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# Outline

 Introduction to Magnet
Electronic Measurement &  D’Arsonval Meter Movement in DC
Ammeter & Voltmeter
Instrumentations  Voltmeter/Ammeter Loading Effect
 Ohmmeters
 Multimeters
Direct-Current Meters  Galvanometer

## By Dr. Yaseer A. Durrani

Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia

## Magnetic Field Magnetic Field

 A permanent magnet has a magnetic field surrounding it
 Consists of lines of force that radiate from the north pole to the south
pole and back to the north pole through the magnetic material

## Illustration of right hand rule

Basic magnetic circuit

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Magnet Applications Electromagnetic Devices
 Magnetic disk/tape read/write head
 Magneto-optical disk
 Transformer
 Solenoid
 Relay
 Speaker

Alarm System

Basic Solenoid

## Read/Write on magnetic field Magneto Optical Disk

5 single-pole-double-throw relay Speakers 6

## Magnet Application Introduction

 In 1820 Hans Oersted discovered DC measurements using
relationship between current & magnestism
 In 1881 Jacques d’Arsonval patented moving coil galvanometer
 Basic moving-coil system generally called d’Arsonval meter movement
or permanent magnet moving-coil (PMMC) meter movement
 Moving-coil mechanism is used for reduce friction
 PMMC deflection meter, sometimes called D`Arsonval meter

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## basic d’Arsonval meter movement

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Operation of D’Arsonval Meter Movement Basic Analog DC Meter
 D'Arsonval meter movement is a current-sensing device commonly  Three forces in PMMC meter to influence the movement of pointer
used in DC ammeters, voltmeters & ohmmeters
• Deflection Force: A force generated by action between permanent
 When a current flows through meter, a magnetic torque causes meter magnet & current passing the coil (FD = 2⋅BINL)
coil to rotate, in fact, magnetic field produced by current opposes the
field of permanent magnet & causes rotation of core – B: Magnetic flux density (Tesla), NI: N-turn coil current (Amperes), L:
 Only in one direction magnitude of current indicates by scale position Length of coil that perpendicular to B (Meter)
of pointer – TD = FD⋅r (deflection torque)
 Amount of rotation is proportional to amount of current flows in coil & TD = (2⋅BINL)⋅r = BIN⋅(L⋅2r) = BIND
more current flows stronger is opposing field, larger deflection where r is radius, D is diameter of coil
 Meter requires low current (~50uA) for a full scale deflection, thus
consumes very low power (25-200 uW) & accuracy from 2-5% • Controlling Force: A force created by a spring against deflection force
– Damping force: A force used to smooth movement of pointer with
fast speed

## • Formula of Controlling Force: TC = k⋅θ (controlling torque)

– Condition of the stable state:
– When TD=TC, then pointer stops movement. Hence, BIND = k⋅θ
When electromagnetic field interacts with permanent – Deflection angle θ is proportional to magnitude of current
magnetic field, forces are exerted on rotating coil, causing
to move clockwise and thus deflecting the pointer
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## D’Arsonval Meter Movement used in DC Ammeter Multi-range DC Ammeter

 PMMC galvanometer constitutes the basic movement of DC ammeter  Multiple-Range Ammeter: Shunt & series modes
 Coil winding of a basic movement is small & light, so it can carry only – Shunt mode: A specified resistance shunted to PMMC meter for
very small currents every range
 A low value shunt resistor (Rsh) is used in DC ammeter to measure – Series mode: A series of resistance shunted to PMMC meter for all
large current ranges. This mode is also called universal shunt or Ayrton shunt
 To increase the range of current that can be measure with basic meter
movement. This is done by low resistance in parallel with meter
movement resistance Rm
 Low internal resistance
+ I  Maximum pointer deflection is produced by very
Ish Im
+ small current
Rsh
Rm  For large current, instrument must be modified
_ by connecting very low Rs
Low value D’Arsonval
Movement
_ resistance
Rm = Internal resistance of movement I sh R sh = I m Rm
Rsh = Shunt resistance
I sh = I − I m Multi-range Ammeter Multi-range Ammeter
Ish = Shunt current using Shunt Mode using Series Mode
Im = Full scale deflection current of movement I m Rm
I = Full scale current of ammeter + shunt R sh =
(i.e. total current) I − Im
Basic DC Ammeter
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DC Ammeter: Ayrton Shunt DC Ammeter: Ayrton Shunt
 An Ayrton shunt used with an ammeter consists of several series-  Aryton shunt eliminates the possibility of having
connected resistors all connected in parallel with PMMC instrument meter in circuit without a shunt
Rc
 Range change is effected by switch between resistor junctions  Reduce cost
 Advantage: It eliminates the possibility of meter movement being in  Position of switch +
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circuit without any shunt resistance Rm
– Ra parallel with series combination of Rb, Rc + 2 Rb _
& meter movement. Current through shunt is 1 D’Arsonv
more than current through meter movement, al Meter
RTotal = Ra + Rb + Rc Rm
thereby protecting meter movement &
Ra
reducing its sensitivity
– Ra &Rb in parallel with series combination of _
Rc & meter movement. Current through Aryton Shunt
meter is more than current through Rm
– Ra, Rb & Rc in parallel with meter. Maximum
RTotal=(Rc + Rb ) (Rm + Ra ) Ra = Rsh − (Rb − Rc ) current flows through meter movement & very
Rb = (Rb + Rc ) − Rc little through shunt. This will increase
sensitivity
I m (Rsh + Rm )
Rc =
I3
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## D’Arsonval Meter Movement used in DC Voltmeter Multi-range Voltmeter

 Multiplier is used to increase range of meter & limit current  DC voltmeter can be converted into multi-range voltmeter by connecting
 To find Rs value, we need Sensitivity (S) of meter & it is found by number of resistors (multipliers) in series with meter movement
reciprocal of full-scale deflection current (Ifsd)
 Sensitivity is based on Ifsd should results whenever a certain amount of
resistance
Rs
is present in meter circuit for each voltage applied
+
Im
Multiplier 1 V = I m ( Rs + Rm )
Rm
S = V − I m Rm V
V I fsd Rs = = − Rm
Im Im
_
V
Rs = − Rm
Im = Full scale deflection current of movement (Ifsd) Im
Rm = Internal resistance of movement
Rs = Multiplier resistance
V = Full range voltage of instrument

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Examples Voltmeter Loading Effects
 When voltmeter measure voltage across component, voltage is lesser
whenever, voltmeter is connected
 Decrease maybe negligible or considerable depends upon sensitivity.
This effect is called Voltage Loading & resulting error is Loading Error
 Voltmeter loading can be reduced by using a high sensitivity voltmeter

Shunt Mode

Series Mode
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## Voltmeter Loading Effects Ammeter Loading Effects

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Ammeter Insertion Effect Ohmmeter
 Inserting Ammeter in a circuit always increases the resistance of circuit  An instrument to determine resistance is Ohmmeter
and, thus always reduces the current in circuit. The expected current:  It consists of batter, meter movement calibrated to read ohms and resistor
E  Ro is current-limiting resistance & adjustable for zeroing & for correcting aging
Ie = of battery
R1  Includes meter internal resister Rm
 Placing the meter in series with R1 causes the current to reduce to a  Rx is unknown resistance to be measured Simple Ohmmeter

## value equal to:

E  Full-scale deflection in current, Im=V/RO
Im =  When Rx is connected across ohmmeter terminal, current is: I=V/(Ro+Rx)
R1 + R m  Deflection factor: D=I/Im=Ro/(Ro+Rx)
 If half-scale deflection occurs D=1/2, Rx=Ro
Im R1  I 
= Insertion _ Error = 1 − m  X 100  Accuracy of ohmmeter under following conditions:
Ie R1 + R m  Ie 
– Battery aging
– Accuracy of PMMC meter
– Measurement technique

Ohmmeter Scale

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## Series Type Ohmmeter Shunt-Type Ohmmeter

 D’Arsonval meter movement with battery & resistor to construct Ohmmeter  Particularly suited to the measurement of low-value resistors
 Certain disadvantage : when the battery is old, the full-scale current drops and  When R x = ∞ the full-scale meter current will be I = E
the meter does not read "0" when A and B are shorted fsd
R1 + Rm
 The design can be approach by recognizing that, if introducing Rh reduces the
meter current to 1  The meter current for any value of Rx , expressed as a fraction of the
I
2
fsd full-scale current, is Rx
s=
Rx + R p
I fsd Rm Rh
R1 = Rh −  At half-scale reading of the meter R = R1 Rm
h
E R1 + Rm

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Multimeter Multimeter
 General purpose test instrument that
necessary circuitry to measure AC or DC
Voltage, current or resistance

Milliammeter)

##  It is useful for basic fault finding & field service

work or a which can measure to a very high
degree of accuracy

## Simpson Model 260 multimeter DC voltmeter section of

Simpson Model 260 multimeter
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## Calibration of DC instruments Galvanometer

 Calibration means to compare instrument against standard instrument  A device that responds to the application of an electrical current
to determine its accuracy
 Before Digital Multimeters, galvanometers such as moving coil meter,
were the main way of measuring electrical quantities
 A coil is suspended in a permanent magnet field & when a current is
passed through that coil it generates its own magnetic field. These
fields then react with each other & causing a mechanical force to exist
between them
 With aid of spring & pivots, coil rotates with respect to permanent
magnet & pointer attached to coil moves
Potentiometer method of Potentiometer method of
calibrating DC Ammeter calibrating DC Voltmeter

## Early galvanometers often included lens &

mirror to shine a spot or vertical beam of light
onto a scale, to magnify the mirror movement
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Galvanometer Galvanometer Sensitivity
 It is PMMC instrument designed to be sensitive to extremely low current  Current Sensitivity
levels – Ratio of deflection of galvanometer to current producing this
 Simplest galvanometer is a very sensitive instrument with type of center- deflection d mm
SI =
zero scale  Voltage Sensitivity I µA
 Most sensitive moving-coil galvanometer use taut-band suspension, & – Ratio of galvanometer deflection to voltage producing this
controlling torque is generated by twist in suspension ribbon deflection d mm
SV =
 Megohm Sensitivity V mV
 With moving-coil weight reduced to lowest possible minimum for greatest
sensitivity, weight of pointer can create a problem. The solution is by – Number of megohms required in series with the (CDRX shunted)
galvanometer to produce one scale division deflection when 1 V is
mounting a small mirror on moving coil instead of a pointer
applied to circuit d mm
 Mirror reflects a beam of light on to a scale. This makes light-beam SR = = SI
 Ballistic sensitivity I µA
galvanometers sensitive to much lower current levels than pointer
– Ratio of maximum deflection, dm, of a galvanometer to the quantity
instruments Q of electric charge in a single pulse which produces this deflection
 Current/Voltage sensitivity galvanometer
d m mm
 Galvanometers are often employed to detect zero current or voltage in a SQ =
Q µC
circuit rather than to measure the actual level of current or voltage

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