For citation : Authoring : Beshevliev Boyan Beshevliev Boyan , Kaisheva Radmila Beshevliev Boyan , "Callatis / Pangalia", Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Black Sea URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=12385> Translation :

Summary :
Callatis was founded in the 6th century BC on the north-western shore of the Black Sea by the Greek colony of Heraclea Pontica. The city was well fortified and developed as a centre and port for the trade with both the hinterland and other Greek cities along the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean. In 72 BC, the city came under the Roman Empire. It was frequently raided by Goths, Avars, and Slavs. Eventually it declined, at the end of the 6th century, becoming a minor port for wheat trade.

Pangalia, Mangalia


Roman empire

1. Name Callatis was founded on the north-western shore of the Black Sea, on an isthmus between the sea and a lake. Powerful earthquakes have sent much of the ancient city’s eastern part beneath the waters. It is assumed that the city was originally called Acerbatis or Cerbatis. Known forms of the toponym are Kallatis and Callatis, as written in Greek and Latin manuscripts and stone carvings. From the late 14th century, in Italian portulans and documents referring to inshore navigation, the names Pangalia, Pankalia, Mangala and derivatives are attested, later coalescing into the current Romanian name of Mangalia. 2. Foundation - Helenistic period Callatis was founded as a colony of Herаklea Pontica, with the first mention of it relating to a revolt against the Thracian King Lysimachos in 313BC. After the revolt had failed, part of Callatis’ approximately 1000 inhabitants left the besieged city by sea to settle in Chersonesus near modern-day Sevastopol in the Crimea in what was the kingdom of Bosporus. The remaining citizens began trading and governing themselves jointly with the local populace. In 260BC Callatis and Histria waged an unsuccessful war on Byzantium for economic dominance over the neighbouring city of Tomis (Constanţa). From the latter half of the 4th century BC Callatis made significant social, economic and cultural advances which endured for the rest of the Hellenic period. As the many amphoras, ceramics and coins imply, the city traded with its hinterland and also by sea with, inter alia, Heraclea Pontica, Sinope, Athens, Rhodes, and Thassos. The minting of bronze, silver and gold coinage began in the late 4th century BC, continuing until the middle of the 1st century AD. Coins bore Greek inscriptions and the image of thе city’s patron god Heracles, as well as those of Dionysus, Apollo, Demeter, Cybele and other deities. 3. Roman period and Middle Ages In 72 BC Callatis fell to the legions of Marcus Lucullus but did not succumb until 29-28 BC, when it was included into the Roman Empire despite an earlier pact and alliance as witnessed by a stone inscription. For a short time in the middle of the 1st century BC, the city fell to the Getae’s King Byrebistas. As the Goths sacked the city, coins minted there depicted Roman emperors up to Philip the Arab (244-249). From this juncture Callatis entered a decline, and the share of its Greek population began to fall. Though the city was the seat of a bishop by the late 6th century, Avar and Slav migrations and raids had brought about the demise of its ancient civilisation. Callatis was gradually deserted and reduced to an insignificant harbour. Between the late 13th and 15th centuries, the town was an

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material evidence and inscriptions (many of which are kept in the local museum). Contemporary documents such as portulans. the city’s history has still to be completely clarified.". In 1959. Premier symposium international – Sozopol 1979. 13th-15th c. "L’apport du témoignage épigraphique a l’histoire Médiévale de la Thrace". basilicas began to be erected after the Byzantine model. friezes. "Byzantium and the Black Sea. to the east.. as were other Pontic colonies. The second wall was built partly upon the first during the Roman period in the late 2nd century and had three gates and four square towers.aspx?id=12385> Translation : intermediate station for mainly Genovese wheat trade. (ed. 43-72 Khristchev Kh.E. suggesting the existence of a water supply system in the city. Black Sea URL: <http://www. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World.).): Le cas des villes antiques". and yet others were cremated. a Scythian burial yielded part of a papyrus inscribed in Greek. A. Several necropolises were located outside the city walls and served for interring Greeks. Études balkaniques.ehw.. by a council of citizens (boule) and a council of magistrates. "Le renouveau urbain en Bulgarie sous la domination Byzantine (fin Xe-fin XIIe s. The town had fortification walls.. 445-454 Balard M. 2004. the first of which was erected by the middle of the 4th century BC. "Callatis / Pangalia". Fol. "Salt Production in Ancient Anhialo – Geological evidence".. Despite the archaeological findings. Sofia 1982. which remains the only one of its type in this part of Europe. 5. 4. 201-206 Koledarov P.N. others in timber sarcophagi or simply interred. Daily life Ancient Callatis was governed. Byzantinobulgarica. Kaisheva Radmila Beshevliev Boyan . "Les Génois et les régions bulgares au XIVe s. Études historiques. After the adoption of Christianity. Some were buried in stone tombs. Bulgaria Pontica Medii Aevi 2.". Studia Slavico-byzantina et mediaevalia europensia 8.. The ancient city was bisected by its main street. 1981. capitals and stone foundations excavated within the town wall as well as outside of it.IΔΡΥΜA ΜΕΙΖΟΝΟΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΥ For citation : Authoring : Beshevliev Boyan Beshevliev Boyan . including artefacts. This is evident from the many marble columns.gr/l. Romans and local people. 13th-15th c. Clay pipes have been found too.. 189-213 Todorova E.. around the 3rd century.. inshore navigation manuals. 2. Bibliography : Asdracha C.) listed on nautical charts". Le pouvoir central et les villes en Europe de Created on 24/10/2010 Page 2/4 . Georgiev V. along which large public and private buildings were erected.: Trade and the Native Populations of the Black Sea Area". 164-201 Milanova A. 1981. Acta Thracia Pontica I. "One of the Black Sea Routes. "West Black sea coast ports in the late middle ages (14th-16th c. registers and contracts mention the name Pangalia which has subsequently altered to today’s Romanian Mangalia. 1981. The ruins of the well-built harbour are today submerged under the sea. Sofia 1988. 253-254 Laiou A. "Medieval Genoese nautical cartography on the west Black Sea coast". 1970. Excavations have uncovered diverse objects which accompanied the dead and which testify to the ethnic mix of the population.. Byzantinobulgarica. Along the wall ran an earth mound and a moat. 118-131 Todorova E. 7.. Tchotchov S.

. "Die italienische und osmanische Seekartographie des Westküste des Schwarzen Meeres bis 18 Jh". Byzantinobulgarica.. "Първото българско царство и морето"... Thessaloniki 2003 Pippidi D. 275-304 Bitoleanu I. "În jurul papilor de la Derveni şí Callatis". 42. Studii Clasice. 666-689 Canarache V. "Callatis / Pangalia". 120-128 Коледаров П. Byzantinobulgarica. Roman Cities in Bulgaria. 1971. "Ранновизантийски укрепления по Западния бряг на Черно море V-VІІ век". "Izvoare cartografice medievale despre teritoriul românesc".IΔΡΥΜA ΜΕΙΖΟΝΟΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΥ For citation : Authoring : Beshevliev Boyan Beshevliev Boyan . "La domination byzantine sur le littoral oriental du Pont Euxin (milieu du VIIe-VIIIe siècles)".. "Archaeological discoveries in the greek cemetery of Callatis (IVth-IIIrd centuries before our era)". 35. Bucureşti 1978 Preda C. 120128 Martin-Hisard Β. 33: 4.. 1989 Рашев Р. Средновековна България и морето. III Callatis et territorium. Политическа география на средновековната българска държава. Ancient Greek Colonies in the Black Sea. Constanţa 1986 Cosma V. Im Spiegel der veränderten Bedeutung von “Thrakien” und der Namen der Provinzen der Thrakischen Diözese". Acta Musei Napocensis... 68-72 Popescu-Spineni M. 203-220 Pistarino G. 1967. Kaisheva Radmila Beshevliev Boyan . Dacia. Добруджа 2. Sofia 1988. "Portul antic Callatis.aspx?id=12385> Translation : l’Est et du Sud-Est du XVe siècle aux débuts de la révolution industrielle: Les villes portuaires.. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World..ehw.. Bucarest – Paris 1999 Avram A. 9. 10. 1-2. 1985. 157-180 Eskenasy V.K. Callaltis. Collected Studies. 1973..gr/l. 156-162 Velkov V... 141-156 Petropoulos E.. 47-56 Avram A. "Le fonti Genovesi per la storia del Mar Nero". Revista de istorie..M. 529- Created on 24/10/2010 Page 3/4 . София 1979. 1991. 31-38 Ditten H.. Black Sea URL: <http://www. Rădulescu A. 1980. 103-138 Beševliev B. 1981. "Prosperări arheologice submarine (Callatis)". Byzantinobulgarica. 7.V.. "Die Veränderungen auf dem Balkan in der Zeit vom 6. Cercetări de arheologie submarina". Istoria românilor dintre Dunăre şi Mare: Dobrogea. Bucureşti 1979 Scarlat C. Dacia. 7. România în izvoare geografice şi cartografice (Din antichitate până în pragul veacului nostru). Buletinul Comisiei Monumentelor Istorice. 5.. 7.. bis zum 10 Jh. Amsterdam 1980 Димитров М. Варна 1982.. "Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Territoriums von Kallatis in griechischer Zeit". 1981. 1981. Bulgaria Pontica Medii Aevi 2. Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris Graecae et Latinae. Sofia 1985. Grammenos D.

frieze (1.IΔΡΥΜA ΜΕΙΖΟΝΟΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΜΟΥ For citation : Authoring : Beshevliev Boyan Beshevliev Boyan . "Deux terres cuites grecques de Callatis". Black Sea URL: <http://www. The portulan is an achievement of the medieval navigation and could be considered as a result from the application of the compass in seafaring during the 12th C. 1 Recherches de Géographie historique.ehw. architecture). portolan.gr/l. It also depicts the ports and anchorages with their navigational peculiarities and the possible approaches to them. island. 43-77 Vulpe A.. promontory.dk/publications/books/bbs4-files/BSS4_04_Avram. Studia balcanica.html Istros http://www.pontos. Mitchkovska P.. Decorative horizontal band that sweeps parts of a vessel or the highest part of the walls in a room. Dacia. 2. while the corinthian capitals are composed of small corner volutes and a basket-shaped body decorated with rows of acanthus leaves. 25-42 Webliography : Deux terres cuites grecques de Callatis http://www.ro/Arheologie/dacia. "Callatis / Pangalia". Byzantinobulgarica.. 1970. Jh.aspx?id=12385> Translation : 540 Todorova E.. "La limite méridionale de la province romaine de Scythie". Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World. 7. 1981. in Ionic with spiral scrolls (volutes).. Sofia 1982 Vulpe A. 329-340 Angelov D. Kaisheva Radmila Beshevliev Boyan .).cimec.". The part of the entablature resting on the architrave and below the cornice. (2. The decoration of the capital characteristizes the ancient greek orders of architecture. bis zur Mitte des 15. In the Doric order the frieze is decorated with two alternative motives.pdf Glossary : capital The uppermost part of a column or pillar crowning the shaft and supporting the entablature. Bibliografia delle fonti e delle ricerche sui rapporti tra Genova e le regioni del Mar Nero durante il medioevo. painting) 1.digital/1938-5-6/imagepages/image194. Created on 24/10/2010 Page 4/4 . In Doric order the capitals are decorated with abacus and echinus. portulan (from latin word “portus”. 1938. port) a book with nautical instructions (today called “a pilot book”) which gives a description of the coastline and indicates the sailing directions which were to be followed in order to reach a given point of orientation (a port. while in the Ionic order the frieze is a decoratively carved band. 5-6. "Wichtigste Momente in der politischen Geschichte des Schwarzmeergebietes vom 4. estuary etc. namely the triglyph and metope.

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