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Outline

 Introduction to Magnet
Electronic Measurement &  D’Arsonval Meter Movement in DC
Ammeter & Voltmeter
Instrumentations  Voltmeter/Ammeter Loading Effect
 Ohmmeters
 Multimeters
Direct-Current Meters  Galvanometer

By Dr. Yaseer A. Durrani


Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia

Magnetic Field Magnetic Field


 A permanent magnet has a magnetic field surrounding it
 Consists of lines of force that radiate from the north pole to the south
pole and back to the north pole through the magnetic material

Illustration of right hand rule


Basic magnetic circuit

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Magnet Applications Electromagnetic Devices
 Magnetic disk/tape read/write head
 Magneto-optical disk
 Transformer
 Solenoid
 Relay
 Speaker

Operation of a magnetic switch


Alarm System

Basic Solenoid

Read/Write on magnetic field Magneto Optical Disk


5 single-pole-double-throw relay Speakers 6

Magnet Application Introduction


 In 1820 Hans Oersted discovered DC measurements using
relationship between current & magnestism
 In 1881 Jacques d’Arsonval patented moving coil galvanometer
 Basic moving-coil system generally called d’Arsonval meter movement
or permanent magnet moving-coil (PMMC) meter movement
 Moving-coil mechanism is used for reduce friction
 PMMC deflection meter, sometimes called D`Arsonval meter

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basic d’Arsonval meter movement


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Operation of D’Arsonval Meter Movement Basic Analog DC Meter
 D'Arsonval meter movement is a current-sensing device commonly  Three forces in PMMC meter to influence the movement of pointer
used in DC ammeters, voltmeters & ohmmeters
• Deflection Force: A force generated by action between permanent
 When a current flows through meter, a magnetic torque causes meter magnet & current passing the coil (FD = 2⋅BINL)
coil to rotate, in fact, magnetic field produced by current opposes the
field of permanent magnet & causes rotation of core – B: Magnetic flux density (Tesla), NI: N-turn coil current (Amperes), L:
 Only in one direction magnitude of current indicates by scale position Length of coil that perpendicular to B (Meter)
of pointer – TD = FD⋅r (deflection torque)
 Amount of rotation is proportional to amount of current flows in coil & TD = (2⋅BINL)⋅r = BIN⋅(L⋅2r) = BIND
more current flows stronger is opposing field, larger deflection where r is radius, D is diameter of coil
 Meter requires low current (~50uA) for a full scale deflection, thus
consumes very low power (25-200 uW) & accuracy from 2-5% • Controlling Force: A force created by a spring against deflection force
– Damping force: A force used to smooth movement of pointer with
fast speed

• Formula of Controlling Force: TC = k⋅θ (controlling torque)


– Condition of the stable state:
– When TD=TC, then pointer stops movement. Hence, BIND = k⋅θ
When electromagnetic field interacts with permanent – Deflection angle θ is proportional to magnitude of current
magnetic field, forces are exerted on rotating coil, causing
to move clockwise and thus deflecting the pointer
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D’Arsonval Meter Movement used in DC Ammeter Multi-range DC Ammeter


 PMMC galvanometer constitutes the basic movement of DC ammeter  Multiple-Range Ammeter: Shunt & series modes
 Coil winding of a basic movement is small & light, so it can carry only – Shunt mode: A specified resistance shunted to PMMC meter for
very small currents every range
 A low value shunt resistor (Rsh) is used in DC ammeter to measure – Series mode: A series of resistance shunted to PMMC meter for all
large current ranges. This mode is also called universal shunt or Ayrton shunt
 To increase the range of current that can be measure with basic meter
movement. This is done by low resistance in parallel with meter
movement resistance Rm
 Low internal resistance
+ I  Maximum pointer deflection is produced by very
Ish Im
+ small current
Rsh
Rm  For large current, instrument must be modified
_ by connecting very low Rs
Low value D’Arsonval
Movement
_ resistance
Rm = Internal resistance of movement I sh R sh = I m Rm
Rsh = Shunt resistance
I sh = I − I m Multi-range Ammeter Multi-range Ammeter
Ish = Shunt current using Shunt Mode using Series Mode
Im = Full scale deflection current of movement I m Rm
I = Full scale current of ammeter + shunt R sh =
(i.e. total current) I − Im
Basic DC Ammeter
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DC Ammeter: Ayrton Shunt DC Ammeter: Ayrton Shunt
 An Ayrton shunt used with an ammeter consists of several series-  Aryton shunt eliminates the possibility of having
connected resistors all connected in parallel with PMMC instrument meter in circuit without a shunt
Rc
 Range change is effected by switch between resistor junctions  Reduce cost
 Advantage: It eliminates the possibility of meter movement being in  Position of switch +
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circuit without any shunt resistance Rm
– Ra parallel with series combination of Rb, Rc + 2 Rb _
& meter movement. Current through shunt is 1 D’Arsonv
more than current through meter movement, al Meter
RTotal = Ra + Rb + Rc Rm
thereby protecting meter movement &
Ra
reducing its sensitivity
– Ra &Rb in parallel with series combination of _
Rc & meter movement. Current through Aryton Shunt
meter is more than current through Rm
– Ra, Rb & Rc in parallel with meter. Maximum
RTotal=(Rc + Rb ) (Rm + Ra ) Ra = Rsh − (Rb − Rc ) current flows through meter movement & very
Rb = (Rb + Rc ) − Rc little through shunt. This will increase
sensitivity
I m (Rsh + Rm )
Rc =
I3
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D’Arsonval Meter Movement used in DC Voltmeter Multi-range Voltmeter


 Multiplier is used to increase range of meter & limit current  DC voltmeter can be converted into multi-range voltmeter by connecting
 To find Rs value, we need Sensitivity (S) of meter & it is found by number of resistors (multipliers) in series with meter movement
reciprocal of full-scale deflection current (Ifsd)
 Sensitivity is based on Ifsd should results whenever a certain amount of
resistance
Rs
is present in meter circuit for each voltage applied
+
Im
Multiplier 1 V = I m ( Rs + Rm )
Rm
S = V − I m Rm V
V I fsd Rs = = − Rm
Im Im
_
V
Rs = − Rm
Im = Full scale deflection current of movement (Ifsd) Im
Rm = Internal resistance of movement
Rs = Multiplier resistance
V = Full range voltage of instrument

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Examples Voltmeter Loading Effects
 When voltmeter measure voltage across component, voltage is lesser
whenever, voltmeter is connected
 Decrease maybe negligible or considerable depends upon sensitivity.
This effect is called Voltage Loading & resulting error is Loading Error
 Voltmeter loading can be reduced by using a high sensitivity voltmeter

DC Voltmeter Multi range Ammeter


Shunt Mode

Multi-range Voltmeter Multi range Ammeter


Series Mode
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Voltmeter Loading Effects Ammeter Loading Effects

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Ammeter Insertion Effect Ohmmeter
 Inserting Ammeter in a circuit always increases the resistance of circuit  An instrument to determine resistance is Ohmmeter
and, thus always reduces the current in circuit. The expected current:  It consists of batter, meter movement calibrated to read ohms and resistor
E  Ro is current-limiting resistance & adjustable for zeroing & for correcting aging
Ie = of battery
R1  Includes meter internal resister Rm
 Placing the meter in series with R1 causes the current to reduce to a  Rx is unknown resistance to be measured Simple Ohmmeter

value equal to:


E  Full-scale deflection in current, Im=V/RO
Im =  When Rx is connected across ohmmeter terminal, current is: I=V/(Ro+Rx)
R1 + R m  Deflection factor: D=I/Im=Ro/(Ro+Rx)
 If half-scale deflection occurs D=1/2, Rx=Ro
Im R1  I 
= Insertion _ Error = 1 − m  X 100  Accuracy of ohmmeter under following conditions:
Ie R1 + R m  Ie 
– Battery aging
– Accuracy of PMMC meter
– Measurement technique

Ohmmeter Scale

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Series Type Ohmmeter Shunt-Type Ohmmeter


 D’Arsonval meter movement with battery & resistor to construct Ohmmeter  Particularly suited to the measurement of low-value resistors
 Certain disadvantage : when the battery is old, the full-scale current drops and  When R x = ∞ the full-scale meter current will be I = E
the meter does not read "0" when A and B are shorted fsd
R1 + Rm
 The design can be approach by recognizing that, if introducing Rh reduces the
meter current to 1  The meter current for any value of Rx , expressed as a fraction of the
I
2
fsd full-scale current, is Rx
s=
Rx + R p
I fsd Rm Rh
R1 = Rh −  At half-scale reading of the meter R = R1 Rm
h
E R1 + Rm

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Multimeter Multimeter
 General purpose test instrument that
necessary circuitry to measure AC or DC
Voltage, current or resistance

 Sometimes it is called VOM (Volt-Ohm-


Milliammeter)

 It is useful for basic fault finding & field service


work or a which can measure to a very high
degree of accuracy

Simpson Model 260 multimeter DC voltmeter section of


Simpson Model 260 multimeter
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Calibration of DC instruments Galvanometer


 Calibration means to compare instrument against standard instrument  A device that responds to the application of an electrical current
to determine its accuracy
 Before Digital Multimeters, galvanometers such as moving coil meter,
were the main way of measuring electrical quantities
 A coil is suspended in a permanent magnet field & when a current is
passed through that coil it generates its own magnetic field. These
fields then react with each other & causing a mechanical force to exist
between them
 With aid of spring & pivots, coil rotates with respect to permanent
magnet & pointer attached to coil moves
Potentiometer method of Potentiometer method of
calibrating DC Ammeter calibrating DC Voltmeter

Early galvanometers often included lens &


mirror to shine a spot or vertical beam of light
onto a scale, to magnify the mirror movement
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Galvanometer Galvanometer Sensitivity
 It is PMMC instrument designed to be sensitive to extremely low current  Current Sensitivity
levels – Ratio of deflection of galvanometer to current producing this
 Simplest galvanometer is a very sensitive instrument with type of center- deflection d mm
SI =
zero scale  Voltage Sensitivity I µA
 Most sensitive moving-coil galvanometer use taut-band suspension, & – Ratio of galvanometer deflection to voltage producing this
controlling torque is generated by twist in suspension ribbon deflection d mm
SV =
 Megohm Sensitivity V mV
 With moving-coil weight reduced to lowest possible minimum for greatest
sensitivity, weight of pointer can create a problem. The solution is by – Number of megohms required in series with the (CDRX shunted)
galvanometer to produce one scale division deflection when 1 V is
mounting a small mirror on moving coil instead of a pointer
applied to circuit d mm
 Mirror reflects a beam of light on to a scale. This makes light-beam SR = = SI
 Ballistic sensitivity I µA
galvanometers sensitive to much lower current levels than pointer
– Ratio of maximum deflection, dm, of a galvanometer to the quantity
instruments Q of electric charge in a single pulse which produces this deflection
 Current/Voltage sensitivity galvanometer
d m mm
 Galvanometers are often employed to detect zero current or voltage in a SQ =
Q µC
circuit rather than to measure the actual level of current or voltage

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