a range of A limited-life organisation (established under the Local
economic, social, political, and environmental Government, Planning and Land Act 1980) with a
initiatives that contribute to ‘quality of life’: the broad remit to secure the regeneration of a designated
Government has identified local, regional and geographical area over a limited periods of time,
national indicators against which progress focusing on economic and physical renewal. Within
towards sustainable development, in this these parameters UDCs enjoyed a comprehensive
sense, is monitored. range of powers and considerable autonomy, including
powers of compulsory purchase and some
development control functions. By April 1998 they had 135
completed their task: the final eight were wound up
and English Partnerships (in the form of the
Commission for New Towns) inherited the remaining References,
assets and liabilities in order to complete the process contacts &
of disengagement and monitoring. glossary
urban grain V
The pattern of the arrangement and size of
buildings and their plots in a settlement. An village design statement
area’s streets, blocks and pattern of junctions An advisory document, usually produced by a
defines its urban grain. village community, showing how development
can be carried out in harmony with the village
urban regeneration and its setting.
A term that became current in the 1980s (and
more widely after 1995) as a replacement for vision statement
‘urban renewal’, which had become associated A simple statement of main objectives, needed for
with wholesale clearance and comprehensive early consensus to be able to start the feasibility
redevelopment. It was used initially by the private and budget checks and as a constant reference
sector and was later applied to all kinds of positive point throughout the project.
urban change.
voluntary transfer
urban regeneration company (URC) See stock transfer.
The companies are separate private legal entities,
set up and funded by government. They work in
partnership with local agencies to co-ordinate
investment plans from both the public and private
sectors with the aim of regenerating their areas. 6.4 Photography
urban structure credits
The framework of routes and spaces that
connect locally and more widely, and the way
Illustrations and project photographs are
developments, routes and open spaces relate
credited within the document.
to one another.
All other images have been provided by
Urban Task Force
CABE with the exception of the
Established by the Government in 1998, and
following:
chaired by Lord Rogers, to identify causes of
urban decline in England and recommend
p3 Adam Gault Photography
practical solutions to bring people back into cities,
p65 EDAW
towns and urban neighbourhoods. Its report,
p71 & p104 Lovejoy London
Towards an urban renaissance (1999), has had
p72 Alan Baxter & Associates
an enormous influence in stressing the
p76 Proctor and Matthews Architects
importance of the shape of public spaces and
their impact on the cohesion of neighbourhoods. It
also emphasised the importance of design by
encouraging: the introduction of a national urban
design framework; adoption of an integrated
approach to design-led regeneration; single
strategies for public realm and open space;
increased urban densities; the creation of spatial
masterplans; and the establishment of local
architecture centres.
136
References,
contacts &
glossary
137

Work sheets

Work sheet 1
1 Competitive 1.2 Stage one: pre-
selection qualification
The purpose of pre-qualification is to
1.1 Achieving best select a short list of companies capable of
value (value for providing services or undertaking a task
to the required standards and which will
money, VFM) be requested to tender competitively for
the job. The selection criteria may be
Most public bodies or public funding solely quality (most usual for design
agencies require services and works to be and other consultants) or a mixture
procured by a competitive process. The of quality and price.
objective of the competition is to achieve
the ‘best value’ or ‘value for money’ option – If the project is subject to the EU
the option that represents the best fit to procurement directives, 3 notices must 7
the client’s requirements at the most be published in the Official Journal of Work sheet 2
advantageous price, a balance between the European Union (OJEU) and the
quality and cost. Designers and consultants tendering process will therefore be open.
are frequently selected in this way using If open tendering is not required, or where
a process involving presentation, interview the client wants to notify potential bidders
and design. of the project, suitable candidates can be
identified in a number of ways:
To achieve best value at all stages of a
project, a well-organised and properly • Clients can use their own knowledge
documented procedure is needed to select to prepare a ‘long list’ of candidates.
teams that will work with the client and with This may take considerable time and
each other effectively to create the strategic effort for a client with no previous
framework and masterplan. experience, who will need to consult
contacts and professional institutes
The processes described below are valid for and understand how to weigh up the
the selection of any team or team member, rival merits of candidates.
for instance masterplanning teams and any
other specialists that may be required, such
as architects, traffic engineers, open space
designers and project managers.
138

• Help can be given by the various Box 41: Typical pre-qualification


professional institutions and trade information
associations, such as RTPI, RIBA,
3 RICS, UDG. 7
Work sheet 1

Section 6.2 • previous work and commitment


• Specialist advisers can help create a list. to design quality
• size of firm
• Advertisements can be placed in • financial stability (based on
professional journals to attract suitably financial checks)
qualified people. • number of professionals
• CV of key personnel
• range of skills
1.2.1 The stage one brief • experience with multi-disciplinary teams
Clients should prepare a summary brief or • size and type of similar projects
the full commissioning brief to issue to undertaken
prospective bidders. A summary brief is • availability during the project period
likely to be more appropriate if going • references from previous clients
through OJEU procedures, particularly • sustainability policies
where there is significant background • equal opportunities policies
material to the commissioning brief. • quality assurance procedures
A summary brief should provide adequate
information about the budget, programme,
skills required and extent of work already
done by the client. 1.2.3 Numbers and timetable
The number of firms to consider and the
1.2.2 Pre-qualification submissions time they should have to submit material
Once a long list has been established or an varies according to the type and scale of the
OJEU notice issued, candidates will have project, the roles being selected, the
to submit information to establish that they selection process being used and whether
are qualified to undertake the task the project is subject to OJEU rules
33 required. This process, usually referred to (which specify minimum numbers). 77
Work sheet 2 as pre-qualification or expression of
interest, requires candidates to provide When firms are invited to make initial
details of their experience, skills, submissions for pre-qualification, between
financial stability and availability in order five and ten firms may be considered. For
to assess their basic competence to complex submissions, the number should be
undertake the work. kept as small as possible. When the process
involves open competition – including
through OJEU – the long list is created by
the responses received. Careful wording of
competition conditions and notices
advertising the project helps ensure that the
list only contains firms capable of providing a
suitable final project.
139

1.2.4 Establishing a shortlist 1.3 Stage two:


The long list should be reduced by rating
each firm against a weighted set of pre-
tenders from
qualification criteria agreed by the client shortlisted teams

Work sheet 1
team and any advisers. A small number of
firms which pass all the pre-qualification 1.3.1 Client briefing
conditions should be selected – for Once the shortlist has been established
OJEU restricted procedure a minimum of the full commission brief should be issued
five is required. 33 In other (if it was not issued during stage one). It is 77
circumstances, and depending on the important at this stage for competing Work sheet 2
amount of work that the bidders will be teams to have time to discuss the project
asked to do during the second stage of with the client, understand the
tendering, three or four teams should background, view relevant material and
be short-listed. visit the area. This can be accomplished
through a briefing day with the teams and
Many organisations have policies on the client, which should take place as early as
selection of consultants and may have a possible during stage two.
pre-selected panel of consultants to
draw on. You should check that the 1.3.2 Submission requirements
policies are appropriate for the project The commissioning brief should clearly set
and their application is communicated at out the submission requirements to ensure
the beginning of the process to ensure consistency and fairness. Generally
that the teams being considered comply. submission should be asked to address:
Some regular clients have lists of
organisations that have been ‘pre­ • confirmation of team, key personnel
qualified’ according to criteria developed and roles
over many projects. If this is the case
it is still important to check that the • approach to project management
firms on the list have the capability to
meet the brief. • programme

• methodology

• key issues to be addressed –


which may be included in the brief
as a series of questions
140

• design challenge – which may require Clients must pre-plan and structure
some diagrams explaining broad interviews to find out the necessary
urban design principles information and to get a ‘feel’ for the
way a relationship with the team
Work sheet 1

• fee bid might develop. It is useful to:

If firms are to be asked to prepare • devise standard questions


extensive material, or to absorb a lot of
information as part of the tendering • agree roles and responsibilities of the
process, clients should consider panel members
offering an honorarium.
• decide how decisions will be made.
1.3.3 Stage two evaluations Will it be by vote? Will there be a
A preliminary evaluation of submitted power of veto?
tenders should help establish issues for
clarification or exploration at interview. The client and advisers may also wish to
review previous projects or take up
For design teams and consultants, references from previous clients.
prices may be tendered as one of
the following:

• ‘lump sum’ (fixed price), sometimes


broken down into separate costs for
various stages

• a time-related charge.

Once the quality of the prospective


tenderers has been established, fee
bids should be evaluated. In some
instances clients may choose to have
sealed bids, which are not part of the
evaluation process. It is important that
clients place the appropriate emphasis
on the quality of the submission, not
simply the price. Also if the tenders
reveal that the client’s budget was
unrealistic, it will be sensible for the
client to adjust their expectations to
ensure the appropriate quality of output
from the masterplanning team.
2 Selection using • banning technical specifications liable
to discriminate against foreign bidders
EU procedures • application of objective criteria in
Official Journal of the procedures for tendering and
European Union (OJEU or OJ) awarding contracts.

The European Union (EU) regulations set Unless great care is taken in wording
down procedures with strict timetables, advertisements, the effect may be to
advertising requirements and selection prevent design driving selection. The 141
processes for contracts over a certain minimum period for selecting contractors
value for supplies, services or works is about six months. As this is several
awarded by public authorities, utility months longer than might otherwise be
companies or those funded publicly. The needed for an effective competitive
intention is to ensure fair treatment of all selection, organisations often use the
potential contractors in the EU and to OJEU process to choose teams with
promote transparency. which they then make framework

Work sheet 2
agreements lasting several years
The regulations apply to all types of design (generally not more than four). This
services and, as they are continually being promotes long-term partnering and
developed, it is important to check that you encourages continuous improvement as a
are using current guidance. 33 Regulation team, as well as allowing the same team to 77
23 of Public Works Contracts Regulations, be used on different projects without Further information can be
1991 and Regulation 25 of the Public repeating the full selection process. found in Successful
Services Contracts Regulation 1993 delivery toolkit, (OCG),
applies to projects receiving public funds The need for supply of goods and services CUP guidance Nº 51:
such as lottery funds distributed by public or for undertaking works is advertised in introduction to EU
or quasi-public bodies, for example the the Official Journal of the European Union procurement rules
Arts Council and Sport England. The only (OJEU). This journal covers all of Europe (www.ogc.gov.uk) and in
exception is where less than 50% of the (EU) and anyone can respond to the Public procurement,
funding comes from public sources. Even advertisements. OJEU is available online Alastair Blyth, (RIBA
then, the funders may make it a condition and in different languages. Official EU Enterprises 2003).
that EU procurement rules are followed. forms, which can be obtained from
www.simap.eu.int, must be used when
There are four relevant directives: services, submitting notices. Suppliers have a set
works, supplies and utilities, based on period in which to notify their interest. The
three main principles: evaluation of tenders is made against pre-
advertised criteria. The ‘Most Economically
• community-wide advertising of contracts Advantageous Tender’ criteria can be
so that firms in all member states have specified in the notice or in the contract
an opportunity to bid for them documents and stated in the notice as
‘specified in the invitation to tender’. If
nothing is specified, the award criteria 2.1 Financial thresholds
will be deemed to be lowest price.
After a contract is awarded, a notice
must be placed publicising the placing The information below cannot be treated
of the contract. as a substitute for proper legal advice.
The EU procurement rules apply to ‘major’
The rules described below can be difficult contracts defined by financial limits that
to interpret. For example, where a service are adjusted biennially. Consultant fees are
has been previously provided by someone normally deemed to be services (building
142 and the client wishes to retain them again works are classed as works). The current
Advice on preparing on the basis of the specialised knowledge limits (2003) are shown in the table below.
estimates of project costs, they now have, this may be acceptable. The highlighted band is that applicable to
to check whether the However it may be difficult to prove the projects with public funding but not from a
procurement falls within the special case. central government body. It is important to
EU rules, is available in check in up-to-date information if your
Achieving excellence Nº 7 organisation is a Schedule 1 body or an
whole life costing and cost alternative public sector organisation.
Work sheet 2

management. If in doubt seek legal advice or use the


33 lower levels. 77

3 Box 42: EU thresholds for public sector procurement (1 January 2002) 7


Schedule 1 of the Public
Supply Contracts
Regulations 1995 lists Supplies Services Works
central government bodies.
These thresholds also apply
to any successor bodies. Entities listed in £93,738 £93,738 £3,611,319
Source: www.ogc.gov.uk Schedule 1 (1137,000) (1137,000) (15,278,000)
(S.I. 1995/201)

Other public £144,371 £144,371 £3,611,319


sector contracting (1211,000) (1211,000) (15,278,000)
authorities

Indicative £513,166 £513,166 £3,611,319


notices (1750,000) (1750,000) (15,278,000)

Small lots £54,738 £54,738 £684,221


(1 80,000) (180,000) (11,000,000)
Services and works are treated 2.2 Three possible
differently. The limits for services apply
to each service required and each is procedures
contracted individually, with contracts
covered by the Services Regulations. 33 Under the EU directives, three selection 77
The works limits are applicable to the procedures apply to any type of services SI 1993/3228
aggregate of work to be undertaken in a or works, including masterplanning. In
single project. So even if the works are different countries the rules may be
to be awarded on a package basis, for interpreted differently – in Germany,
example under a construction for example, almost all architectural 143
management or management appointments are made through the
contracting arrangement, the aggregate negotiated route.
value of all the packages applies. 33 77
2.2.1 Open tender SI 1991/2680
A notice is published and anyone can
submit a tender. This can generate a
very large number of responses and

Work sheet 2
involve the client in an inordinate
amount of work in assessing them. For
tenderers, it carries a low likelihood of
success against an unknown number of
competitors and is a poor investment of
time and cost. As a result it is less likely
to bring responses from high-quality
firms with good reputations. The rules
specify how quickly clients must
respond to requests for information. In
practice, open tender is rarely used.

2.2.2 Negotiated tender


The contract is negotiated directly with
at least three tenderers if three suitable
ones exist and, if not, then with the
maximum number available. The rules
surrounding this process are very strict,
to prevent abuse. Most funding bodies
will not accept this process unless it is
fully justified and the burden of proof
that appropriate conditions apply lies
with the contracting authority. Some
of the grounds accepted for choosing
this route include:
• when for technical or artistic reasons, or to 2.3 Restricted tender
protect an exclusive right, only one
contractor is able to perform the contract procedure
• where a contract follows a competition This procedure is commonly used and
and the client has to award the contract allows quality to be considered at two
to the successful candidate, for example, points in the process.
commissioning works of art or the award
of an architectural commission following 2.3.1 Prior Indicative Notice (PIN)
144 a design competition. If the services or works are likely to be
above the EU procurement threshold,
A negotiated tender can also take place,
place a Prior Indicative Notice (PIN) in
without prior publication of a contract notice,
the OJEU as soon as possible. A single
if no or only inappropriate responses were
PIN notice can be issued for all the
received in response to an open or
services, but it should make clear
restricted procedure.
whether you intend to award the services
as an aggregate or as individual
Work sheet 2

2.2.3 Restricted tender contracts. The PIN is only compulsory


A restricted number of tenderers, usually where you want to take advantage
between five and 20, (a minimum of five) are of the timescale reduction for the
33 selected from a pool of those expressing return of tenders. 77
See below 2.3.4 interest and who meet any specified criteria.
It is generally a two-stage process – once If a construction management form of
the responses have been received no procurement is chosen, a PIN notice can
negotiations are permitted and tenders are be placed for the procurement of all the
evaluated on pre-determined award criteria packages, even if you intend to award
published in the contract notice or invitation them separately (construction
to tender. Clarification meetings are management is itself treated as a
permitted, although as the line between service). In order to take advantage of
negotiation and clarification is not clear the timescale reduction referred to
it is advisable to take external advice. above, the PIN notice must be placed not
more than 12 months and no later than
The following principles are important: 52 calendar days before the main notice
is to be placed. It will be published within
• If the nature of the procurement changes 12 days of receipt.
from that originally advertised and
specified, then a new exercise is needed The timescales set out here must be
observed if an accelerated restricted
33 • Pricing changes are vulnerable procedure is to be followed 77. However
See below 2.3.2 to challenge it is possible, and very usual, to publish
the PIN notice less than 52 days before
• All tenderers must be treated fairly the main notice.
and discrimination avoided.
2.3.2 Contract notice 2.3.4 The tender
Issue a main notice requesting The tender list must be selected only
expressions of interest. This notice from those who have expressed an
provides full information and informs interest and meet any pre-qualification
parties how to bid for the project. The criteria. The selection team may
date for return of the expressions of evaluate the responses to rank the
interest is 37 calendar days from the returns in order of merit. The tender list
day after the notice has been sent to should comprise a minimum of five
the OJEU. If you use the accelerated companies and the number must be
restricted procedure, (check the EU specified on the OJEU notice. The 145
website for details of when this may selection process for tenderers must be
apply), this period can be reduced to 15 transparent and the criteria for eligibility
days. This is only available for clients must be very clear. It is not possible to
who can provide a justifiable operational add during selection criteria that have
reason for requiring an accelerated not appeared in the notice so careful
procedure. The notice can ask thought must be given when they are
interested parties to provide enough defined. It is therefore particularly

Work sheet 2
information for pre-selection. Firms necessary to include design quality
can be rejected for the following and expertise requirements clearly
specific reasons: in the notice.

• selection/rejection factors such as The tender period must be a minimum


bankruptcy, professional misconduct, of 40 calendar days. This can be
registration on appropriate reduced to 26 days if a PIN has been
professional or trade registers published (subject to the 12 months/52
days rule) and can be shortened to 10
• inadequate economic and financial days for accelerated restricted
standing procedures. Select the contractor,
service provider or supplier by assessing
• inadequate technical knowledge which tender is the ‘most economically
and ability advantageous to the contracting
authority’. This is in line with the UK
2.3.3 Additional pre-selection government’s procurement policy to
questionnaire adopt ‘value for money’ procedures. It
Alternatively, a separate questionnaire does not necessarily mean the lowest
can be sent out to those expressing tender. Within 48 days of awarding the
interest, but this will usually prolong the contract, place a Contract Award Notice
pre-selection process as after the in the OJEU. Since 1 May 2002,
closing date you have to make sure that standard forms of notice have been
everyone has had time to complete and mandatory. These can be accessed on
return the questionnaires. www.simap.europa.eu
Time periods involved in the EU 2.4 Quality of design
requirements are illustrated below.
Failure to follow these procedures can and construction
and does lead to litigation. It may lead
to withdrawal of funding if one of the In relation to design and construction
conditions of funding is that the EU projects, to achieve quality when using the
procurement rules apply. EU procurement procedure, the client and
advisers must clearly state their design
2.3.5 Contract award notice quality requirements in the formal notices
146 This must be sent on completion of the announcing and describing the project and
tendering exercise and award of the its requirements.
contract. Tenderers, whether or not
they are successful, should be notified Potential design teams and contractors
and debriefed. If the process is need to be able to identify that the project
abandoned and no contract awarded is of interest and relevant to them and to
the abandonment must be notified and understand the client’s criteria for
contractors who submitted an offer selection. For example the ‘Category of
Work sheet 2

must be informed. Service’ in the OJEU Notice for Services


gives an opportunity to describe the
scope of the project.

It is also common for clients to advise firms


they wish to make a submission that a
notice has been published in the OJEU
and to advertise in the trade press such as
Building Design, the Architects’ Journal,
Contracts Journal, Regeneration and
Renewal and Planning announcing the
project and referring to the OJEU
notice. Once a notice is published,
the client is committed to the award
criteria set out in it.
2.5 The timetable
The timetable below is for selecting
contractors for works under the restricted
procedure. The items in bold are mandatory.

Box 43: Selection timescales

147
EU procedures Non EU procedures

1 PIN Notice Min 52 days, max 12 months Not required


before item 3

2 Identify suitable firms Not required 1 – 6 weeks

Work sheet 2
3 Main OJEU Notice (from 37 days (15 days Not required
publication to receipt of accelerated)
expressions of interest)

4 Pre-qualification / select 1 – 4 weeks 2 – 6 weeks


tender list

5 Obtain approval Up to 6 weeks Up to 6 weeks

6 Tender (from issue to return 26 days if PIN is published, 4 – 6 weeks


of invitations to tender) 10 days if accelerated

7 Evaluate tenders 2 – 6 weeks 2 – 12 weeks

8 Interview 2 days 2 days

9 Recommend / obtain approval Up to 6 weeks Up to 6 weeks


for appointment

10 Appoint 1 day 1 day

11 Post Award Notice Within 48 days of award Not required

The timetable for works contractors can


be slightly longer.
References & contacts

Office of Government Commerce


www.ogc.gov.uk
Successful Delivery Toolkit contains
Achieving excellence suite of
construction procurement guidance,
and OGC site links to Procurement
Policy and EU rules including guidance
148 notes and thresholds

Tenders Electronic Daily Database (TED)


www.ted.europa.eu
Free access to online version of the
Official Journal of the European Union
(OJEU), updated daily
Work sheet 2

UK Legislation
www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation
Free download of statutory instruments
and UK legislation

Address for all communications


and notices:
Office for Official Publications of the
European Union
2 Rue Mercier
L-2985 Luxembourg
Tel: 00 352 49 92 81
Fax: 00 352 49 00 03

Official EU forms on which to submit


OJEU notices can be found at:
www.simap.europa.eu

Information on electronic procurement,


codes and standard forms of notice can
also be obtained from this address.

Alternatively notices can be forwarded


electronically to:
mp-ojs@opoce.cec.eu.int
3 Masterplanning 3.2 The competition
/ developer process
competitions A competitive selection process to
appoint development partners is a major
Increasingly, private sector partners are undertaking for all concerned: the public
playing a critical role defining and agency, the bidders and their
delivering publicly promoted masterplans. consultants and the local community.
In these instances a competition process If mismanaged the process can lead
is often used to select the winning partner to disillusionment for the potential
to deliver development within the broad investors and local residents and
objectives established by the public sector. significant financial loss, with some
For instance a competition may be held to competitions costing bidders as much
appoint a consortium to develop a large as £250,000. It is therefore important
brownfield site or redevelop a housing for clients to be conscious of the time
estate. Under this approach, much of the and energy involved for both them and
work included in the design section of the bidders when using competitive
guide is undertaken when selecting a selection. The watch points below
developer and their design team. outline some principles that clients and
site owners should consider when
running competitions to select
3.1 Preliminary work developers for major masterplanning 149
Agencies disposing of land or inviting a projects or when appointing teams to
developer to come into partnership with prepare a masterplan.
them need to have done enough preparatory
work to be able to evaluate the offers being 3.2.1 When to have a developer or
made by bidders. It is therefore sensible to masterplanning competition
hold a competition only if a strategic Clients must first establish whether a
framework is in place 33. Such framework design competition (that includes the 77

Work sheet 3
often includes urban design analysis and submission of relatively detailed design Section 3.2
consideration of potential physical options, proposals) is appropriate for the project
as well as costing and commercial analysis. at its current stage. They should check
This enables the public agency to test issues that enough information is available to
that can then be included in a brief for a ensure the competition will help them
developer competition. Issues to consider develop their ideas. If many basic issues
may include establishing urban design are still unresolved, it may make sense
principles for development and reviewing to appoint an advisory consultancy
the need to support investments in social team through a quicker process,
and physical infrastructure, such as roads or eg. competitive interview, to work
schools. This will ensure that the client is through these issues 3. 7
negotiating from a position of knowledge Section 3.7 &
and strength. Worksheet 1
3.2.2 Watch points • Ensure that competitors are treated
Assuming a masterplan competition is equally and that the process is as
the right way forward, then whether the transparent as possible, adopting
client is appointing a development good practice when evaluating
partner to work alongside a public submissions. Design must be given
agency or a consultant team as the appropriate weighting in the
masterplanners, many of the tips for selection criteria. Details of the
success are the same: decision-making panel and any client
advisers should also be clear to
33 • Adopt a simple and clear selection competitors. 77
Work sheet 1 process, in order to avoid unnecessary
delay and costs to the client • Make good decisions by: engaging all
organisation and the bidders. the relevant decision-making bodies
A two stage competitive process as early as possible in the process;
3 can work well. 7 having the relevant technical support
Work sheet 1 to help prepare the brief and evaluate
• For the competitive process to be fair the submissions thoroughly; and
and effective the client must do their setting up the selection panel or jury,
homework, establish the constraints which should include a design expert.
and opportunities presented by a
site and communicate issues • Be clear about the ultimate intent of
effectively in the brief. the competition: is the aim to select
150 a winning masterplan, or a winning
• Test the aspirations in the brief with team? When appointing a
the relevant decision makers to masterplanner, clients should
ensure that there is political backing. generally be doing the latter: they are
selecting a team on the basis of the
• Avoid lengthy ‘wish lists’ that have not quality of thinking and expertise
been tested and be clear about the they will bring to the process. For
relative priority of different aspects of developer competitions it can be
Work sheet 3

the brief by indicating which are more complex, as certain aspects


essential, non-essential but high of the submissions can be more
priority or simply desirable, eg. a new fixed, for example the financial
primary school or park. offer tied to the masterplan. However,
generally speaking the client is
• Ensure that selection processes picking a team with which they
comply with European Regulations will have a partnership during the
3 and other procedures. 7 regeneration process.
Work sheet 2
• When setting submission Box 44: A competition as a
requirements the level of detail creative process
requested should reflect the selection
criteria and decision-making process.
Clients should be reasonable about A masterplanning or developer
the amount of work required, competition can be a very creative
particularly as this will often be done process for both the competition
at risk. It is useful to specify the plans teams and the client. Here are some
and illustrations required, including ideas to help:
the scales to be used, so that • Have a single point of contact within
submissions are comparable. the client organisation to manage the
Consider whether to give an competition
honorarium to bidders or designers – • Set up a technical panel to support the
this can be an important statement client contact during the process
of commitment from a client • Brief all the teams together at the
organisation. outset and provide all the technical
information at the beginning, with as
• Once the client has appointed a much as possible in digital format,
masterplanner or preferred developer, eg plans and photos
they must not lose sight of the • Identify a period of several weeks at
original objectives. If the winning the beginning of the competition
team, masterplanner or developer has during which technical questions can
to develop ideas that meet client be raised and provide everyone with 151
aspirations then it is necessary to the answers, irrespective of who
make sure these are communicated posed the question
to them and that the scheme is • Set up at least one further
subject to ongoing review. (individual) meeting with each team
to discuss their proposals and provide
technical input
• Evaluate the teams on the basis of

Work sheet 3
their submissions – don’t go back
asking for changes or more work, only
ask for points of clarification
• Think imaginatively about how to
involve the community in the
competition. They could be consulted
on the brief, have individual working
sessions with short-listed teams, be
invited to an exhibition of the final
submissions, asked to vote on the
preferred scheme and have a
representative on the jury.
4 Getting the masterplanning teams with a clear idea
of the scope of work and outputs on
brief right which they must prepare their proposal,
and help the commissioning body
ensure submissions address specific
A clear brief is crucial for an effective issues of concern and are broadly
and efficient working arrangement consistent in their form and content,
between the commissioning body thereby facilitating comparison and
(local authority, public agency, private assessment.
company or public/private sector
partnership) and the masterplanning The following is a checklist of points to
team. It sets the context for the consider when drafting the brief. Whilst
masterplan, identifying aims and they are not exhaustive and are generic
objectives as well as outputs and rather than project specific, they are
working arrangements. The key intended to provide a series of prompts
elements to can be summarised as: for those involved in preparing the brief.
It is important to note that much of the
• a clear and simple introduction background material may already exist
explaining the context for the work in the strategic framework and
therefore may not have to be repeated
• clearly stated aims and objectives in full in the brief, but should be referred
for the work to or appended. As far as possible, the
brief should aim to be a succinct and
• a description of the broad principles clear document.
of the approach to be adopted

• clearly specified outputs

• a statement on budget, timescale and


management.

Each brief will be specific to the project


and will need to reflect and respond to
local issues and circumstances, such as
organisational, financial or personnel
152 considerations. However, some general
principles relating to the preparation of
the brief will assist both the
commissioning body and tenderers.
It should provide prospective
Work sheet 4
Box 45: Things to think about

1. Introduction / context • Commissioning organisation(s) – explain who is


funding the project and the relationship between them.
This will provide tenderers with an understanding of
the agencies they will be working with and the
dynamics of the commissioning body.
• Policy background – identify and summarise national/
regional/local policy relevant to the commission and/
or funding programmes that relate
to the area of work, and how the project itself relates
to this policy framework. This will assist in clarifying
the context within which the masterplan is being
prepared and provide an understanding of local or
site specific issues.
• Reports/reference documents – identify and
summarise the main research papers, earlier studies
etc that provide essential reading for the project.
• Related studies – explain whether there are any other
commissions ongoing or to be let that relate to or
impact on the masterplan (e.g. property market
assessment, transport study) and identify how the
interaction between them will be managed (by the
commissioning body and tenderers).
• Wider stakeholder group – identify, where appropriate,
other groups that have a specific interest in the
project/area.
• Overview of objectives – explain the overall purpose of
the commission (e.g. provide guidance for the
development of an area, support funding bids).

This background information tends to dominate the


brief – it is familiar to the commissioning body and
relatively straightforward to prepare. However, it is
background, and can be summarised with details in 153
appendices so that attention is focused on those issues
where the tenderers need to show their particular
expertise and add value to the project.

Work sheet 4
Box 45: Things to think about (continued)

2. Aims & objectives • Specific aims and objectives for the commission –
explain the specific drivers for the preparation of the
masterplan and the principal outputs (e.g. identify
development opportunities, promote development
interest, and produce a spatial masterplan to
address specific issues).

Whilst a multi-headed commissioning body can result


in competing aspirations and objectives, identifying
the key aims and objectives also provides the
opportunity to establish common ground. In drafting
the brief, the process of setting down the aims and
objectives of the masterplan study will help clarify
thinking on the purpose of the commission and
identify priorities that need to be addressed. As a
consequence it will also assist in refining the scope
of work and budgeting for the commission. Too many
aims and objectives, or ones that are too vague, can
detract from the main focus of the masterplan and
result in issues being addressed in a limited manner
or the overall impact of the masterplan being diluted.

3.Methodology • Overall approach – identify the main stages/elements


of the commission to ensure the key areas of work are
covered whilst allowing flexibility for tenderers to show
innovation and ideas.
• Key elements/stages – in more detail, describe the
main tasks and expected outputs from each stage.
As appropriate, identify the main skills that are
required for these tasks.
154 • Statement on consultation – identify the anticipated
scope of consultation seeking ideas from the
tenderers on how they would undertake, manage,
report and use the outputs from the process.
Work sheet 4
• Outputs – describe the interim and final outputs of
the work (e.g. issues/briefing papers, published
report, presentations).

The tenderers’ proposals for the main tasks identified in


the brief provides the main opportunity for them to
demonstrate innovation and added value. Whilst it is
clearly important that the overall methodology for
preparing the masterplan should be robust, being over-
prescriptive as to the detailed approach may stifle new
and innovative ideas. Tenderers should be encouraged
to explain the rationale for their proposed approach,
illustrating with examples from their work where and
how it has been used, and the outputs.

4. Reporting • Draft contents – identify the (anticipated) main


contents of the masterplan (e.g. context, area/topic­
based analysis, proposals, implementation strategy
and funding). As appropriate specify the need for
particular elements such as an executive summary
and diagrams.
• Specific outputs – identify any particular requirements
of the masterplan (e.g. formatting).
• Statement on copyright – specify who will have
copyright of the report/outputs.

A draft ‘contents list’ for the masterplan might be


discussed at an early meeting so that all parties are
clear about the overall form and content of the final
document whilst leaving flexible the individual elements
and detailed content. 155

Work sheet 4
Box 45: Things to think about (continued)

5. Budget, timetable • Overall budget – where possible identify the budget for
and management the work (e.g. fixed price, range or ‘up to’).
• Inclusions/exclusions from the budget – specify whether
the budget is inclusive or exclusive of expenses and/or VAT.
Identify whether the commissioning body will be meeting
any of the costs (e.g. consultation, printing).
• Statement on costs – specify how costs should be
expressed in the tender (e.g. time inputs by individual,
by task and day rate).
• Programme – specify start and completion dates and
any critical dates during the course of the commission.
• Lead officer – identify named contact person to receive
bids and act as project director. Tenderers should also
nominate a project director and project manager and
identify how they propose to manage the project overall and
on a day-to-day basis.
• Steering group – explain whether a formal Steering
Group will be set up for the project, who will be on it
and how often it will meet.

It is important that the day-to-day management of the


masterplanning process is led by an appropriately
experienced person who is able to dedicate the time required
to liaise with the appointed team and the commissioning
body. The importance of this role cannot be under-estimated.
They need to have the necessary skills, time and
authority to take responsibility for leading on the
project. Team management skills will also be important.
On certain projects – due to scale or complexity, or the
skills or capacity within the commissioning body – it
may be appropriate to appoint a dedicated project
manager for the commissioning the masterplan.
156
Work sheet 4
6. Tender process • Tender requirements – what information must be
provided by the tenderer (eg. understanding of the brief,
approach, staff, skills/experience, costs)?
• Selection criteria – explain how the tenders will be
assessed (e.g. relevant experience, understanding of
technical issues, and value for money).
• Appointment – explain whether appointment will be
by written submission only (for small commissions)
or, more likely, interview (identifying how many stages
will be involved).
• Submission costs – specify whether any submission
costs will be met by the commissioning body. Preparing
proposals can be an expensive process particularly
where tenderers are expected to present initial ideas.
For two stage tenders it may be appropriate for a
contributions/honoraria to be made available towards
submission costs to the short-listed teams.
• Closing date for tenders – specify timescales for
submission of expressions of interest and proposals
if a staged appointment process is to be used.
• Format for tenders – specify whether hard and/or
electronic copies and how many copies.
• Tender submission details – provide return address and
contact name, phone/fax number and e-mail.

In order to assist in the appraisal of submissions it is


useful to seek consistent format and content.

7. Invitation to tender • Depending on the budget for the masterplan it may


be necessary to advertise the study through the
OJEU procedure . 3 7
• Where the cost threshold has not been reached it may Work sheet 2
157
be appropriate to advertise in professional journals in
order to seek the widest possible interest in the study.
This will enable a wide range of responses but can
also lead to a large number of submissions. If this
approach is adopted a two-stage appointment
process (a short expression of interest to

Work sheet 4
Box 45: Things to think about (continued)

demonstrate competency and a detailed proposal


related to the specific requirements of the brief)
might be used to identify a shortlist of firms to submit
detailed tenders, thereby limiting the cost and time
expenditure by all parties on unproductive work.
• Alternatively a ‘long list’ of, say, 6-10 consultancies
with known skill and experience in masterplanning
might be approached to submit tenders. This may
exclude emerging or overseas practices although the
brief could specifically encourage the combination of
3 teams and specialisms. 7
Work sheet 1

3
8.Other considerations 7 • Similar projects - check to find out if similar work has
Work sheet 1
been done by the commissioning body and learn from
the experience of that project.
• Budget – is it appropriate to retain a contingency sum
to allow for refinements of the scope during the
masterplanning process?
• Programme – it is useful to draft a programme
to assess the practicality of the project timetable,
identifying provisional dates for key events
(eg steering group meetings, outputs, reporting).
This can be sent out with the brief.
• Sign-off – be clear about who in the commissioning
body needs to review/sign off the brief before it goes
out – and allow time for this.
• Review – get a colleague to review the brief for clarity.
• Appointment panel – who should be on the panel?
• Selection process – draft a checklist of points that
bids need to address (to inform the process rather
than a ‘score sheet’).
158
Work sheet 4
Successful masterplanning is the
key to creating great places. A clear,
considered masterplan developed
by professionals and local people
together can lead to the physical,
social and economic revival of places.
Creating successful masterplans sets
out advice based on the experience
of CABE’s enabling and design review
programmes. It is the definitive client’s
guide to masterplanning, covering all
stages of the process from project
inception and commissioning, through
to implementation.