# Ramesh.

K

ECE/MEA Engg College

Oscillators
Hartley, Colpitts, UJT relaxation.

S.R.K 9/13/2007 Authored Ramesh.K

by:

This documents contains a brief note about the principle of sinusoidal oscillator and some general oscillator circuits

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...................... 9 O R REFERENCE...... 10 S 1 raemshpkd@gmail..................................... 4 S 4........................................ A GENERALFORM OF LCOSCILLATOR............................................................................... COLPITT OSCILLATO ............... 3 S 3..............................................................................co m www.. HARTLEYR OSCILLATOR .......................edutalks................................................................................................................ K ECE/MEA Engg College Contents 1....... UJT RELAXATION SCILLATO ......or g .......... 2 2.. UJT -BASICS ...................................... 7 6................... 5 5........ OSCILLATORS ....................................................................................................................................................Ramesh..............................

Another condition is that the magnitude of the feed back signals (o/ p of the mixing circuit i. Simply says an oscillator receives DC energy and converts it into AC energy of desired frequency. The oscillator will respond to this signal and V will be amplified and send to the o/ p.Ramesh. the feed back n/w will send a portion of the o/ p again back to the i/p. But. The basic structure of a sinusoidal oscillator consists of an amplifier and a frequency selective network connected in a positive feedback loop as shown in fig.That is 8 oscillations.as a signal proceeds from the input terminals through the amplifier and feedback network. Where –A is the loop gain. that generate oscillations (Signals).is precisely zero ( or of course an integral multiple of 2 p).edutalks. oscillator is a circuit which in feedback signal Vfis still applied to the input signal. The frequency of oscillations depends up on the constants of the device. The frequency for which a sinusoidal oscillator wil operate is the frequency for which the total phase shift introduced. at the oscillator frequency. Thus the signal is is first supplied to the network and removed . Basic Principles Of Sinusoidal Oscillator. OSCILLATORS Xi Amplifier A) (gain Xo =AXi Xo Frequency selective network A feedback amplifier is one that produce a feed back voltage V 180o is produced by the amplifier and a further phase shift of 180 produces oscillations without any external signal source . A phase shift of introduced by the feedback network. Oscillators can produce sinusoidal or non sinusoidal signals.co m www. That is the frequency of a sinusoidal oscillator is determined by the condition that the loop gain phase shift is zero. Oscillations will not be sustained if. That is feedback voltage is in phase with the input signal.. when X Barkhausen Criterion: =0. at this condition the circuit will produce In the above circuit Xi = -X f +X s . Xf’=-X f .or g 2 . sinusoidal oscillations of desired frequency is known as a sinusoidal oscillator. This process continues and amplifier will produce oscillations without any ext input .e. Sinusoidal Oscillators. An electronic device that generates. is called an oscillator. 1. X i =-X f=-A I or A.A signal V o is f which is in phase with the input signal. K ECE/MEA Engg College An Electronic device. Oscillators are extensively used in electronic equipments. the magnitude of the product of the transfer gain of the amplifier Aand the feedback factor of the feedback network is less than unity. s . and back to the input.Then a f shifted by 360 o and fed to the input. Hence the amplifier receives another i/p cycle and another o/p cycle is produced. raemshpkd@gmail.

. that i. is given ZL v ZL Ro (1) . In the analysis that follows we assume an active device with infinite input resistance.Fig2 shows a linear equivalent circuit of fig1. i.Z1 Z1 Z3 to2. This condition implies that.The active element may be an operational amplifier.e. AGENERAL FORM OF LCOSCILLATOR S Many resonant-circuit oscillators can be expressed by the general structure as shown below (fig 1). . Top 2. and phase of –A -A =1. using an amplifier with negative gain –Av and output resistance Ro. The gain without feedback is given by. The Feedback factor by. Clearly the topology is that voltage series feedback. of course.e. (Z +Z3 )//Z 1 (2) The load impedance consists of a series combination1 of Z3parallel and L Z Z Z Z2 (Z1 Z3 ) ZL Z1 Z2 Z3 2 (3) 3 raemshpkd@gmail. means that. both f 1.edutalks. a BJT amplifier or an FET. there exists o/p signals even in the absence of an externally applied signal voltage.Ramesh. for – called ECE/MEA Engg College Barkhausen criterion.co m www. K The condition of unity loop gain. 2 1 Ro A v V1 3 1 Z1 3 Z3 Z2 Fig 2 Loop Gain: The value of –A will be obtained by considering the circuit of Fig 2 to be a feedback amplifier with o/p is taken from the terminals 1 and 3 and with i/p terminals 1and 3 .or g . . is is zero.

setting up oscillations whose frequency depends on the values of L.j2 Av X2 X1 (j2 X2 (X1 X3 ) jRo (X1 X2 X3 ) (-X2 (X1 Av X2 X1 X3 ) jRo (X1 X2 X3 ) (5) For loop gain to be real (zero phase shift).Av ZL Z L Ro Z1 Z1 Z3 Z1 Z1 Z3 Z 2 (Z1 . - . For Colpitts oscillator and X ar X3 =. or vice versa. OLPITT S OSCILLATO R raemshpkd@gmail.e. then X 2 must have the same sign and is 1 v X (A positive). i.The oscillations across .or g 4 . C . Top 3. Therefore the points 1 and 2 are (5)). C and L forms the tank (tuned) that 1 2 circuit. Then from the equation+ ) must be inductive ifand X are capacitive. Hence a proper positive fed back is obtained (for sustained un180 further 180 damped oscillation) . of phase. Z=jX3 . C2 get charged . Working: When the power supply is turned on.co m www. A C o phase shift is introduced by the amplifier. they must be the same kind of reactance. The imaginary term in the above equation should be equal to zero.Av Z2 (Z1 Z3 ) (Z1 Z2 Z3 ) {Z2 (Z1 Z 3 ) (Z1 Z2 Z3 )} Ro .and 2 1 1 C applied to the Base-Emitter junction and appears in the amplified form in the collector circuit. X 1 X 2 X 3 0 X 1 X v 2 1 -X 2 3 X 1 v X 3 1 -X 2 (6) LoopGain A A XX X2 (X 1 -A X (X1 A X X2 v X3 ) X3 ) 1 (7) – is positive and at least unity in magnitude. The amount C are of feedback depends on the values 1 of C2 .Av Z2 Z1 Z3 ) Ro (Z1 Z2 Z3 ) (4) Reactive elements: Let Z1=jX1.In other words.Ramesh.edutalks. In this two capacitors are placed across a common inductor as shown below so C . K ECE/MEA Engg College LoopGain A A . either both inductive or capacitive. Z3 =jX4 . For HartleyX oscillator X2 are inductors andis and a 3 1 3 X X X capacitor.These capacitors then discharge and 1 C through the coil L. Smaller thethe greater will be the feedbackfrom and EqnThe 1 o out C C ( capacitors 1 and C2 act as a simple voltage divider.2 1 1 2 1 2 (X X Xis e capacitors and an inductor. For 2 capacitor. C The Colpitts oscillator is shown below. . be the three impedances (either capacitive or inductive).

Easy tuning. 4.e. The loop gain and the frequency of oscillations can be found by preceding the steps as explained under the section 2.or g . Consequently continues undamped oscillations will obtain. These oscillations across L1 are through Land 2 1 applied to the base-emitter junction and appear in the amplified form at the collector. energy is continuously supplied back to the-tank L .C1 )and –jX2 (=C respectively and by inductive 2 3 impedances proceeding the similar steps as given under the section j/ j/ Z impedance jXL (=j L)and 2 I. K ECE/MEA Engg College Loop Gain: The above circuit can be redrawn by its equivalent circuit by replacing Z 2 by and its 1 equivalent capacitive Z -jX1 (=. – and from eqn (6 ) Or fo 1 +X2 = -X2 X 1 (2 L C ) Where 1 C = 1 C1 1 and fo is the frequency C2 oscillation.Lcouples collector circuit energy back by means of mutual The coil 2 b/w L1 andinduction way. Working: A Hartley oscillator using BJT is shown below.edutalks.co m www. C then discharges L setting up oscillations. When power supply is the turned on due to some transient disturbances in the circuit the collector current starts increasing and charges the capacitor C. HARTLEYOSCILLATO R LC tuned oscillator and has the following 5 raemshpkd@gmail. In this 2 1 (L L2 -C1 ) ckt to overcome the losses in it.Ramesh. Top of Fig 3 It is also an advantages Adaptability to wide range of frequencies.

Top raemshpkd@gmail.or g 6 . K ECE/MEA Engg College The above circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit as shown in fig 4 with The loop gain is given by X1 ( L1 fo 1 X2 L2 ) 2 ( L1 X3 j C – L2 )C Where o is the frequency of oscillation of the f ckt.co m www.edutalks.Ramesh.

BB B The voltage (The voltage drop V B1. the p-n junction become rev biased and the emitter current is cut-off. the p-n junction will remain rev biased so as the i/p voltage is less than . I reached. Fig 3 If a negative pulse is applied to the emitter. a increased of saturation will eventually condition: E. called emitter isdiode 3) The a heavily doped p-type and the n region Operation is : The main operational difference b/w the FET and UJT is. K ECE/MEA Engg College 5. UJT -B ASIC S A Uni junction is a three terminal semiconductor switching device.r. If the i/p exceeds the long p-n junction 1 1 V V becomes forward biased.co m www. Ofon the course a small leakage current will flows from B2 to E due to minority carriers. device is now in the ON The state.with emitter open as shown in fig 2 in such a way that When BB V is always positive w.t a voltage gradient is establishing along the n-type bar. whereas the useful behavior of the later with the occurs when Symbol n Basic structure the emitter is forwardbiased.This increases the accumulation of holes in the E to region. The device now said to be in the OFF state 7 raemshpkd@gmail. It has (UJT) transistor unique characteristica that when it is triggered.or g . 2 1 B emitter is away from B1 Since and near 2to more than half of appears b/w emitter . Fig 2. the emitter current is limited by the emitter power supply only. 2 1 B B Hence the internal resistance b/w the E and 1 decreases.edutalks. named by base B1 and B2. V=0V E If a positive voltage is applied at the emitter. across E1 ) b/w E and and and Bestablishes a rev bias 1 B on the p-n junction and emitter current is cut-off. resulting in an B emitter current As more holes are injected.Ramesh. It consists of a n-type silicon bar with electrical connection on each end. the emitter current increases regeneratively until it is limited by emitter power supply. the B . a voltageis applied . Construction : The fig below shows the basic structure of a UJT. At this be point. The lead to this leads connection is called Emitter 1) Since the device has only one junction and three leads . the holes from E are repelled towards base by 1 B negative potential at the . Under this condition . the former is operated normally gate junction reverse-biased. There is a p-n junction near to B2 (than B1).it is commonly called a unijunction 2) transistor It is also double base .

However. K ECE/MEA Engg College Equivalent Circuit: 1) R B1 depends upon the bias voltage and it is 2) R B2 variableresistance offered by the n type material is the b/w emitter and base 2 3) When V E =0V and V =0V. i. Where Vp is the peak. 2) Negative resistance region: In this region the emitter P e ak p oi n t current gradually increases with a corresponding decrease in Vp N eg a t i ve re si st a n ce emitter voltage r eg i o n Sa t u ra t io n re g io n 3) Valley point: The point from which the emitter voltage increases and emitter current goes to saturation region: In this region the emitter –p-n junction 4) Cut-off is reverse biased and there will be only a reverse current (There Va ll e y p o in t willa negative potential on the emitter. therefore emitter current is zero.or g 8 . when the i/p voltage exceeds Vp. r. w. Ip Wher e is the calledintrinsic ratio stand –off I E Top raemshpkd@gmail. the accumulation of holes.edutalks. If now a progressively rising voltage is applied at the emitter. positive voltage is less than the peak-point voltage Vp. R =RB1 +RB2 (4k-10k) B BB BB 4) When a voltage is The applied. voltageRB 1 . due tovoltage. the resistanceB2 decreases (indicated R by variable resistance). the diode will become forward biased when i/p voltage exceeds nVbb V (drop across the D by junctn diode).point When the diode starts conducting. RB1 falls from a several thousands ofa small ohms to value The diode is now forward biased and the emitter current quickly reaches to a saturation value limited by B1 R (~20ohms) and fwd resistance of p-n junction (~200 ohms).Ramesh.co m www. This voltage V1 rev biases the junctn.e.e. be which biases the emitter -base (B2) reverse junction). the p-n junction remain reverse biased and When the i/p the emitter current is practically zero. Characteristics (brief) 1) Peak point voltage: The voltage above which the p-n VE junction becomes properly fwd biased. t the base. across IB RB 2 IE VB B VD VE nVB B RB 1 But Fig 4 Equivalent circuit. i.

i. the UJT switches to its low resistance conducting mode and capacitor is discharged b/w Emitter E and BaseAs the capacitor voltage flies back to zero.)) f=1 1 e Hz log(1/1. where the discharging of a capacitor through UJT can develop asaw. K ECE/MEA Engg College 6.) e sec.e. The nextand the cycle then begins.or g . During the charging period. the frequency of oscillation. / t = 1/ (CR log(1/1. the emitter ceases to conduct .co m www. V =VB B(1-e -t /C R1 ) c The discharge of the capacitor occurs when c = VBB V VBB = Vc =VB B(1-e -t /CR 1 ) = (1-e -t /CR1 ) t = CR 1 i. At this time. capacitor is initially uncharged.. the capacitor C Charges through a tooth R1. Or.e. Vc t Top 9 raemshpkd@gmail. UJT RELAXATIO OSCILLATO N R The fig below showsUJTrelaxation oscillator. The frequency of the o/p saw-tooth wave can be varied by changing the value. Assume that thecircuit.Ramesh. Or. allowing the capacitor to charge again. when the power supply is turned on.edutalks. Due to this alternate and discharging of the capacitor and the action of UJT (ON and OFF) continues and thus oscillations charging are produced. the voltage the capacitor prior to breakdown across c V is. ofsince this controls the 1 R time constant t =CR 1 of the capacitor charging .wave form o/p. the voltage across the capacitor rise in an exponential manner until it the peakreaches point voltage. 1 B UJT is switched-off.

Principles of Electronics. V. Sedra/Smith. 4 th edition 2. K A practical Circuit with o/p wave forms ECE/MEA Engg College References 1.Ramesh. Millman & Halkias 3. Integrated Electronics: Analog and Digital Circuits And Systems. Micro Electronic Circuits.edutalks.co m www.K Electronics and Communication MEA Engg College raemshpkd@gmail.or g 10 .K Mehta Top BY Ramesh.