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Research Report on:

³Employee training effects On Service Quality´

Submitted to: Muhammad Usman Kemal

Submitted by: Muhammad Bakhsh Muhammad Usman Mansoor Ahmed Noon Ahmed Nawaz Bhutto Danish Tahir On: 04-01-2011

Department of Management Science Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto institute of Science & Technology (SZABIST) Islamabad campus

Acknowledgement This Research is the mutual effort of our group, each member of the group has dedicated his full effort to this research. All group members worked day and night, made all possible effort to complete the research. We are deeply thankful to Mr. Usman Kemal, who taught us the basic rules of the research, and coordinated with us every time We are also thankful to PTCL employees, Mr. Pervaiz Akhtar, Mr. Imran Rasheed, Ms. Sadia Qureeshi, Mr Zafar Haider, Mr. Asif Riaz, Mr. Syed Aqeel, Mr. Hafeezullah Awan, Mr. Muhammad Muneer. They gave us special time, and helped us in conducting research, and without his help, it was almost impossible to complete research. We are especially thankful to Mr. Shah Nawaz, who fills out questionnaire behalf of us from PTCL employees of sukhar region.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ....................................................................................................... 2 Abstract ....................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1 Company Profile .......................................................................................................... 2 Research Objectives ..................................................................................................... 2 Literature Review ......................................................................................................... 4 Problem Statement ....................................................................................................... 4 Theoretical framework ................................................................................................. 4 Hypothesis ................................................................................................................... 4 Variables ...................................................................................................................... 5 Population .................................................................................................................... 5 Sampling ...................................................................................................................... 5 Tool for Data collection ............................................................................................... 5 Questionnaires ............................................................................................................. 5 References ................................................................................................................... 6 Bibliography ................................................................................................................ 6 The Cervix ................................................................................................................. 11 The Pap Smear ........................................................................................................... 11 Position the Patient..................................................................................................... 12 Field Expedient Exam Table ...................................................................................... 12 Pad the Stirrups .......................................................................................................... 13

Abstract Training is being considered essential for every organization, because from technology to work techniques, everything changes day by day, and new ideas, new innovations comes daily. To keep employees up to date from new developments, training is the only way to educate them. Training has been so important for the organizations, almost every organization is engaged in providing training to its employees. Some organizations have its own training departments, and the other one outsource it. In order to get prove the importance of the training, we have persuade a research in ³employees training effects on service quality´. Though it is a basic research, in this research we have found out how training effected on service quality. For research purpose, we select a firm Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL). PTCL is one of the biggest telecom networks in Pakistan, having more than 20,000 regular employees. This research is conducted in PTCL, the research population is Management and Operational Staff, the research is designed to measure the effects of training, for measurement we have designed two questionnaires each from Management and Operation Staff. Total sample size is 100, 60 from Operational staff, and 40 from Management staff. After that we use SPSS software which gives us significant result that we found during our study and visits to PTCL organization that reflect majority of employee both from operation and managerial staff are not willing to involve in training. The ultimate result did not impact on services quality. From that result our alternative hypothesis is accepted that Training does not effects on Services Quality because the employees did not more attractive to gain training therefore the service quality of PTCL reduces that is not a good sign for PTCL growth.

Introduction

Efficiency and effectiveness have been common words we here every where, in business organizations and in our daily life as well, there are many companies who are engaged in conducting surveys several reasons which impact on service, quality, and the well being of the organizations. So the topic we have chosen is how training impacts on service and quality. Because training has been essential for every organization to grow and excel in the market. This research is not orthodox, and not done as a assignment, but we have been dedicated in this research to know, either employee training impacts on service and quality. And we are committed to use all the scientific research method, from choosing appropriate hypothesis, samples, population to effective tool of data collection. Below are the articles, we have taken as selective article, to pursue this research. And we hope this research would fetch some good results, which could be replicable, and implementable in the organization. Communication has been found in many organizations, involved in service industry. They receive bundle of complaints about the problems and queries, but when consumers do not receive any response, it ultimately distracts them from the company, and they switch to other company. In this research we have taken Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) as area of research. PTCL is one of the biggest service organizations, found since the existence of Pakistan, whose core value are customer satisfaction, employee loyalty, professional integrity and team work.

Company Profile PTCL is bound to reshape existing boundaries of telecommunication market, today millions of people are asking for instant access to new products and ideas. PTCL would be your first choice, as since six decades.

Business & Corporate Users: For communication the priority of business entities is PTCL Telephone for local, domestic and international calls. Today businesses can have 10-100 lines with modern day services to meet their needs. Now you have options like Caller-ID, call-forwarding, callwaiting, Call Barring, to name a few Business specific services include y y y Nationwide Infrastructure National Long-haul Core Network Carriers Services

White Label Services: y y y y y y EVO Wireless Broadband Broadband Pakistan IPTV Service (Smart TV): PTCL SMART Pak Internet Exchange: V-fone

International Network y y y y SEAMEWE-3 Submarine Cable System: SMW-4 Submarine Cable System: I ME WE cable details and Status with Map: Satellite Communication

PTCL provides telecom service including wireless facility, land line telephone, Broad band wire line, and wireless internet facility in Pakistan. Where thousands of employees are engaged to facilitate the customers. In PTCL we will observe that accuracy of training

programs, either they are in line with the need of the organization. Doe it fulfill the desired need of the organization. It is effective enough to satisfy the customers. In service industry customer satisfaction has been prime goal of the organization, because customers have been rational and they expect a lot from the organization. Communication is the success factor of service industry, because in this industry customer directly communicates with service provider. For communication purpose many technologies (communication tools) have been introduced in the market, and organizations are adopting those state of the art technologies, to better serve the customer. We are conducting this research to exactly measure the importance of the training, and how the training impacts on organization. How organization achieve its desired goals by training employees. How direct and indirect variables correlates with each other. Research Objectives:  To observe the relationship between employee training in Service Quality  To determine employee training increases the service quality in short and long term.  To observe the behavior of manager towards the employee training and employee¶s career development.  To observe employee training increase number of customers  To observe why employee training is necessary to increase overall profitability.

Literature review: Nowadays organizations are facing too much pressure from the market, to fulfill the needs of the customer. Because customers have been rational, and there are many producers in the market, with homogeneous products. So the organization has to differentiate its products from the competitors, and it has to increase the quality, and has to reduce the cost to cheapen the product. Many researches have been conducted on, how to increase the quality service, and many results are suggested. One of the most appealing suggestions is initiating training programs for the employees, to improve Quality service in the organization. Training does not merely increase the efficiency of the organization, but it increases the skills of the employee and increases his wages, therefore training is mutually beneficial for the organization and employee. Here is given some literature review of some authors:

Kwasi Amoako-Gyampath (1993) found that The research found that the firms which have invested in Just In Time method were more efficient and likely to invest in cellular manufacturing. And the firms who didn¶t invest in Just In Time philosophy were less efficient

L. Bibby, S. Austin and D. Bouchlaghem in (2006). Researcher proved that different types of training related to design management improves the performance of Construction companies. This article explains the advantages of Design Management initiative and how companies can compete through strategies and Design Management process. Anne. P Bartel (1989). Research has found that the employees who stay for longer time in the organization, are most likely to acquire training, and employees training has significant impact on labor productivity, and hence training increases the wages of employees, and reduces layoffs. This research is most important for the organizations, which are innovative and highly proactive, though this research indicates that organizations who introduce new technologies, initiate more training programs, and improves the productivity as well as skills of labors. This research can be replicated in organization to excel in Human resource management.

Bo Hansson (2007). The results show that employee training is determined by Human Resource practices of the organization, and profitability is associated with how much is invested in training of the employees. Through this article it has been proved that, training is

essential for any organization to survive in the competitive environment, employees behavior, employees turn over can be easily improved by training of employees. And human resource is the most valuable asset of the organization.

Baldwin, S., Johnson, S., Chapman, R., Upton, A. and Walton, F. (2001) surveyed and found that 70% respondents suggest it increase the confidence at workplace which is a positive outcome. It also shows that two other outcomes of training the attainment of a qualification and the propensity.

Jan N. Streumer. According to this article states that organizations need to periodically evaluate the performance of the employees, and potential need based training should be analyzed, to make optimum use of employees. This is very important finding, though very few researches have been done on this topic, and very few firms implement this method. It is found that periodic need based analyses is effective to cope with the potential problems occur in the organization.

Jonice T.jones, The result of study shows there is a rapid change in the production technology to distinguish one one product from other need to train employees.

W. David Rees and Charistine Porter (2008), Accordingly if the staff is more than the need that is not the mean µ¶redundancy¶¶ there are nay be some other option available to use. It provides more options other than redundancy only like provide training to employees as well as to managers to avoid the stress in that particular situation.

Alexenderos G. Shinidis, John Bauris,(2008), The results support the hypothesis. There is great correlation between employees training and commitment. That research provides Ground ± break because there is no previous study on that particular topic.

Dilani Jayawarna, (2007), In this article the researcher found that formal trainings are more effective than informal trainings. The approach and manipulation of trainings are dependent on subject elements. The model is designed for a further elaborated study of these subjects¶ elements deploying multi-variation statistical analysis. The SME¶s Managers could get benefits in search of formal training intervention, which directly fulfils their specific

needs. A successful understanding is optional to the miscellany of dependent variables that moderates the relationship between choices of training approach and performance.

Cynthia S. McCahon, Margaret J. Rys, Kenneth H. Ward (1996), Accordingly the analysis of Hypothesis two would give a spotlight in a Quality improvement oriented organization. Trainers would build up an efficient training in evaluation of begining skills and final evaluation skills. Through this type of study emerge ground by determining training effectiveness, through use of ³difficulty´ ratings of the processes, instead of using a ranking method.

Audrey Dumas, 2010, In this the paper shows that training is a capable determinant. In reality job-training programs develop the competitiveness and performance of firms. It was emphasized that training special effects are superior when training is well thought-out as element of a human resources. The study tress upon the firm managers has different perceptions about the training concern. We can analyze the relation between training effects on firm performance and training effects on employee productivity.

Ignacio Danvila del Valle,Miguel A ´ ngel Sastre Castillo, Antonio Rodr guez-Duarte, 2009, In there research the outcomes obtained with these techniques are extremely satisfactory, given the high value obtained from the explained factor variance. The outcomes obtained in the study have been highly satisfactory, since all models have shown that training has a positive, significant coefficient.

John Sutherland, 2009, they found that each one fifth employee is expected five days or more than five days training in last one year. One third did not receive any training at all. One third is satisfied with the training he took. One fourth is not happy with the training. Over 50 percent employees responded that their skills are more than required nature of job. And 5 percent employees skills found to be less than required job.

Seyed-Mahmoud Aghazadeh 2007, the business should be so benefits if proper training techniques will implement in pursuit to enhance their productivity.

Antonio Rodr guez-Duarte, The appropriate training models give clear pragmatic support to the foundation that training activities are to be positive result on company performance.

Vicento Ramos Javier Ray- Maquieira Maria Tugores, The research shows that smaller hotels provide less training, then bigger hotels, and employees who comes from smaller hotels to bigger hotels, need more training. And the geographical location of the hotel is also exposed to training. This research emphasizes on the training of employees, which increase productivity, and it prove that education is not the strong constraint on training.

Ebrahim Sultani, Ying-Ying Liao (2010), The research shows that the effects of training on employees productivity and motivation is indirectly related with the management¶s approach and orientation and because of this there is a gap between employee¶s expectation and effectiveness of training. The study shows that effectiveness of training and employee¶s productivity are not directly related because of management approach.

Tung-Chun Huag, (2001), Those firms achieved greater effectiveness of training which have sophisticated training system than those firms whose training methods have been less effective. This research indicates to managers that effectiveness of training has positive relation with methods of training.

Sergio Roman, Salvador Ruiz, Jose Luis Munuera, (2002), This research gives the empirical proof of incremental of customer-oriented behaviors to expect a salesperson¶s performance. On the basis of this research the managers should emphasize on behaviors rather than to increase the performance of the salesperson

Problem Statement: ³The organization faces the problem of low output level of Service Quality´

Theoretical frame work: Lack of Training

Horizontal Conflicts

From the research it is found that in today¶s technological environment, almost every profession needs some skills, even its labor work. And skills come from training and

learning, training has been most important thing for the organizations, and it is considered as investment rather than expenditure. Training has multi benefits, it increases the level of efficiency of the organization, it increases the quality of service, as well as it is beneficial for the employees, because training increase their wages. Because through training they acquire multi skills, including how to operate technical equipments plants and how effectively tasks can be achieved, through these skills they can increase their earnings. It is observed that training not merely increase the level of skills of employees, but it also helps to motivate employees, it retains employees. Employee loyalty is the most critical for the organizations to achieve, but above researches suggest that as employee gets training from the organization, their motivation level increase, and they remain loyal to the organization.

Hypothesis: Before research hypothesis created out of the theoretical framework of the present study is following H0³Training effects on Service quality´ H1³Training does not effects on Services Quality´ Better employee training modifies as well as develop the human capabilities/skills and capacities, that are necessary for the better Service Quality.

Employee training has direct impact on Service quality, in any organization. So with the increase in training initiative, service and quality got improvement. less initiatives of training involves more usage of time, money and materials that results low services quality and less wages due to bad performance.

Variables: Employee Training Service Quality

(Independent Variable)

(Dependent Variables)

Independent Variable: As in this research training has been important, so training has been taken as Independent variable which effects other dependent variables, training is the process which empowers employees with knowledge, skills and it helps the organization to retain their loyalty, and it is the major source of motivation as well. Through training employees learn how to better serve the customers, training increase their communication skills, because communication is the only tool, which can severely impact on performance of the organization. In today¶s technological era, there are many communication tools, which are quite strange for the employees in most organizations, so technological change should be felt by and employees and they should be made prepare for state of the art technology.

The employee training can be determined by following indicators: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Efficiency Performance Communication Loyalty Responsiveness Reliability Retention

Dependent Variable: Service Quality is selected as dependent variable in this research. Because training has direct impact on service quality. Service industry sustains through customer satisfaction, and in this industry customer has direct interaction with organization, this interaction can be made through telephone calls, emails, letters and other modes of communication.

Following are the indicators which are used to measure Service quality: 1. No. of consumers responded 2. Quality assurance 3. Consumer Demand 4. Consumer Satisfaction

5. No. of consumer dissatisfaction complaints in a year Population: The population for our research is decided to be Management staff at Planning level and the working staff of daily Operations, of PTCL.

Sampling: All the professionals in selected organizations are included in the research population, because it was difficult to interview all the population of the selected organization, so we have taken samples convenient selected.

Tool for Data Collection: Keeping in view the nature of research, a questionnaire is used as ³tool of data collection´ for managerial staff, because all the respondents from management staff are supposed to understand questionnaire, and interviews is taken from the operating staff,

Following Questionnaires have been designed to include the respondents for focus groups discussions. This questionnaire is given here: Questionnaire We have designed two type of questionnaires, to find out the actual data. One questionnaire is made for Planning and Management staff, and other one is design for Operation department.

Questionnaire for Management staff: The following questions are for the purpose of gathering information to measure the effects of training on service and quality of the organization. All the information collected will solely be used for the purpose of conducting an academic research study and your responses will be kept strictly confidential. Your contribution in filling this questionnaire will be appreciated." 1. Gender 2. Age Group ( ( ( 3. Education ( ( ( 4. Income (monthly) ( ( ( 5. Marital Status ( ) Male ) 22 Years or below ) 41-50 Years ) Matriculation/O-level ) Diploma ) Masters ) Rs.15,000 or below ) Rs.36,000 - Rs.50,000 ) Rs.66,000 - Rs 80,000 ) Single ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) Female ) 23-30 Years () 31-40 Years ) 51 Years or above ) Intermediate/A-level ) Graduation ) Doctorate ) Rs.16,000 - Rs.35,000 ) Rs.51,000 - Rs.65,000 ) above Rs.80,000 ) Married

NOTE: ( 1= Extremely Agree, 2= Agree, 3= Neutral, 4= Disagree, 5= Extremely Disagree ) S No. STATEMENTS 1 The outcome of trained employees is satisfactory. 2 Trained employees improve the quality of the service. How much do you agree with the importance of employee 3 training? Employee training should be included in performance 4 appraisal. 5 Net effect of employee performance, related to training. Training increase the quality of service provided to 6 consumer. Organization should invest in training programs for 7 employees. 8 Customers pleased with the services provided to them. Poor quality of service switches the customers to other 9 organization. 10 Training retains the employees. The skills (both technical and soft) learned in training are 11 being applied on job. For the employee who got training, others were positively 12 affected on return. The time employee spent in training recovered in 13 productivity, innovation or less wastage of resources when he got back to his job 14 Management has been meeting the expectations of training. 1 2 3 4 5

Questionnaire for Operational staff: The following questions are for the purpose of gathering information to measure the effects of training on service and quality of the organization. All the information collected will solely be used for the purpose of conducting an academic research study and your responses will be kept strictly confidential. Your contribution in filling this questionnaire will be appreciated." 3. Gender 4. Age Group 31-40 Years 3. Education ( ) Male ( ) 22 Years or below ) 41-50 Years ) Matriculation/O-level ) Diploma ) Masters ) Rs.15,000 or below ) Rs.36,000 - Rs.50,000 ) Rs.66,000 - Rs 80,000 ) Single ( ) Female ( ) 23-30 Years ( ) 51 Years or above ( ) Intermediate/A-level ( ) Graduation ( ) Doctorate ( ) Rs.16,000 - Rs.35,000 ( ) Rs.51,000 - Rs.65,000 ( ) above Rs.80,000 ( ) Married ( )

( ( ( ( 4. Income (monthly) ( ( ( 5. Marital Status (

NOTE: ( 1= Extremely Agree, 2= Agree, 3= Neutral, 4= Disagree, 5= Extremely Disagree ) S No. STATEMENTS 1 Training improves your efficiency. 2 Training is important for operational process. The managers are being positive reaction towards employee¶s 3 performance. 4 Training is important for employee¶s career development. Training is an important way to enhance your skills for improving 5 the quality of service. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Better performance management system base of better training. Training helps the employee to increase his wages. Training programs /modules are being redesigned according to global changing in business. The Employees are satisfied from evaluation of the performance appraisal. Poor quality of training switches the employees. The training relates with employee's job/assignment. The skills (both technical and soft) learned in training are being applied on job. The training instructors are qualified. The whole training environment is good. 1 2 3 4 5

Operation analysis.
Coefficients (a) Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 B 5.437 .324 Std. Error 1.295 .063 Standardized Coefficients Beta .561 95% Confidence Interval for B B 2.843 .198 Std. Error 8.030 .450

t Lower Bound 4.197 5.155

Sig.

(Constant) Training

Upper Bound .000 .000

a Dependent Variable: SQ

Interpretation; Coefficient (.324) will show that there is 32% correlation between variable; This result shows that 32% of training has been impacting services and quality.
Model Summary

Change Statistics R Square Model Change F Change 1 .314(a) 26.575 a Predictors: (Constant), Training df1 1 df2 58 Sig. F Change .000

Interpretation; This result shows that 31% of training has been impacting services and quality.
Correlations ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Correlations Training Training Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 1 60 .561(**) .000 60 SQ .561(**) .000 60 1 60

SQ

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Interpretation; Here, (0.561) shows that there is poor correlation between training and services quality and we are 99% confidence that training is not affecting on services and quality.

Frequencies
Statistics Training 60 0 20.1333 .56171 21.5000 23.00 4.35099 18.931 SQ 60 0 11.9667 .32501 12.0000 10.00(a) 2.51751 6.338

N Mean Std. Error of Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance

Valid Missing

a Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

Frequency Table
Training Cumulative Percent 5.0 6.7 8.3 13.3 15.0 30.0 33.3 36.7 43.3 50.0 68.3 90.0 91.7 93.3 95.0 98.3 100.0

Valid

10.00 11.00 12.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 28.00 31.00 Total

Frequency 3 1 1 3 1 9 2 2 4 4 11 13 1 1 1 2 1 60

Percent 5.0 1.7 1.7 5.0 1.7 15.0 3.3 3.3 6.7 6.7 18.3 21.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 3.3 1.7 100.0

Valid Percent 5.0 1.7 1.7 5.0 1.7 15.0 3.3 3.3 6.7 6.7 18.3 21.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 3.3 1.7 100.0

SQ Cumulative Percent 3.3 5.0 8.3 13.3 28.3 43.3 56.7 71.7 85.0 90.0 98.3 100.0

Valid

6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 Total

Frequency 2 1 2 3 9 9 8 9 8 3 5 1 60

Percent 3.3 1.7 3.3 5.0 15.0 15.0 13.3 15.0 13.3 5.0 8.3 1.7 100.0

Valid Percent 3.3 1.7 3.3 5.0 15.0 15.0 13.3 15.0 13.3 5.0 8.3 1.7 100.0

Regression
Descriptive Statistics Mean 11.9667 20.1333 Std. Deviation 2.51751 4.35099 Correlations SQ 1.000 .561 . .000 60 60 Training .561 1.000 .000 . 60 60 N 60 60

SQ Training

Pearson Correlation Sig. (1-tailed) N

SQ Training SQ Training SQ Training

Variables Entered/Removed(b) Variables Variables Entered Removed Training(a) . a All requested variables entered. b Dependent Variable: SQ Model 1

Method Enter

Model Summary Change Statistics R Square Model Change F Change 1 .314(a) 26.575 a Predictors: (Constant), Training df1 1 df2 58 Sig. F Change .000

Coefficients (a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std. B Error (Constant ) Training 5.437 .324 1.295 .063 .561 Standardized Coefficients Beta 95% Confidence Interval for B Std. B Error 2.843 .198 8.030 .450

Mod el 1

t Lower Bound 4.197 5.155

Sig. Upper Bound .000 .000

a Dependent Variable: SQ

Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N What is your age * Training is important for operational process. What is your age * The training relates with employee's job/assignment. What is your age * Better performance management system base of better training. What is your education * Training is important for operational process. What is your education * The training relates with employee's job/assignment. What is your education * Better performance management system base of better training. What is your income * Training is important for operational process. What is your income * The training relates with employee's job/assignment. What is your income * Better performance management system base of better training. 60 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 60 Total Percent 100.0%

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What is your age * Training is important for operational process. Crosstabulation Count Training is important for operational process. Extremely Agree What is your age 22 Years or below 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years Total 0 5 7 4 16 Agree 2 6 20 3 31 Neutral 0 5 8 0 13 Total Extremely Agree 2 16 35 7 60

Bar Chart
Training is i portant for operational process.
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral 15

20

Count

10

5

0 22 Years or belo

23-30 Years

31-40 Years

41-50 Years

What is your age

¢

¡

 

What is your age * The training relates with employee's job/assignment. Crosstabulation Count The training relates with employee's job/assignment. Extremely Extremely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree What is your age 22 Years or below 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years Total 2 4 6 3 15 0 4 5 4 13 0 6 11 0 17 0 2 8 0 10 0 0 5 0 5 Total Extremely Agree 2 16 35 7 60

Bar Chart
The training relates with employee's job/assignment.
Extremely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Extremely Disagree

12

10

8

Count

6

4

2

0 22 Years or below 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years

What is your age

What is your age * Better performance management system base of better training. Crosstabulation Count Better performance management system base of better training. Extremely Agree What is your age 22 Years or below 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years Total 2 3 14 1 20 Agree 0 5 10 5 20 Neutral 0 6 9 1 16 Disagree 0 2 2 0 4 Total Extremely Agree 2 16 35 7 60

Bar Chart
Better perfor ance anage ent syste base of better training.

10.0

Count

7.5

5.0

2.5

0.0 22 Years or belo

23-30 Years

31-40 Years

41-50 Years

What is your age

¤

12.5

Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

¥

¥

¥

¥

£

What is your education * Training is important for operational process. Crosstabulation Count Training is important for operational process. Extremely Agree What is your education Matriculation/O-level Intermediate/A-level Diploma Graduation Masters Total 4 7 5 0 0 16 Agree 10 4 3 14 0 31 Neutral 1 3 4 0 5 13 Total Extremely Agree 15 14 12 14 5 60

Bar Chart
Training is important for operational process.
12.5 Extremely Agree Agree Neutral

10.0

Count

7.5

5.0

2.5

0.0
Matriculation/Olevel Intermediate/Alevel Diploma Graduation Masters

What is your education

What is your education * The training relates with employee's job/assignment. Crosstabulation Count The training relates with employee's job/assignment. Extremely Extremely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree What is your education Matriculation/O-level Intermediate/A-level Diploma Graduation Masters Total 3 2 4 6 0 15 2 6 1 2 2 13 2 5 1 6 3 17 6 1 3 0 0 10 2 0 3 0 0 5 Total Extremely Agree 15 14 12 14 5 60

Bar Chart
The training relates ith e ployee's job/assign ent.
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Extre ely Disagree

5

4

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3

2

1

0

What is your education

¦

Matriculation/O- Inter ediate/Alevel level

Diplo a

Graduation

Masters

¨

¨

¦ ¦

§

6

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What is your education * Better performance management system base of better training. Crosstabulation Count Better performance management system base of better training. Extremely Agree What is your education Matriculation/O-level Intermediate/A-level Diploma Graduation Masters Total 11 4 4 0 1 20 Agree 1 6 1 8 4 20 Neutral 3 4 7 2 0 16 Disagree 0 0 0 4 0 4 Total Extremely Agree 15 14 12 14 5 60

Bar Chart
Better perfor ance anage ent syste base of better training.
12.5 Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

10.0

Count

7.5

5.0

2.5

0.0 Rs.15,000 or belo Rs.16,000 - Rs. 30,000 Rs.31,000 - Rs. 45,000 Rs.46,000 - Rs. 60,000

What is your income     

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What is your income * Training is important for operational process. Crosstabulation Count Training is important for operational process. Extremely Agree What is your income Rs.15,000 or below Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000 Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000 Rs.46,000 - Rs.60,000 Total 2 10 4 0 16 Agree 5 14 7 5 31 Neutral 0 5 4 4 13 Total Extremely Agree 7 29 15 9 60

Ba Cha t
Training is important for operational process.
12.5 Extremely Agree Agree Neutral

10.0

Count

7.5

5.0

2.5

Matriculation/ level

Intermediate/Alevel

Diploma

What is you education  

0.0

raduation

Masters

What is your income * The training relates with employee's job/assignment. Crosstabulation Count The training relates with employee's job/assignment. Extremely Extremely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree What is your income Rs.15,000 or below Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000 Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000 Rs.46,000 - Rs.60,000 Total 4 4 2 5 15 3 8 1 1 13 0 8 6 3 17 0 7 3 0 10 0 2 3 0 5 Total Extremely Agree 7 29 15 9 60

Bar Chart
The training relates ith e ployee's job/assign ent.
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Extre ely Disagree

5

4

Count

3

2

1

0

What is your education 

Matriculation/O- Inter ediate/Alevel level

Diplo a

Graduation

Masters   

 

6 

What is your income * Better performance management system base of better training. Crosstabulation Count Better performance management system base of better training. Extremely Agree What is your income Rs.15,000 or below Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000 Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000 Rs.46,000 - Rs.60,000 Total 5 13 2 0 20 Agree 2 6 3 9 20 Neutral 0 8 8 0 16 Disagree 0 2 2 0 4 Total Extremely Agree 7 29 15 9 60

Bar Chart
Better perfor ance anage ent syste base of better training.
12.5 Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

10.0

Count

7.5

5.0

2.5

0.0 Rs.15,000 or belo Rs.16,000 - Rs. 30,000 Rs.31,000 - Rs. 45,000 Rs.46,000 - Rs. 60,000

What is your income      

Managerial SPSS Analysis: Frequencies
Statistics Training 40 0 11.40 .277 11.50 10 1.751 3.067 SQ 40 0 24.25 .507 24.00 22 3.209 10.295

N Mean Std. Error of Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance

Valid Missing

Frequency Table
Training Cumulative Percent 5.0 35.0 50.0 70.0 95.0 97.5 100.0

Valid

7 10 11 12 13 14 16 Total

Frequency 2 12 6 8 10 1 1 40

Percent 5.0 30.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 2.5 2.5 100.0 SQ

Valid Percent 5.0 30.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 2.5 2.5 100.0

Valid

18 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 33 Total

Frequency 1 2 10 5 6 7 4 1 1 3 40

Percent 2.5 5.0 25.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 10.0 2.5 2.5 7.5 100.0

Valid Percent 2.5 5.0 25.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 10.0 2.5 2.5 7.5 100.0

Cumulative Percent 2.5 7.5 32.5 45.0 60.0 77.5 87.5 90.0 92.5 100.0

Correlations
Correlations Training Training Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 1 40 .443(**) .004 40 SQ .443(**) .004 40 1 40

SQ

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Regression
Descriptive Statistics Mean 24.25 11.40 Std. Deviation 3.209 1.751 N 40 40

SQ Training

Correlations SQ 1.000 .443 . .002 40 40 Training .443 1.000 .002 . 40 40

Pearson Correlation Sig. (1-tailed) N

SQ Training SQ Training SQ Training

Interpretation; Here, (0.443) shows that there is poor correlation between training and services quality and we are 99% confidence that training is not affecting on services and quality.
Variables Entered/Removed (b) Variables Variables Entered Removed Training(a) . a All requested variables entered. b Dependent Variable: SQ Model 1

Method Enter

Model Summary

Change Statistics Model 1 R Square Change .196(a) F Change 9.260 df1 1 df2 38 Sig. F Change .004

a Predictors: (Constant), Training

Interpretation; This result shows that 20% of training has been impacting services and quality.

Coefficients (a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std. B Error (Constant ) Training 15.004 .811 3.073 .267 .443 Standardized Coefficients Beta 95% Confidence Interval for B Std. B Error 8.783 .271 21.225 1.351

Mode l 1

t Lower Bound 4.882 3.043

Sig. Upper Bound .000 .004

a Dependent Variable: SQ

Interpretation; Coefficient (.811) will show that there is 81% correlation between variable, This result shows that 81% of training has been impacting services and quality.

Crosstabs
Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N What is your age * Customers pleased with the services provided to them. What is your age * Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. What is your age * Training retains the employees. What is your education * Customers pleased with the services provided to them. What is your education * Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. What is your education * Training retains the employees. What is your income * Customers pleased with the services provided to them. What is your income * Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. What is your income * Training retains the employees. 40 Percent 100.0% N 0 Missing Percent .0% N 40 Total Percent 100.0%

40

100.0%

0

.0%

40

100.0%

40

100.0%

0

.0%

40

100.0%

40

100.0%

0

.0%

40

100.0%

40

100.0%

0

.0%

40

100.0%

40

100.0%

0

.0%

40

100.0%

40

100.0%

0

.0%

40

100.0%

40

100.0%

0

.0%

40

100.0%

40

100.0%

0

.0%

40

100.0%

What is your age * Customers pleased with the services provided to them. Crosstabulation Count Customers pleased with the services provided to them. Extremely Agree What is your age 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years 51 Years or above Total 0 5 1 4 10 Agree 8 8 0 0 16 Neutral 4 2 2 0 8 Disagree 0 6 0 0 6 Total Extremely Agree 12 21 3 4 40

Bar Chart
Custo ers pleased ith the services provided to the .
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

8

6

Count

4

2

0 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years 51 Years or above

What is your age

!

!

"

What is your age * Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. Crosstabulation Count Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. Extremely Agree What is your age 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years 51 Years or above Total 7 10 2 0 19 Agree 0 10 1 4 15 Neutral 4 1 0 0 5 Disagree 1 0 0 0 1 Total Extremely Agree 12 21 3 4 40

Bar Chart
$
23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years 51 Years or above

10

oor quality of service s itches the custo ers to other organization.
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

8

Count

6

4

2

0

What is your age

#

& %

What is your age * Training retains the employees. Crosstabulation Count Training retains the employees. Extremely Agree What is your age 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years 51 Years or above Total 0 3 0 0 3 Agree 4 4 2 0 10 Neutral 8 9 1 0 18 Disagree 0 5 0 4 9 Total Extremely Agree 12 21 3 4 40

Bar Chart
Training retains the e ployees.
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

8

Count

6

4

2

0 23-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-50 Years 51 Years or above

What is your age

'

(

10

What is your education * Customers pleased with the services provided to them. Crosstabulation Count Customers pleased with the services provided to them. Extremely Agree What is your education Matriculation/O-level Intermediate/A-level Diploma Graduation Masters Total 0 0 1 9 0 10 Agree 0 1 4 9 2 16 Neutral 1 0 4 1 2 8 Disagree 0 0 1 2 3 6 Total Extremely Agree 1 1 10 21 7 40

Bar Chart
Customers pleased with the services provided to them.
Extremely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

10

8

Count

6

4

2

0 Matriculation/O- Intermediate/Alevel level Diploma Graduation Masters

What is your education

What is your education * Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. Crosstabulation Count Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. Extremely Agree What is your education Matriculation/O-level Intermediate/A-level Diploma Graduation Masters Total 0 0 4 10 5 19 Agree 1 0 2 10 2 15 Neutral 0 0 4 1 0 5 Disagree 0 1 0 0 0 1 Total Extremely Agree 1 1 10 21 7 40

Bar Chart
Poor quality of service s itches the custo ers to other organization.
xtre ely gree gree Neutral Disagree

10

8

Count

6

4

2

What is your education

)

Matriculation/O- Inter ediate/ level level

0

0

Diplo a

Graduation

Masters

0 )

3 2

0 1 )

What is your education * Training retains the employees. Crosstabulation Count Training retains the employees. Extremely Agree What is your education Matriculation/O-level Intermediate/A-level Diploma Graduation Masters Total 1 0 0 2 0 3 Agree 0 0 5 3 2 10 Neutral 0 1 5 8 4 18 Disagree 0 0 0 8 1 9 Total Extremely Agree 1 1 10 21 7 40

Bar Chart
Training retains the e ployees.
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree 6

Count

4

2

0

What is your education

4

Matriculation/O- Inter ediate/Alevel level

Diplo a

Graduation

Masters

4

5

8

4

What is your income * Customers pleased with the services provided to them. Crosstabulation Count Customers pleased with the services provided to them. Extremely Agree What is your income Total Rs.15,000 or below Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000 Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000 0 6 4 10 Agree 4 4 8 16 Neutral 3 5 0 8 Disagree 0 3 3 6 Total Extremely Agree 7 18 15 40

Bar Chart
Custo ers pleased ith the services provided to the .
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

8

6

Count

4

2

0 Rs.15,000 or belo

Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000

Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000

What is your income

8

7

8

9

6

What is your income * Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. Crosstabulation Count Poor quality of service switches the customers to other organization. Extremely Agree What is your income Total Rs.15,000 or below Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000 Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000 3 10 6 19 Agree 0 7 8 15 Neutral 4 1 0 5 Disagree 0 0 1 1 Total Extremely Agree 7 18 15 40

Bar Chart
oor quality of service s itches the custo ers to other organization.
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

10

8

Count

6

4

2

0 Rs.15,000 or belo

Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000

Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000

What is your income

A

D C

B @

What is your income * Training retains the employees. Crosstabulation Count Training retains the employees. Extremely Agree What is your income Total Rs.15,000 or below Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000 Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000 0 3 0 3 Agree 4 3 3 10 Neutral 3 3 12 18 Disagree 0 9 0 9 Total Extremely Agree 7 18 15 40

Bar Chart
Training retains the e ployees.
Extre ely Agree Agree Neutral Disagree

10

8

Count

6

4

2

0 Rs.15,000 or belo

Rs.16,000 - Rs.30,000

Rs.31,000 - Rs.45,000

What is your income

F

G

12

E

Reference Kwasi Amoako-Gyampath (1993) . ³Just In Time Production´ ³Industrial management and database Systems´ L. Bibby, S. Austin and D. Bouchlaghem (2006). The impact of a Design Management training initiative on project performance ³Engineering, Construction and Architecture Management Vol.13 No.1, 2006´ Anne. P Bartel (1989). Formal employee training programs and their impact on Labor productivity, Evidence form Human resource Survey ³National Bureau of Economic Research´ 1015, Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge Bo Hansson (2007). Company based determinants of training and the impact of training on a company performance³Personnel Review Vol. 36 No, 2, 2007´ Baldwin S.johnson S. Champagn (2001). The Employer characteristics and employee training outcome in UK SMEs: A multivariate analysis ³Cambridge Small Business Research Center´ John N. Streuner (1996). Impact of training in statistical process analyses forengineers at an IC factory³Training for Quality. Volume 4. Number 2 1996´ Jonice T.jones, Volume 47, No,8,9 (1992). The determinants of training in Australian manufacturing SMEs³Cambridge Small Business Research Center (1992)´ W. David Rees and Charistine Porter (2008). Redundancy handling ± a key training need ³ Vol.41 No 4 2009, pp 175 ± 185´ Alexenderos G. Shinidis, John Bauris,(2008). Employee perceived training effectiveness relationship to employee attitude ³Volume 32, No,1 2008´ Dilani Jayawarna, (2007). Training commitment and performance in manufacturing SMEs, ³Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14, 2, pp. 321-338´ Cynthia S. McCahon, Margaret J. Rys, Kenneth H. Ward. (1996). The impact of training technique on the difficulty of quality improvement problem solving, Industrial ³Management & Data Systems,96,7 ,(1996) pp.24±31´ Audrey Dumas, (2010). How does job-training increase firm performance The case of Morocco ³International Journal of Manpower ,31, 5, pp. 585-602´ Ignacio Danvila del Valle,Miguel A ´ ngel Sastre Castillo, Antonio Rodr guez-Duarte, (2009). The effects of training on performance in service companies ³International Journal of Manpower, 30 , 4,pp. 393-407

John Sutherland (2009). Skills and training in Great Britain, Emerald Group Publishing Limited³Education þ Training,.51 , 7, pp. 541-554´ Antonio Rodris guez-Duarte Seyed-Mahmoud Aghazadeh (2005). Re-examining the training side of productivity improvement, evidence from service sector³Department of Business Administration, School of Business,State University of New York at Fredonia, Fredonia, New York, USA Received December 2006 Revised March 2007´ Vicento Ramos Javier Ray- Maquieira Maria Tugores (2004). The Role of Training in changing an economy specializing in Tourism³International Journal of Manpower Vol. 25 No 1 2004´ Ebrahim Sultani, Ying-Ying Liao (2010). Training interventions: fulfilling managerial ends or proliferating invaluable means for employees³ European Business Review, 122, 2, pp.128-15´ Tung-Chun Huag, (2001). The relation of training practices and organizational performance in small and medium size enterprises, ³Education, Training, 30, 8/9, pp.437-444´ Sergio Roman, Salvador Ruiz, Jose Luis Munuera, (2002). The effects of sales training on sales force activity³European Journal of Marketing, 36, 11/12, pp.1344-1366´