Financial help given to Pakistan By the end of July 2010, Pakistan had appealed to international donors for help

in responding to the disaster. And by the end of August, the Relief Web Financial Tracking service indicated that worldwide donations for humanitarian assistance had come to $687 million, with a further $324 million promised in uncommitted pledges. Response by National governments National governments of 78 countries responded with monetary and other aids as fllows: y Turkey launched the biggest aid campaign in modern Turkish history; Turkey has donated US$ 5 million to Pakistan initially, in addition to 115 tonnes of humanitarian aid consisting of food packages, blankets, sleeping bags and beds delivered to Pakistan Red Crescent Society. By 18 August, Turkey has donated more than US$11 million and issued a rallying cry and launched a large-scale relief effort for flood-ravaged Pakistan. Turkey has also sent ever-largest humanitarian aid ship named "Defne" with 4,800 tons of aid materials. Turkey also sent a train carrying humanitarian aid for the flood stricken Pakistan, the train is loaded with humanitarian aid collected by Turkey' s Sabah (daily newspaper)-ATV (TV channel) Group and Turkish Red Crescent, the aid consists of 300 prefabricated houses, 2,000 food parcels, 930 sacks of flour, hygienic materials, dried food, diapers and potable water. Apart, from the state and its organizations, a number of Turkish businessmen also initiated aid campaigns for Pakistan; the Turkish business community in Belgium also donated an amount of 30,000. The Turkish government also announced building of a Turkish town in the flood stricken Pakistan. Turkey has donated a total of $11 million to Pakistan. Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan also visited parts of flood stricken Pakistan, Erdo an to witness aid efforts, including the completion of a village of 2,000 prefabricated houses built by the Turkish Red Crescent near Multan After the flood when the Turkish Prime Minister could not come to Pakistan due to his engagements he sent his wife Emine Erdo an to help the flood victims, she immediately came to Pakistan and personally gave the keys of the houses constructed by Turkish welfare organization to the flood affected, she soon after her visit to Pakistan, not only mobilised the international community by writing personal letters to the spouses of the other heads of states and governments but also donated her personal jewellery including her precious necklace, for the flood relief efforts. Prime Minister, Yousaf Raza Gilani conferred on Begum Emine Erdogan, Hilal-i-Pakistan the highest civilian medal of Pakistan for her efforts for the flood victims. In a moving act of affection and a deep desire to help, a nine-year old Turkish girl Merve Tekinay donated her one year s pocket money and her doll as a contribution to Pakistan s flood relief effort. The United States stated that it would provide 56,000 ready meals on 1 August and 2, twelve temporary bridges and two water-filtration-plants to help the flood-victims as part of a US$10 million aid-pledge. Commenting on the floods, the United States Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, stated, "The Pakistani people are friends and partners, and the United States is standing with them as the tragic human toll mounts from flooding in northwest Pakistan." Hillary Clinton personally donated $10 for flood-relief in an effort to encourage


the United States is providing $3 million to the World Health Organization to expand the capacity of Pakistan's Disease Early Warning System (DEWS) and to establish the first 15 treatment centres for water-borne illness. the United States pledged an additional $60 million to the U. taking the flood related aid from United States to US$ 55 million. no matter how small the amount. 27 August. described the international response as "absolutely pitiful" on August 16. Sindh and Balochistan. the wife of the founder and the first president of UAE. radio and television stations. It is also working with the humanitarian community to spread awareness through radio stations regarding safety precautions against water-borne diseases. US increased its assistance for flood-ravaged Pakistan to $ 71 million. blankets. Additionally. The Red Crescent also dispatched 70 tons of essential relief supplies. US announced another $20 million to provide relief for the affected.y y people to donate. UAE through Red Crescent also . On Friday. On 13 August. United Arab Emirates ordered for sending humanitarian assistance on emergency basis and sent a team of 42 troops of the UAE Armed Forces Relief Team along with fleet of Chinook helicopters which evacuated more than three thousand people and airlifted 359 tonnes of foodstuff. two CH-53E Super Stallion and a MH-53E Sea Dragon arrived in Pakistan to work with Pakistan military in flood-affected areas. Private donations coordinated via the Disasters Emergency Committee totalled more than £60 million (US $100 million) Interventions carried out or under way include the flying in of 400 metric tons of aid. the Deputy Prime Minister. The United Kingdom committed £134 million (US $210 million) to the relief and recovery effort. United States initially provided six US Army CH-47 Chinook helicopters from their duty in Afghanistan. and providing tents. further. On 10 August. bringing its total contribution to $150 million in a move designed to encourage other governments and private donors to boost their aid. shelter kits. The two helicopters are first of 19 helicopters that US Defence Secretary Robert Gates has urgently ordered for Pakistan in next few days. On 14 August. flood relief effort in Pakistan. "Awnakum" (Your Help). it provided two more CH-53E Super Stallion helicopters to assist Pakistan Army in their relief efforts. Former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has also acknowledged the slow international response and urged British public to donate generously. and to raise US public awareness about Pakistani relief needs. mobile phone messages. US increased its aid to US $84 million as USS Peleliu gets ready to dispatch more helicopters pledged earlier by US Defence Secretary. Senator John Kerry also visited Pakistan in order to survey the damage from the disaster. On 12 August. A telethon campaign named. by the Red Crescent Authority (RCA) raised 72 million AED ($21 million) through shopping centres. The UAE also pledged to donate $ 5 million for the flood relief operations in Pakistan. water containers and nutritional interventions. On 11 August. Her Highness Fatima bint Mubarak Al Ketbi. tents and other helping material. The UAE Force worked jointly with the Armed Force of Pakistan in the areas of Punjab. has personally donated AED 5 million towards the aid of floods victims in Pakistan. The UAE Force in Afghanistan distributed 30MT of relief materials and food to flooded areas of the country.N. Additionally Nick Clegg. In addition to this. in addition to bringing forward a £10 million bridge project to replace some of those washed away. On Thursday. the USS Kearsarge (LHD-3) and her Amphibious Ready Group will deploy to Pakistan to assist. 20 August.

1 million USD) worth of humanitarian supplies to Pakistan in four batches with $200 million USD more aid promised by Premier Wen Jiabao. coordinated and facilitated the relief operations and also visited mobile medical hospital and attended massive vaccination campaigns in the affected parts of the country. Saudi Arabia released a statement announcing the establishment of an air-bridge to ferry relief-supplies to Pakistan. Recently. China empathizes with Pakistan on the heavy casualties and property loss caused by the natural disasters. UAE will also build an 'Emirates village' in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa at the cost of US$8 million with 20. Saudi Arabia has allocated more than US $361.3 million had been handed over to National Disaster Management Authority NDMA Pakistan in cash. In the aftermath of floods." said Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu. As of August 30. Mobile military medical field hospitals were also set up by the UAE in parts of Punjab.48 million) to help the flood-victims. US $14. in what is the largest air bridge in support of flood victims in Pakistan. public health.000 children in Sindh. Within the first week of the flooding that started on 29 July. Which will total 1. Multan and Hyderabad.000 in cash to Pakistan. Official aid collection camps were set up in all major Saudi cities. The Chinese Red Cross has also given US $50.86 billion yuan (274 million USD). as women donated jewellery to fundraising camps.7 million donated by the Saudi Fund for Development. Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan also announced the vaccination of 750. The Chinese ambassador to Pakistan travelled to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and expressed his condolences to . UAE launched a $100 million project for assisting Pakistan's flood affected people. Saudi public response was also staggering. visited the flood affected areas of Pakistan and took 10 tons of relief materials with them. Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal and Princess Amerah Al topping the list of all donating countries: US $105.000 tents accommodating 140. encouraging Saudi citizens to follow their example. with focus on. 30 major air relief shipments were sent to land in Punjab. The People's Liberation Army donated another 10 million yuan to Pakistan.y y dispatched two 2 ships carrying basic necessities for the flood victims worth USD 10 million. and more than $107 million were collected in the first three days. "As Pakistan's neighbour and allweather friend. and US $242 million collected through Saudi Public Fund Relief. The Saudi ambassador Abdul Aziz bin Ibrahim al-Ghadeer completely dedicated himself to relief efforts and hardly visited his office in Islamabad because of his constant field presence in Lahore. Sindh. the project will include creating job opportunities in the flood-hit areas. USD 5. Sindh and Balochistan to provide medical aid. US$ 1. roads and bridges. It initially announced that it would provide emergency aid worth 10 million yuan (approx. Two 100-bed mobile hospitals were also donated by the Saudi Government to the flood victims. Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan.99 million for the relief operation.000 people. the Saudi royal family set an example when several princes donated $20 million on the first day.29 million donated by the Saudi Government. China has so far provided 320 million yuan (47. The UAE Ambassador to Pakistan Ali Saif Al-Awani also devoted himself and supervised. relief goods worth USD 40 million had been delivered and some USD 67 million worth of relief goods were in the pipeline. King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia ordered a massive kingdom-wide fundraising and aid collection campaign.

3 million) to the flood-affected Pakistani people. bread and medical supplies. saying it was sincere. timely and unconditional and that China would continue to offer Pakistan support and help for the reconstruction. In order to better supply relief to flood victims. Sindh Province. and the Pakistani minister visited Iran on 22 August 2010.000 tents and has sent 500 doctors and nurses to help with ongoing international relief operation. had also offered cash and material assistance to Pakistan. Iran allocated an additional US $100 million for Pakistan flood relief. A Chinese search and rescue team arrived in the southern Pakistani city of Thatta. In addition to this fund. consisting of more than 60 members. Iran started to send an additional 1.100 tonnes of relief goods to Pakistan on 5 September 2010 as part of its ongoing relief operation.000 flood victims. The Chinese rescue team. On 13 August. In addition to the Iranian government help AyatollahLotfollah Safi Golpaygani has announced that one third of collected Khums will be donated to Pakistan for humanitarian assistance.000 families. set up tents and field hospitals to provide medical services to flood victims. where heavy floods swept away hundreds of villages. Chinese ambassador in Pakistan Lui Jian while meeting with Pakistan Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani said that Chinese total contribution has reached 50 million dollars with another batch of $200 million dollars promised by Chinas premier Wen Jiabao on September 23 at the UN summit in NY.y those affected by the tragedy. 51% of all relief distributed by International Red Crescent in Pakistan had been donated . Iran has also donated 50. Iran is also setting up 15 relief and medical camps in every Pakistani province each capable of holding 1. Ahmadinejad would visit the flood hit areas of Pakistan. During the visit the Pakistani interior minister was invited to Tehran for discussing the flood situation among other matters. Iran committed US $10 million towards the flood relief. Iran has also offered to setup field hospitals and community centres for flood victims in Pakistan. On 12 September 2010. Imam Khomeini Relief Committee was directed to collect private donations from Iranians and donate it to Pakistani government. including Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Sichuan Province. US$ 10. China announced another emergency humanitarian aid worth 50 million yuan (US$7. floorings. the helicopters are also carrying flood relief aid. out of which 330 tonnes had already been delivered by the Iranian transport aircraft as of 24 August 2010.35 million) bringing the total official Chinese relief aid then to more than 70 million yuan (approx. Iranian president Dr. Iranian interior minister during a meeting with Pakistani interior minister informed the latter that Iran is the third largest donor nation in terms of delivered aid. In response to UN's appeal for help at New York. clothes. Iran's chamber of commerce also donated US $1 million to the flood affected. Iranian Red Crescent society has also been on the ground along with Pakistan Red Crescent Society as a part of its ongoing relief operation inside Pakistan to more than 100. canned food. On September 20 China has dispatched 4 of its military helicopters to aid in the search and rescue to Pakistan which is the first time China has ever dispatched military helicopters overseas to perform such duties. The Red Cross Society of China and some of China's local governments. Iranian interior minister also visited Pakistan as the head of a humanitarian mission assessing the needs of Pakistani people in order to facilitate the distribution of Iranian aid to Pakistan. Iran had committed over 400 tonnes of relief goods. These goods included tents. China announced another aid package of 200 million RMB on September 6. Iran has also assured Pakistan of its continued support and aid into future.

The fundraising campaign named 'Kuwait is with you' which began grandly at the Grand Mosque of Kuwait.000 workers here to get involved in relief work. Ireland An initial 200.000 was added on 9 August 2010. India.E. Dalal al Mudaf. the total given to the Haiti disaster. bringing the total at that stage to 2 million.000 was donated by the government of Ireland. and the employees of Agility worldwide have donated their one-day salary to Pakistan.5 million by 20 August. Kuwait donated US $5 million to victims of the severe floods in Pakistan. Nearly 400 Indian medical staff has been waiting for the Pakistan government's visa approval to help flood victims. 3 tons of medicines. Minister for Overseas Development Peter Power. . Then the total was 960. A Muslim for a Muslim is like a wall.000 families in Sindh. The Irish media were critical of the country's government for providing less than half the aid it donated to Haiti after the earthquake there. 1. offered condolences and $5 million in financial aid. An additional 550. Mr. The relief assistance which arrived at the Chaklala Air base by a charted cargo flight consisted of 15 tons of emergency supplies included 4. Agility Logistics of Kuwait. The Kuwaiti government lifted a ban on collecting donations. a senior company official quoted in a statement. The company has donated several air-conditioned containers and also distributed urgent food items and medicines to 5. the Iranian hajj pilgrims will donate money and the 103. said at the time that more aid would be forthcoming from Ireland and that the country had provided a "proportionally greater" amount than "most other European countries". Iran announced on Nov 08. 2010. Pakistan accepted the offer on 20 August. The Kuwait Investment Company started an internal company fundraiser for Pakistan. On 1 September 2010. 2010 that in addition to 5.000 worshippers donated generously for Pakistan. this exception was made on the order to collect aid for floods in Pakistan. 4000 blankets and 4000 Sarongs. The Government of Indonesia dispatched a cargo flight carrying humanitarian assistance of US$1milliion for the flood victims. On behalf of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia the donation of the relief goods was handed over by the Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia H. where close to 1. according to Kuwait Red Crescent Society (KRCS).19 million was added on 19 August. The Irish public had provided an additional sum of more than 2.y y y y by Iran.5 tons of ready to eat meals packets. and donation camps were set up in mosques and shopping malls across the country. a day after the meeting between Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers.000.300 tonnes of aid cargo shipped by Iran to Pakistan. mobilized its 1. Ishak Latuconsina to the State Minister for Information and Broadcasting Mr. a saying by Muhammad. the company has offered its entire commercial warehouses full of foodstuffs with cooling facilities and its entire fleet of trucks. India has also already supplied the first consignment of 25 truck-loads of potato to Pakistan. 5 tons of powdered milk for children. TD.000 slaughtered sheep of Iranian pilgrims to Pakistan. pulling one another. India raised the aid amount to US$25 million. Sumsam Ali Shah Bukhari at the Chaklala Air base on August 7. on 13 August.

7 million through World Food Programme or life-saving assistance to the affected. Ilham Aliyev ordered to send two Il-76 planes with a humanitarian assistance on board to Pakistan. citizen donations made to registered charities between August 2 and September 12.5 million in relief aid was announced by the Canadian government. tents. 2010. Also the staff of Azerbaijan embassy in Pakistan also transferred its two-day salary worth around $2. Argentina has sent drinkable water.000. medical supplies and foodstuffs.000 to Pakistan.040. The Canadian government announced on August 22 that it will match. Brazil donated US$ 0.2011. Bangladesh has pledged $2 million for relief and will also dispatch a medical team along with material assistance including tents.000 is expected to be donated to the ICRC for distribution of shelter-materials and water. The Czech military have sent 24 flights with humanitarian aid. later extended to October 3. as well as committing twoC17 Globemaster aircraft to deliver emergency supplies and to assist relief efforts and deploying a medical task force consisting of up to 180 personnel and more than 33 tonnes of equipment. $750. dollar-for-dollar. .y Canada announced that it would donate $2 million worth of emergency aid. Bahrain donated $6. Denmark has donated 63 million DKK (11M USD) in relief efforts and another 130 million DKK (22M USD) in further development aid.6 million Euros to Pakistan. and medicines. water purification tablets. One of the planes delivered 40 tonnes of humanitarian cargo to Pakistan. Cyprus has donated US$ 131. while the remainder goes to the WFP to provide much-needed food-assistance. Australia has announced that it will double its aid program to Pakistan to $66. Egypt donated medicine.9 million to Pakistan.062 to Pakistan. biscuits and packed dry food.21 The Azerbaijani embassy in Pakistan said the Azerbaijani president. On 14 August the Canadian government announced an additional $32 million Dollar in aid. life saving drugs and vaccines. hygiene kit.5 million in official development assistance in 2010 . Belgium donated 150. Austria donated 5. Botswana has donated US$ 103. Belarus donated blankets. canned meat. all worth around $200. an additional $7. On 14 September. blankets. oral saline. Azerbaijan gave US$2 million financial assistance to help the victims and eliminate the aftermath of the disaster.000 Euro for the victims. mineral waters. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Afghanistan finance minister Omar Zakhilwal handed a cheque worth $1 million (45 Million Afghanis) to Pakistani ambassador Mohammad Sadiq at the end of a press conference in Afghan capital Kabul. Algeria has donated US$ 100. sanitation and health-services.000 to relief fund. water.

By 18 August.33 million.364. In addition there have been private donations to charities in the scale of 24 million up to 18 August. The Muslim community in Germany has also donated generously for the victims of Pakistan floods. France donated 1. tanks. 200 shelters and anti-cholera medicines.000 through the UNHCR and 200. blankets.22 billion JPY) in total. On 13 August Germany increased its aid commitment by 10 million to now 25 million in direct help plus 43 million via contributions through international organizations with which it is associated.621 to the victims. Finland government donated 1. Japan is also expected to send a unit of six helicopters and some 300 SDF Troops Jordan A plane carrying food and medical supplies left for Pakistan on 15 August. Kosovo donated 150. In a press release. Hungary donated US$ 50. Lebanon sent a plane to Pakistan with humanitarian aid. Israel has offered aid to Pakistan.000. tarpaulins. jerry cans. Italy provided 1. water purifiers and containers. sanitation etc. Japan announced to extend the aid to 14. 600. Iceland contributed ISK 23 million (US $190. 1.000 to the Government of Pakistan's flood relief efforts.000) to emergency aid in areas impacted by the monsoon floods in Pakistan. The European Union released 10 million to help Pakistan's flood victims on 11 August.05 million Euros and 35 tonnes of emergency supplies. water. while additional assistance of up to US$3 million has been committed for the disaster aftermath. 400. kitchen sets. Japan provided US$ 0. Greece donated 100. in the form of the provision of emergency relief goods.23 million for emergency relief goods. On 12 August. Germany announced a $13 million aid package. Hong Kong has donated HK$ 3 million to World Vision for a relief project for flood victims in Pakistan. including a humanitarian aid flight carrying emergency supplies such as medicines.000. as part of emergency aid to flood-stricken country.000 typhoid and cholera vaccines. Malaysia has donated $1 million to help people in flood-hit Pakistan. as well as food.4 million USD (approx.000 in aid to Pakistan. Lithuania donated LTL 50.2 million for humanitarian assistance to the flood victims.000 was channelled through the World Health Organization. the EU had committed to spending 70 million (90 million dollars) on aid for victims of the floods. Luxembourg donated US$ 2. as well as 21.000. which was further increased to 2 million on 6 August.000 through Finn Church Aid. Germany initially committed 1 million for the victims. generators. but the officials said they have not received an answer from Pakistan on whether or not the aid should be forwarded. including nine doctors. water purification tablets.000 Euros. y y y y y y . It is carrying a 25-member medical team.y y y y y y y y y y y y y Estonia donated 64. Georgia has donated US$ 100.

Pakistan Emergency Response Fund (ERF).106.5 million and as part of its Ramadan campaign allocated QR1. Samoa donated US$20.2 million ($600.380.000 people with clean drinking water. Poland has donated US$ 196.123 The Oman Charitable Organisation (OCO) send 2. Dates. tents. The Health Ministry will also send will be in the 15 member special medical team to Pakistan.000 for the victims.6 million euros. Nigeria also assisted Pakistan by donating US$ 1 million.106 to Pakistan. Mauritius has donated US$ 300. totalling around QR 2.000). Nepal cabinet provided cash assistance of Rs 10 million for flood victims in Pakistan. QATAR Charity (QC) has started delivering food packs worth QR7 million ($2 million) in collaboration with the World Food Programme (WFP). Monaco has donated US$ 127. comprising foodstuffs. The people are collecting more money. Switzerland donated CHF 3 million to Pakistan. Russia has sent two Russian Il-76 cargo planes with emergency relief.5 million to its humanitarian mission. Slovakia donated US$170. relief supplies and tools. It also plans to airlift 80 tonnes of emergency relief items. New Zealand donated NZ$4 million towards relief efforts in Pakistan. Slovakia also donated power generators.000 Euros for victims of the catastrophic flooding in Pakistan on November the 5th. NOK 9 million were given to UN Central Emergency Response Fund. Netherlands donated 3. and NOK 21 million were allocated to UNICEF. Slovenia has donated US$ 13.000.592.065. The Netherlands provided an additional 5. Singapore donated 50 thousand US dollars. Malta donated US$ 13. and Pakistan Red Crescent Society Oman donated US$ 500. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y . 800 water filters and 10.000. 2010. water.117 Netherlands The population of the Netherlands has collected more than 17 million Euros for relief aid in Pakistan. Sri Lanka dispatched 18 metric tons of relief goods worth approx US$ 3 million to Pakistan on a Sri Lankan Air Force C-130.y y y y y y y The Maldives collected MVR 10 million (US $1 million) for Pakistan. Sweden will send eight water cleaning aggregates which together have a capacity to support 18. Norway facilitated relief operation by providing NOK 30 million.336MT of aid to Pakistan. All the Maldivian broadcasting channels held a 24-hour telethon to help Pakistan and got MVR 1 million. Qatar Red Crescent has appealed for QR 6. Palestine donated 3000 tons of humanitarian supplies to Pakistan.000 blankets. water pumps and tents.000. Morocco sent a plane carrying 12 tonnes of humanitarian aid. Spain has sent out two aircraft containing 15 tonnes of aid material for the victims.

general household items.000 to Save the Children. Intel donated $100. Turkmenistan sent about 40 tons of cargo. the company accepted donations through its BMO Bank of Montreal branches in Canada and its Harris branches in the United States. Coca Cola announced a donation of US $1 million. Canada s oldest bank. BP donated $1 million to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. donated $100. In addition. medical supplies. medicine. BMO Financial Group. medicines and many other necessary materials to help flood victims. donated £1 million (US $1. A corporate broadcast was sent to all employees to raise awareness about the disaster.000 in support of Red Cross relief and recovery efforts. Tunisia sent a plane with 13 tons of food products.000 dollars. Dell announced a $150. Google Foundation donated $250.000. JPMorgan donated $100. he corporate response y Karachi Electric Supply Corporation was involved in the flood relief operations. providing shelter. In addition. KESC also provided support to four camps in Karachi. Thailand donated $75. Vietnam donated 50. supplies delivered included tents.000 to American Red Cross for flood relief. blankets and clothes. Sajjawal.000 donation to the flood victims and matched any amount donated by Dell employees.600 people.000 for the flood relief efforts.5 million) to the DEC appeal. food. Sunda and Challian. In Karachi. including food and medicines. Syria announced that it would send 35 tonnes of foodstuffs. A corporate broadcast was sent to all employees to raise awareness about the disaster. Deloitte. electricity and purified water to approximately 30. medicine and shelter equipments as well as a medical team including all disciplines. Intel will match employee donations up to $2k per employee.000 dollars worth of humanitarian aid to Pakistan.000 people in Thatta. The company also waived fees for fund transfers and drafts to Pakistan through 17 September 2010. Uzbekistan has sent 300. Bank of America Corporation donated $50. KESC supplied free electricity to several districts. food. water purification plants free medical treatment to around 14. medical care.y y y y y y y y Sudan donated 10 tonnes of food.000. Yemen has donated relief materials including medicine and edible oil. y y y y y y y y y . a business advisory firm.

000 cash donation. . urgent food supplies to the flood victims in KPK province and software donations to various NGOs currently involved in relief activities.000 to the American Red Cross.y y North-western Mutual Foundation donated $100. Microsoft donated $700. deployment of disaster management software for the Govt of Punjab at no cost. .com The Guardian Daily Times http://fts.wikipedia.References y y y y y y y y y Dawn News The News bbc.

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