UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FACULTY OF MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTIMENT OF MINING AND MINERAL PROCESSING ENGINEERING

LABORATORY REPORT ON SEDIMENTATION

Student: GAMA MATHIAS Reg. No; 2006-04-02482 Year of study: Third Year Date of experiment: 12nd .May. 2009 Instructor: MR. MANGASINI Date handed in: 26. May. 2009. Group: II

Assessment:

Neatness and layout: Lab Report: Total Marks:

1

ABSTRACT
The sedimentation experiment is aiming to determine the mean particle size of the particles of quartz sand and the design area of the thickener ,60gram of the sample and 25 mls of Fecl3 (coagulant) was introduced in the measuring cylinder then water was added up to the 1000 cm3mark . The mixture was then shaken to form uniform suspension then the settling rate of the solids liquid interface was recorded after each 30 sec. the experiment was repeated four more times by adding 20gram of the sample each time. The result obtained was plotted and analyzed by using sedimentation principles to obtain the required thickener area for each initial concentration of the feed . the relationship between feed concentration and area at constant feed rate and underflow concentration has been observed to be directly proportion . also the mean particle size diameter has been calculated by using the formula established by ROBINSON in 1926 and the mean particle diameter was 31.3 microns.

1

..........................5 3...........................13 9...................4 CALCULATIONS...........3 2.5 THICKENER AREA CALCULATION................................................................0 INTRODUCTION...............................................0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION....................4 THICKENER DESIGN.......2 2.................CONTENTS ABSTRACT................0 REFERENCES..3 GRAVITY SEDIMENTATION............................................................................................2 FLOCCULATION.....................................................................................................8 5..................10 6.............................................1 MATERIAL USED.............................12 8....................................................................................3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES............................0 EXPERIMENTAL PART..........1 2...................................................................5 3......11 7....................................................................................................................0 APPENDICES 1 .................0 RECOMMENDATIONS...........................................5 3...3 3......................................................................................7 4.....................................................................................................2 2........................6 3...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................0 THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES.......................................................................................................5 3..................14 9.......................................................................2 2...............i 1...............................0 NOMENCLATURE.....1 COAGULATION.....................................0 CONCLUSIONS.......................................................................................i CONTENTS.....................2 EQUIPMENTS..................................................................................................................................................................................................0 APPENDICES......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3 .

that is . viscosity of the fluid medium. thickener is designed by using the principles of sedimentation. the process can be carried out in the cylindrical tank known as the thickener. sewage treatment and removal of water from concentrate. theoretical part . conclusions and recommendations. In order to have effective sedimentation process for a given suspension the above parameters should be analyzed and the conclusion will be made based on the sedimentation principles. Settling of particles in a suspension depend on : particle size. results and discussion. particle size and particle shape. 2. This report consists of the major four technical parts.the process can be used to separate suspended solid material from liquor . hence thickener can be used for : preparation of feed to the mineral processing plants . the vessel can be used for dewatering purposes whereby suspended solids are separated to clarified liquid and concentrated pulp . experimental part.1.0 THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES The settling rate of a particle in a fluid depends on the size of the particle. The aim of this experiment was to estimate the mean particle size of the quartz sand and to design a thickener for various feed concentration.0 INTRODUCTION Sedimentation is the process whereby particles settle to the bottom of the liquid . The rate is governed by Newton’s and 1 .water treatment. shape of the particle and the particle size. viscosity of the medium.

thus causing charge neutralization when dispersed in a system hence increase adhesion to the particles.2 FLOCCULATION Flocculation involves formation of open agglomerates by the formation of the bridge between separate suspended particles.82(1-e) Also (ρs-ρc)=e(ρs-ρ) Some chemicals (flocculants and coagulants) can be applied in the pulp to bind the fine particles to form relatively large lumps (flocus) that can settle more rapidly.Stoke’s law depending on those factors. gelatine and guar gum) or synthetic (polyelectrolytes).1 COAGULATION Is the process of creating lumps by the addition of electrolyte which causes extremely fine particles to adhere directly to each other. glue. Flocculants are long chains organic polymers which may be naturally (starch. Up=d2(ρs-ρc)g18μcf(e) The velocity of the fluid upwards is given by : Up=Uce And f(e)=10-1. The method is usually carried out in the vessel known as the thickener. Fe+++. In 1926 ROBINSON suggested a modification of Stokes’ law to find the settling velocity of concentrated solution and used the density (ρc) and viscosity (μc) of the suspension in place of the properties of the fluid to give: Uc=K' d2(ρs-ρc)gμc Steinor has expressed the velocity of the particle relative to the fluid up as follows. and Ca++. The mode of operation of the thickener may be batch or continuous. 2. 2. Continuous thickener consists of a cylindrical tank. 2 . Coagulants are electrolyte having an opposite charge to the particle.3 GRAVITY SEDIMENTATION Is the dewatering method that is widely used in many mineral processing plants. Example of coagulants is salts that contain highly charged cations such as Al+++. the pulp is fed through the centre of the tank to avoid disturbance. Very fine particles (100 microns) settles extremely slow hence centrifugal sedimentation is used to separate those particles but for the particles with particle size diameter of greater than 100 microns gravity settling can be applied. The thickener is used to increase the concentration of the suspension by sedimentation. 2.

Local concentration for any selected point can be calculated from CH=COHO 1 . Also the thickeners have the rotating radial arm with suspended series of blades that rakes the settled solids towards the outlet.The clarified liquid overflows through the peripheral launder while the concentrated underflow passes throw the central outlet at the bottom. Then the tangents are drawn at any point on the curve. The results of a batch are plotted linearly as the height of the interface between settled pulp and clear water against time. The Kynch model can be used to calculate required area of the thickener for a given throughput. 2. The solid concentration in the underflow is controlled by the residence time of the particle and hence by the thickener depth. The surface area must be large enough so that the upward velocity of liquid is at all times lower than the settling velocity of the slowest settling particle which is to be recovered. The parameter which determines the capacity of clarifying the pulp of a given throughput is the thickener diameter.4 THICKENER DESIGN The materials which are commonly used in the construction of thickeners are steel or concrete depending on the size and nature of the pulp.

the required area is therefore given by: A=Q0C0[1c-1cuUc] It is therefore necessary to calculate the maximum value of A for all the values of C 3 . At any depth below the feed point.THE NATURE OF THE GRAPH OF HEIGHT AGAINST TIME Figure 1 The gradient of the tangents at any point is equal to the settling rate. (uc) Where the concentration is C. the upward liquid velocity must not exceed the Settling velocity of the particles.

➢ Similar experiments were done using weights of 80. 3 . 3. ➢ The height of the falling interface ring was recorded after each 30 second until the interface settled down.120 and 140 respectively.1 MATERIAL USED • Quartz sand • Pieces of paper • Fecl3 • Water 3.3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES ➢ 60grams of quartz sand was measured by using a balance weigh (the sand was handled on a piece of paper) ➢ A sample was transferred on a measuring cylinder then 25mls of Fecl3 was added ➢ The total volume was made to 1000 mls by adding water. ➢ The mixture was shake intensively then the cylinder was placed on the table .0 EXPERIMENTAL PART 3.2 EQUIPMENTS • Weighing scale • Measuring • Stop clock 3.100.which may be encountered.

5 THICKENER AREA CALCULATION 2 .0162.8g1l =1037.8×10-3 d2 =9.52700-10379.5 Density of suspension=mass of the solid +mass of the liquidtotal volume =60g+977.5×0.001(1+(2.8g/l Also μc=μ(1+K'C) But for water μ=0.001 Ns/m μc=0.3 μm 3.3μm The average particle size is 31.0313mm d=31.818x 10-4mm2 d =0.3.4 CALCULATIONS DETERMINATION OF THE PARTICLE DIAMETER Uc=K' d2(ρs-ρc)gμc Assuming the particle is a sphere then K'=2.016Ns/mm d2=UcμcK' (ρs-ρc)g C=60g/l (for the first experiment) d2=2.5x60) =0.

100. 80. this is due to the increase in hindrance that has been caused by the increase in local concentration as the height decreases. and 140 (g/l) respectively. The graphs of interface heights against time for the various solid concentrations Figure 2 60 g 1 120 g 100 g 80 g 140 g .0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The settling rate of particles was higher at the start and decreases with time .Slope of the tangent = change in average interface height/ change in time=Uc From CH=COHO Local concentration (C) = COHO /H A=Q0C0[1c-1cuUc] Volumetric feed rate of suspension(Q0) was assumed to be 1.0255m3/s Under flow concentration (cu) was assumed to be 55% solids which is equivalent to 846. this is shown in the figure below. 120.5m3/min which is equivalent to 0. 4.15g/l Volumetric concentration of solids in the feed (C0) was 60.

Mass of the sample (g) 60 80 100 120 140 Table 1 Initial concentration (co) (g/l) 60 80 100 120 140 Design area (m2) 9.86 14. Also from the equation of area calculation it can be observed that area is directly proportional to the feed concentration 1 .09 12.Tangents was drawn at each of the above curves the slopes of each tangent was representing the settling rate of particles at that point.60 19.70 39.60 From the above table it can be seen that the design area has been increases as the initial feed concentration increases .for a given throughput the clarifying capacity is determined by the diameter of the tank . THE AREA OF THE THICKENER FOR THE GIVEN INITIAL CONCENTRATION. that is . The data below was obtained.this observation agrees with the theory of thickener design. the concentrated pulp must be clarified more compared to the diluted pulp. The tangents gradients and the corresponding values of H were used in the calculations of the area of the thickener. the y-intercepts (H) were also recorded.

2 .

39.09.86. 14.80. 19. 12.120 and 140 gram/ liter respectively.5.1 microns In order to obtain the 55% solid concentration of the underflow with the volumetric feed rate of 1.5 m3/min the area of the thickener should be 9.60.100.0 CONCLUSIONS Based on the results obtained in the experimental part the following was concluded. • • The mean particle size of the particles was 31. 3 .60 m2 respectively for the feed concentration of 60.70.

0 RECOMMENDATIONS The areas obtain in this experiments are just estimations that can be used in the construction of the thickener.6. Hence the simulation should be done in order to get economical area. 1 . such factors are cost of material of construction and economy of the process to be performed by the thickener. usually the safety factor of 2 is applied. Also the construction should consider other factors apart from the design area. The safety factor must be applied to the results so as to account for fluctuations in the thickener operations.

Settling velocity of concentrated solution (mm/s) g.Volumetric feed rate of suspension (m3/minutes) 1 .Density of the solid (g/l) ρc-density of the suspension (g/l) μc.0 NOMENCLATURE A-(m2) d-particle diameter (μm) K'-particle shape constant ρs.Gravitational constant (m/s2) CO-Original feed solid concentration (g/l) HO-initial height (mm) C-local concentration (g/l) H-interface height corresponding to C (mm) cu.Volumetric concentration of solids in the feed (g/l) Q0.Viscosity of suspension (Ns/m2) 1.Under flow concentration (g/l) C0. Uc.7.

Culson &Richardson (1991). Volume 2. ‘Mineral Processing Technology’. ‘chemical engineering’.Fifth edition. J. Volume 2. et al (1998).8. Pergamon press.0 REFERENCES B. Richardson. 3 . Butter Worheinemann. sixth edition.A Wills (1997). London. ‘chemical engineering Particle Technology and separation processes’ . Canada. Fourth Edition. Oxford. Butterworth.F.

9 8.2 8.25 1.06 Table 2 The graph of average height of interface against time for 80g of the sample.60 4.15 5.57 6.00 1.00 1 1C-1Cu (m3/kg)x10-3 10.80 2.41 4.00 0.95 4.00 1.33 160.72 5.9.00 1C-1Cu (m3/kg)x10-3 13.89 100.22 9.58 8.0 APPENDICES The graph of average height of interface against time for 60g of the sample. Figure 3 H (mm) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 Uc (m/s) x10-3 2.21 3.50 2.48 3.58 5.53 5.37 8.58 1.00 114.29 133.88 8.32 5.60 1.00 150.82 1C-1CuUc A (m2 ) 8.80 1.20 C(g/lit er) 88.49 8.07 1C-1CuUc A (m2 ) 900 800 700 600 500 5.23 11.63 C(g/l iter) 66.09 5.25 2.71 100.82 7.46 .07 8.40 5.00 120.25 5.42 7.82 12.82 8.00 200.00 85.82 7.10 7.67 75.30 8. Figure 4 H (mm) Uc (m/s) x10-3 1.15 10.48 6.

48 0.82 2.78 9.00 250.82 2.400 300 0.79 4.80 0.40 C(g/lit er) 111.00 1.52 12.05 10.48 10.70 11. Figure 6 1 .90 0.33 1C-1Cu (m3/kg)x10-3 7.00 266.82 6.11 125.24 5.82 5.00 333.86 166.82 3.91 3.6 14.20 0.00 142.40 1.80 1.16 4.67 3.76 6. Figure 5 H (mm) Uc (m/s) x10-3 2.88 4.82 1.43 9.40 200.82 4.02 4.67 200.82 1C-1CuUc A (m2 ) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 3.55 9.86 Table 3 The graph of average height of interface against time for 100g of the sample.38 Table 4 The graph of average height of interface against time for 120g of the sample.57 4.40 10.

10 C(g/lit er) 133.38 3.87 1.39 1.10 2.64 11.79 19.20 0.00 C(g/lit er) 155.43 200.83 3.88 4.00 200.82 3.56 175.25 4.98 2.35 21.30 0.51 5.58 15.6 9.60 Table 5 The graph of average height of interface against time for 140g of the sample.65 3.33 150.00 0.29 11.00 233.30 0.20 10.60 Table 6 1 .00 466.21 9.46 13.32 1C-1CuUc A (m2 ) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 3.53 3.60 1.51 39.32 5.00 350.67 0.00 1.14 10.00 1C-1Cu (m3/kg)x10-3 6.13 13.17 13.18 3.15 1.H (mm) Uc (m/s) x10-3 1.00 240.53 0.67 1C-1Cu (m3/kg)x10-3 5.20 1.91 11.00 171.63 2.88 3.00 400.96 1C-1CuUc A (m2 ) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 2.68 0.80 0.43 3.82 2. Figure 7 H (mm) Uc (m/s) x10-3 2.33 280.00 300.48 4.82 4.45 7.60 1.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful